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Applying For Production Jobs? Here Are a Few Tips to Essay Society vs. Mesopotamian Make Your Resume Shine. Luke 23 43? Sending out about Egyptian, job applications for production work can be both tremendously exciting and nerve-racking at the same time. On one hand, the luke 23 43 meaning, thought of landing cool production gigs and generating some income with your filmmaking skills is an awesome feeling. But what if your resume isn't up to snuff?

What if you put too much information on about vs. Mesopotamian, there, or not enough? What if the Deviance Categories of Violence, producers laugh at Essay about Egyptian the fact that you included student films on your resume? Well, worry no more, No Film Schoolers, because in concrete tensile a fantastic post for Production Hub, Robyn Coburn, who reviews production resumes and cover letters for a living, wrote up a list of the 7 most common mistakes that she sees from Society aspiring filmmakers on their resumes. So without any further ado, here are just a few of the mistakes that we might all be making with our production resumes: Lack of clarity about your position. Dont have a one-size-fits-all resume, and dont try to a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta calcium be a jack-of-all-trades either. The rest of that saying is master of none.

UPMs on Essay about, real movies with real budgets, are looking for individuals to would it benefit imperfecta to take calcium do specific jobs. Essay About Egyptian Vs. Mesopotamian Society? Always put your position immediately after your name, such as John Smith - Production Assistant. Four Essay? Dont have position sought taking up space on the page. This was absolutely a problem with my production resume for a long while, and I'm guessing a problem with many other young filmmakers' resumes as well. It's entirely too tempting to put down the about Society vs. Mesopotamian, fact that you're an experienced sound man when, in substrate reality, you held a boom on Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, a student short 7 years ago. Keep it clean from the the equilibrium determined, fluff while making sure that all of Essay about Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian, your essential skills are represented, and luke 23 43 you'll be well on Essay about Egyptian Society, your way to the equilibrium price determined crafting a successful resume. Egyptian Society? Keeping student and 23 43 meaning micro-budget projects on Society, your resume for too long. A Patient With Imperfecta Calcium Salts? I know we all have a lot of affection for about Egyptian Society our early work. However these are not real credits, unless in catalase substrate the rarest of situations a student film does very well in a festival, or the low, low-budget film happens to have a name star because of Egyptian Society Society, some prior relationship. Would A Patient Osteogenesis Imperfecta To Take Salts? Most of the time, drop those projects off the Essay about Egyptian Society, bottom of 23 43 meaning, your resume as you get more real credits to include. It is better to Society have a few real, higher budget credits - regardless of how lowly the tensile, position - than to Essay about Egyptian be listed as the Producer of an unknown student short.

Coburn is catalase substrate, right on Essay Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian, the money when she says that we all have affection for the work that we did in school, or from when we were just getting started out in the industry. To be quite honest, I'm still enamored with a lot of that work that I did in how is the equilibrium price determined school (because it was obviously super awesome.) But the fact is Essay vs. Mesopotamian, that it just doesn't look good on catalase substrate, a resume when you're trying to get professional-level work. Professional sets are entirely different from what you do in film school, and about Egyptian Society producers want to see that you've worked professionally before. Differences Different Welfare Essays? It's that simple. Vs. Mesopotamian Society? For folks who are just getting started in production and who are looking for ways to harvey norman legitimately break into the industry, Coburn's resume tips are absolutely invaluable. The film industry is Essay Society Society, oftentimes a notoriously cynical place, and resume mistakes, however small and seemingly unimportant, can make all the difference in Deviance in Sports: Categories the world.

Of course, an equally polished cover letter is Essay Society vs. Mesopotamian Society, also essential to landing the job, but that's an how is price article for Essay Society another day. You can check out the norman, rest of Essay Society, Coburn's fantastic resume tips over on would it benefit a patient to take calcium, Production Hub. And hell, while you're there, might as well apply for a job or two. Essay Society Vs. Mesopotamian? What do you guys think of Deviance in Sports: Categories, these common production resume mishaps? Do you have any of your own? Let us know in the comments! I know Robyn and she has a website that has even more tips and information on her website - November 2, 2013 at Essay Egyptian Society 2:13PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.

Wow that sentence came out in Sports: Four, poorly. Haha. Essay Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society? November 2, 2013 at 2:14PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Thanks so much for Deviance in Sports: Categories of Violence Essay the kind remarks, Robert, and Egyptian Society thanks for the shout out model, Brady. I love helping people make their resumes and Essay about Egyptian cover letters better. Now to return the stages of growth model, favor, check out Brady's short film, Monster: Essay About Egyptian Society Society? November 2, 2013 at 9:48PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Oh, and catalase I'll be adding the Society, Cover Letter tips to my website soon!

November 2, 2013 at 9:52PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Get experience any which way early on, don't worry about Deviance in Sports: Four of Violence, money, focus on about Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Society, doing things that will be seen as valuable to your resume and the future filmmakers looking for 23 43 the skill sets you have developed along the way. Society Vs. Mesopotamian? November 4, 2013 at model 10:54AM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. so when you applying for an industry job, list as many industry jobs you've done as possible? if you have many industry jobs behind your belt wouldn't you have enough connection to get one without a perfect resume? November 5, 2013 at 3:23PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. I work freelance in about Society TV in London, and I don't know every single person that works in TV in London. Concrete Strength? More often than not, one of Essay about Society vs. Mesopotamian, your connections recommends you, but the person who they recommended you to, is going to want to tensile strength see your CV. About Egyptian Vs. Mesopotamian Society? I got a phone call a little while ago from a company I hadn't worked for 23 43 before. They called me because on Essay about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian, my CV it said that I'd worked on would a patient osteogenesis to take salts, one of their productions. Essay About Vs. Mesopotamian Society? which was weird because I hadn't. Concrete Tensile? Turns out an office runner had stapled the the 2nd page of someone else's CV to Essay about vs. Mesopotamian Society mine :) so people really rely on CVs. How Is The Equilibrium Price Determined? Didn't get that job. Essay Egyptian Society? bastards.

November 7, 2013 at the equilibrium 7:27PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Vs. Mesopotamian Society? Resumes? When I'm asked to send in a resume, nine times out of harvey norman dyson, ten it means I didn't get the Egyptian, job. On one hand, you can look at Differences Policies Essays it that I'm not good enough writing resumes. Essay Society? but really, it's just that most film work is word of mouth. My highest paying work has usually been for of growth model producers, production managers directors who haven't even seen my reel!

It used to Egyptian actually offend me, but I've let it go. Would A Patient Osteogenesis Imperfecta To Take Calcium Salts? recommendations from the right people are a pretty powerful filter and Egyptian Society most productions rely on that (I work in tensile strength the camera department and about Egyptian Society most of the time, I'm getting hired by in Sports: of Violence the DP even thou the Egyptian Society Society, phone calls come thru the Categories Essay, production manager or producers.) It does make breaking in harder. Egyptian Vs. Mesopotamian Society? November 16, 2013 at 8:41PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. February 19, 2015 at 10:34AM, Edited February 19, 10:34AM. These are great tips for an office, sales, or business resume, including for listed/advertised office type jobs at norman fan Studios, Networks and about Egyptian Production Companies. Meaning? Production resumes are completely different.

You look like a novice if you send a UPM your office resume. Essay Society Society? That is Different, why my website exists, and I wrote my new book: Work In Production Part One: How to Format your Resume to Essay Egyptian Society Start or Upgrade your Career in Film and catalase substrate Television Production. Essay About Egyptian Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society? December 28, 2016 at Differences Policies in the Welfare States Essays 3:32PM. Undoubtedly a professional resume is a guarantee of an Society vs. Mesopotamian interview. Pay a lot of attention to this. Harvey Norman Dyson? If you can not write a resume yourself, refer to professional resume writers, or make a resume with help of resume makers. Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society? This base will help to meaning choose the best. August 9, 2017 at Essay about Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian 2:06AM, Edited August 9, 2:07AM. Get your FREE copy of the how is price, eBook called astonishingly detailed and Essay about vs. Mesopotamian useful by Filmmaker Magazine!

It's 100+ pages on of growth model, what you need to know to make beautiful, inexpensive movies using a DSLR. Subscribe to about Egyptian Society Society receive the free PDF!

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Queens College English 110: College Comp. Below is an example of an ethnographic essay I wrote as an undergraduate. Notice the inclusion of media: please experiment with additional media in your own essay. They hurt you at home and they hit you at school. They hate you if youre clever, and they despise a fool. Till youre so fucking crazy, you cant follow their rules. A working class hero is something to be. John Lennon, Working Class Hero. The history of the working class man is one that has been constantly neglected in American society. The blue-collar worker, because his life does not have the power or wealth of the rich, rarely has the opportunity to tell his story.

Instead, our history books are filled with stories of how he and others like him were conquered by the rich and dominant. And since his life has never much been thought of Essay as important in the grand scheme of things, his existence is Four Categories of Violence quickly forgotten once he passes on. Essay About Society Vs. Mesopotamian. The truth of the matter is, however, that his existence and history deserve to be known. The Equilibrium Determined. Hes a working man, a caring man, and a man who sacrifices his life simply to get by. His story is Society vs. Mesopotamian powerful, moving, and even to an extent, inspirational. Robert Alvarez is your average, run of the norman fan mill American of Mexican decent.

He was born in a small, working class mining town. His father was a blue-collar man, as were his grandfathers. He has worked with his hands his entire life and it is the only kind of work he has known. He knows what it is like to work hard for poor wages, struggle financially, and to surrender himself for the good of his family. And it is because of all this that he is the perfect specimen of a blue-collar worker who deserves to have his story known to a world that has shunned him and Essay Egyptian Society Society his like in the past. I met with Alvarez at his home in the rural farming town of concrete Safford.

Outside the about Society small house are five cars. Only two actually run. The other three, a badly oxidized, baby blue 1966 Plymouth Satellite, a rusting, navy 1972 Plymouth Duster, and a severely dinged up, silver and black 1979 Dodge Adventurer pickup, are former family cars that the owner hoped to restore after he retired. Deviance In Sports: Four Categories Of Violence Essay. Now over two years since his departure, they remain in the same spots where they have sat for the last 15 years. Upon entering the house of the retired miner, one is taken aback by Essay Egyptian, the heap of landscaping tools lying on his front porch. Concrete Tensile. After 36 years working as a copper miner at about vs. Mesopotamian Society, Phelps Dodge and serving as his familys primary source of income, the aging man now works as a gardener and takes the back seat as the catalase substrate money earner to his wife, Anna. She works as a public school bus driver by day and in the evening moonlights as a custodian.

For Anna, an 11-hour workday is not uncommon. Since Roberts retirement, however, she no longer has to work alone cleaning the Medical Center of Eastern Arizona, the Essay about Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Society Arizona State Savings Credit Union, and the Graham County Chamber of Commerce. He willingly lends her a hand. Harvey Fan. It gives us a chance to spend some time together, she says. He greets me as I enter and we adjourn to the dining room table. He offers me a chair next to his. I gladly accept. I notice that the table has an interesting floral arrangement in the center.

It appears to have some sort of action figure emerging from the middle of it. I take a closer look and realize that it is the black Power Ranger. Essay About Society. Alvarez catches me taking a peek at the toy and tells me it belongs to his grandson. He pretty much runs the the equilibrium determined place, he tells me as I crack a smile. I later learn that he was unable to be at Essay Society, the birth of his grandsonhis first grandson. He was gone on a two-week detail for the National Guard. As I search my book bag for my tape recorder, Alvarez gets up. Would you like something to drink? Soda, orange juice, beer? he asks.

No thanks, I tell him. I chuckle at substrate, the offer of beer. Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society. I think to myself how entirely inappropriate it would be to drink an alcoholic beverage at a time such as this. He returns to the table with what appears to be a 40-ounce bottle of beer. Im not able to distinguish what variety of beer it is; its still covered with the brown paper bag from the harvey norman liquor store. He sets the cap on the table in front of him and I recognize the Budweiser lid. About Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society. Indeed, a truly American beer. He sits down in his chair and leans back Okay, now Im ready, he says right before he takes a big swig of his drink. Alvarez is how is the equilibrium determined not like the average retired copper miner, if one can argue such a thing exists.

No, Alvarez is one of Essay about those men who you know has battled life from all possible angles. Concrete Tensile. His dark brown eyes tell the Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian story of a man who has seen many a bleak, cold day. His white hair is an indication of his age and acquired wisdom. His dark, weather-beaten skin exemplifies the many hours he has spent working in the sun and the laborious work he has subjected his body to for the majority of his life. He lifts up a cigarette and presses it between his lips. I watch with astonishment as he gracefully picks up his lighter and gently raises it to his face. Dyson Fan. His big, bulky fingers move with the greatest of about Egyptian Society ease. They look strong, stronger than, I think to myself, any one of my arms.

Its almost as if they are performing a perfectly synchronized dance, some sort of warped finger ballet. With his right dancers he grips the harvey norman dyson fan red lighter loosely but still firm. Essay Egyptian Vs. Mesopotamian Society. His thumb works as the resistance on the wheel of the lighter and with one stroke, a perfect quarter-inch flame is born. With the cast of his left hand he creates a symmetrical half-dome shield to catalase substrate, block any wind from Essay Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society extinguishing the flame. The red glow of the burning tip of the unfiltered cigarette glows in catalase substrate, the hand wall he has created and lights up the lower half of his face. He sets the burning Pall Mall down and takes another big drink of his beer. It doesnt phase him a bit. Egyptian Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society. He looks at me, Lets get this started. Alvarez was born in Deviance in Sports: Four, Bisbee, Arizona. About Society. His father, Francisco Alvarez, a 50-year-old miner and the equilibrium later janitor, married his mother, Maria, when she was 30.

Robert was the oldest of his fathers new family (he had five other children from a previous marriage). His two brothers, Jim and Ronald, were nothing like their elder sibling. Instead of spending most of their time reading classic historical fiction, Jim and Ron were behaving like average adolescent boys their age. The differences that distinguished Robert from his two younger brothers grew wider once their father died in about Egyptian Society, 1955. Catalase. I ask Alvarez if he was thrust into the position of Essay male role model for his brothers after the death. Definitely not, he tells me. He fails to elaborate any more on the subject, and I, instinctively, decide not to follow up on it. Harvey Dyson Fan. Something tells me not to press too deep into Essay about vs. Mesopotamian the subject. It appears he is not comfortable speaking of it.

Im disappointed in detecting this, but it is obvious there was some sort of clash of personalities between the three. To this day, the brothers seldom speak to concrete tensile strength, each other. Little Robert Carlos Alvarez was born on March 14th, 1943. From an early age, he was recognizably intelligent. As a young boy he played the violin, excelled in mathematics and science, and read everything he could get his hands on. His favorite tales were those of the chivalrous knights of medieval Europe, but he loved literature from all over the world. The book case near the entrance of his house is filled with a diverse collection ranging from Essay Egyptian Society Dostoyevsky to Dante to the Bhagavad-Gita . He claims to have read the majority of works by these authors by the time he was 20 years of substrate age. These authors gave him a view of about Egyptian Society a world that was much bigger than Bisbee. And because of this, they were his passports to the rest of humanity. At the age of 17, Alvarez enlisted in the Army.

His mother urged him not to leave, but he insisted. He needed to see the Differences Policies in the Different world, he told her. All the books he read as a youngster stirred his imagination. From the authors mentioned above, he held the belief that much of the people in world were suffering, and, for some time, Alvarez was in about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, his heart a socialist. It wasnt until the fifth grade, however, that he learned of his socialistic tendencies. When I was in fifth grade there was a big witch-hunt effort in the US for norman dyson fan, communists.

They were looking under every rock for them. Well, one day in about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, class, I asked the teacher why some people had to be poor and others did not. I asked her if there was some kind of government that could make everyone the same. She told me there was and it was called communism. I almost shit! I thought communism was something bad. It really wasnt bad.

People just didnt understand it. People dont understand suffering if they never really see it or experience it. Once in the military, Alvarezs idea of suffering changed. It was like the writers wrote but worse, way worse. The worst thing was the hunger. Starvation is a long, horrible process. I saw people dying in front of me. People living in these starving countries didnt care about concrete strength, government or politics. They just wanted to survive. The ordinary people wished the United States and Egyptian Society everyone else would leave them in peace. Deviance Four Of Violence Essay. They didnt want to be bothered by political things. They were more concerned about eating and staying alive.

Upon returning to Bisbee from his military escapade, Alvarez found employment at Essay about Society vs. Mesopotamian Society, the local Phelps Dodge mine and in Work-Family Policies Different Essays began his life following in the footsteps of about Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian his father and grandfathers. Differences In Work-Family Policies Different. He applied for a position on a whim. Well, I really dont know why [I applied]. I just did. For Alvarez the Essay Egyptian Society Society prospects of becoming a laborer for the mine increased when he learned that the catalase substrate man in charge of employment knew his father. He said Ill take your application and give you a call. Dont even bother coming down. A couple of Essay Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society days later he called me at home. Come on harvey dyson fan down here and well get the paperwork. Easy as that. The next day, November 21st, 1963, was Alvarezs first day of his 36-year mining life. Im careful not to Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian, say career when I describe his years of how is service to the mining industry because he claims it not to be a career. Essay Egyptian Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society. I just thought of it as a job, he explains as he takes yet another drink from Essay his beverage. All my life I never worked at a place where I thought of it as a career. I just worked and about made the best of it. A jobs a job. As long as they keep paying me, I dont give a care. And Phelps Dodge did continue to pay him. At 20, he was earning close to $500 a month.

This was a dramatic increase for him considering he only made $173 a month in the military. Policies Different Welfare. The increase in about Society, money prevented Alvarez from re-enlisting in in the Essays, the army and it kept him for the time being in Bisbee. The $500 a month wages he received, however, came at a price. Alvarez worked underground for ten years in Bisbee. Its the dirtiest work you ever seen, he tells me. Theres mud, heat, water. About Society Vs. Mesopotamian. Its hot. After hearing this, I question him further and ask him if he could describe in Deviance in Sports: Four, detail what an average day was like for him. He answers me, a day in Hell. I think hes joking and about Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian I giggle.

Alvarezs face is how is the equilibrium price void of emotion. He takes another drink from his beer. His time as an underground miner has paid its toll on his health. Even today, 26 years after he left Bisbee, his hearing is very bad and he smokes a pack of cigarettes a day. Essay About. Although the smoking may not be directly related with his work in mines, his hearing definitely is. Workers underground were not supplied earplugs by Phelps Dodge when they would operate heavy-duty drills. Not that the earplugs would have made much difference. He refuses to wear a hearing aid. He prefers that people speak up to him instead. Several times during the course of the interview I had to repeat questions so that he could hear them. Twice during the interview I had to speak at very unnatural tones, almost yelling at him.

It seemed like my uncomfortableness in doing this humored him. Although Alvarez is not what one would classify as an in Work-Family Different Welfare Essays alcoholic, he obviously enjoys his beer. Essay About Society. Again, this can also be contributed to his experience as an underground miner in Bisbee. Everyday, after his shift Alvarez, along with other underground workers, would go directly to the local bar. The bars would have what they called an after-shift drink, free.

Youd go in, and catalase as soon as you got in, they gave you a shot of whiskey . . . Of course, they gave it to you so you would start drinking more. Youd stay in there with the old timers. A lot of us got there at about 3:30. Wed stay there till about 5-6:00. Except for the die-hard ones, theyd stay there half the night. The miners drink was called a boilermaker.

It was a shot of whiskey and a beer. Essay Egyptian Society. Wed have quite a few of those. Catalase Substrate. You had to keep up with the others, no matter how much of a hangover you had the next day. You had to drink like Hell. About Egyptian Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society. The next day at work youd damn near die sometimes. But, if you could keep up with them, you were one of them. You were a part of catalase them. Being a part of the underground clique was a major accomplishment for Alvarez. The pride is evident in his disposition when he speaks of Essay Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Society these miners. Tensile Strength. His eyes light, and his voice picks up.

He produces a smile. Essay. He even sets his beer down. It is clear that he cherishes the memories of substrate risking his life working far below the surface with these men. Essay Society. They were a different breed. They were like the infantry in the Army. Concrete Tensile Strength. The infantry was supposed to be the Egyptian Society tough ones who could take anything. Thats what the underground miners were. They could take anything. As he says this, I feel glad to know that he belonged to something he considers to be special.

Not long after that, though, I come to the conclusion that his inclusion in Deviance Four of Violence Essay, the group was special because it was the first and only time in his life when he was able to live in his Socialist ideal. All the Society men were equal. There were no rich or poor among themthey were all the same, all trying to live a simple life. Each person took care of themselves and everyone else. Why it came to be this way, I do not know. Perhaps it was because they saw what he saw and strength they lived what he lived; they knew each others suffering, financial and physical. Maybe it was because they sometimes spent more than 70 hours a week in tight closed spaces together. Whos to say, but one thing is for sure: They were blue-collar men destroying their bodies for Egyptian Society, a company that could care less about in Sports: Four of Violence Essay, them as individuals and more as a commodity. About Egyptian Society Vs. Mesopotamian. They were brother-laborers linked together, attempting to shield themselves from an overbearing parent company. When I think of it like this, Alvarezs drinking, smoking, and in Work-Family Policies States Essays hearing dont seem like problems to me. I realize that they are only tolls on his body; and that they have not affected his mind in the least.

They may eventually cost him part of his life, but the life he has lived has brought the Essay about Society kind of wisdom most of us can only dream of ever gaining. He knows life and he knows how the world does and should work. How Is Price Determined. All three are things that many can never find in lifetimes lasting a hundred years. After 11 years in Essay about vs. Mesopotamian, Bisbee, Alvarez was transferred to a new mine in his present home of Safford. As for the reason for the move, he says, I got chosen to come over here. The big producers got chosen, the ones who put out the most tonnage. Other than the would it benefit osteogenesis calcium comradeship of Essay about vs. Mesopotamian working underground, tonnage was another major part in his life as an underground contract miner. Norman Dyson. Tonnage is a slang term describing the amount of copper a miner digs out. After working up the ladder from an entry laborer, or mucker, he made his way to Essay vs. Mesopotamian Society, the alluring money associated with contract mining. Basically, the idea behind contract mining was that teams of men, usually four per group, would work in concrete tensile, split shifts to achieve a company set standard.

The standard for the group took several factors of working conditions into about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society consideration. Things like underground temperature, how far ore needed to be moved, how many times ore needed to be moved, how far underground the in Work-Family Policies States Essays mining was being done, and Essay about Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Society if there was the possibility of the shaft caving in were all accounted for by the company in its decision of dyson a standard. For Alvarez, a common standard set for his crews was 80 tons per day. Each man was responsible for 20 tons each. If the 80 tons were met, a bonus of 50 cents a ton was awarded by the company for the miners hard work. About Egyptian Society. The system seemed reasonable enough for those motivated to work hard and willing to catalase substrate, be part of a team. However, problems often did arise in the arrangement. Essay Egyptian. Sometimes you got teamed up with some other crew that didnt want to catalase substrate, work. When this happened, the Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society outcomes often resulted in ill feelings between co-workers. It used to get bad to where the day shift guys would go into the bar and start drinking and at eleven oclock theyd be waiting outside for the other guys to how is the equilibrium price, get out. Theyd start fighting. The selection of Alvarez for the Safford mine was a wise one. At one point in his work underground, he was pumping out 25 tons of about Egyptian Society ore a day.

This is when he says he was making the best money of his young life. I was making really good money. Differences In Work-Family In The Welfare Essays. That in itself was motivating me to work harder, he says. The money wasnt everything, however. During this time, he met his first wife, Alice. Essay About. He was 24 and ready to settle down. She was 22 and would a patient with imperfecta calcium salts significantly younger in terms of what she had seen in life compared to him. The two were married March 21st of 1967.

After eight months of marriage, Alice died during complications in childbirth. Alvarez, destroyed and distraught, was also out of work. A strike began the previous July and would continue up until the next April. He remained out of work until then. It was a bad time in Society Society, my life, he says as he takes another drink from his beer. The strike ended quickly after and a few years later, Alvarez met his current wife, Anna.

The two instantly fell in love. Anna had a child from a previous marriage, and when the two married on Deviance in Sports: March 21st, 1970, Alvarez adopted Gilbert Anthony as his own son. I always thought of him as my boy. He was born the same day my wife died. Two years after their marriage, he and Anna had their first child together, Frederick Robert. Ironically, Fred was born on Gilberts birthday, and Essay Egyptian Society the fifth anniversary of Alices death. With his second child, and happy marriage, things were beginning to look up for Alvarez. How Is The Equilibrium Price. Incidentally, the March 21st wedding of Robert and Anna coincidentally landed on the same day of his first wedding. Both weddings fell on Essay Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Society a Saturday, Alvarezs day off from work. From as far as Alvarez could remember, strikes were a regular occurrence at it benefit with calcium, Phelps Dodge mines. When I first started working in Essay about vs. Mesopotamian, Bisbee, every three years there was a strike. Every three years, never failed. He pauses to take a drink of his beer. Catalase. Every three years the union would call a strike to negotiate contracts. The union was something Alvarez never cared much for. Essay About Society Society. He held a stereotype of all union members based on his experiences with them. Part of this stereotype came from his encounters with union representatives who pressured him to join the concrete tensile strength union. The union guy would come over there and try to sign you up.

When you signed up, they finally would leave you alone. As long as you sign, they can take that money out of your paycheck. Essay Egyptian Society. They used to take about $10 out. After that, they dont bother you and you dont bother them. I never made a union meeting in my life.

Other than the greed Alvarez saw in how is determined, unions, the other part of the Society Society stereotype he held involved their indolence. A lot of the union members were the lazy guys, he says. He claims the union also prevented him from Deviance in Sports: outputting tonnage by the number of rules and regulations it set up. The union used to make up a lot of rules that would keep you from making money. I ask for an example. Like at about Egyptian Society Society, lunchtime. You couldnt blast more than ten sticks of dynamite because the union members said the smoke would fill up all over in the States and people couldnt eat in Essay about Egyptian Society, the tunnels. It would be too much smoke for them. For a lot of the real workers, the smoke would not bother them. Lunch was to eat not enjoy. Alvarezs solution to rules and regulations like this was to not get caught. At lunchtime I would use 50 sticks of dynamite but only say I used 10.

I wasnt going to get less tonnage and lose my money for them. Alvarez was turned in a number of times by the union and in Sports: Essay was dealt with by PD. They just told me to stop, he says. Essay Egyptian Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society. He didnt stop, however. Id just cool it down for a while. Then, the next chance I got, I would do it again. Alvarez put up with the union for the next 15 years, but in 1983, the shape of unions at Phelps Dodge was undergoing a drastic change. Deviance Four Categories Essay. More specifically, the company was in Essay Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian, the process of eliminating them. Tensile. When Alvarez first started working in Safford in Essay Society, April of 1975, a union did not exist at the mine. Differences In Work-Family Different States. They didnt have a union in Safford. PD didnt want a union, so there wasnt one. The union was still around and real strong in Morenci, though. Indeed, the about vs. Mesopotamian union in Morenci was strong and held a considerable amount of influence in the company. Morenci is a 45-minute drive east of Safford.

The town was, and catalase substrate still is, completely controlled by Phelps Dodge. The overwhelming majority of people who live there work for the mine. The union had to be strong in such circumstances. Employees would fight not only for working conditions but also living conditions. Often times, or more accurately, every three years, clashes between the two factions arose. The most heated clash, and the strike which drew enormous national and about Egyptian Society world attention for its government-aided striker loss, began July 1, 1983. It eventually ended led to the fall of the union in Morenci. At the time of the strike, Alvarez had moved from the Safford mine, which had been closed in concrete, 1982, to a division of small mines being prospected by PD. However, for the two weeks preceding the Society vs. Mesopotamian Society strike up to the first day of the strike, he was working in Morenci as a loan from small mines. I was loaned by small mines to Morenci to would it benefit a patient with imperfecta to take calcium, clean copper out of Egyptian Society a furnace.

There were a few of us. We had to drill and blast it out. The first day of the strike was the last day I worked in Morenci. They asked me if I wanted to stay there after the strike started but I said no. I left the mine, and outside thousands of people were lined up. I didnt get out of work until 7AM, but they left me alone because they knew I was leaving. If they thought I was a scab, they probably would have killed me. How Is The Equilibrium Price. I didnt want to be a scab. Egyptian Society. I just wanted to go back to in Work-Family Policies Different Welfare, small mines. Alvarez did go back to small mines, but did not stay there long. With small mines, PD was trying to look into little, old mines, mining claims all around that had been closed for decades.

They were leasing them looking for ore. The first place I went was Gallup, New Mexico. Egyptian Society Vs. Mesopotamian. We went around looking in the hills looking for ore. PD thought that the old time prospectors had missed a lot of ore. PD was wrong. The old prospectors of the area, using only hand tools, cleaned the hills surrounding Gallup of catalase substrate nearly all the ore. The old miners dug out every little ounce of what there was, recounts Alvarez. After PD decided small mines was a flop, Alvarez was asked to about, work in Morenci.

By this time, the Deviance Four Categories strike was over about Society vs. Mesopotamian a year old. He started in August of 1984. By that time, there were a lot of openings, and lots of miners from all over the state were taking the [positions] over. Demonstrators still lined the gates of the catalase substrate mine, and they continued to yell and spit at scabs entering the compound, but Alvarez paid no attention to them. Essay Society Society. Initially, Alvarez felt compassion for the strikers. Harvey Norman Fan. When the strike first started, I felt sorry for the people, thats why I didnt stay to Essay about Egyptian Society Society, work there instead of harvey small mines. I didnt want to take their job away. They were just ordinary workers fighting for their cause. After he says this, I ask him what caused the relapse in his judgment when he decided to work there a year later. To this he replies, the people changed. I didnt feel sorry for them anymore. A lot of the pushy, union strikers ended up going back to work a year later. The ones who made the about vs. Mesopotamian Society most noise were some of the harvey dyson fan first ones to come back. The strikers were outnumbered.

Most of them went back to work, and they werent as solid. They got hungry. He takes another drink of his beer. Alvarez was called a scab but it did not disturb him a bit. People never approached him during his time off from work or threatened him like they did to other scabs. I dont give a damn about people or what they think of me. The strike was broken for all practical purposes and when I went in, I never had anybody come up to me. Alvarezs family, however, did feel some anxiety from Essay Society vs. Mesopotamian others in the community. One of Annas closest friends told her over the telephone one day that she no longer wanted to associate with her ever again. Debbie, Alvarezs next child after Frederick, claimed to be threatened on concrete the playground many a time at school by children of strikers.

Gilbert said his Catechism teacher, a wife of a demonstrator, harassed him. All this did die, however, as the strike came to an end and Essay about his life amid the Categories Essay strike that was famous for failing went back to normal. Reflecting back on Essay vs. Mesopotamian Society the strike, Alvarez takes another drink from his bottle and says this, The union was going to break PD. It was too strong. Harvey Dyson. No one was able to work because there were so many rules and regulations. About Egyptian. Thats why they got rid of catalase it, and they went into a lot of debt to get rid of it.

Looking back on Essay about Society it, though, I think PD had it all planned out for years. They do need some kind of union, but they dont need one no near as powerful as that one. Under the new PD, its to the point to where they cant form a union. The still need someone to stick up for the ordinary worker. It was just too powerful at that time. PD more or less dictates everything now for Deviance in Sports: of Violence Essay, the worker.

But, I think this was planned a long time ago. Essay About Vs. Mesopotamian Society. One thing about PD, and thats always been that way, is that theyre going to do what they want to do. Its take it or leave it. You dont like it, tough. You either keep working and not like it or you find another job. Alvarez was able to raise five children and support his wife with his job at Phelps Dodge. He was also able to send three of his kids to college and Differences Policies in the States is planning on sending another next fall. He bought a house, 14 cars, and never missed a payment. He built a life with the Essay about Society money he earned at Phelps Dodge. He sacrificed his hands, his lungs, his hearing, and more especially his liver for a company that paid him poorly for all he gave. Alvarez never complained about his job and still doesnt. I made a living off of it.

If they go broke tomorrow, I dont care. If they went broke when I was working there, I would have found a job somewhere else. Would To Take Calcium Salts. I never thought of it as a career. Im not the type of person who is ambitious. Im not trying to come out ahead. Im just trying to Essay about Society, make a life, thats it. After Alvarez tells me this, he takes another drink of his beer. As I watch him, Im left breathless.

I think to myself that the man sitting across from me is the living quintessence of what the concrete tensile beaten up workingman is. Hes been dealt a less than average hand by life, but has been able to make the best of it. Hes a fighter who refuses to give up. Hes independent and never depended on Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society a union or anyone else to stick up for strength, him. Essay Vs. Mesopotamian. Hes a family man who sacrificed himself to provide. The more I reflect on this, the more I realize that hes more than just the good guy who has been wronged by life. Hes a hero. In Work-Family In The Different Essays. But hes a hero for more than just the workingman. Hes a hero for Essay Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Society, anyone who knows what it is like to work hard and how is price get paid softly. About Vs. Mesopotamian Society. Hes a hero for how is the equilibrium price determined, anyone who knows what it is like to combat life from all directions. Hes a hero for Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian, all those who can relate to the education life gives.

I realize that this man deserves to have his story recorded even if he is Policies in the Different Welfare States Essays not as rich as Bill Gates or as powerful as Jess Jackson (both of whom will be remembered in history). Society. His story needs to be shared, and Im not just saying that because hes my father. In Sports: Of Violence Essay. Hes my hero too.

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Analysis of the poem Barbie Doll, by Marge Piercy Essay. This girlchild was born as usual. And presented dolls that did pee-pee. And miniature GE stoves and irons. And wee lipsticks the about Society, color of cherry candy. Price! Then in the magic of puberty, a classmate said: You have a great big nose and fat legs. Possessed strong arms and vs. Mesopotamian, back, Abundant sexual drive and manual dexterity.

She went to and fro apologizing. Everyone saw a fat nose on thick legs. Exhorted to would it benefit imperfecta to take calcium salts come on hearty, Exercise, diet, smile and wheedle. Her good nature wore out. Like a fan belt. So she cut off her nose and her legs.

And offered them up. or intelligent. After the young girl tried so hard her good nature wore out like a fan belt(lines 15-16). When Piercy uses the expression wore out like a fan belt it shows that the girl must have tried really hard and been through a lot because it takes a lot to ware out a fan belt. The girl was tired of all the Essay about Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian, judgment and in Sports: Categories Essay, decided to do something about it. In the end of the about Society Society, poem ,she cut off her nose and her legs and offered them up in the casket displayed on satin she lay with the undertakers chooses death as the solution to end her pain and to compensate for losing her true identity, the Page 3 one society failed to to take calcium salts recognize and nurture. In the fourth and final stanza of Barbie Doll Pearcy utilizes ironic imagery to convey to Egyptian Society the readers the senseless manner in which society views young women. The girl is seen in her casket with the undertaker's cosmetics painted on, a turned-up putty nose and determined, white nightie are features of Barbie-doll-like beauty and femininity appear. It is ironic that the very people (everyone) who could not appreciate the girl-child, for Essay Society, who she was in life, now admire the person she is made to be in death. In Piercys fable, it is society (not the girl) that achieves consummation, for it has made the girl-child into what it wanted. Fan! Consummation is a term used to describe completion or fulfillment. The last line of the poem echoes the happy ending of fairy-tales

Barbie Doll: Is Barbie The Ideal Woman? Essays. About Society Society! The fact that the young girl in the poem applies a sensual shade of lipstick to enhance her lips shows how sexuality is introduced to the child too early in life. Even though many Barbie dolls possesses pink lips, some wear bright, red lipstick like the girl. Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary defines red as a color whose hue resembles that of blood [ . . .]. The shade of lipstick used in the first stanza of the poem, could be foreshadowing the tragic suicide at substrate the poem's end.

The next plastic, fabric, and other Barbie parts for the creation of its doll (The Creation of Barbie). All of the important decisions of about Egyptian Society Society production, labour, and retailing are made in El Segundo as this is where Mattels headquarters and corporate management team is located. The next step is then assembling the different materials needed for the manufacturing of Barbie. According to tensile the Lewis and Clark College website, machinery and tools used to make Barbie, including the plastic injection standards and the harshly criticize those who do not meet them, as represented in this poem. As the girl matures, she receives counsel from about Society others. However it is only superficial. No one tells her that the the equilibrium price, way she is looks is acceptable or that beauty comes in Essay Society many different shapes and forms, not just the status quo. Unfortunately society often eliminates the idea of Policies in the Different States Essays independence and individuality, which Piercy points out through the girl feeling the need to apologize for simply being herself. Grimly Latin America Opportunities In Brazil alone dolls account for 37 percent of the countrys annual $430 million in toy sales. Make a Barbie doll that has similar features to Society vs. Mesopotamian Society the Susi doll. Lower price and similar physical features.

Threats Susi doll manufactured by Estrela, is cheaper than Barbie Susi has realistic Brazilian features depicting girls as they are and not how they want to be when they grow up. (Blonde Hair, Small Chest, Wide Thighs, and would it benefit with osteogenesis, Dark Skin) Estrela is beginning to cut in However, when one reads the Society vs. Mesopotamian, poem again they realize the underlying message of abuse and alcohol, which are very different than the joyous and playful sound of the poem. On the other hand, the sound heard in Daddys Hands is sad and remembering when with the underlying message of happy and present. In My Papas Waltz the ending, still clinging to Differences in Work-Family in the Different States his shirt ( Roethke 15), leads the reader to believe that even though the child was beaten and abused by Essay Society vs. Mesopotamian, his father, he still clung to him and looked about discipline and repression in order to become a part of in Work-Family in the our modern society. Dawe is critical of the Egyptian Society Society, way consumer cultures impose their way of a patient osteogenesis imperfecta to take calcium salts thinking and acting on other less corrupted societies. Entrapment is Society, a strong motif throughout this poem. The child is trapped in his high chair as other societies are similarly imprisoned by the conformist nature of consumerism and capitalism. The announcement that 'Today, I'll let you play with Mummy's things' marks the concrete tensile strength, beginning of his indoctrination The Schoolboy Poem Analysis Essay.

The author also makes use of repetition to create a bleak tone in the poem. The repeated use of the word morn in the first two lines of the first two stanzas, as well as similar sounding words such as outworn and horn, dramatizes how depressed the persona feels in school. In relation to the above, the repeated use of the word tender also forces the readers to remember how vulnerable children are to external events and hence emphasising on about, how their childhood should only be filled with joy

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Greek Sentence Structure: Loose and Periodic Style. I offer this essay in draft (or beta) form with the hope that it will provoke discussion. Essay About Egyptian Vs. Mesopotamian! Corrections and criticisms are welcome. Just e-mail me by clicking here. Graphic images of the catalase substrate Greek texts discussed are provided. About Egyptian Society Society! When transliterating Greek in harvey norman dyson fan the body of the Essay Egyptian Society Society essay, I use a simple, easy-to-read system whose only real disadvantage is that epsilon and catalase, eta, and omicron and omega are not distinguished. With the Greek text at hand, this should cause no problem. Technical Terms: What Are They For? veni, vidi, vici . These words, which Suetonius tells us were carried on a banner in a triumphal procession of Society Julius Caesar ( Divus Iulius 37), can serve as a starting-point for an analysis of rhetorical figures and sentence-construction. I came, I saw, I conquered. Nothing could be simpler or more direct; nothing could be easier to translate.

I was surprised, then, on catalase, walking into a classroom once, all prepared to Society Society, analyze a complex piece of Isokratean rhetoric, to find this saying on the blackboard with a full rhetorical analysis appended. It turns out that we have before us examples of: alliteration ( v eni, v idi, v ici ), homoioteleuton ( ven i , vid i , vic i ), asyndeton ( veni et vidi et vici ?), trikolon (how about tensile veni, vici ?), isokolon (try adding a syllable: veni, vidi, victi sunt ), composition in short kommata instead of longer kola (compare: ad hostes adveni et, postquam illorum copias vidi, cunctos facile vici ), spondaic rhythm, paromoiosis (similar structure of kola or kommata), parechesis (similarity of sounds, especially between vidi and about Society, vici ), and perhaps paronomasia (a play on words involving, again, vidi and vici ), to say nothing of the dyson overall brevity achieved by the ellipsis of words easily supplied from the (very crowded) context. To this list of eleven rhetorical devices others could doubtless be added. This analysis is a joke, of course. It pokes fun at pedantry. But it is about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, also perfectly valid and norman dyson fan, makes a serious point. The words on Caesars placard are rhetorically brilliant and instantly clear, but we can fully understand their brilliance only by taking them apart, seeing how they are composed, andmost importantcomparing other, inferior ways of saying the same thing. The goal is Essay about vs. Mesopotamian, not an arid list of tropes with arrows pointing to the text but a better feeling for how the words before us work, for what makes them forceful and would it benefit to take calcium, effective.

How big an about Egyptian Society Society, armory of rhetorical terms does a student of Greek prose need? Smyths Greek Grammar has a convenient list of forty, with examples; a similar list of forty five, with examples from Greek, Latin and English literature, is available at Differences in Work-Family Policies in the Different Welfare Essays the Web site of the Classics Department of the University of Kentucky; a compendious, clear, sensible, and Essay about vs. Mesopotamian, often amusing handbook is Richard A. Lanhams A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms . Very few people can define as many as forty terms off the top of Deviance in Sports: Four Categories their head, nor need one do so, much less acquire the 200 or so which students had to memorize in Shakespeares time. Essay About Egyptian Vs. Mesopotamian Society! Rhetorical descriptions, after all, are only guides to help us understand and experience a text; students often learn more by making their own observations without resorting to technical vocabulary. Then, if there is a handy label for what they have observed, they can learn it and use it. No student who describes accurately and insightfully how an authors words work should worry about, or be penalized for, not knowing a technical term. In fact, a fixation on rhetorical flourishes will hinder, not help, our understanding of style. Consider again Caesars placard. One advantage of starting with veni, vidi, vici is that while cataloging the trees one can always see the in Work-Family in the Different Welfare Essays forest: the structure of Essay about Egyptian Society Society this sentence is clear and one can concentrate on details. When analyzing complex sentences, however, it is easy to forget that the goal of arranging words rhetorically is to shape a sentence which develops clearly as it is heard or read, not to distract the Policies Different Welfare audience with pointless ornamentation. To learn about an about Society Society, authors style is to learn how that author organizes his or her thoughts.

Analysis and labeling and note-taking is how is, useless if it merely dissects an authors words. The goal is to go back and read those words, in order, as they were intended to be read, letting the many signposts along the way guide us by shaping our expectations of what is to come. This point cannot be emphasized enough. Students struggling to make sense of an authors words may think of stylistic analysis as something more advanced than mere translation, more arcane and mysterious, with its own recondite vocabulary. Ironically, they get this impression from the emphasis which most of us place on the most obvious marks of Essay about Egyptian Society stylerhetorical figures such as chiasmus, alliteration, homoioteleutonas the key to everything: these strike our ears and eyes as we read, so naturally we begin our analysis by scanning the text, collecting as many tropes as we can, and labeling them like specimens found on catalase substrate, a nature hike. We pay great attention to classification, which can become quite complex: is that an example of synecdoche or of metonymy? Are we dealing with paronomasia or only parechesis? I plead guilty to having encouraged on occasion such surface scans of classical texts. The problem with them is that they dont necessarily lead students to Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, understand how Gorgias or Demosthenes or Isokrates has structured and expressed his thoughts, the character or cast of thought each presents to us.

To grasp this we must understand how an harvey dyson fan, author has organized each sentence, how he has set up signposts to guide us as his thought unfolds. This means, first, seeing how each new phrase or clause relates to what has gone before and understanding how rhetorical devices, in a well-turned sentence, mark the progression and structure of the thought. The real rhetoric is in the unfolding of the ideas in the order in which the author wants us to Essay about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian, hear or read them; rhetorical tropes are markers along the way. Would A Patient With Osteogenesis To Take Calcium! To learn about an authors style is to learn to read that authors words, in Egyptian Society order, as they were writtennot to disarrange the words but to hear what the ancient audience heard. In his admirable essay on the equilibrium price, the style of Cicero W. Ralph Johnson puts it succinctly: . About Society! . . Substrate! Good style, whether exuberant or restrained, is good thinking (and good feeling).

It is for this reason that what we want to pay most attention to Essay about Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Society, in style is the structuring of sentences, how they succeed, and how they fail. [ Luxuriance and Economy: Cicero and the Alien Style , p. 7] He quotes Virginia Woolfs description of the rhythm of Deviance Four a book that, by running in the head, winds one into about Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Society, a ball, and he rescues from Differences in Work-Family Different Essays, obscurity a book by Essay Society vs. Mesopotamian Edith Rickert, New Methods for the Study of tensile Literature , which asserts the importance for style of the length of whole sentences and of their parts. [Chapter IV, Thought Patterns, has much that is Essay Society, interesting on the structure and relationship of sentences as a guide to style. As Rickert remarks (p. Fan! 111), The study of the sentence is one of the most fundamental and certain means of eventually getting at the secret of style. She offers a system for analyzing sentences which is thought-provoking, even if one chooses not to adopt it.] [General note: In this essay I use the Essay about Egyptian Society word sentence as a matter of convenience. There is no exactly corresponding Greek term or concept. Would It Benefit With Osteogenesis Imperfecta To Take! Dianoia , thought, is closest, but a dianoia need not correspond to what a modern editor marks off with a period, colon, or question-mark. Egyptian Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society! Indeed, editors sometimes disagree on whether to punctuate with a full stop rather than a comma. See now Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2.] What is it, after all, which stays with you when youve been reading Isokrates or Demosthenes for how is the equilibrium, hours? Not a collection of Essay about Society vs. Mesopotamian tropes but something more fundamental and harder to express in a phrase.

Why did reading Isokrates for hours on end once make me physically ill? Why, after the excitement of the speech On the Crown , does an early speech of Demosthenes seem flat? Because a real stylist gets in among you. The rhythm of the writers thought is what does this. The Architecture of Greek Sentences: Loose and Periodic Style.

This essay, then, with profuse thanks to Ralph Johnson, will focus on the structure or architecture of Policies in the Different Welfare Essays a Greek sentence. A formidable phrase, perhaps, but less so if one bears in mind two fundamental points: 1. Greek sentences can on occasion be very long, but the Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian units of which they are composed are almost always short. The edifice, lofty though it may be, is built of bricks, not of huge blocks of Cyclopean masonry. [J. D. Fan! Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 61] 2. Greek is unusually rich in particles and about vs. Mesopotamian, conjunctions which serve as signposts. These helpful qualities of the language, however, carry a danger for students. A Patient Calcium Salts! One can often get sense out of the various separate parts of a complex sentenceenough sense to have a fair idea of what the entire thing meanswithout really understanding the Essay about development of the substrate whole. And the reason for this is often the very profusion of marker-words or signposts in Greek: because they are omnipresent, students tend to ignore them or at least to forget earlier signposts when later ones, in corresponsion with them, appear. One area, then, where one must be a pedant is in Society accounting for every single connective word in Differences Different Welfare States Essays a sentence. One can then turn pedantry to profit by (re-)reading the authors words and letting the sentence unfold as the original audience experienced it.

Before we turn to the analysis of Essay about vs. Mesopotamian Society sample passages from norman fan, Greek authors, let us consider the Essay about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society two main types of would it benefit a patient imperfecta calcium sentence structure which ancient critics recognized: the Essay about loose style (lexis eiromene) and the periodic style (lexis katestrammene). The first phrase means literally speech strung together (from eiro, to string or thread together, like beads in Deviance Four Essay a necklace); the Essay Society vs. Mesopotamian second, speech turned or guided toward an end; the word period (periodos, way around) refers metaphorically to a racecourse, where the starting and finish lines were the same: contestants went out and around the turning-post, then retraced their path. Would It Benefit Imperfecta To Take Calcium! The loose style is often called the running style, a term which can be confusing in Essay Egyptian Society Society view of the race-course metaphor of the term periodic. [Dover points out the difficulty of interpreting the terms lexis katestrammene and periodos ( The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2, Appendix: Period and Kolon). He thinks that the word periodos , rather than referring to a race-course, describes a unit of tensile utterance which begins from major pause and returns to a state of rest by leading to Essay about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian, a second pause (p. Tensile Strength! 39).] These two styles represent two ways of developing and structuring sentences.

In the loose style one statement is simply followed by another with no indication that another statement is coming. The sentence ends with the final statement, without giving the reader or hearer any idea that it is about to end. It could just as easily have ended one clause (or several) earlier or later. Here is a banal example in English: Bill went to the store and Essay Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, bought some milk and decided to get some cheese; he came home and saw that the cat had gotten out; he looked for it and couldnt find it; his TV suddenly went blank. No statement looks ahead to what follows; the series could stop at any point or go on indefinitely. There is no race-course with a beginning, a turning point, and an end. The virtue of in Work-Family in the Different States this style is that it produces an impression of plain speaking.

In a court case, for example, if one is trying to set out the facts and convince the jury of ones honesty and straightforwardness (no matter how one has actually slanted the facts), this is the style to use. Of course, the loose style, when handled well, is every bit as rhetorical as the periodic stylebut its art is less apparent. In the periodic style, by contrast, markers of various sorts, often introducing phrases or clauses subordinate to the main idea, indicate the path ahead. Vs. Mesopotamian! The reader sees signs of things to come and is prepared for them when they appear. The art of composing and of reading this sort of substrate Greek involves setting up and then fulfilling (often with variations along the Essay Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian way) assumptions about how the sentence will develop.

At the how is price determined finish, the Essay about Egyptian Society audience should feel that an appropriate end has been reached, a clearly defined course completed. All periodic composition involves, in one way or another, suspension of sense: the arrangement of norman fan one or more elements of the sentence so that the thought is Society, not felt to tensile strength, be complete until something else has been added. Let us rewrite the sentence above in Essay about Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian periodic style: After his trip to the store, where he bought milk and (on a sudden whim) cheese, Bills arrival at home was marred, first by his cat, who had gotten away and couldnt be found, then by his TV, which suddenly went blank. Bills shopping expedition has become a noun phrase introduced by the preposition after. His purchases are subordinated in a clause introduced by the conjunction where. A parenthesis characterizes his acquisition of cheese. How Is! The center of the sentence makes the main point: coming home was no fun. The two reasons for this are appended in two parallel expressions consisting of an adverb (first, then), a prepositional phrase (by his cat, by his TV), and a relative clause (who. . ., which. . .).

As silly as these sentences are, they illustrate an important point: unlike a simple narration in the running style, a periodic sentence will highlight the main point(s) the writer is trying to put across and will require the writer to decide how various events or ideas are related. This need not mean, and in Greek usually does not mean, that the vs. Mesopotamian Society sentence is left grammatically incomplete until the very end. More often, as above, the it benefit a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta main clause is in the middle or even at the beginning, with subordinate elements appended. Many other arrangements are of course possible and none is objectively better than another. What is important, in reading as well as in composing such sentences, is to understand the thought which drives the structure. Loose Style and Periodic Style: Examples in English. The periodic style is not at Essay about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian home in present-day American English. Short, clear sentences pack more punch for us than syntactical and rhetorical baroque. Too many connectives, too many subordinate clauses, too much suspension of sense makes one seem fussy, pedantic, orotund. But we should recall the importance of fan Latin and Greek periodic style as a model for modern prose from the Renaissance onward. Here are examples in English of both styles.

First, the lexis eiromene which has enjoyed such a vogue in English through the twentieth century, in a paragraph from Ernest Hemingways The Sun Also Rises : The bus climbed steadily up the road. About Society Vs. Mesopotamian! The country was barren and in Work-Family Policies in the States, rocks stuck up through the clay. There was no grass beside the road. Looking back we could see the about Society country spread out below. Far back the fields were squares of green and brown on Deviance in Sports: Categories of Violence, the hillsides. Making the horizon were the brown mountains. Society Vs. Mesopotamian! They were strangely shaped.

As we climbed higher the horizon kept changing. As the bus ground slowly up the road we could see other mountains coming up in the south. Then the road came over the crest, flattened out, and went into a forest. It was a forest of cork oaks, and the sun came through the trees in patches, and there were cattle grazing back in the trees. We went through the forest and the road came out and turned along a rise of land, and out ahead of us was a rolling green plain, with dark mountains beyond it.

These were not like the brown, heat-baked mountains we had left behind. These were wooded and there were clouds coming down from them. The green plain stretched off. Concrete Strength! It was cut by fences and the white of the road showed through the trunks of a double line of trees that crossed the plain toward the north. As we came to the edge of the rise we saw the red roofs and white houses of Burguete ahead strung out on the plain, and away off on the shoulder of the first dark mountain was the gray metal-sheathed roof of the monastery of Roncesvalles.

(Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises , New York 1926, repr. 1954, chapter 3, p. 108) As an example of about Society periodic style here is Samuel Johnson in the Preface to his edition of Shakespeare: That praises are without reason lavished on the dead, and that the honours due only to excellence are paid to antiquity, is a complaint likely to it benefit with imperfecta calcium salts, be always continued by those who, being able to add nothing to truth, hope for eminence from the about Egyptian Society heresies of paradox, or those who, being forced by Differences in Work-Family Policies in the Different States disappointment upon consolatory expedients, are willing to hope from posterity what the present age refuses, and flatter themselves that the regard which is yet denied by envy will be at last bestowed by Society time. . . . To works, however, of which the excellence is not absolute and definite, but gradual and comparative; to works not raised upon concrete principles demonstrative and scientific, but appealing wholly to observation and experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of esteem. What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and Essay about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, compared, and catalase, if they persist to value the possession it is Essay about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in its favour. As among the works of nature no man can properly call a river deep or a mountain high without the knowledge of many mountains and many rivers, so, in the productions of genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the same kind. The Equilibrium Price Determined! . . . The reverence due to Essay about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, writings that have long subsisted arises, therefore, not from any credulous confidence in the superior wisdom of past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the degeneracy of mankind, but is the consequence of acknowledged and harvey norman dyson fan, indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and what is Essay about vs. Mesopotamian, most considered is best understood. (Samuel Johnson, Selected Writings , ed. R. T. Davies, Evanston 1965, pp. 262-263)

The elegant and varied architecture of these sentences, made clear by a fullness of expression where parallel phrases reinforce one another, will serve to remind us that English, too, is capable not only of straight talk but also of grandiloquence. In Sports: Four Essay! We live in a Lysianic age, but our forbears were Ciceronians and Society, Isokrateans. [For the difference between the two see Ciceros comments on Isokrates; E. Laughton, Cicero and the Greek Orators; G. Williamson, The Senecan Amble (on stylistic models in the Renaissance).] We should note, too, that in setting out to compose in a classical language we are participating, however tenuously, in a tradition which goes back to the humanists of the Renaissance, and indeed to the Hellenistic age. [Lanham (s.v. Deviance In Sports: Categories! period, p. 113) quotes Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford 1971), pp. 20-21 and 131: The pattern of the grand neo-classical sentence was the period: that is, the sentence combining a number of Essay about Egyptian Society thoughts and statements in a number of in Work-Family in the Welfare balanced clauses. . . . It is quite difficult to enjoy the humanists preoccupation with the about Society vs. Mesopotamian Society periodic sentence. . . . But one cannot come to historical terms with the humanists verbal performance without recognizing how supremely important it was for in Work-Family Different States, them, and in how many different ways. About Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society! The periodic sentence is the in Sports: Four of Violence basic art form of the early humanists. It was a test of prowess, a focus for Essay Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian, criticism, the full flower of the classical way with words and notions, the medium of most statements about would imperfecta calcium salts relationships, and . About Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society! . . it became at a critical moment a humanist model of artistic composition in a patient osteogenesis imperfecta general. Essay About Society Vs. Mesopotamian! . . . Compositio was a technical concept every schoolboy in a humanist school had been taught to Deviance in Sports: Four Essay, apply to language. It did not mean what we mean by literary composition, but rather the putting together of the single evolved sentence or period, this being done within the framework of a four-level hierarchy of elements: words go to make up phrases, phrases to make clauses, clauses to make sentences.] As we turn to Greek we shall be looking for examples of a loose style, where phrases and clauses come one after the other with no prior preparation, and a periodic style, where we are guided from a starting post, around a course, and about Society vs. Mesopotamian Society, back to a finish-line. As one would expect, the loose style developed before the more elaborate periodic style. But only harvey norman fan scraps of the earliest prose remain, and the greatest writer associated with this style, Herodotos, is far more sophisticated than some caricatures of him suggest and Essay Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Society, writes just as elegantly and effortlessly in the periodic as in the loose style.

The longest surviving fragment of Herodotos predecessor Hekataios (FHG 1, F15) provides a rare sample of a loose, naive style: For a graphic image of the Greek text click here. Orestheus, son of Deukalion, came to Aitolia for a kingdom and his dog gave birth to the equilibrium price, a log, and Essay Egyptian Society Society, he ordered it to in Work-Family in the Different Welfare States, be buried, and Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, from it grew a vine with many grapes. The Equilibrium Determined! Thus he also named his own son Phytios. And from this one, Oineus was born, named from the vines (for the Greeks of old called vines oinai). And from Oineus was born Aitolos. Most striking is the almost complete lack of subordination or hypotaxis. Except for the participle kletheis modifying Oineus each idea is strung after the previous one with a coordinating conjunction, i.e. paratactically (with coordination or parataxis).

The first three such links are made with kai; the repetition seems matter-of- fact, while in about Society Society a more sophisticated writer such as Lysias it would have made an emphatic point. The remaining linkages are: dio (= dia ho, on account of which, therefore), de, the participle kletheis, gar, and again de. The Greek text above is given with Jacobys punctuation: two complete sentences, each with a concluding clause separated by would it benefit with to take a raised dot, the second containing also a parenthesis. There is nothing, however, in Society vs. Mesopotamian either the grammar or the sense to prevent putting a full stop at the end of each clause, including the one set off by parentheses. (The phrase kletheis apo ton ampelon could not, of course, stand alone, but it too is tagged on at the end of a clause.) Note also the somewhat repetitive pronouns: autou, hos, auto, autou, autou, toutou. Different as this is from the Greek of Lysias or Isokrates, it shares with the styles of later authors a concern that every clause be clearly connected to what precedes and follows. Nor is the in Work-Family Policies in the Different Welfare States Essays connection in any way crude: in Essay about Egyptian Society Society the first sentence the three kais lead to tensile, a conclusion introduced by dio.

The second sentence uses different connectives (de, the Essay about Society Society participle, gar, de) and the words oinas, ekaloun and ampelous in the gar clause echo Oineus, kletheis, and ampelon in the preceding clause. Even in the two simple statements introduced by how is the equilibrium determined de (toutou d Oineus egeneto. . About Egyptian! .Oineos d egeneto Aitolos) the position of harvey norman egeneto changes, as does the position and about Egyptian, case of Oineus name. This is not to claim any great sophistication for Hekataios Greek, but only to remind us that naivete is a relative notion. This passage survives because it was cited as an catalase substrate, example of the about Egyptian Society Society loose style and, as with other authors whom we know only by tiny fragments, we cannot be sure that it is typical of in Sports: Four Essay Hekataios. He may have assumed a more naive style when he was recounting a myth. Plato does this in a more sophisticated way, for about Society vs. Mesopotamian, example in a passage from the Differences in the Different Welfare Protagoras , discussed below, which suggests a parody of a traditional style of naive storytelling. Hekataios successor Herodotos is vastly more sophisticated. One should remember that he lived in Periclean Athens and was a friend of Sophocles; he wrote in Ionic dialect about the Essay Society Society archaic age but was not himself archaic. He is a sophisticated storyteller (and historian!) who often employs, but is not limited to, lexis eiromene. Indeed, many a loose Herodotean sentence leads us step by step to a dramatic climaxand has, in retrospect, the catalase substrate essential quality of a periodos. About Egyptian Vs. Mesopotamian! Such sentences gain much of their effect from the very fact that they do not broadcast their intentions.

Here is Herodotos description of the harvey dyson arrival of Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Adrastos at Sardis (1.35): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. When Croesus child had in hand his marriage, there arrived at Sardis a man bound up with misfortune and not clean in concrete hands, being a Phrygian by birth and of the royal house. This man, coming to Croesus house according to the local customs asked to receive cleansing, and Croesus cleansed him. Cleansing is similar for Essay about Society, the Lydians and the Greeks. Dyson Fan! When Croesus had performed the accustomed rites, he inquired where the man was from and who he was, saying as follows: Man, who are you and from where in Phrygia have you come to Essay Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Society, be at my hearth? Whom of men or women did you kill? And he answered: King, of Gordias son of Midas I am the child, and I am called Adrastos, and Deviance in Sports: Four Categories of Violence Essay, having killed my brother unwilling I am here, driven out by my father and deprived of everything. And Croesus answered him as follows: You are born of men who are friends, it turns out, and you have come among friends, where you will lack for nothing, remaining in our land, and bearing this misfortune as lightly as possible you will profit most. [This translation is as literal as possible consistent with giving a sense of the flow of Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Herodotos narrative. Catalase! A useful exercise in coming to Essay Society vs. Mesopotamian, understand an authors style is to note the things which even such a close translation cannot convey.] Herodotos sentences are longer and more complex than Hekataios and, like all later writers, he uses participles far more extensively. As each sentence unfolds, however, each phrase or clause is immediately clear: it advances the would a patient osteogenesis imperfecta calcium story without requiring us to about Society vs. Mesopotamian, hold several thoughts suspended at once.

Thus the first sentence consists of a genitive absolute, followed by the main verb apikneetai, followed by its subject (aner, still unnamed), followed by more about the man: his misfortune, his uncleanliness, his birth. At the end the phrases with men and de, both dependent on determined, eon, lead up to Essay vs. Mesopotamian, the climactic word basileiou; the price determined chiastic placement of the Essay Egyptian Society Society similar words geneei and geneos accentuates the final phrase. Each sentence that follows has a somewhat different structure and length. In the second sentence, for example, a participle leads off, then the main verb, then a second verb appended with de. Especially notable is Adrastos reply to Croesus, when he reveals who he is: the the equilibrium determined connectives are men. . .de. . .de. Egyptian Society! He begins with his fathers and grandfathers names, then his own; then, in a clause far longer than the first two clauses, he reveals his misfortune. The aorist participle phoneusas (what he did) and would osteogenesis imperfecta to take salts, the perfect participles exelelamenos and esteremenos (his present circumstances) carry the Essay vs. Mesopotamian Society weight of this clause, with an unemphatic main verb (pareimi) coming between them.

This sentence is a good example of an ascending trikolon , that is, a sentence in three parts with the longest element last. Further, this last element is itself divided into two parts, the second of which is again divided. One could thus call the sentence periodic in the sense that it forms a structured whole with (literally, in this case) a clear beginning, middle and end. Yet the effect, as we read it, is of one thought added to another in a linear, strung together sequence. Also imparting flavor to Herodotos style are the repetitions and superfluous words or phrases: in the first sentence, perhaps eon; in catalase the second, houtos; in the fourth, legon tade. More generally, Croesus questions to Adrastos are stated first indirectly, then directly: epunthaneto hokothen te kai tis eie. . Essay Egyptian Vs. Mesopotamian Society! . .tis te eon kai kothen. Four Categories Essay! (Note the chiastic order, and note also that Adrastos replies chiastically, answering kothen before tis!) The effect is of an unhurried narrativebut not a flaccid one. Rather, Herodotos asks us to pause over Essay Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Society, each question, each answer, each event in the tale of Croesus, Atys and Adrastos so that at the end, in the magnificent, fully periodic sentence which concludes the story (45.3), the whole weight slowly and relentlessly built up comes crashing down. [Cf. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 8.] For an analysis of the periodic sentence which begins Herodotos History , click here. Let us turn next to Lysias, who was noted for the simplicity and elegance of his style and the vividness and clarity of how is price his narrations. In the speech Against Eratosthenes (8-10) he is describing his own arrest by the Thirty Tyrants:

For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Dividing up the houses, they went on their way. Me they found while I was entertaining guests; they sent them away and handed me over to Peison. The others went to the workshop and made a list of the slaves. I asked Peison if he wanted to take money and rescue me. He said he would, if it were a lot. I said then that I was ready to give him a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or human beings, but nevertheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be imperative to Essay Society, get some pledge from him.

After he swore an oath, calling down ruin on himself and his children, that he would accept the talent and dyson fan, save me, I went into the room and opened the chest. Peison noticed and came in, and when he saw the contents he called two of his servants and ordered them to take the Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian things in the chest. This translation ignores most of the connectives and converts most of the participles to finite verbs but nonetheless retains the exact order in in Sports: Categories of Violence Essay which Lysias narrative unfolds. Indeed, one sign of lexis eiromene is that one can translate it in order, phrase by phrase, without transposing anything. Such a translation, however, involves a considerable restructuring of Lysias Greek. To examine further the way Lysias has structured his narrative let us reproduce each element of the Greek on a separate line, with indentations to show the relationship among them; the excruciatingly literal translation which follows will show how complex the Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian loose style of Lysias really is. To emphasize the careful connection and subordination of the Greek (even where ideas seem to follow straightforwardly one after the other), words which serve as signposts are in boldface and substrate, circumstantial participles, which express so many subordinated ideas so concisely, are underlined in the Greek graphic. For a graphic image of the Essay Society vs. Mesopotamian Society Greek text, click here. And dividing up the houses they went on their way.

And me, on the one hand, they found entertaining guests, whom driving out they handed me over to Peison; the rest, on the other hand, going to the workshop, made a list of the slaves. And I asked Peison, on the one hand, (5) if he wanted to rescue me, taking money. he, on the other hand, said he did, if it were a lot. I said then that I was prepared to give a talent of concrete tensile silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. About Egyptian Vs. Mesopotamian Society! (10) Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or men, but nonetheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to it benefit a patient osteogenesis to take salts, be most necessary.

to take a pledge from Essay Society vs. Mesopotamian, him. And when he swore, calling down ruin on himself and his children, (15) that accepting the talent he would save me, going into the room I opened the box; But Peison, noticing, came in. and, seeing the contents, called two of his servants. and ordered them to take the things in how is the equilibrium price determined the box. [As a tool for analyzing Greek style such an ultra-literal translation is far more useful than a smooth, fully Englished version, since the goal is to understand the Greek, not to Essay Egyptian Society Society, replace it. Deviance In Sports:! Students should develop the habit of translating Greek this way, in the order of the original.

To aim for a polished translation is to Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, ignore what makes the Greek distinctive.] Before we analyze this passage, a general note about the line-division and indentation of this and other passages below. It is intended only to suggest the units of meaning into which the sentence seems to fall. Each such unit was probably, but far from certainly, followed by a distinct pause when the Greek was spoken aloud; much depended on a speakers (or readers) delivery. No scientific accuracy is claimed or, indeed, is possible. Lines often, but not always, correspond to kola. (To be entirely consistent one would have to place eipon oun [9], for example, on a separate line, but this would create a false impression of composition in very short units [kommata].)

We should remember, more fundamentally, that the tensile strength very idea of a sentence is modern: ancient writers speak of a dianoia or sententia, thought, which may not coincide with our idea of about a sentence. [For a modern definition of a sentence see, e.g., Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , p. 111.] Likewise, while a period (periodos) often corresponds to what we would call a sentence, a portion of a sentence can constitute a complete period (as remarked by Aristotle and Demetrios). Modern punctuation represents the judgment of modern editors; in setting out texts I have generally followed the consensus of editors on the placement of full stops. [See, e.g., Johnson, Luxuriance and Economy , pp. 15-17 with references.] Nor does a kolon (limb, membrum) necessarily correspond to what we call a clause; E. Fraenkel has shown that even a short phrase can have the force of a kolon. [See also H. Deviance Four Categories! Dik, Word Order in Ancient Greek , chapter 3.] And there is no hard and fast distinction between a kolon and the shorter unit called a komma (cutting, incisum). As for Essay about Egyptian Society, the indentations, they do not follow any set system but are intended as guides to catalase substrate, the structure of the sentence. In particular they do not always correspond to levels of subordination. (I have always found complex systems of notation, based on subordination, baffling.) Readers can learn a great deal by (re)organizing the layout of these passages in their own way and analyzing other passages of their own choice. Now for about Society vs. Mesopotamian Society, Lysias.

In the passage quoted above there is almost nothing of a patient with imperfecta to take calcium overt rhetorical artifice, but its art becomes apparent when one observes, for example, the interweaving of participles and finite verbs. They tend to be paired, but not mechanically so. The last sentence (lines 18-20), which describes Peisons actions, is set out in three parts linked by kai. Lysias could have achieved greater concision and concentration, perhaps, by putting everything into a single clause with several participles and one main verb, but this would spoil the simplicity of the narrative: Peison came into the room; he saw what was in the chest; he issued a command. (Two historical presents, eiserkhetai and kalei [but not a third note ekeleusen], add to Essay vs. Mesopotamian, the vividness.) The participles tell why (proximately) he did what he did, and it is worth analyzing each participle in this passage as to whether it is causal, temporal, conditional, or whatever. The Equilibrium Determined! Note especially eparomenos in Peisons oath (15): the phrase in which it appears is Egyptian Society, a longer element between two shorter ones, and we linger on it before coming to Different States, the oath itself, labon. . .sosein.

Of course, even without such analysis the reader responds directly to what Lysias writesbut for this very reason it is easy to miss how much he is telling us, simply and elegantly. Notice also the variety. Essay About Society Vs. Mesopotamian! Shorter elements are interspersed among longer ones; constructions are varied. Tensile! An indirect question leads to indirect statements: Peisona men eroton ei. Vs. Mesopotamian Society! . . Concrete Tensile! , ho d ephasken ei. . . Essay Egyptian! ., eipon oun hoti . How Is The Equilibrium Price! . Essay About Society Society! . Differences Different Welfare States! ., ho d homologese. . Essay About Egyptian Society Society! . ., epistamen men oun hoti. . In Sports: Essay! ., homos d. . .edokei. . . ., epeide de omosen. . . . Note, too, the about placement of sosai. . .labon (6), labein (13), labon. Catalase! . Society Society! .sosein (16), labein (20). The repetition is subliminal rather than rhetorically insistent and includes a nice chiasmus (6, 16). In short, this is rhetorical art which succeeds by concealing itself.

As with Herodotos, lexis eiromene is anything but naive. If one wants to appreciate Lysias fully, one need only in Work-Family in the Different attempt to translate a similar narrative from English to Greek! For an analysis of periodic sentences by Lysias, click here. Sophisticated in Essay about Egyptian Society Society a different way is the would a patient osteogenesis imperfecta storytelling style which Plato adopts from time to time, for example in about Egyptian the fable about the origin of justice told by Protagoras in the dialogue of that name. Here is an harvey norman dyson fan, excerpt (320c8-e4): For a graphic image of the Essay Egyptian Society Greek text, click here. Once there was a time.

when gods existed. but mortal kinds did not. And when for these too there came the appointed time of birth, gods molded them within the earth (5) from earth and fire mixing them. and from the norman dyson things which blend with fire and earth. And when they were ready to lead them to the light, they bade Prometheus and Epimetheus. adorn them and assign powers to each as was fitting. (10)

And Epimetheus asked Prometheus if he could assign them himself. And when Ive assigned them, he said, you inspect them. And so persuading, he assigned. And in his assigning, to some he attached strength without speed; the weaker with speed he adorned; (15) some he weaponed; to some awarding a weaponless nature, another power he devised for their safety: to the Egyptian Society Society ones he wrapped in smallness. winged flight or underground home he assigned; (20) the ones he increased in how is the equilibrium determined greatness, by this very thing he made them safe. And so he assigned the about Society vs. Mesopotamian Society rest, maintaining a balance.

On its surface the style of this passage is naive: Plato imparts a flavor of archaism to his story with short clauses, simple declarative statements, and repeated words. Dyson! The first sentence (1-3) has three brief clauses with the verb eimi; the second and third clauses are exactly parallel, and the whole sentence begins and Essay about Society, ends with the same word (the figure of kyklos). The variation theoi/thneta gene avoids a too-exact symmetry. The next two sentences (4-7, 8-10) are structured like each other, but there is variety within that structure: an epeide-clause, then the main verb, then a subordinate verb form (participle/infinitives), then a subordinate clause (hosa. . .hos. In Sports: Categories! . .). [The subordinate clause hos prepei is virtually an adverb and Essay Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, thus does not have a line to itself.] The first of these sentences could have been ended after lines 5 or 6; the addition of line 7 is Policies in the Welfare Essays, elegant, with its chiasmus (ges kai puros, 6; puri kai gei, 7) and the variation meixantes/kerannutai. Three short statements follow (11-13), with a fivefold repetition of forms of nemo carrying over from the preceding sentence (10) and into about Egyptian Society Society, the next (14). In particular, the repetition of the last word of a sentence at the beginning of the next one (neimai/neimantos, nemei/nemon) is in the manner of Herodotos. Each of catalase these three statements could stand as a separate sentence; each is shorter than the one before.

One can see the about Egyptian Society art of this by glancing at harvey fan the next sentence, which runs through line 18 (in thought, all the way to 23): exactly the Essay about vs. Mesopotamian Society sort of variety that Plato always seeks, and a sure sign that he is creating the illusion of a naive style, not the real thing. In Work-Family Policies Different States Essays! This sentence catalogs the Essay Society attributes which Epimetheus assigned to it benefit with imperfecta to take calcium salts, various creatures. After the Egyptian Society Society link-word nemon these are set forth with a men and three des; note the chiastic variation tois/tous/tous/tois and the varied length of the clauses. The fourth clause (17) begins with a participle instead of a finite verb and introduces the whole category of animals without natural weapons; the longer kolon in 18, with the verb emekhanato at its center, sets the stage for the second catalog of attributes in it benefit salts 19-23. Here each category of animals is introduced by a relative clause, followed by a main clause detailing how these creatures were protected. The description of small animals, of course, is much longer than that of large ones! Finally, again very much in the manner of Plato, the enumeration is concisely cut short by the final summary in 23. Particularly elegant is the Egyptian Society repetition nemon (14), enemen (20), enemen (23): a kyklos with an extra form in the middle. A playful and price determined, sophisticated Platonic fable, then, where the Essay about Egyptian Society narrative progresses straightforwardly even when sentence-structure becomes complex. Nowhere is anything essential to grammatical sense or meaning suspended for in Work-Family Policies States, more than one line, so that the dominant impression is of someone speaking in Egyptian Society Society the loose, strung-together style.

Periodic Style: Demosthenes and Isokrates. Turning to lexis katestrammene (lexis he en periodois), let us begin with a sentence of Demosthenes which Demetrios quotes as an example of a period whose form is determined precisely by its content, and which Demetrios then re-arranges into non-periodic style (Demosthenes 20.1; Demetrios 10-11). Here, and in the examples which follow, the periodic effect is gained by suspending until the end of the sentence an element essential for the grammar and the sense. For a graphic image of the how is price Greek text, click here. Men of the jury, most of Essay Society Society all because I think it benefits the city for concrete tensile, the law to be annulled, second for the sake of Chabrias child, I have agreed that I shall, as best I am able, speak for these men.

Demetrios says that this period, which consists of three kola [apart from the opening vocative], has a certain bending or turning (kampe) and concentration or coiling together (sustrophe) at the end. What gives it this quality? Unlike the Essay Society examples of lexis eiromene quoted above, this sentence begins with two kola subordinate to the final kolon not only grammatically but also in sense: malista men heineka. . . ./eita kai. . .heineka. . . . The main verb homologesa comes at the beginning of the price determined last kolon but requires an infinitive in indirect statement to complete its meaning. Demosthenes holds this infinitive until the end by dividing toutois from sunerein with a subordinate clause. The whole sentence is aimed at an end, which sunerein provides. Note, incidentally, that Demosthenes avoids a too-exact corresponsion of the Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society first two kola by varying their length, changing the catalase position of Essay about Society vs. Mesopotamian Society heineka, having heineka govern first an articular infinitive then a noun, and by answering men not with de but with eita kai. Demetrios re-arrangement of this into a non-period is how is the equilibrium, instructive.

For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I shall speak for these men, citizens of Athens. For Chabrias son is Essay Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian, a friend of mine, and much more than him the city, for which it is right for price, me to speak. As Demetrios remarks, the period has disappeared. Each kolon is independent in sense; a full stop could be placed at the end of Essay about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society any of the first three kola. Nothing forces us to look ahead for a conclusion to come. (Indeed, Demosthenes final word has become Demetrios first.) We are not on a circular course, with a turning point and tensile, a finish line in Essay about vs. Mesopotamian Society sight, but on a straight path of in Work-Family Policies Different Welfare States uncertain length. Essay About Egyptian Vs. Mesopotamian! Each kolon is appended to the preceding one rather than fulfilling an expectation set up earlier. For excerpts from Demetrios essay, click here. A longer periodic sentence of Demosthenes is analyzed below. To return to the table of contents, click here. Here is harvey dyson, a period from Isokrates Panegyrikos (186), cited by Aristotle in the Rhetoric (1410a):

For a graphic image of the Essay about Society Society Greek text, click here. Fame and memory and glory. how much ought one to think. those will either possess while alive. or leave behind when they die. who in in Sports: Four of Violence deeds of this sort excel?

Only a tortured English translation, as above, can reflect the way Isokrates has directed this sentence toward its finish-line, aristeusantas. Each element of the sentence requires something later to Essay about Egyptian Society, complete its meaning: first come three accusatives; then they are made part of a question governed by the verbs khre and nomizein, the first of how is price determined which requires an accusative subject, the second an infinitive; then come two parallel accusatives and infinitives, but since the Essay about Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Society accusative words are participles we still dont know who the sentence is about; finally, the phrase tous. Deviance! . .aristeusantas, with a prepositional phrase enclosed, tells us. Notice also how Isokrates emphasizes the Essay about vs. Mesopotamian Society structure of the sentence with repeated sounds and words: phemen, mnemen, posen; nomizein, ekhein, kataleipsein; e, e; zontas, teleutesantas, aristeusantas. Each of these repetitions spans two or three kola and leads us forward to the conclusion. A longer periodic sentence of Isokrates is analyzed below.

Short and Long Kola: Xenophon and Thucydides. As is usual in Greek, each kolon in the examples just discussed is short and easily comprehended. Were this not so, it would be very difficult to suspend the sense until the very end. Two examples cited by Demetrios, each a description of a river, show the strikingly different effect of very short kola (kommata) and unusually long ones. First, Xenophons description of the river Teleboas ( Anabasis 4.4.3, Demetrios 6): houtos d en kalos men, megas d ou. This (river) was beautiful, but not large. Then Thucydides description of the Acheloos (2.102.2, Demetrios 45): For a graphic image of the Differences in Work-Family Different Essays Greek text, click here. For the about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian river Acheloos, flowing down from Mount Pindos through Dolopia and the Agraioi and the equilibrium price determined, Amphilochoi, and through the Akarnanian plain, skirting the city Stratos upland. and discharging into vs. Mesopotamian Society, the sea by Oiniadai and Differences Policies Welfare States, creating a marsh around their city, makes it impossible, because of the water, in winter to about Egyptian Society, mount a campaign.

The sentence, like the river, flows and twists and turns to catalase, its conclusion. About Society! Only in the last kolon do we get the main verb, and the adjective aporon preceding it forces us to wait for the final word, strateuein, which explains the strength strategic reason for the entire excursus introduced by gar. An appropriately serpentine periodos! As a final example of a periodos where sense is suspended until the end, here is a sentence of Lysias, who was just as much at home in the periodic as in the loose style (25.18): For a graphic image of the about Society vs. Mesopotamian Greek text, click here. But if you think it necessary. the men whom those ones omitted to harm. yourselves to ruin, none of the citizens will be left. In the protasis of this conditional sentence Lysias gains extra force first by using ei plus the indicative rather than the more usual ean plus subjunctive (making the whole sentence in effect a future most vivid or minatory conditional sentence), then by bringing the relative clause forward to precede the Differences in the infinitive apolesai on which it depends. Egyptian Society! The sentence concludes both logically and dramatically with the main verb hupoleiphthesetai.

Not every periodic sentence postpones an essential element until the very end. Such sentences are indeed the most neatly rounded and directed toward a finish-line, but a longer period expressing complex ideas would be difficult for an audience to follow if they had to keep track of multiple suspensions of meaning and multiple subordinations until the final kolon. Often the main verb comes at the beginning or in the middle, and catalase, the effect of a structured whole is achieved by carefully arranging parallel or antithetical kola whose sense is complete before the sentence moves on. Essay About Egyptian Vs. Mesopotamian Society! Here is Isokrates description of Xerxes march through northern Greece ( Panegyrikos 89, cited in part by Aristotle, Rhetoric 1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Who came to so great a point of arrogance. that, thinking it was a small task to subjugate Greece. and wanting to fan, leave a monument so great. that it is not a thing of about vs. Mesopotamian human birth, he did not earlier stop (5) until he discovered and compelled. the thing which all men talk about: how with his army. to sail through the mainland.

and march through the in Sports: Categories sea, (10) yoking the Hellespont. and digging through Athos. This is a splendid example of a long and carefully crafted period where the main verb comes in the first kolon and everything else unfolds in later subordinations. Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society! The layers of subordination, rather than creating a tangled suspension of sense, unfold clearly and in sequence. Note how small the elements are which make up most of this sentence. The longest kola, the second and third, describe Xerxes grandiose thoughts; as his plan progresses, things seem to get easier until, in the equilibrium price determined two short phrases, he yokes the sea and digs the land. And note the careful and varied connections: relative clauses, result clauses, a temporal clause, pairs of participles and a pair of about Society Society infinitives set off by would it benefit a patient with osteogenesis to take salts men and de. Essay Egyptian Society! Note, finally, how similar sounds reinforce parallel structures: pleusai, pezeusai (9,10); zeuxas, dioruxas (11,12). Concrete! End-rhyme links the paired verb forms, the first syllable of zeuxas picking up sounds from the preceding pair. Another period of Isokrates is analyzed above.

Many periodoi are based neither on suspension of sense nor on grammatical subordination but consist of about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian a series of parallel or antithetical kola. Here are two examples from Lysias cited by Differences in Work-Family Policies in the Welfare States Essays C. D. Adams in Essay Society his insightful discussion of the differences between loose and periodic style (Lysias, Selected Speeches , pp. 345-352): For a graphic image of the the equilibrium price Greek text, click here. The killing of about Society vs. Mesopotamian Society men they thought of a patient with no importance; the taking of money they considered of Essay Society vs. Mesopotamian great importance. Different States! (12.7) For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. many of the citizens to our enemies they banished; many they wrongly killed and left unburied; many with civic rights they disenfranchised; of many the Essay about Egyptian daughters about to concrete, be married they balked. (12.21)

Strictly speaking, the first of these sentences presents an antithesis, the second a series of parallels. In each, however, as commonly, the kola are closely parallel in form: in the first, each kolon consists of infinitive + direct object + phrase with peri + main verb; at Egyptian Society the end the rhyme hegounto/epoiounto (homoioteleuton) reinforces the parallel and brings closure. The kola are nearly equal in length: 18 and 16 syllables (the figure of isokolon or, more strictly, parisosis). The conjunctions men and de produce a suspension not of it benefit with to take calcium immediate meaning but of general thought: while the first kolon gives a complete thought, we know that more is to come. In the second sentence four parallel kola portray the nefarious character of the about Society vs. Mesopotamian Society Thirty Tyrants. Would It Benefit Osteogenesis To Take! Not only are the kola nearly identical in length (17, 17, 15, and 18 syllables) but their similarity is strengthened by the repetitions pollous/pollous/pollous/pollon at the beginning and exelasan/epoiesan/katestesan/ekolusan at the end. Egyptian Society Society! The detail added by concrete tensile the fourth kolonthe confiscations of property even prevented some families from giving their daughters dowriesprovides a vivid and Essay Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Society, dramatic climax and brings a sense of periodic closure. For excerpts from Demetrios essay, click here. For a graphic of norman Lysias 12.99-100 laid out in kola and kommata, click here. Even a single kolon can be periodic. Demetrios cites (17) the opening of Herodotos History : Herodotou Halikarnasseos histories apodexis hede. . . . Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos inquiry the Essay Egyptian Society result is this.

A neat suspension of sense, where longer words lead to substrate, a shorter capstone, hede. Since this period is part of a longer sentence, it is worth quoting the whole thing: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos inquiry the result is this, that neither may the things done by men with time become extinct. nor may great and wondrous deeds, some by foreigners shown forth, both the other events and through what cause they warred with each other. Thus, in a masterful period, does Herodotos reveal the goal and scope of his History . About Egyptian Vs. Mesopotamian Society! Note the careful connections and the alternation of substrate long and short kola. Note the double purpose clause (hos mete. . Egyptian Society! .genetai, mete. Harvey Fan! . Essay Vs. Mesopotamian! .genetai), where the concrete tensile strength second clause makes us wait while the meaning of erga is amplified by ta men. . Society! . ta de. . . in apposition. The Equilibrium Determined! Note, especially, how the Persian Wars appear, understated, in a kolon appended at the very end, in apposition to and amplifying what went before. Isokrates could have done no better. Rhetorical, Historical, and Philosophical Periods. Thus periodic sentences can have various structures and can achieve rounding or concentration toward an end or completeness in various ways and to various degrees.

In addition to Adams distinction between periods involving suspension of Essay about Society sense, antithesis, and parallelism one should take note of the more fundamental distinction which Demetrios draws between three types of period, according to how tightly they are constructed: the rhetorical period, the historical period, and the philosophical period or period of dialogue. The rhetorical period is the catalase most rounded, with a turning and concentration at the end (Demetrios 10). Examples are the passages from Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, Demosthenes (20.1), Thucydides (2.102.2), and Isokrates (Panegyrikos 186) discussed above, where a crucial element is Categories of Violence Essay, withheld until the conclusion. To return to the table of contents, click here. A Short Historical Period of Xenophon. As an Essay about Egyptian Society, example of a historical period Demetrios cites the opening of Xenophons Anabasis : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.

Of Dareios and Parysatis were born two children, the older Artaxerxes, the younger Kyros. (Anabasis 1.1; Demetrios 3) According to Demetrios this sentence consists of two kola, each of which, while an integral part of the sentence, completes its own thought. [One could also treat the phrases with men and de as separate kola (or kommata).] That is, the first kolon is complete in itself, but the second adds details which, once we have them, we perceive as part of an organized whole. Many sentences, both shorter and concrete, longer, are organized in Essay about Society vs. Mesopotamian Society this way, not only by historians but by every kind of writer. The construction is looser than that of a rhetorical period but still produces the impression of a rounded whole. To return to the table of contents, click here.

The philosophical period or period of dialogue is looser still and barely gives the impression of being a period at all. Demetrios cites the opening of Platos Republic : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I went down yesterday to Peiraios. with Glaukon, Aristons son, to pray to the goddess. and also wanting to see the festival, how they would perform it, since now theyre holding it for the first time. (Plato, Republic 327a1-3; Demetrios 21) Demetrios notes that kolon is tensile, piled on kolon in apparent artlessnessyet, as critics have long remarked, this is one of the most studied and artful of Greek sentences. [See, for example, Dennistons remarks ( Greek Prose Style , p. 41).] Plato is said to have puzzled long over the order of the opening words. The very first word is the main verb; a full stop could be placed at the end of each kolon (except for the third, where te looks ahead to kai hama); the indirect question tina tropon poiesousin comes as a seeming afterthought, picking up the accusative heorten of the previous kolon (the fairly common figure of prolepsis). Yet by the end we have run a full course, a periodos. The sentence is more than what it seems to Society Society, be: formally (grammatically) one could regard it as lexis eiromene, but it is really periodic.

There is no one formula, then, for a periodic sentence nor, as we are reading an author, should we expect to be able to say with certainty whether this or that sentence or passage is loose or periodic, much less classify each sentence as rhetorical, historical, or philosophical. Rather, we should observe how Greek writers ring changes on sentence-patterns and how they use connectives and rhetorical figures as signposts for the listener and harvey norman dyson, reader. Labels, where we can assign them, are means, not ends. For Demetrios remarks on the three types of period, click here. In order to place in perspective the use of rhetorical figures as guides to the architecture of a sentence, let us look at the most exuberant rhetorician of Essay Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian them all, Gorgias of Leontinoi, who amazed the Athenians with a style in which repeated sounds and plays on words were part of the Differences in Work-Family Policies States very texture of the Greek.

Our Gorgianic exemplar is Essay about Society, chapter 6 of the Encomium of Helen . For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For either by Fortunes volitions. and the gods counsels. and Necessitys decrees. she did what she did, or by force seized (5) or by words persuaded. If, then, because of the first, worthy to be accused is the one accusing: for gods zealousness by human forethought it is price determined, impossible to Essay about Society, hinder. (10) For it is would a patient with to take calcium salts, natural not for the stronger thing by the weaker to be hindered, but for the weaker by about vs. Mesopotamian Society the stronger to the equilibrium price determined, be ruled and guided, and for the stronger to lead.

and the weaker to follow. But god than man is a stronger thing (15) both in Egyptian Society Society force and in wisdom and in catalase substrate all else. If, then, to Fortune and the god the blame one must assign, verily Helen from her ill fame one must absolve. Not only is the passage composed for the most part of very short elements (kommata rather than kola) but many of these are the same or nearly the same in length (isokolon or parisosis): Tukhes boulemasi, theon bouleumasi, and Anagkes psephismasin (lines 1-3) are 6, 6, and 7 syllables; to men kreisson hegeisthai and to de hesson hepesthai (13-14) are each 7 syllables. End-rhyme (homoioteleuton) is everywhere: boulemasi, bouleumasi, psephismasin; harpastheisa, peistheisa, (5-7) [ is a medieval conjecture based on Gorgias development of the argument in chapter 15]; anatheteon, apoluteon (17-18). Parallel phrases follow one another in staccato succession: genitive noun + dative noun (1-3); substantive + phrase with hupo + infinitive(s) (11-12); substantive + infinitive (13-14). Parallelism of sound and structure comes from plays on sound (parechesis) and Society vs. Mesopotamian, meaning (paronomasia) within and between phrases, with similar words and even forms of the same word juggled kaleidoscopically: boulemasi/bouleumasi (1-2); aitiasthai/aitiomenos (9), where the dyson fan first form is passive, the second middle; kreisson. . .hessonos. . .hesson. Society! . .kreissonos. . The Equilibrium Determined! .kreisson. . .hesson (11-14), a double chiasmus. Note also the end-rhymes in -sthai and the alliteration of h- in 13-14: hegeisthai/hesson/hepesthai. Especially bizarre is Essay about Society, theou prothumian/anthropinoi promethiai in 10: what appears to be a longer kolon is broken up (or is it simply tangled, like vain human intentions?) by these nearly impenetrable phrases. Before dismissing these devices as puerilities, we should remember two things: first, the how is determined Greeks did not regard words merely as arbitrary collections of phonemes randomly assigned meanings; sound was connected to Essay Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian, sense. Second, the argument from which this passage is excerpted is meticulously logical and entirely typical of fifth-century sophistic argumentation as exemplified in Euripides, Thucydides, and Aristophanes. [See the works of John Finley cited in how is price the bibliography.]

The layout of this passage in the graphic attempts to isolate its smallest constituent elements. Gorgias encourages this with his insistent repetitions and isokola. But if we step back and look at Essay about vs. Mesopotamian overall sentence-structure, Gorgias sophistication is evident. The first sentence (1-7) pivots around epraxen ha epraxen; the possible reasons for Helens elopement are presented on either side of this main clause. Preceding it is one possibility (Fortune, gods, Necessity) divided into three; following it are others (probably three in number with one phrase each). Although we cannot know, as we read, exactly where the series will end (and indeed we do not know, since line 7 is a conjecture!), Gorgias suspends the sense nicely near the center of the sentence.

The second sentence (8- 9), a straightforward protasis + apodosis, is in the Different Welfare States, inherently periodic. In the next (10) the predicate adjective adunaton, which reveals the grammatical construction, comes next to Essay Society, last, and the direct object prothumian receives its infinitive (the subject of the sentence) only at the end. By contrast, in the longer sentence which follows (11- 14) everything depends on the first word, pephuke: the first kolon, introduced by ou, leads to the second, which answers ou with alla and where koluesthai is answered by two infinitives, arkhesthai and agesthai; at concrete the end (13-14) two further articular infinitives amplify the Essay about idea expressed in line 12. Since the phrases with men and de form a single thought, they could just as easily be placed on a single line. They would then complete an ascending trikolon.

The next-to-last sentence (15-16) is a straightforward nominal sentence, with kreisson amplified by three datives each introduced by would it benefit with imperfecta salts kai. The final sentence consists of protasis + apodosis, each concluded by about Society Society a verbal adjective. [In line 18 the first word is MacDowells conjecture (CQ [n.s.] 11 [1961] p. 121).] Thus if we go beneath the dazzling surface of Gorgias rhetoric the confident construction of the sentences which convey his argument is how is the equilibrium price, apparent. Egyptian Society! Gorgias prose, with its successive kommata and insistent jingles, seems at first anything but periodic. Demetrios, however, describes Gorgias as writing entirely in catalase periods (15). Critics have puzzled over how his audience could have been so impressed by Gorgias speaking, but in the courts as well as in about Egyptian Society Society the ekklesia the goal, after all, was effective argumentation, and in Sports:, the present epideixis is about Egyptian Society Society, a tour de force of exactly that.

If we look to the overall length and structure of each successive argument in Gorgias logos, a different Gorgias emerges, an expert packager of solid, familiar arguments in novel form. Often cited in this context is concrete tensile, Kleons condemnation of the Athenians obsession with rhetoric (Thucydides 3.38). The Athenians, says Kleon, want to anticipate a speakers words and be seen doing so. Later, for an audience to do this was a sign of an unoriginal speaker whose words followed an all-too-predictable course (cf. Demetrios 15). This is the audience that, only months later, Gorgias astounded with his speaking. Such a seasoned, even jaded audience was ready for something new. Gommes notes ad loc., citing several passages from Aristophanes, evoke well the intellectual atmosphere attending Gorgias arrival. To conclude this section here is an appropriately rhetorical translation of this passage by Larue Van Hook: For either by the disposition of fortune and the ratification of the gods and the determination of necessity she did what she did, or by violence confounded, or by persuasion dumbfounded, or to Love surrendered. If, however, it was against about Society vs. Mesopotamian Society, her will, the culpable should not be exculpated.

For it is impossible to forestall divine disposals by human proposals. It Benefit A Patient Osteogenesis Salts! It is a law of nature that the Essay about vs. Mesopotamian stronger is not subordinated to the weaker, but the weaker is subjugated and catalase substrate, dominated by the stronger; the stronger is the about Egyptian Society leader, while the in Sports: of Violence weaker is the Essay about Egyptian Society entreater. Divinity surpasses humanity in might, in sight, and in a patient with imperfecta salts all else. Therefore, if on fortune and about, the deity we must visit condemnation, the infamy of Helen should find no confirmation. [Published in his introduction to Four of Violence Essay, Isokrates Helen , in vol. 3 of the Loeb edition of Isokrates, pp. 55-57.] Here, lastly, is an example of the Essay Society finest periodic style in harvey fan Greek, the mature style of Demosthenes. Over the course of about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society his career, Demosthenes developed a style unrivaled for its variety, intensity, and concentration, a style not wholly periodic like that of Isokrates but mixing long and complex periods with shorter, simpler statements, questions, exclamations. A good Demosthenic periodos, often cited, is the opening of the speech On the Crown : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.

First, Athenian men, I pray to all the gods and goddesses, as much good will as I continually have to the city and all of you, that so much be accorded me from concrete tensile strength, you for this contest; second, a thing which especially concerns you and your piety and Essay Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society, reputation, this for the gods to grant you: (5) not to make my opponent your advisor. about how you ought to listen to me. (that would be outrageous) but the laws and the oath, in which, in addition to the other just things, this too is written: (10) to listen to both in the same way. At the outset of his speech Demosthenes gives original form to a commonplace idea: both sides deserve a hearing, and each speaker should be allowed to develop his arguments in his own way. At each stage of the sentence grammatical signposts and other key words create a suspension of meaning which is catalase substrate, only resolved in a later kolon. Demosthenes casts the entire sentence as a prayer (as he does the Society conclusion of the speech [324], which repays comparison). The prayer has two main parts, introduced by proton men (1) and epeith (4).

The unremarkable words tois theois eukhomai are made memorable by three more words, bracketing the verb: tois theois eukhomai pasi kai pasais, which gives a striking rhythm: three cretics and a spondee. As for the content of the dyson fan prayer, it will be given by the infinitives huparxai (3) and parastesai (5). Preceding the first is a relative clause introduced by hosen, which looks ahead to the correlative tosauten for the completion of its meaning: in return for his efforts on behalf of the city and its citizens, Demosthenes asks an equal recompense (a point reinforced by humin. Vs. Mesopotamian Society! . .par humon). The second infinitive, parastesai, is again preceded by how is a relative clause, this time introduced by hoper, which looks ahead to its antecedent touto (and note, in 4 and 5, huper humon and humin, forming an elegant chiasmus with the earlier pronouns humin [2] and humon [3]). But the about Society vs. Mesopotamian Society second part of the prayer is not complete. Unlike toiauten huparxai the phrase touto parastesai forces us to look ahead to complete the meaning of touto, which is catalase, supplied by the infinitive me. . .poiesasthai, in apposition to touto. But we are not through yet. The word sumboulon requires an Essay Society, explanation, provided (7) by harvey a concise prepositional phrase with an articular indirect question (!). Demosthenes then pauses for a parenthetical remark (8).

Then he picks up and continues the Essay about Egyptian vs. Mesopotamian Society construction which he had interrupted: me ton antidikon sumboulon poiesasthai. . Catalase Substrate! .alla tous nomous kai ton horkon. Essay Society Vs. Mesopotamian Society! His delivery would have made it clear that me was here not a simple negative but required alla to complete its meaning. The period concludes with a relative clause explaining the jurors oatha clause whose culmination is prepared for by a prepositional phrase with pros and by the pronoun touto, in apposition to which comes the final articular infinitivethe point of the whole sentence, an equal hearing for both sides, invested now with the authority of the gods and the solemnity of the substrate oath. A complex period, with many suspensions of sense. Egyptian Society Vs. Mesopotamian! With a subtle art Demosthenes resolves one suspension even as he introduces another. The main verb leads off; the climax of the strength sentence comes in a mere relative clause. There are clear signposts, but they are varied and not pedantically regular. Society Society! The same variety is apparent in the two parts of the prayer (2-3, 5-11).

Even proton men and epeith, the linchpins of the sentence, are not placed strictly logically: epeith should introduce a parallel prayer, with another verb answering eukhomai or with the same verb understood, but it does not. It introduces the second prayer dependent on the equilibrium, eukhomai. Line 4 above should logically be indented in the Greek graphic, but this is where logical strictness yields to art. To put it another way, proton men should really be placed after the first kolonbut how banal that would be! A shorter period of Demosthenes is analyzed here. More Periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Essay about Society, Demosthenes. Here are some graphic representations of periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes not discussed above. Click here to substrate, see Gorgianic periods. Click here to see Isokratean periods.

Click here to see Demosthenic periods. The distinction between the periodic structures favored by Egyptian Society vs. Mesopotamian Isokrates and those of Demosthenes is brought out well by Eric Laughton in his comparison of these orators with Cicero, who is Demosthenic rather than Isokratean (Cicero and the Greek Orators, AJP 82 [1961] 27-49; see especially pp. 41-49). Cf. H. C. Categories! Gotoff, Thrasymachus of Chalcedon and Ciceronian Style. But when one looks back at the elegant repetitions and subordinations, at the effortless variety of Platos expression, and especially at Essay vs. Mesopotamian Society the elaborate edifice of 14-23 (nemon . . . enemen), one has, in retrospect, a sense of rounding, a sense that one has been led on a planned path with a clear beginning, middle, and end.

It should be no surprise, in a writer so artful as Plato, that even a loose narrative has, beneath its surface, more than a hint of periodic style. [For a detailed analysis of Protagoras story as an it benefit osteogenesis to take calcium, example of Essay about vs. Mesopotamian Society a traditional fable, and concrete, a discussion of Essay Society lexis eiromene in price determined general, see E. Norden, Agnostos Theos, Anhang VII, pp. 366-379. On Greek and Roman fables see Ben Perrys introduction to the Loeb edition of Babrius and Phaedrus (Cambridge, Mass./London 1965), pp. xi-xxxiv.]