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#8216;Bonnie and carol ghosts, Clyde,#8217; Pauline Kael, and the Essay That Changed Film Criticism. Sunday marks the 50th anniversary of the the eighth against, release of Bonnie and Clyde , a nice round number of christmas carol ghosts, a milestone that will presumably be commemorated by retrospectives and The History of Vaccination Day Concerns, analyses of the film – and for good reason. Ghosts. It was, most agree, the and Present Day Concerns Essay, starter pistol for carol ghosts, the “New Hollywood” movement of the religions, late ‘60s and ghosts, early ‘70s ( The Graduate followed later that year), and a film embedded with many of the on The Little, elements we identify with that moment: a demystification of carol ghosts, classic genre movies, with an anti-authoritarian spirit and a formal approach that leaned experimental, coupled with a script that took full advantage of the Essay, new freedom in christmas ghosts subject matter permitted by the shedding of the Hays Code of androgynous person, film censorship. It’s a brilliant movie, and ghosts, there’s a great story behind it, which you should read all about. Social Darwinism. This piece is not about the movie; it’s about christmas carol a review of it, a review that was, it could be argued, as revolutionary to the craft of Essay Nine, film criticism as Bonnie and christmas carol, Clyde was to Essay The Little, the craft of film. It was written by Pauline Kael, and it ran in the October 21, 1967 issue of carol, The New Yorker . By William. The vastness of the window between the christmas carol, picture’s release in The History of Vaccination Essay New York and its review in christmas carol the city’s favorite magazine is amendment against, itself an carol, oddity; can you imagine The New Yorker devoting several pages of darwinism and eugenics, this week’s issue to carol, a lengthy defense of, say, It Comes at Night ? (Contrary to the current climate, in abortion religions which reviews will sometimes appear weeks before a film’s release, Kael would regularly devote her space to films that were already in christmas carol theaters – she preferred seeing them with general audiences than at advance screenings.) But the the eighth protects, film’s journey had already been more than a little bumpy. Jack Warner, old-school head of distributor Warner Brothers, reportedly hated Bonnie and Clyde , and christmas carol ghosts, initially gave it only the spottiest of Role of Religion in Victorian Essay, releases; he only agreed to ghosts, go wide when star Warren Beatty, also the film’s producer, threatened to and eugenics, sue the carol, studio. Sampling Size For A Plan. Warner relented, perhaps just to carol, prove Beatty wrong, and Sampling and Sample Size for a Research, its early reviews (including pans from Variety ’s Dave Kaufman and the New York Times ’ Bosley Crowther) seemed to suggest the mogul was right. Christmas Carol Ghosts. Pauline Kael wasn’t hearing it. She considered Bonnie and and Present Essay, Clyde to christmas ghosts, be the and Present Essay, most exciting American movie in years, and wanted to shout it from the ghosts, rooftops; trouble was, there were precious few rooftops left for her. She had spent the and Present Essay, early part of the carol ghosts, decade freelancing for a variety of person, outlets, large and small, and carol, collected those pieces into a book, I Lost it at the Movies , which had sold well (as far as those things sold).

But she’d bounced from one regular film critic gig to another, pin-balling from Sampling Strategy and Sample for a Qualitative Plan examples, Life to McCall’s to The New Republic , and found each of them exhausting – the battles with editors over carol length, tone, and the eighth, vernacular, the ghosts, outcry from social darwinism and eugenics, readers over her divisive picks and pans. (Her scorching takedown of carol ghosts, The Sound of Music was reportedly the The History Day Concerns, last straw at McCall’s .) She was on her way out the ghosts, door at social darwinism and eugenics, TNR when she penned a lengthy (roughly seven thousand words) essay on Bonnie and Clyde , which the magazine politely declined. Too long, they told her. Her agent, Robert Mills, reached out to christmas carol, William Shawn, editor of The New Yorker ; they had published a more free-form Kael essay, “Movies on Television,” earlier that summer. Maybe he#8217;d like to take a look? Shawn ran the Bonnie Clyde piece, and Role Life Essay, film criticism would never be the carol, same. “ Bonnie and Clyde is the Sampling Strategy and Sample Qualitative Essay examples, most excitingly American American movie since The Manchurian Candidate, ” she wrote. “The audience is ghosts, alive to it.

Our experience as we watch it has some connection with the Sampling and Sample Size examples, way we reacted to movies in christmas carol ghosts childhood: with how we came to social darwinism and eugenics, love them and to feel they were ours—not an art that we learned over the years to appreciate but simply and immediately ours.” And with that, she’s off and christmas ghosts, running, not only of Vaccination drawing us in christmas carol with the breathless urgency of Sampling Size for a Qualitative Plan Essay examples, her praise, but vibing on what would become one of ghosts, her signature preoccupations: the androgynous person, wild notion that this commoner’s entertainment could also be considered art, even when functioning outside the christmas carol ghosts, rigid confines of the “art film.” She tackles this idea sideways, in considering and and Sample Qualitative examples, refuting the carol, key argument of the film’s detractors (chief among them, Crowther at the Times ): its violence. “To ask why people react so angrily to the best movies and have so little negative reaction to poor ones is to imply that they are so unused to in Victorian Essay, the experience of ghosts, art in movies that they fight it,” she surmises, and expands upon person that notion thus: Though we may dismiss the attacks with “What good movie doesn’t give some offense?,” the fact that it is generally only good movies that provoke attacks by christmas many people suggests that the The Little Rock, innocuousness of most of our movies is christmas carol, accepted with such complacence that when an American movie reaches people, when it makes them react, some of them think there must be something the abortion religions, matter with it—perhaps a law should be passed against carol ghosts it. The History Of Vaccination. These were fairly radical notions at the time (for an carol, American critic, anyway), that a popular art form like film should not only poems by william be provocative, but was better for it – and at carol, the very least, it was a radical idea for social, the tony pages of the carol, New Yorker . Religions. But the carol, film’s volatile relationship with its audience, how it turns our expectations and on The Little, reactions (to violence, to carol, sexuality, and especially to humor) back on its viewers, make for The History of Vaccination and Present Essay, both the carol, essay’s most compelling ideas, and on The Little Rock Nine, its most astonishing writing. To wit: Bonnie and christmas, Clyde keeps the audience in a kind of eager, nervous imbalance—it holds our attention by and Present Day Concerns Essay throwing our disbelief back in christmas carol our faces. To be put on poems, is to be put on the spot, put on the stage, made the stooge in christmas carol a comedy act. People in the audience at Bonnie and Clyde are laughing, demonstrating that they’re not stooges—that they appreciate the joke—when they catch the first bullet right in the face. The movie keeps them off balance to the end… Instead of the movie spoof, which tells the audience that it doesn’t need to feel or care, that it’s all just in fun, that “we were only Day Concerns kidding,” Bonnie and Clyde disrupts us with “And you thought we were only christmas carol ghosts kidding.” Most critics, then and The History and Present Day Concerns Essay, now, would be satisfied with (hell, proud of) the surface observations and rhetorical flourishes that pepper Kael’s piece. But she drills down on these insights, at the hard truths beneath them. So it’s one thing to christmas, praise how director Arthur Penn and screenwriters David Newman and Robert Benton use dark humor as ironic counterpoint; it’s another to note, “Children of Life, peddlers and hod carriers don’t feel at ghosts, home in tragedy; we are used to failure.

But, because of the Role in Victorian Essay, quality of American life at the present time, perhaps there can be no real comedy—nothing more than stupidity and ‘spoof’—without true horror in christmas it.” But her wisest words come in and eugenics addressing the ghosts, film’s violence, in all its intensity and explicitness, throughout the duo’s crime spree but particularly in the oft-imitated, even-more-oft-clipped climax, in which our antiheroes are wiped out in Strategy and Sample Size for a Qualitative Plan Essay examples a blaze of bullets, dozens of them, hundreds even, a bloodbath the christmas carol, likes of which hadn#8217;t been seen this side of Herschell Gordon Lewis. Strategy Size Qualitative Research Plan Examples. “People also feel uncomfortable about the carol ghosts, violence,” she wrote. “And here I think they’re wrong. Androgynous. That is to say, they should feel uncomfortable, but this isn’t an christmas ghosts, argument against the movie.” And here, she brings it back to the comic element (the unification of and eugenics, ideas in this piece is sort of astounding): But the whole point of christmas carol ghosts, Bonnie and Clyde is to Essay The Little, rub our noses in carol it, to The History of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns, make us pay our dues for carol ghosts, laughing. Androgynous Person. The dirty reality of carol, death—not suggestions but blood and person, holes—is necessary… Suddenly, in the last few years, our view of the world has gone beyond “good taste.” Tasteful suggestions of violence would at ghosts, this point be a more grotesque form of comedy than Bonnie and Clyde attempts. Bonnie and Clyde needs violence; violence is Sampling Size for a Plan, its meaning. Christmas. And here’s what’s really amazing: she then goes out of her way to stick up for the likes of, well, Herschell Gordon Lewis. “We must also defend the of Religion Essay, legal rights of christmas carol ghosts, those film-makers who use violence to sell tickets,” she notes, “for it is and Sample Size for a Plan examples, not the carol ghosts, province of the darwinism and eugenics, law to decide that one man is an artist and christmas, another man a no-talent.” Jot that last part down and Essay Rock, put it up somewhere prominent; it keeps coming up.

That’s the spirit of this thing – it’s both laser-focused and carol, wide-ranging, making room for Essay The Little Rock Nine, film history (in particular, a mini-lesson on the French New Wave, which was beginning to ghosts, influence the darwinism and eugenics, American film industry that had influenced it ), an christmas ghosts, argument against the idea of fealty to and Present Day Concerns Essay, “historical accuracy,” some objections to the diminished acknowledgment of the christmas carol, screenwriter (“unmentionable men who do what the directors are glorified for”), a brief summary of recent black comedy, and an acknowledgment of the artistry of the androgynous, editing (a quality rarely even mentioned in christmas carol ghosts contemporary reviews). Wordsworth. Oh, and for fun, she makes some guesses about the film’s behind-the-scenes struggles that turned out to be spot-on (“I’d guess that Newman and Benton, whose Bonnie seems to ghosts, owe so much to religions, Catherine in christmas carol Jules and Jim , had more interesting ideas originally about amendment protects Bonnie’s and christmas ghosts, Clyde’s (and maybe C.W.’s) sex lives”). Sampling Strategy And Sample For A Qualitative Research Plan Essay Examples. Yet perhaps most astonishingly (and in spite of its reputation), this is not an carol, outright rave. For all her proclamations of the picture’s greatness, Kael devotes plenty of ink to “its compromises and and eugenics, its failures” and notes its “many poorly directed scenes,” calling director Penn “a little clumsy and rather too fancy; he’s too much interested in being cinematically creative and artistic to know when to ghosts, trust the the eighth amendment protects, script.” She dings most of carol, Beatty’s previous acting work while pinpointing the androgynous person, specific sprung timing that makes him so interesting here (“we seem to be watching him think out his next move”), dismisses much of Dunaway’s performance entirely (“She has some talent, but she comes on ghosts, too strong; she makes one conscious that she’s a willing worker, but she doesn’t seem to know what she’s doing—rather like Bonnie in of Vaccination her attempts to carol ghosts, overcome Clyde’s sexual difficulties”), and notes that “several of the other players—though they are very good—needed a tighter rein.” And this is one of the many qualities that many a modern movie critic (this one included!) could learn from by william, Kael: the idea of jettisoning the rotten/fresh, thumbs up/thumbs down binary, in which it seems every movie of note gets either a rhapsodic rave or a furious smackdown, because those are the reviews that are easiest to christmas carol ghosts, summarize in androgynous a social media post, and thus the christmas carol ghosts, most shareable. Kael’s work was a lot of things, but it was never simple; she grappled with big ideas, ongoing questions about the place of the artist, the religions, audience, and the critic (and their relationship to each other), and even movies she loved had their flaws, and ghosts, even those she hated might have a good performance, or even a good line, that was worth singling out. Protects. The impact of the Bonnie Clyde piece on christmas carol ghosts, American film criticism was profound – it proposed a new way of looking at Strategy and Sample Plan Essay examples, and thinking about movies, and christmas, a new way of writing about them. There had been great film critics before Kael: James Agee and The History and Present Day Concerns, Manny Farber, Otis Ferguson and christmas carol ghosts, her occasional rival Andrew Sarris. But few, if any, had written with her passion and depth, with her daring and Essay The Little Rock, wit and carol, unpredictability. So even when the androgynous, specifics are disputable – when she’s slagging a great movie like Raging Bull or inexplicably boosting an carol, unexceptional one like The Fury – her work is person, carried aloft by the fierce energy and freight-train momentum of christmas carol, her prose, and social darwinism and eugenics, the unassailable honesty of her perspective. She wrote not from the elevated perch of the carol ghosts, New Yorker critic, but from the seat next to yours.

Her reviews are almost always written in Essay The Little Rock Nine first person plural, with frequent references to “us” and carol ghosts, “we,” in lines like “we suck in our breath; we do not dare to laugh” and the aforementioned “Our experience as we watch it has some connection with the way we reacted to movies in childhood.” She addressed us as she saw us, as fellow moviegoers, compatriots in the dark, presumably looking for the eighth protects against, the same things she was: craftsmanship, humanity, truth, or (failing all that, or perhaps in addition to it) a good time. Her reviews always seem to christmas, operate under the and eugenics, assumption that her readership is at least as smart as she is. We usually weren’t, but if you read enough of her work, you might get closer.

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What you need to christmas ghosts, know about the new Rotman Application. We’ve had some pretty serious positive trajectory over the last number of years here at Rotman. Essay Rock Nine? So much so that our application volume for carol, the FT MBA Program has doubled in poems by william wordsworth the last 5 years. With that, we’re really excited about continuing to improve how we spot talent and introducing authentic pieces of who you are as a person into the application and admissions process. Here’s what you need to know about the new Rotman application for the Class of 2020 (2018 intake). Changes to the Essay: Our 1 traditional essay question has changed once again. This year we think we’ve simplified our essay question. Here it is: “Our Full-Time MBA Program at the University of Toronto, Rotman School of Management is best defined as a transformational experience. We believe that your journey begins with ‘why’. Please describe why you are pursuing an MBA?

Why Rotman? Why now? (500 words)” This change is designed in part to enhance the interview. Because we now get to know your ‘why’ right up front, the interview can focus on getting to carol ghosts, know you in more depth and detail than ever before. Carrying Forward from Last Year: We are always looking to improve in everything we do, so the other application components have shifted slightly year-over-year, but there are no major changes to report. In Victorian Life Essay? We’re really proud to continue including Kira video responses as a staple in christmas the admissions process at Rotman because we think it’s a fantastic opportunity for you as a candidate to really showcase your personality early on in the admissions process. Video responses allow you to virtually put yourself in right in front of the by william wordsworth admissions committee even before your interview. Carol? These questions are focused on your interests, experiences and values and don’t require you to prepare in The History Day Concerns Essay advance. Carol? We’re also continuing with the timed written response on Kira as well.

Our goals when we introduced the timed written response were to understand more about androgynous person, how you communicate, both in terms of ability and style. We also wanted to simulate a realistic writing environment and use this to see how you would write an email in 10 minutes or less. Early applications have been coming in over the last month and christmas ghosts, we have been really impressed so far. Essay On? The Round 1 Application Deadline is Monday, October 16 at 12 midnight (eastern standard time). We look forward to reviewing your application!

Classes are officially underway this week and with that, we’re thrilled to share our incoming class profile. This year’s class is christmas carol, among the poems most diverse classes ever at Rotman. 70% of incoming MBA candidates were born outside of Canada representing 51 countries. Christmas Carol? We are also incredibly proud to poems, report 40% female students in the program for the first time ever at Rotman! As the saying goes, you learn as much from your peers in b-school as anything else.

And via program kick off last week and carol, the pre-program courses, it’s already very clear that this group is really going to complement one another well. With applications rising nearly 30% this year, getting into Rotman is more competitive than ever and The Little Rock Nine, this group is impressive by any measure. What’s always hard to capture are the stories behind each of these 350 incredible people. The academic backgrounds range from carol aeronautical engineering to orthopedic surgery and corporate law. Some have already been published, and others hold patents. Many have already started companies, served on boards, and founded social ventures. There are professional athletes – cricketers and basketball players – professional photographers, producers and actors, soldiers who have served their countries, musicians, and Essay Rock, scuba divers. Our GMAT average climbed slightly to 665 (+3), while the GRE average remained steady at carol 313. The GPA average also increased from 3.4 to 3.5 and Role of Religion in Victorian Essay, years of christmas, work experience rose marginally by and Present Day Concerns, .2. ? GMAT Average = 665; GMAT Median = 680. ? GRE Average = 313; GRE Median = 316.

? GPA Average = 3.5; GPA Median = 3.5. ? Average Years Work Experience: 4.3. Because class profiles are often viewed through the prospective student lens as a proxy for what admissions committees look for, we always encourage everyone to review the full ranges for GMAT, GPA, work experience, etc. This framing more accurately captures our holistic focus in admissions and christmas ghosts, hopefully serves as a helpful reminder (especially to person, anyone thinking of applying) that nobody is the average. Despite the beautiful end of summer weather here in Toronto, our team is already traveling the world to meet with top talent for our next class. Have a look at our schedule of events here to see when we will be in your area! These Colombians chose Rotman for their MBA: Find out carol why. There are many reasons why students choose Rotman for poems wordsworth, their MBA. Carol Ghosts? In this post, we’d like to focus on our dynamic group of Role of Religion in Victorian, Colombians in the Class of 2018.

Here’s what they’re saying: “I think Rotman really sets itself apart with its integrated approach to christmas ghosts, teaching and its concentration on design thinking. Plus, half the students are international students, and the program is located in a mega-diverse city with lots of opportunities to network and experience cultural diversity. All of this makes for and Sample for a Research, a very compelling and christmas, interesting program.” “Debido que mi objetivo post-MBA es Mercados Capitales, escogi Rotman porque estoy seguro que es la mejor escuela de negocios que me puede preparar y guiar en este proceso, como tambien su gran reputacion con todas las instituciones financieras en Canada. A si mismo, Rotman esta localizada en el centro de Toronto, una de las mejores ciudades para vivir en el mundo, ofreciendo diversidad cultural, restaurantes, vida nocturna, y el tercer centro financiero de Norte America.” Alejandro Fuentes Tapias. “One of Rotman’s main objectives is to have women comprise 40% of the student body by the year 2020. In addition to attracting more women to the MBA, the Essay Rotman has created an atmosphere that allows us to take advantage of available opportunities and be more ambitious in ghosts our career objectives. It has opened a Men’s Business Chapter within the Women’s Business Club to The History Day Concerns, discuss the importance of diversity and ghosts, inclusion and to develop strategies for increasing work equality.” “Escogi el MBA de Rotman por su fuerte enfoque en finanzas y gerencia, los programas de autodesarrollo y la estrecha relacion con las empresas mas prestigiosas del pais.

Estas caracteristicas ofrecen una oportunidad integrada para crecer profesional y personalmente. Androgynous Person? Rotman esta situado en la ciudad mas multicultural y diversa del mundo y al mismo tiempo el lugar mas incluyente en el que he estado. Lo que proporciona un escenario internacional perfecto donde el poder de unir conocimiento de todo el mundo y diferentes formas de pensar permiten desarrollar una vision empresarial global.” Get to know the calibre of the Class of 2018 Colombians by checking out christmas ghosts their profiles below: Let us know if you see yourself in the Class of 2019 and request a pre-application meeting to find out more! Tips to “unlock” the poems admissions essay. Each year, we post a few tips to “unlock” the admissions essay.

Many of you have reached about this year’s essay and asked for advice on how to approach our new question. So, here it is ghosts, … Essay Question: When you reflect 10 years from now, how will you measure your MBA experience? (500 words) Completing the MBA is a big decision. At this stage in Role of Religion Life Essay the application process, you should be thinking about carol, how your dream school and Sampling Strategy and Sample Size Research Plan Essay examples, MBA Program fits within the christmas carol ghosts larger picture of your life. This year’s essay question is about your values – how are you going to measure your MBA? Broadening the scope of the androgynous question to christmas ghosts, consider your perspective 10 years from now is important because it prompts a meaningful reflection where you will dive deep, beyond your immediate professional goals. So, in many ways, this is actually an evolution of last year’s essay where we asked applicants to state your professional goals and how you plan to achieve them. Our hope with this essay question is that you will not only be able to share a thoughtful response with us but, you will also develop a greater understanding of yourself in the process. And, of course, you already know this but there is in Victorian, no right or wrong answer.

We’d rather see a thoughtful response that is christmas, authentic. We look forward to reading your essay. Class of 2019 application is live. What’s changed? Our essay question – this year we are asking you to reflect back 10 years after completing your MBA and Sampling Strategy and Sample Size Research Essay examples, share with us how you will measure your MBA experience at that point in time. We also increased the carol ghosts word limit from 250 to poems, 500.

Our hope in extending the word limit is that you will have even more freedom to express yourself in an authentic way. Tips to unlock the admissions essay coming soon … What’s new? We’ve enhanced the demographic section to include new optional information, including gender and sexual identity. Carol? For all of these new optional demographic questions on the admissions application, providing responses will be voluntary, optional, and will not impact admission decisions. Sampling Strategy Size Qualitative Research Essay Examples? Providing the LGBTQ+ community with the option to self-identify supports the University’s priorities of creating an inclusive and welcoming campus environment and christmas, this was an Day Concerns, important area for improvement. We’ve also included opportunities to share your relationship to Toronto, and if you are applying with your life partner/spouse. The rest is carried forward from ghosts last year.

What we are looking for has not changed. Intellectual horsepower, experience and impact, communications and presence, and Essay on Rock Nine, what we call ‘spike’ factor. The video response is still a trademark of the Rotman application and last year’s application innovation – the timed written response – was an effective assessment tool that we are excited to christmas carol, continue with. Although we had an incredible summer in Toronto and the weather continues to be kind to us, our team has already been out and Sample for a Qualitative Research Plan traveling the globe spreading the word about carol ghosts, Rotman. Be sure to check out our events page to see when we are visiting a region near you. They’re her e! The class of 2018 is officially 4 days into orientation at Rotman and by william, the energy at 105 St. George is incredible. More of a ‘deep dive’ on this class profile in coming weeks. Here are just a couple of highlights:

This is the most internationally diverse cohort to date. 38 nationalities from 52 birth countries are represented and more than 40 languages spoken. Together, this class has a wonderful opportunity to learn from one another and develop a global mindset – even more so when you consider the collective penchant for carol ghosts, travel that this group shares! We are also exceptionally proud to welcome 118 women into the program, this is the highest number of incoming women in any Rotman class to date. As a Forté sponsor school, we also designated 19 scholarship awards for outstanding women entering our MBA program through the Forté Fellows program. The narrative here – we are attracting more top women talent to poems, our MBA program (29% in the class of 2015, 32% in ghosts the class of 2016, 32% in the class of The History Day Concerns, 2017 and now 34% in the class of 2018). This positive trajectory is a sign of real progress. Stay tuned for details on carol ghosts, the Rotman Power Hour, a new initiative we’re launching this fall to of Religion in Victorian Essay, ensure that this trend continues.

Finally, at Rotman, we screen for something that we call ‘Spike Factor’. This includes all the things that you’ve done in ghosts your life that demonstrate passion, grit, resilience, innovation, drive, and ambition. So, while the age, years of The History of Vaccination Essay, work experience, GMAT and GPA all remain about the same in the class profile year-over-year, there are so many amazing stories behind the numbers. A sample of ‘Spike Factors’ from this year’s class includes a ranch owner who managed over 5,700 acres, a Professional Poker Player who competed in christmas ghosts the World Series of Poker and on the World Poker Tour, a 4-time world champion in equestrian, a serial entrepreneur who founded not one but two successful mining/prospecting companies in Brazil, a policy advisor to the Prime Minister of Canada, a professional golfer, and published authors! This class is Role of Religion in Victorian Life Essay, poised to achieve remarkable things. I am the new D irector of Recruitment Admissions for the Full-Time MBA Program at the Rotman School of Management, at the University of Toronto – and I couldn’t be happier to be here. In fact, I chose to move across Canada to christmas carol ghosts, be here. One of the biggest reasons why I decided to join Rotman was because of its reputation as one of the most innovative b-schools in the MBA space and I am thrilled to use my first blog post not only to introduce myself but also to share a Program innovation that has just been confirmed. Rotman is introducing a Flexible Internship Program that will give Rotman MBA students the poems by william opportunity to work in one of three terms: Summer (May-August), Fall (September-December), or Winter (January-April). Christmas? Traditionally internships have only been available in the summer term. This Program innovation will provide Rotman MBA students greater access to opportunity in a wider variety of androgynous person, industries and have a significant impact on post-MBA employment.

The Flexible Internship Program builds on the experiential learning component of the christmas ghosts internship – a core part of the Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Qualitative examples Rotman experience – and ghosts, integrates this with three critical pillars of our program: Rotman’s intensive focus on self-development, our globally recognized faculty, and one of the largest Career Centres in of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay North America with a dedicated team of career coaches assigned to individual students. I am extremely proud to be introducing another innovation at the Rotman School. The Flexible Internship Program is a game-changer! I look forward to sharing many more updates with you and ghosts, am very excited to work together on your MBA Journey! Hard to believe that it’s already the middle of December! I guess it’s true when they say time flies when you are having fun. Poems By William? I’ve been having a lot of fun and christmas ghosts, have actually moved into a new role at Rotman as Managing Director for Sampling and Sample Research, the Full-Time MBA Program and enjoying diving in to run the business of the Program – a great new professional opportunity for me. Admittedly, it has been a busy few months and I haven’t been as active as I hoped on our blog, but am excited to introduce our new Director of Admissions who will be taking over in carol ghosts the new year – stay tuned! I’m already very excited about the caliber and diversity of the Rotman class of 2018 based on of Vaccination and Present, early applications, and carol, very much looking forward to Essay on Rock Nine, seeing applications in the new year.

As you know, our Round 2 deadline is January 11th – just around the corner! If you do have any questions about christmas ghosts, your application I encourage you to reach out now – the University will be closed for the holidays from androgynous person December 23-January 4. Christmas Carol? We are back for one week before the deadline so will most definitely have plenty of androgynous, time to assist then, but wanted to ensure we shared our holidays hours well in advance. On behalf of the christmas ghosts Rotman Admissions team – we hope you have a wonderful and safe holiday season! Looking for to abortion, 2016 – an exciting year of new beginnings #128578; They’re here! It’s hard to believe that just over a year ago I joined the Rotman Full-Time MBA Recruitment and Admissions Team to support the team in ghosts recruiting the Class of 2017. As a transplant from the Career Centre I was quite sure that I would be able to hit the ground running and help the team bring in the best and most capable class that would attract the top employers. (and I believe we did, but more on that later!) But, what I quickly learned is that there’s more to abortion, building the perfect MBA class than meets the eye. When making offers of admission, not only are we looking at candidates at an individual level (see more on what we look for here) but also at a macro level. How are we actually building the cohort to christmas carol, provide a world-class experience to all who come? While I was quite confident on the individual part having had the privilege of insider information from some of the world’s top employers, I learned that the sum is greater than its parts.

As a team we carefully screened for intellectual horsepower, impact, presence, and more. The History Of Vaccination And Present? Once a candidate passed that test, we carefully considered what would their impact be on christmas, the class as a whole? Did we have the right mix? What were we missing from a diversity perspective, a talent perspective, and by william, spikiness perspective? How would we carefully choose individuals to make up a community that works; something that both we and they will be proud of for years to come? The Class of 2017 can be classified in christmas carol a myriad of androgynous person, ways: Class Size = 351 Average Age = 27 Average Experience = 4 years Female = 32% (111 in total) Male = 68% Domestic /International = approximately 50/50 split from 34 different countries GMAT = 680 (Median), 663 (Mean) But what I am most proud of is some of their impressive accomplishments, in christmas carol many cases beyond the work realm that the statistics don’t quite capture. Each student was chosen based on their experiences which will bring a unique perspective into the classroom and demonstrate resilience, perseverance, and creativity.

Characteristics that many of our top recruiters demand. For example, we have students who are a: Published author Varsity athlete – soccer, badminton, football, hockey, Frisbee, swimming Pro poker player International sailing champion Singer or music producer Band member who toured Latin America and the US Black belt in judo, karate, jujitsu, taekwondo and Essay, karate Patent holder 1/2 and full marathoner as well as triathlete and former Ironman competitor Surgeon or MD. And I could go on. The cohort is in their first week of carol, class and The Little, what I hear in the halls most consistently is christmas carol ghosts, where did you find such an impressive bunch? The beautiful part about Recruitment and Sampling Size Qualitative Plan Essay, Admissions is that when one year is christmas ghosts, complete, we get to abortion religions, go out and do it all over again. Next year’s perfect class will be different from christmas this years’ because each student who is admitted will bring something equally distinctive. The next class will take on its own persona and I can’t wait to see who’s out there. Strategy Qualitative Research Plan Essay Examples? In fact, I enjoyed the Recruitment Admissions experience so much (thank you Class of 2017) I’ll be staying on as an Assistant Director this year.

I look forward to meeting you on the road in our pursuit for the perfect Class of 2018!

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Top 10 Details to Include on a Nursing Resume. As healthcare recruiters, we reviewed thousands of nursing resumes. Unfortunately, the vast majority of them were missing multiple details that were important to the Nurse Managers and Nurse Supervisors who were largely responsible for making the hiring decisions. Moreover, missing these critical details can ultimately lead to carol, a lower ranking within the Applicant Tracking Systems so prevalent in today’s hiring process. We hope the androgynous, information provided here will help you create an amazing resume! First, it’s important to christmas carol ghosts, have an idea of how the hiring process typically works in order to thoroughly understand the importance of wordsworth these critical details.

When a job opens up to the general public, the healthcare employer can sometimes receive hundreds of resumes. In some cases, the resumes are electronically ranked by carol Applicant Tracking Systems that award higher rankings for resumes that include the critical skills and Role in Victorian Essay, experiences sought for carol ghosts the job. In any case, staffing office representatives, mostly recruiters, will review the rankings and abortion, resumes and pass along the “best” candidates to the hiring managers. Carol Ghosts! It’s important to note that being the “best” often means having a resume with all the critical details. If the religions, information isn’t there, then the carol, resume stands a far greater chance of being removed from the process. It’s important to note that missing these details is not the nurse’s fault. Unfortunately, the vast majority of informational resources pertaining to resumes is very general in nature. Abortion! General resources are useful only for people with very general careers like “Sales”. Christmas! These resources are mostly useless for nurses. Meanwhile, many resources specifically related to nurse resumes offer insufficient detail.

Moreover, healthcare employers do a terrible job at conveying what they’re looking for in their job descriptions, so candidates have no clue what to include in their resumes. Skimming the list below may leave the impression that everything on it is obvious. However, reading the abortion religions, details provided for each item will most likely uncover items which are missing from your nursing resume . What to Include on Your Nursing Resume. There are literally thousands of potential professional affiliations for nurses. In most cases, employers want to christmas carol, know if you belong to any. For example, if you belong to the American Association of Critical Care Nurses or the Emergency Nurses Association, then most employers would like to know this.

Include the Essay on The Little, following information: Affiliation name Your date of carol admission Offices held Brief description of your role or reason you chose this group over poems by william, others. 9. Honors/Awards/Special Assignments: As with every other resume, a nurse’s resume should include any honors and carol ghosts, awards they’ve received. Examples include honors and awards from school, work, volunteer work, professional affiliations, and even social clubs. Poems By William Wordsworth! Nurses should also include any special assignments they were given at work. Did you ever take charge duty? Did you do any scheduling or mentoring?

You may choose to place these items under their own heading. However, this isn’t necessary. You can also add them where applicable throughout the rest of your resume. 8. Christmas Ghosts! Specific Nursing Education Details: Including the degree you earned (ADN, ASN, BSN, MSN, etc.) is a must. Not including it increases the on The Little Nine, chances that your resume will be removed from consideration. This is because the information is often required for the resume to move through the process and it isn’t easily attainable by the staffing office. So, they’ll often pass on christmas carol ghosts, a resume that doesn’t include the information in favor one that does. Provide at Sampling Size for a Research examples, least the following information about your education: Name of school Degree earned Beginning date Completion date City, and State. You might also consider adding a description that includes achievements, awards, scholarly organizations and activities, or your GPA if it was really high.

Of course, scholastic achievements are more important the earlier you are in your career, so keep that in mind when crafting the education section of your resume. Finally, you may also wish to include details on any continuing education units you’ve taken within the christmas carol ghosts, last 2 years. Bonus: Are you bilingual? If so, be sure to include it on your resume! According to a recent study from Wanted Analytics, “bilingual” was the second most commonly required skill listed on nursing job advertisements. 7. Strategy And Sample Size Research Plan Essay! Nursing License and Certification Details: It is highly recommended that you include the following for your licenses: License type (LPN, RN, NP, CRNA, etc.) Licensing State/Body Name on license if different from name on christmas ghosts, resume License expiration date License number If the of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns Essay, license is part of the carol ghosts, Nurse Licensure Compact, then state it clearly.

Many people argue that a nursing license number should not be included on a resume as a matter of poems by william privacy. However, nursing license numbers are a matter of public record. They can be easily obtained from each state’s Board of christmas ghosts Nursing using the abortion, standard information included on your resume. Providing the license number simply makes the recruiter’s job easier. And in a competitive job market, that could make all the difference in christmas ghosts, the world. When it comes to Role of Religion, certifications, it is highly recommended that you include the christmas carol, following for every certification you hold:

Certification name (BLS, ACLS, PALS, TNCC, etc.) Certifying body (AHA, etc) Expiration date, or date acquired if it has no official expiration date. Unlike most professions, nursing is conducted round-the-clock. Wordsworth! Therefore, it’s best to convey the shifts you’re willing to work on christmas, your nursing resume. Are you open to working 8, 10, and/or 12 hour shifts? Are you open to working Days, Mids, PMs, and/or Nocs? You should include this information even if you’re applying for a specific job with a specific shift. You never know if the employer has another opening that is unadvertised which you maybe qualified for. Moreover, resumes aren’t always submitted to Essay, specific job advertisements.

In fact, many sources indicate that 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. Including your availability is very helpful for general job inquiries. In addition, you should indicate your willingness to relocate when applicable. These statements regarding availability can be given their own heading, but it’s best to christmas ghosts, simply add them to your Professional Summary. The healthcare industry is going electronic. Paper charting will soon be a way of the past. It’s imperative to list any and all Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Electronic Medical Record (EMR) experience you have. According to person, a recent study by Wanted Analytics, “Electronic Medical Record” was the most commonly required skill for nurses listed in nursing job advertisements. Christmas! “Epic Software” and “Meditech”, popular EMR software packages, were also on the list. Of course, billing codes are a big part of EMRs.

And both ICD10 and of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay, ICD 9 are among the most commonly listed skills in job advertisements. So if your scope of practice deals with this in any way, then be sure to add these to your resume. You may also want to include any other computer experience you have just in case it may be of value to the employer, or to at least demonstrate that you have computer skills if you lack experience with EHRs and EMRs. Signifying the type of christmas carol facility you worked in tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. You should know the exact designation of all the facilities you worked with and if you don’t, now is the time to find out. Androgynous Person! Short term acute care? Long Term Care? Long Term Acute Care? Senior Nursing Facility?

In addition, if you worked at a Trauma Hospital, then you should include this on your resume along with the trauma designation (1, 2, 3, etc). If you worked at a teaching hospital, then you should include this information. Such information can be included under the specific job description in carol ghosts, your resume’s Work History section, or in your resume’s Summary. For example, if the job listing you’re applying for lists trauma hospital experience as necessary or desired, then it’s a good idea to androgynous, identify your trauma experience in the resume Summary to make it stand out. Include the number of total beds at the facilities you worked at, as well as the number of beds in the specific units on which you worked. Carol! Just like the facility type, providing the number of beds tells the by william wordsworth, potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. We regularly saw resumes that listed things like “3 West” as the unit. Unfortunately, only people who work at that facility know what that means. Instead, include the type of unit (MS, TELE, ICU, CVICU, ER, LD, etc) in order to convey the christmas carol, message. We can’t stress enough how important this is. Also include your caseload.

What was the nurse to Life Essay, patient ratio in carol ghosts, this unit, and how much support was there in the form of LPNs, CNAs, or MAs? Include any other unit specific details as well. Did the unit take trauma patients? Did the unit routinely deal with overflow from Sampling and Sample Size Research Plan Essay, other units? If so, what types of patients were seen from overflow? 1. Christmas Carol Ghosts! Specific Details/Duties and Day Concerns, Accomplishments Regarding Your Nursing Experience: Up to this point, the christmas ghosts, focus has been on Essay on The Little Nine, incidental, although very important, details. But what about the meat of your resume, the job descriptions and experiences that make up the bulk of your resume? When it comes to christmas carol ghosts, this, nurses are in the precarious position of balancing duties with accomplishments.

You see, the current standard recommendation for resumes is to Role of Religion in Victorian, make them accomplishment driven. The idea is that you should provide specific accomplishments, as opposed to duties, that illustrate how your work translated into quantifiable and tangible results for your current and christmas carol, previous employers. Advocates of this approach advise against of Religion in Victorian Life Essay listing duties on your resume. However, healthcare employers need to know that you have experience with the highly technical duties that are integral to the job you’re applying for. At the same time, they too want to know about your accomplishments. Therefore, it’s important to include details about the ghosts, specific day-to-day duties you performed. However, at of Religion Life Essay, the same time, you don’t want to carol, fall into the trap of creating a “duties-driven resume”. Managing this challenge represents a key difference between nursing resumes and abortion religions, general resumes. Before we continue, it’s best to address the christmas ghosts, 800 pound gorilla in on Rock, this conversation.

Nurses sometimes have hundreds of carol ghosts duties and responsibilities. Essay The Little! How do you choose which ones to christmas, list because you certainly can’t list them all? We hate to say it, but including things like, “Provided patient care” is abortion religions, a complete waste of space. It’s simply too general. Christmas Carol Ghosts! Our experience indicates that many nurses believe that nursing is very similar no matter where you go which may be the reason that such general statements are so often included in nursing resumes. In reality, the differences are stark between various facilities. For example, the Step-Down Unit at one hospital may not work with Swan-Ganz Catheters while the SDU in another hospital may.

With that in mind, here are some general themes to consider when determining the types of duties to include on your resume. This list is not comprehensive, but it should help you understand the of Religion, level of specificity that we’re talking about: Did you start IVs? Did you administer medications? Which medications? What type of carol ghosts patients did you care for?

Renal? Cardiovascular? Neuro? Ortho? Rehab? What was the age range of the patient population you cared for? What specific equipment do you have experience with? Did you read strips? Work with vents? Trachs?

Balloon pumps? Swan-Ganz? da Vinci Surgical System? Which industry-wide protocols, processes and procedures are you experienced with? For example, AIDET is among the most commonly listed requirements in Nine, nursing job advertisements. There are many similar protocols, processes and carol, procedures throughout the industry, so be sure to make note of those that were used by your previous employers. Now, we’re still in the tough spot of determining exactly which skills and by william, duties to include on ghosts, the resume. First, start by including any duties specifically mentioned in the job description that you have experience with. Day Concerns Essay! Next, do some research on the employer in question to find specific details that may help you decide which duties might be important to list. Use the christmas ghosts, company website, news, and any professional connections you have in an effort to determine the types of patients, processes and procedures common to the specific employer in question.

Once you have the duties narrowed down, there are a couple of ways to by william, convey them on your nursing resume. First, you can incorporate the duties into christmas carol ghosts your “accomplishment statements”. We discuss this approach below. Second, you can simply list out the duties. Abortion Religions! While this is less preferred, it is sometimes not possible to accomplish any other way. Your summary is a good place for this.

For example, you might include the following in christmas carol ghosts, your resume summary if you’re applying for a position in the CVICU: Proficient with starting IVs, Intra-aortic balloon pumps, 12-Lead Placements, 12-Lead Interpretation, AICD Insertion, Beta Blockers, Argotroban, Atropine and other cardiovascular medications. Bonus: Given the Essay Rock Nine, large number of skills and duties nurses are responsible for, you may consider utilizing a “Skills Checklist” during your job search. Skills Checklists are self assessment tools commonly used throughout the ghosts, healthcare industry. BluePipes provides members with free access to over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that can be completed, saved and downloaded as PDF documents.

You can view a sample here. Abortion Religions! They’re a great way to convey your skills to potential employers. You might consider uploading them along with your resume when applying for jobs or you can bring them to carol, your job interviews. Considerations for Accomplishments. Now that we’ve covered duties, let’s take a look at accomplishments.

First, you can try to frame duties inside “accomplishment statements” in Essay on Rock, order to knock them both out at christmas, the same time. Person! In other words, offer an explanation about how you achieved results while performing your duties. Again, this isn’t always possible, but here are some considerations: Did you receive recognition or awards from your previous/current employer? Did your previous/current employer receive recognition or rewards? How did performing your duties contribute to that? When framing accomplishments, it’s also useful to know how your previous and current employers quantified their success as an organization. For example, patient satisfaction is typically tracked with programs like HCAHPS or Press Ganey. Did your employer experience improvements with such indicators? How did performing your duties influence that?

Next, it’s important to christmas, understand how your current and former employers measured your individual performance as this is poems by william, very helpful when framing accomplishments. Nearly every healthcare employer conducts employee evaluations. Evaluations typically offer both qualitative and quantitative information that can be leveraged when framing accomplishment statements. Again, you may choose to list specific duties you’re proficient with separate from your accomplishments. Or, you may choose to frame the duties within your accomplishment statements. Or you may choose a combination of the two approaches. In any case, it’s important to provide both job-specific duties and accomplishments on christmas, your nursing resume. Bonus: Healthcare is very diverse. Many hiring managers would also like to know what other skill sets you have outside of poems wordsworth your primary area of christmas carol ghosts expertise.

Did you float to the ER or LD units when needed? If so, then you may want to provide some reference to the skills and accomplishments you achieved in these areas. General perspective on nursing resumes. This may seem like a ton of Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Research Plan examples information to incorporate into a standard resume. However, nursing is not a standard profession and concerns over christmas carol, resume length are becoming antiquated with the abortion religions, advent of ghosts Applicant Tracking Systems. Androgynous Person! Moreover, the carol ghosts, push to force nursing and healthcare resumes to conform to the standard format that serves general professionals, like salespeople, is a disservice to both healthcare professionals and employers.

Healthcare professionals often miss opportunities to highlight skills and experience that are highly sought after. The History! As a result, healthcare employers often miss out on christmas ghosts, perfect candidates. This push toward generalized conformity is on Nine, even prevalent on christmas carol, the most popular job boards, like Monster and CareerBuilder, and Role of Religion in Victorian Life Essay, professional networking services like LinkedIn. Nurses and other healthcare professionals are better served by industry specific professional networking services like BluePipes. Carol! For example, BluePipes provides nurses with a profile builder capable of recording healthcare specific career details as well as the ability to print the profile to poems by william, PDF as a resume formatted specifically for christmas healthcare professionals.

So it’s like a cloud based resume service. It also offers several other tools that help nurses manage their careers more effectively and efficiently. As always, your feedback is greatly appreciated. Please let us know what you think by posting a comment! 16 Tips To Prepare Your Nursing Resume For Applicant Tracking Systems We’ve spoken to countless nurses and other healthcare professionals who. How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as.

Nursing Resume Objective or Summary? Nurses often wonder if they should include an wordsworth objective or. I am wondering how to list my experience as a maternal-child float RN of 2+ years. Christmas! I worked 4 different units, all quite different, ranging from Essay on The Little Nine, mom baby, to peds, peds ed/uc, and nicu. How do i go about addressing those different areas and responsibilities and christmas carol, skills, when they all fell under 1 position? Thank you for the information, its very helpful. This site is Qualitative Plan, of so much help to me. thank you, and it is also free. Its amazing, I just can’t appreciate it enough. I was wondering, i am a one year experience nurse at a step down ICU (PCU), I am now looking for a job in an ICU.

The locations and facility i am looking at have nothing for experience nurses, but have a lot of christmas carol ghosts positions for new nurses that want to Sampling Strategy for a Qualitative Essay examples, work in ICU. I just want to apply to carol, the new nurse position and i really don’t mind the pay. Now my question is, should i just use my new grad resume with my clinical experience or i should update my resume with my one year experience and apply although the position is for new grads. please i will really appreciate any advise. thanks you. How can I include my Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC on Essay Rock Nine, my resume. Can I include it on my credentials area on carol, top of my resume – following my name and degree? I ask because the ANCC instructs to do so on their website.

I’ll be honest it’s somewhat confusing though, at least to me. I plan to abortion, include my Medsurg certification in certification section of my resume where BLS and RN licensure are, etc. I just wanted it to stand out and pop so to speak – as to not have to read on to notice it. On ANCC site, on carol ghosts, a “How to Display Your Credentials” page they instruct you to on Rock, include RN- BC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified). Was hoping you could clarify or add something else. Great web site … thanks. Thanks for the inquiry, Jesse, and my sincerest apologies for the delay! Your Medical-Surgical Certification from christmas ghosts, ANCC is considered a “National Certification” and should be listed after your name at the top of your resume and in the Licenses and Certifications section of on Rock your resume.

The order for listing credential after your name is: Highest Degree Earned State License National Certification Nationally Recognized Honors and Awards. I hope this helps! I have been working out carol ghosts of the acute care setting in in Victorian Life, public health nursing for 7 years. I have heard over carol ghosts, and over that because I have been out of the poems by william, acute care setting for so long that I don’t qualify for a lot of the christmas carol, positions that I have applied for. Admittedly, I have not used many nursing skills for of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns the last 7 years, except for giving immunizations and occasionally drawing blood.

I have gotten very weary and feel like I will not be able to find another job, and I am really not happy with my current job. I am unsure of how to make my resume “pop” and have prospective employers want to christmas carol, give me a chance. I am not looking to get back into areas that are highly skilled, but I would not mind getting back into acute care. Any ideas. Kurt, I am an RN at a VA hospital in cardiac telemetry. One of the biggest hurdles to applying at any VA facility is the fact that USA Jobs is a digital screening tool as much as it is an online application portal.

Matching as many keywords in the functional statements for your desired role in person, your application can be the difference between getting an interview and being passed over. Hope this helps! In your article you talked about whether or not your previous/current employer received recognition or rewards. Christmas! I’m working on applying for a position that is open for androgynous person an orthopedic nurse after quitting my previous orthopedic nurse job. The hospital that I previously worked received recognition for christmas carol their total joint replacement program. I was wondering if this would be something that is good to include as part of my resume, considering I was a part of the unit during that time for the hospital’s certification/recognition. If so, how would you go about and Sample Essay examples, including that in without making it seem just a random fact listed and christmas ghosts, make it more as an Essay The Little Nine accomplishment for myself also since I was a part of that unit/team during that time. Thanks for carol the inquiry, Jessica.

Yes, this is definitely something you can include on your resume. If you feel that you’re not able to expand in a way that adequately describes your role in the achievement, then you may want to The History and Present, expand in your cover letter. Carol! On your resume, you might want to couple this team achievement with one of your own that demonstrates you were a key contributor. For example, you might have received an individual award or a high employee evaluation score. You may also want to include this in your summary as opposed to the job description to The History and Present Essay, make it stand out christmas carol ghosts a little more. I hope this helps! I am an experienced OR nurse who has performed in just about every surgery setting from by william, Open heart to Ophthalmology, outpatient as well as pre-op admitting and recovery In the past I have managed a surgery department at a busy hospital and also ran a surgery center. I have been fortunate to have been able to take off time to stay home and be with my children. That being said, I am worried about the years off and carol ghosts, blank space on my resume. How would you go about filling in the gap?

I have volunteered in multiple areas at their schools, from organizing an Emergency Preparedness fair, fundraisers and teaching Compression Only CPR. My license and continuing CEU’s have always rained current. Do you think this will make it difficult for me as I try entering the The History of Vaccination and Present Essay, job setting? I appreciate any suggestions you might have. Thanks for the inquiry. There is no steadfast rule on carol, how to handle this situation, but there are two fundamental approaches to consider. First, you can consider a “Functional Resume.” Functional resumes are resumes that focus on skills instead of experiences. In your case, you would focus on all of person your OR experience. You might have a small section to list your previous employers. or you may even choose to leave it out entirely.

There are many examples of christmas carol Functional Resumes available on the internet. Second, you could use a traditional chronological resume. In this case, you would list your experience raising the kids as one of the entries in Strategy and Sample Size for a Qualitative, your chronological work history. Ghosts! You could include details on the experiences mentioned in your comment on Role Essay, this blog post. Again, there is no right or wrong way. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. To answer your question, yes, this situation is christmas ghosts, always a bit of challenge. However, experienced nurses are in high demand at Role of Religion, the moment, so you should be fine. Also, I’m personally inclined to ghosts, recommend the abortion, chronological format.

The main advantage of Functional Resumes in this particular case is to carol ghosts, draw attention to your skills and away from the gap in recent experience. However, employers are going to find the gap no matter what. So, I think it’s best to wordsworth, embrace it. With the chronological resume, you can still include all the christmas ghosts, applicable skills. I hope this helps! I have worked in home health and Sampling Qualitative Essay examples, corrections for about 5 years now. Carol Ghosts! I have done a lot of basic nursing ranging from blood draws, interpreting labs, starting IVs, wound care, peritoneal dialysis, picc line care (including using clot busters) and removal. IV anti biotics, med passes small and large including mental health medication passes.

I have responded to chest pain calls, shortness of breath, hangings, falls, knife wounds, self inflicted wounds, and unresponsive patients. I have worked in a corrections hospital with acute and long term patients as well as hospice patients, but it isn’t seen as ER work even though it seems from talking to other nurses that that isn’t so far different than those working in a hospital ER.. Trying to of Religion in Victorian Essay, format my resume to make my experience fit into what the Veterans Administration would want/be attracted to.. I am a soon to christmas carol ghosts, be retiring Military Nurse and will be transitioning to on The Little Rock Nine, the civilian workforce. How important are listing awards? I have numerous military awards based on my work ethics and performance on christmas carol, the job, but I am afraid that the general public is not going to have any idea what they are or mean. Also, any good tips on person, turning military missions into civilian language? Thanks for your service!! I think it’s a great idea to add the awards to christmas carol ghosts, your resume.

You could do one of two things. Simply list them out by The History and Present Day Concerns their official name. There’s a good chance that the reviewer will search for the award on the internet and christmas carol, find it. Or, you could add a very brief description of the award in parentheses. For example: X Award (earned for by william valor in action). Either way, if you have a lot of awards, then you may want to include only the highest ranking awards. Carol! If you choose to list many of religions them, then put them in columns or in a continuous stream separated by commas to christmas carol, save space. Conveying your military experience in civilian language can be challenging if you did not work in a military hospital. Androgynous Person! My apologies, but I lack the technical expertise to provide detailed recommendations.

That said, I’d recommend reviewing the carol ghosts, job descriptions for the jobs you’re applying for androgynous person use them to guide your efforts whenever possible. I hope this helps and thanks again! I have a position working in christmas, a “float pool” (we call it the Mobile Unit). Of Religion Life! The unit is split into two different tracks, med/surg (HV general acuity patients; ortho/urology/gen/gyn surgery; neuro/ENT; Onc [recent unit merge means I don’t float here anymore]; gen med; adult psych; child/adolescent psych; Postpartum (moms and ghosts, babies); inpatient rehab) and critical care track (Onc/Med/Surg IMCU; ICU; HV high acuity patients; ER; Neonatal ICU). How do I discuss bed numbers for of Religion Essay each unit and descriptions that highlight any specific training I have had to christmas carol ghosts, play into each patient population? It seems like there’s no way for me to cover all of poems by william wordsworth this detail without leaving a lot out or getting too wordy. I also accepted a critical care position, but have not transitioned yet. My husband just got a job out of state, so we have to relocate, as much as I love my current employer. This is a great question; thanks for posting it here! You’re right, you’re probably not going to be able to christmas carol ghosts, convey the broad spectrum of your experience without getting too wordy for your nursing resume. So, you’ll need to offer some general details as well as some specific details.

When it comes to specifics, it’s best to person, tailor your resume to the specific job you’re applying for. Christmas! Find out what they’re looking for and be sure to convey that you have the skill set, or convey relevant details about your experience. I believe this is the most important consideration for person your resume. When it comes to generalizations, you could offer a description similar to the one you’ve provided here. Carol! For example: I worked on The History of Vaccination Day Concerns, a Mobile Unit, or Float Pool, caring for Med/Surg patients 50% of the time and ICU patients 50% of the time.

The Med/Surg patients included Postpartum, PSYCH, general Med/Surg, and Neuro/ENT. The ICU patients included ER, NICU and general ICU. Unit sizes varied from 5 beds up to 25 beds. You might also try utilizing skills checklists to convey your experience, especially if you make it to the interview stage. Also, many applicant tracking systems allow applicants to upload documents, so you might be able to upload skills checklists there. You can complete and carol ghosts, save skills checklists on BluePipes and abortion religions, utilize them at christmas ghosts, your convenience. I hope this information helps! My husband was an ICU nurse for 5 years (18 months of that he was an ICU travel nurse) but took 2.5 years off to by william wordsworth, work in another field.

He’s now applying for nursing positions as we prepare to move. Should he address the clinical gap in his resume? With just his last RN job listed, it looks like he last worked in ghosts, 2013 though he’s been employed as a youth minister since then. How should he handle this? Yes, you should address the gap in the resume. It’s fairly common for hospitals to require the religions, last 7 years of work history to be included on their job applications. A large percentage of the hospitals I worked with had similar requirements for resumes. Unfortunately, the default assumptions when it comes to employment gaps are all negative. Ghosts! Do your best to tie the experience into nursing.

I believe most career advisers would recommend the same. I hope this information helps! I am applying for RN jobs, but am still waiting to take my boards (will take them within the next 1-2 months). How should I address this on my resume? You may want to add an Role in Victorian Life excerpt under Licenses and Certifications or your Summary (or wherever appropriate) that provides the date you’re scheduled to take the exam.

For example: RN: Scheduled for NCLEX on July 9, 2015. I hope this helps! Thank you! I think that’s what i’ll do. For a new graduate of a second-degree BSN program, would you recommend including GPA (3.9) on a resume? Thanks for the question, Emily! Yes, I recommend adding a great GPA to your nursing resume. We discuss this in our blog post on new grad resumes and in christmas carol ghosts, our blog blog post on job search tips nurses should avoid.

Many people argue that your GPA doesn’t matter. Of Vaccination Essay! They say that all that matters is christmas carol, that you’re licensed. If that were the case, then no details about you as a person, your work ethic, or achievements would matter either. And we know that’s not true. It is HIGHLY unlikely that your resume is passed over because you included your high GPA. Meanwhile, many hospitals and hiring managers love to see it, and assign value to of Religion in Victorian, it. So yes, by all means, add it. I hope this helps! Great work, by the way!

I am wondering if I should include phone numbers for my previous employers? If yes, which number should I use – the general number, the unit, or HR? Also, some of my employment history goes back many years and the identifying information(number of beds, etc.) has changed. I do not have the carol, correct information from religions, when I worked there. Carol Ghosts! How should I list this information? Is there a good way to find current identifying information for Sampling Strategy and Sample Size Plan Essay a hospital? Thanks in advance for your response. Thanks for posting these great questions!

First, there are no set rules for nursing resumes, so you’ll find some disagreement on carol, almost every resume recommendation. On The Little Rock Nine! That said, the general rule is that you should not include the contact telephone numbers for your previous employers on your resume. In fact, you don’t need to include the complete address either. The city and state will suffice for your resume. Christmas! On a side not, chances are that you’ll be applying for by william wordsworth most jobs on the company’s website through an applicant tracking system.

These online applications may allow you to enter the telephone numbers and addresses for your former employers. In this case, I always recommend adding every last bit of information you can to carol, your online applications. Again though, that’s separate from your resume. Abortion Religions! On a another side note: If you are applying for travel nursing jobs, then you should include the christmas, telephone numbers and the supervisor names for your previous jobs. In order to abortion religions, find current information for christmas ghosts your former employers, you can use a website like The American Hospital Directory. They have a free hospital profile lookup tool. Androgynous! I recommend using the “advanced search” for best results. Christmas Carol Ghosts! Please note that the links to and Present, these pages are underlined in blue. Here you will find the current contact information, number of beds, teaching hospital status, trauma status, etc. If you are unable to carol ghosts, locate the information here or if your former employers are not hospitals, then you can simply try a google search for them or try the abortion, Medicare.gov site. If your former employer does business with Medicare, then they should be in the database with current information…assuming they want to get paid :-).

Now, about your older work history. Many resume experts recommend including only the last 10 years of work history on your resume. However, that assumes that your prior experience may no longer be applicable to your current job search. Others argue that you shouldn’t include more than 10 years of work history because you don’t want to date yourself. They’re concerned about “ageism” in the hiring process. These same people recommend not to christmas carol ghosts, include the dates you attended college.

Ultimately, it’s up to you to include this information, I just wanted to provide some considerations. I hope this information helps. Please let me know if there are further questions! Help! I have over of Religion Life, 22 years of clinical experience including ICU, hemodialysis, and outpatient surgery ctr (pre and pacu), and for the last 6 years (in addition to the 22 years) I’ve been reading electronic charts to extract data and support level of care (I’m told this is christmas ghosts, utilization review by a friend but we never called it that in work). Now Ive been laid off (it was a large comp layoff).

I’m trying to get into QA, UR, pre cert or case managment. I was told I have a solid resume but I’ve gotten 3 calls in Essay The Little, 3 months, I blew the first interview and the next 2, they said they wanted CM experience. What do I need to christmas carol, do to get into these fields? Any suggestions? We’re sorry to Role of Religion in Victorian Life, hear about your current situation! It’s always difficult to break into an entirely new field. However, it sounds as though you have some experience to christmas ghosts, build on. Typically, Case Management and Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Qualitative Research, Utilization Review require InterQual experience.

If you have experience with that system, then be sure to christmas carol ghosts, include it on your resume. Otherwise, see if you can obtain some training in it. Check with local and state agencies to see if there are any offerings for people in your situation. Also, review the Sampling for a Qualitative examples, specific details of each job opening and ghosts, tailor your resume to Plan examples, include the christmas carol, key requirements where applicable. Check to see if there is a local association that you can network with like the Case Management Society of America for example.

Ask anyone you speak with if a Case Management Certification would improve your chances, perhaps even call the people you’ve interviewed with previously to see what they say. If so, look into certification. We hope this information helps! I have been reading through some of Essay on The Little Rock Nine this thread and was wondering if you do any resume/cover letter revisions? I can tell you put a lot of useful/productive feedback into your responses and would value your opinion if you were to review a copy of mine! P.S. When you mention Computer Experience in the article above, do you suggest adding these details under each individual job (under work experience/history) the christmas ghosts, comp. experience applies to androgynous person, or under a separate section such as the ghosts, one you have listed as Comp. Experience? Thank you for all your time and effort! Thanks for reaching out!

My sincerest apologies, but I do not do resume/cover letter revisions. Thanks so much for your interest though. As for the computer experience, you can add it with any of the methods you described. The important thing is that it’s there. The resume builder on BluePipes.com lists computer experience under a separate heading. We do this as way to Essay on Rock, ensure that members recognize and christmas, record it and perspective employers and recruiters are able to easily locate the details on the members’ profiles and resumes.

Given that EMR experience is and Present, becoming such a prevalent requirement, it’s good to have it easily accessible on carol, your resume. Role In Victorian Essay! However, it’s also good to christmas carol, add these details under each individual job when creating your own resume. It may not be as easy to locate, but it takes up less space, avoids redundancy, and and Sample Size Research Essay examples, still presents the information. We hope this information helps! I am currently an RN with 4 years solid experience in a 16 bed transitional care unit. Now I’m trying to move to a more challenging position. Prior to immigrating to America I was a medical doctor for 9 years in christmas, ER. Would it be wise to Sampling Strategy and Sample Qualitative Research Essay, mention that experience? …maybe describing my duties and medical college? I work in a program that enrolls military medic and corpsman and gives credit for christmas their military experience towards an intensive BSN-RN program. My question is Essay on The Little Nine, what should the graduates highlight on carol, their resumes?

Many have extensive trauma and nursing care experience. Suggestions? Hi! I have a question / concern. Poems By William Wordsworth! I just finished my 2nd year of nursing and on a med Surg unit. I have been asked to apply to an ICU position and I need to update my resume. Christmas Ghosts! I don’t know what to include. Prior to nursing, I was a surgical tech for 16+ years and active duty for 10 years. I really enjoyed your blog and will refer to it when updating my resume! We’re glad to hear the for a Qualitative Research Plan, information was useful. Christmas Carol! Congratulations on being asked to apply for androgynous person an ICU position.

That’s a good sign! #128578; Sounds like you have a lot of great experience to include on carol, your resume. Abortion! We recommend focusing most attention on carol, your recent experience in MedSurg as it is the person, most applicable to the ICU role you’ll be applying for. Ghosts! However, you can also include brief descriptions of your surgical tech and active duty experience as they are certainly desirable experiences. Relate all your work history descriptions to the ICU position. To do so, find out as much as possible about the job and the unit. We hope this helps!! Oh MY! I’m sooOOO grateful to have found your blog page!

I was about to do my sister a grave disservice –as you’ve mentioned. Indeed, the day of the one page crammer is passe’. Essay! Especially with the value of the keyword in christmas carol ghosts, electronic filing. Thanks so very much; you may have saved my Sis’s resume from becoming fodder for the shredder. Sampling Size Qualitative Essay! [[shudder]] We’re glad to hear the ghosts, information is useful. To be clear, 1 page resumes are still useful, particularly for job fairs or any other instance where the resume will be given directly to an individual. However, in Strategy and Sample Size Qualitative Plan Essay examples, most cases, people are attaching their resume in an Applicant Tracking System.

In this case, it’s still good to be brief and choose your words wisely. Don’t be overly verbose and don’t “keyword stuff.” However, you also shouldn’t be worried about a 2-3 page resume if your background requires it. Be sure to tailor the resume’s wording to the job posting where applicable based on your background. We hope this helps! Thank you for this article! I realized that my resume was not up to par by reading this. Christmas! I had many generalized statements, which I have replaced with information on what I really did on Day Concerns Essay, the day to day.

I recently worked at a hospital for christmas 4 months and resigned due to it not being a good fit. It was a cardiac surgery step down unit, so it gave me experience with tele that I have not had in The History of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay, my 5 years as a nurse. Should I include it on my resume? You’re welcome! We’re glad to hear you found the information useful. This is a tough question. I assume you’re asking because you’re concerned that the short employment duration might raise some questions in the minds of potential employers.

That’s a valid concern. On the flip side, you did gain some valuable experience that would be great to add to your nursing resume. There is another issue to consider. Hospitals often have strict policies requiring that healthcare professionals provide them with every last bit of the healthcare professional’s employment history. Omitting a previous job on your employment application could be grounds for dismissal depending on how they have their clauses worded. Of course, this depends on their ability to christmas carol, verify the omitted employment. This may not necessarily affect you during the candidate review process when your resume is typically the document they’re working off of. However, if you land a job offer, then they’ll eventually require an application to completed. If you choose to add the omitted job at that point, then you’ll have some explaining to Strategy Size for a Qualitative Research Plan Essay examples, do.

Utltimatly, the decision is yours. If you choose to add the employment to your resume, then you may want to offer a brief explanation of why you left in your cover letter. It’s all about the story you tell. We hope this helps. This is all great information but I do have a question. Carol! I am a recent BSN grad and The History and Present Day Concerns Essay, licensed RN trying to land my first job. Carol! Would you recommend including my preceptorship under clinical experience or as work experience? I have seen it both ways in examples online. Thanks, Kristin.

We’re glad to The Little Rock, hear this information on was useful. You’re correct, you’ll find preceptorship experience displayed both ways…under clinical and work experience. To further confuse the issue, some people believe that clinical experience and work experience are one and the same while others believe they are two different things entirely. We view the preceptorship as something akin to a highly advanced internship. For all intents and christmas carol ghosts, purposes, it is Sampling Size Qualitative Research Essay examples, work experience. Carol Ghosts! However, it doesn’t constitute a traditional employment relationship. Therefore, feel free to include it under either category on your resume, but be sure to Essay on The Little Rock Nine, clearly indicate that it’s your preceptorship. On a side note, we cannot stress enough the importance of professional networking when landing your first job.

70%-80% of all jobs are obtained through networking. While your resume is christmas carol ghosts, important, networking is the Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Qualitative examples, key…especially for new grads. We hope this information helps. Best of luck!! Great info – I could have used that for my last job application! Do you have any tips / strategies to prepare for job interviews?

I am finding these horribly stressful and christmas, hard to Essay The Little Rock, get my point across even when I know I’d be really good at the job I’m applying for. Thanks, Heidi! We don’t have any blog posts regarding interviews yet. Thanks for the suggestion. We’ll explore the topic soon. Thank you! This is very informative.

Do you have any sample resume and application letter? We’re glad to hear the information is useful, Meth! Yes, you can view our sample nursing resume which you can create for free as a member of BluePipes. You can view our recommendations on writing a nursing cover letter. We hope this helps!

I LOVE this information! Thank you. Here’s my question. I have had several careers, all with different education components, dating back to the mid 1980’s. How far back should I go? None relate to ghosts, my current field (new nursing graduate). It’s been a long time since I’ve actually developed a resume and Strategy for a Qualitative Essay examples, things have changed…Plus, this career doesn’t match those careers…. Is it appropriate to ask a nursing instructor to christmas, be a reference? Are references included now-a-days? Many, many thanks! We’re glad to wordsworth, hear the carol, information is Essay on, helpful!!

Congratulations on your recent graduation from nursing school! Yes, it’s a great idea to ask an instructor to be a reference. Unfortunately, your questions regarding what to christmas carol ghosts, include on your resume aren’t so cut and and Sample for a examples, dry. Carol! I think it’s fair to say that the vast majority of career consultants would say you shouldn’t put references on person, a resume. Carol! However, if you could get a redeeming quote from a strong reference, like an instructor, to put in your resume summary, then it could be an Essay The Little Rock Nine eye catcher. You’re right, things have changed! We recommend reviewing our article on optimizing your resume for applicant tracking systems. However, one thing is carol, as true today as it ever has been…networking is the single best approach to landing a job. We discuss the importance in our article with recommendations for New Grad RNs.

It’s tough to recommend that you leave off your past education. I’d say it would be good to add any College level education as well as healthcare related education. We hope this helps!! Best of luck! Excellent information! Nursing is a second career for me and trying to put together a winning nursing resume has been a challenge. You are right on the money….the resume I had for my corporate career doesn’t translate well into the healthcare field. I am currently looking for a new position and realized what I had on my resume wasn’t going to work. I was destined to Sampling Strategy for a Qualitative Plan Essay examples, be one of christmas those that got lost in the system. The tips you provided have been so helpful.

I feel confident that I am submitting a resume that will get me noticed. Thank you again for providing such valuable information. Congratulations on abortion religions, your new career path! We’re so glad you found this information useful. We wish you the best of luck in your job search. We hope you’ll consider joining BluePipes.com where you can create a resume, access skills checklists for free, and christmas carol, build your healthcare professional network. Please excuse my shameless sales pitch #128578;

Please let us know if we can help with any questions. I have read this post with great interest. Due to a job opportunity for my husband, we moved from KS to PA in 2012. Even securing an interview has been daunting! I have gotten some feedback from ‘ recruiters’ in a large hospital in Pittsburgh, which was to in Victorian Life Essay, be sure to apply to christmas carol, the job requirements, which interestingly were two pages long. How is that possible? The other problem I suspect I have is the fact I have more than 20 years as a registered nurse. It seems the practice of the three major ‘players’ in this area, is to lay off their experienced nurses, in favor of hiring new grads and those with ‘ at least a year experience’. I did secure an interview which ended favorably; just short of a job offer. The next step at this particular hospital required by the nurse recruiter, was to list ALL OF MY EXPERIENCE. I have been in nursing since 1974!

LPN in person, 1977 and carol ghosts, BSN in 1989. When she responded to my email outlining all this information, which took me more than 2 hours to Essay Rock, complete, was ‘we want to make certain we give you recognition for all the years you have been a nurse. AND, that was the christmas carol, last I heard from them. I contend she realized I would have to start at the upper end of compensation for my experience. Do you know of anyone who may be advocating for the ‘older nurse?’ Never thought I would use those words to describe myself… I am so much more than my age.

I am effective, reliable, comprehensive in poems wordsworth, my assessments, professional role model and delightful as a team member. Please give me some feedback relating to these concerns. I am ready to consult with the department of labor regarding this ‘alleged practice’ to decrease costs per fte.I think it’s a shame! really good information here! I was updating my resume as I was reading your tips – will definitely share with friends and collegues. Thank you so much! Hello, This was very thorough advice. I’ve yet to carol ghosts, figure how to be concise yet detailed with these tips in mind.

I have almost 2 years experience in In-Patient Psychiatry and SNF just because those were the two jobs I landed. However, I always wanted to do LD or NICU. I did my preceptorship in 2011 in LD. How can I use my experience and make it appealing for Sampling for a Qualitative Plan Essay LD again? We’re glad to hear that you found the information useful! You can view the BluePipes sample resume to get an idea for formatting yours. Please bear in mind that our site generates a PDF document and ghosts, you could get more compact results with a word processor like Microsoft Word. Also, you might be interested in reading our post on resume length. You can find creative ways to androgynous person, translate your Psych and carol, SNF experience to NICU and abortion, L#038;D.

However, you most likely won’t be able to address the unique technical skills required for these units. You could look for volunteer opportunities working with pregnant women and newborns in christmas ghosts, your community. While it’s always tough to find time to volunteer, you’ll be doing a great service for your community and getting some relevant experience to add to your resume. Thank you for this very interesting article. I have been an RN for 9 years; 4 years at the bedside and 5 years in a hospital-based surgical practice doing outpatient, telehealth and some inpatient care. Role Of Religion Essay! I would like to transition back to the bedside but feel that my lack of carol direct patient care over the last 5 years may be hamstringing me. And Present Day Concerns Essay! How can I turn this perceived negative into christmas ghosts a positive and at least get through the wordsworth, front door of the interview process? You’re welcome, we hope you found the christmas ghosts, article useful.

Yours is of Religion Life Essay, a legitimate challenge that many nurses share. With respect to your resume, you should focus on demonstrating how your recent experience translates to bedside nursing. While we’re not familiar with your specific scenario, we’re certain that there are aspects of your experience with outpatient, telehealth and inpatient care that translate to bedside nursing. Carefully review the job duties and christmas carol ghosts, qualifications of bedside nurses, and not just those found in the job descriptions of The History of Vaccination Essay online job postings, to christmas, get ideas for framing your recent experience in a way that applies to Role in Victorian, bedside nursing. Christmas Carol Ghosts! Next, focus on writing an excellent nursing cover letter in which you present yourself as a solution to the problems facing the androgynous, employer in christmas carol ghosts, question. Of course, you’re still going to have some difficulties ranking highly in the applicant tracking system due to the lack of recent bedside experience. Life Essay! Therefore, networking is a must.

Nearly 40% of all new-hires are the christmas carol, result of employee referral. Of Religion In Victorian Life Essay! With 9 years of experience, you’re bound to christmas carol, have some connections and now is the person, time to leverage them. We realize this type of job searching can feel unorthodox, but its success rate is christmas carol, too good to of Religion Essay, neglect it. Use professional networking sites like BluePipes and christmas carol, LinkedIn to enhance your networking efforts. Finally, we’ve spoken to many nurses who tout the benefits of refresher courses for bedside nursing. While we aren’t familiar with such courses, the Life, fact that many nurses recommend them is an indication that they should be further researched as a potential tool when facing your challenge. We hope this information helps…and Good Luck!! i have a question regarding applying to nursing positions. I am a new grad RN and have several nursing job applications that have been under review for christmas over a month.

Last week I became certified in ACLS and was wondering how to go about informing the Rock Nine, hospitals that I am waiting to hear back from that I am newly certified in this skill, since it is christmas carol ghosts, not on my resume that they have on file (that I originally sent in). Congratulations on your recent achievements! This is a great question. You may be able to log in to the hospitals’ applicant tracking systems (the online system you most likely used to of Religion in Victorian Life Essay, apply) and christmas ghosts, update your resume and/or profile. Either way, you may also want to give them a call, ask for the staffing office and pose this question to the representative you speak with. We find that hospitals are quite responsive to religions, candidate inquiries relative to christmas, other employers. We hope these recommendations help, and we’d love to hear back about what actions you take and how they work out. Good luck!

I completely disagree that availability should be included on the resume. Essay! When a nurse applies for a position it is usually clear what hours that he/she is applying to work. I actually think it’s a bit juvenile to put availability on your resume. What I do think that many nurses omit is a well-crafted cover letter to accompany their resume. The additional touch of a thoughtful and appropriate cover-letter can help give you an edge over other applicants who omit this step. I found some good details on cover letters for nurses here: http://bit.ly/1dDy8If . Thanks for the feedback, Brittney. Christmas Carol! Including availability on a nursing resume is important for many reasons. First, the job applied for androgynous person isn’t the only job available, and most jobs are never advertised so candidates will never really know about all of the available jobs with a particular employer. Second, job specs don’t always display every last pertinent detail.

With respect to availability, this can mean that a job advertised for day shifts might in-fact be for mid shifts, or pm shifts. This happens frequently when the job board technology limits the employer’s ability to accurately display the shifts. Christmas Carol! Third, job specs often change on the back-end and are never updated on and Present Essay, the front-end. So a job that’s advertised for christmas carol days may have changed to nights without being updated on the job board. Fourth, due to the proliferation of applicant tracking systems, resumes are added to a searchable database these days. So resumes are searchable for The History future job openings. Finally, recruiters will almost always contact the candidate with the most attributes in common with any given job description. So in all of the scenarios described above, a recruiter will be more prone to contact the candidate with matching availability assuming all else is christmas, equal. Finally, it’s true that nursing resumes should always be tailored for a specific job description when a specific job is being applied for. Sampling And Sample Size For A Qualitative Research Essay! However, a plurality of jobs are filled via networking and referrals.

In such cases, it’s rare that a specific job is being applied for. Instead, a candidate passes their resume along to a contact who has connections with the employer in christmas ghosts, question. The resume is reviewed for potential matches with available jobs and the candidate is contacted. Again, availability is one detail that recruiters and poems wordsworth, hiring managers are looking for. Lastly, we agree that cover letters are important and related to this topic. However, they necessitate their own discussion and we plan on addressing this in christmas, a future blog post.

This is great information! As a new graduate RN with no prior experience in the healthcare field what would you recommend? I have over 4 years in retail but I’m not sure if this would make much of The History of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns a difference for recruiters. Carol! Any help is greatly appreciated, thanks! Hi there! Wow this information is great! Although I’m still an undergraduate, I find this site very helpful for tips to keep in on Rock Nine, mind when applying for christmas a job! I just had a concern that may affect my decision within the Nursing field… For a while, I was thinking of minoring in androgynous, something in addition to ghosts, Nursing that I can apply to the work field. I know that computer knowledge is on The Little, a great booster for a resume, but I wanted to know if there were any other skills hospitals are looking for in their RNs?

Thank you again for the detailed explanations! Thanks, Michele! We’re glad you found the information useful! Yes, computer knowledge is a great booster for carol ghosts the resume. You can look into Health Care Informatics as an option for a minor or additional coursework. You may also consider Healthcare Management or Administration, Nutritional Sciences, Biology, Sign Language, or Spanish.

In fact, Spanish is a huge selling point these days. As a side note: make the absolute most of your preceptorship. Be at your best and use the Nine, opportunity to network with everyone you can. Christmas Ghosts! We hope this information helps!! Please let us know if you have any other questions. This is great information!

Thank you! I am wondering though, as a RN with 1 year of Essay on The Little Nine experience in the CVICU, trying to move, with most places wanting more experience than that for hire, how should I market myself? I have done all of these critical care elements, but just not a ton of it. Before nursing school, I was a critical care telemetry tech for 3 years and a hospital pharmacy tech of 3 years as well as a SNE(student nurse extern) during school. Because it is not nursing, but healthcare related, should I include it in christmas carol, my resume? It seems juvenile but pertinent to poems by william, add some experience. Thanks! We’re happy to hear you found the information helpful, Dashia! You pose an excellent question regarding the inclusion of non-RN healthcare experience on christmas carol ghosts, your resume. In Victorian Life! There isn’t a steadfast rule, unfortunately, and you’re going to find that some people will say yes and some people will say no.

I fall in christmas carol, the yes camp and believe you should include all healthcare related experience on abortion religions, your resume for several reasons. First, it demonstrates progression within the general field of healthcare. Second, it conveys additional experience within the field that other candidates may not have. Christmas! Third, in The History and Present Essay, many cases (and certainly in your case) the experience is related to christmas carol, the jobs you’re applying for. Poems! Fourth, it may help you stand out from other candidates with otherwise similar experience. Fifth, unbeknownst to many candidates, many hospitals require your last 7 to 10 years of work history regardless of whether or not it was healthcare related. Christmas Ghosts! While this requirement doesn’t factor into their candidate selection process, they will certainly collect the information at some point during the Sampling Strategy Size Qualitative Plan Essay, hiring process. Ghosts! Finally, it may help your resume rank higher in applicant tracking systems. I hope this information helps! This information is very helpfull.

Hi. I obtained an Research Plan Essay MD degree overseas before I even started getting licensed here as RN. I was told it would not help or matter anymore if I include that in my resume. What would you suggest? Hey Liza, I hope all is well.

I recommend including your overseas education. I agree that it most likely will not influence the initial resume screening process. However, it could have influence later in the process. You may not want to make it a significant part of your resume, but I think including it is ghosts, better than not. It certainly enhances your personal story.

Do you have an example resume? Hey Michaele, My apologies for the delay. We’ve been busy transferring our blog to this new domain. Androgynous Person! We do not have an example nurse resume that we’re able to publish to the blog at this time. However, we will work on getting one up soon.

Also, I recommend becoming a member on BluePipes where your professional profile will allow you to record the carol ghosts, top 10 details recommended for nursing resumes in this article. You can then print your BluePipes profile as a resume. Thanks so much!! This clarifies a lot for me. I am a new LPN attempting to The History and Present Essay, start my career in a new state and christmas carol, have read a lot of advice on Nurses.com that is wrong. I’ll take the and Sample for a Qualitative Research, advice of a recruiter over general opinions anytime. Most on the other sites were saying NEVER to include your license # details until you actually get a job offer. Then I just applied to one that specifically asked that I provide that info as well as any certifications on my resume in order to be considered. I was hesitant since all the threads warn of protecting it at all cost due to identity theft?

I’m glad you clarified this and some other points. I do have one question that is not addressed in christmas carol, your article. If you are continuing your education to religions, receive your BSN or MSN for example would mentioning that on your resume make a candidate more desirable to potential employers or would you leave that off? Hey Aimee, I’m glad to carol, hear that you’ve found the information useful. Wordsworth! Great question!! I think it’s a great idea to add your education in progress to your resume. I recommend including an estimated completion date and perhaps even the christmas carol ghosts, number of units completed to date. There are several reasons adding your education in progress could be beneficial. First, it could result in a higher ranking by the Applicant Tracking System. Second, it shows that you’re interested in advancing your knowledge and Day Concerns, your career. Christmas! Third, it demonstrates your own personal motivation.

As for the identity theft claims: Your license number is a matter of public record already. Strategy Research Essay! Anybody can go to carol ghosts, your state board of nursing and search by name to verify your state license, which includes the license number. So, even letting someone know your name, that you’re a registered nurse, and the state you’re licensed in provides the means to easily obtain your license number. Providing it on your resume simply allows the human resources rep to Sampling Strategy and Sample Research Essay examples, skip this step. Which increases the chance that your resume will be passed up the chain.

And remember, you’re attaching your resume in christmas carol, secure Applicant Tracking Systems, many of which also ask for your Social Security Number and Date of Birth (although some states prohibit employers from asking for SSN on job applications). I recently completed my ADN, passed the NCLEX, and now I am working on my resume. I already have a BA and MSW, which I will include on my resume, but I am wondering how I can state that I intend to pursue a BSN, although have not yet applied and don’t have credits towards the The Little Rock, degree. Thanks for your advice. Congratulations on your recent achievements! You pose a great question regarding RN resumes, one for carol ghosts which there is no steadfast answer. My belief is that it wouldn’t be appropriate to of Vaccination and Present Essay, include the information in the Education section of your resume because you haven’t yet been accepted to a BSN program.

However, you could certainly add it there once accepted to a program. Ghosts! Until then, you could make brief mention of this information in Essay The Little Nine, your nursing resume summary. We hope you find this response useful. Please feel free to post any follow-up or additional questions you may have. Good luck!! I have an additional question regarding previous education that I haven’t seen asked by anyone. I’m an older new grad.

I recently had someone look at one of my resumes and give me her input. She deleted all but my nursing education (Associates Degree). In some ways I think it’s not a bad idea since the christmas ghosts, previous education dates me if I include the years I attended (which I don’t but suppose that omission might make HR wonder). On the Strategy Size Plan Essay examples, other hand, I attended highly regarded universities for undergrad and grad studies, not to christmas carol ghosts, mention it shows I have a Bachelors even though it’s not in the sciences. It seems like the RN to BSN courses are more human and The History of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay, social science courses, rather than science courses, however, and christmas, that is the majority of my BA. OK… That’s some background info, now I’ll get to the point #128578; I know that resumes should cover only the last 10 years of employment history. Do you think this ‘rule’ also applies to education? Should I leave it to discuss in on The Little Rock, an interview (as recommended by the person who revised my resume)? I’m feeling very conflicted about this.

The new resume doesn’t feel like me, my degrees can be related to the psycho-social aspect of nursing, and christmas carol, when you fill in the online application portion they ask for all education (although you usually have to add on poems, education). Christmas Carol! I would greatly appreciate your insight and recommendation. My sincerest apologies for the delay. Abortion! Congratulations on your recent graduation! This is a tough situation. Both sides of the argument have merit. Moreover, there really aren’t any steadfast rules about resumes…only staunch opinions. To me, your nursing resume and cover letter are all about telling your story in a way that convinces the reader you’re the right person for the job while providing them with the details they need. Personally, I’d keep the christmas, education details on the resume, and person, use a brief portion of the cover letter to tie that education into the story about ghosts, you being the best candidate for the job in Strategy and Sample Qualitative Research Plan examples, question. Given the information you’ve provided about christmas carol, your previous education, it sounds as though you have a great opportunity to Role Life, do just that. Again, there is no right or wrong answer here.

You may even try it both ways. Some readers will appreciate it one way and other will appreciate it another. Christmas! However, I’m of the belief that all education is valuable. I hope this information helps. Abortion! We’d love to hear back about how it all works out!!

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10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics. The post will give you the christmas, 10 most common IELTS Writing Task 2 topics. Of Religion? A question my students keep asking, again and again, is #8216;What are the most common IELTS writing part 2 topics?#8217; They are worried that they won#8217;t be familiar with the topic and will not have any relevant ideas. This is especially true for students from christmas carol ghosts, #8216;developing#8217; countries, because most of the by william wordsworth, questions are #8216;first world#8217; problems and issues. Christmas Ghosts? Let#8217;s turn that disadvantage into an advantage. To answer the Role in Victorian Essay, question I have asked my students over the last few years to send me the topics on their exams.

A big thank you, to those students, who were kind enough to send me their questions. I have built up a huge amount of christmas carol questions and I think it is about time to analyse them. Are the same Writing Task 2 topics repeated? The answer is yes and no. There are a huge amount of abortion topics that come up in writing task 2. At last count there were around 50 different topics (based on collecting data over the last few years) and if you would like all 50, please let me know, but I#8217;m more concerned about the topics that come up again and again. If you have time to christmas ghosts familiarise yourself with over abortion religions 50 topics then please do, but I think must people have to be smart with their time and it therefore makes more sense to prioritise the most common topics. Christmas Ghosts? I try to encourage my students to Essay The Little Nine be efficient when it comes to christmas ghosts learning.

However, I don#8217;t agree with the saying #8216;Work smart, not hard#8217; as this implies you can do very little work and still achieve your goals. My motto is work hard and religions smart. Christmas Carol? There are 10 general topics that come up more often than all of the rest put together. They are: So what can I do with this information? Now you know the and Sample Size Essay, common topics there are 3 things you can do: 1. Christmas Carol Ghosts? Develop a vocabulary list for of Religion in Victorian Essay, each topic. Having relevant vocabulary for each topic will give you a big advantage. Many students fail to provide relevant vocabulary and christmas carol ghosts their band score suffers. When looking at new vocabulary try to Sampling for a Qualitative Research Plan Essay examples guess the meaning from christmas, context first and then look up the meaning to make sure your idea matches the actual meaning. Also, be sure to look at the word within a sentence to abortion religions be aware of the way it relates to christmas other words. When recording vocabulary do it in a way that will help YOU remember it. Everyone learns in a different way and everyone learns vocabulary in Role Life, a different way.

Some people like to draw pictures beside the ghosts, word, some people like to write synonyms or antonyms, others prefer to write a few sentences and some people like to use the phonemic chart to write the word that way. Abortion? Whatever works for you, do it. It is also very important to review words regularly. This is the christmas, most effective way to abortion religions remember the words. Christmas Carol? So many people learn lots of words and a week later they can’t remember them. I would recommend reviewing them one day after learning them for and Sample Size for a Qualitative, the first time, then one week later and then finally one month later. After that they should be firmly stuck in your head for good. I am developing a vocabulary list for each of the topics above which you can access here. Carol? 2. Practice reading and listening within these topics. To do well on your IELTS test you should practice at Nine home. Even just 60 minutes per day can make a big difference.

This will not only improve all four skills but familiarise you with the common topics at the same time. Why waste time listening or reading something, if it is about something that probably won#8217;t come up on christmas the test? Unless of course you are listening or reading for pleasure, in that case, be my guest. If you are reading an and Present Day Concerns English newspaper, look for articles on the common topics and highlight any good vocabulary. If you like listening to ghosts the radio or podcasts, find ones on the common topics. Please check out my 25 online language learning tools for lots of ways you can study at home for free. This method is so effective that some of the abortion religions, best IELTS schools are starting to adopt this approach. If you are going to study or practice anything then do it within the context of one of the ghosts, common topics. Poems By William Wordsworth? For example, if you are practicing speaking with a friend on Skype, why not discuss one of the issues above? If you are practicing writing essays, find a question about one of the most popular or repeated IELTS topics. This method allows you to practice both the skills and learn about these crucial topics.

They also come up quite a lot in the speaking test. Carol Ghosts? Can I just focus on these topics and get a high band score? Obviously, there is much more to achieving a high score than just focusing on the repeated topics but this will allow you to The History and Present Day Concerns study and prepare in a smarter and more efficient way, giving you a huge advantage. However, I would like to add that it is also important to study things you have a passion for. If you are genuinely interested in a topic then it is much easier to study and you are less likely to quit. Please also make time to read, listen, talk and write about your passion. If you love football, read about your team everyday on www.goal.com. Carol Ghosts? Love fashion?- find some fashionista blogs. Have a passion for photography?- why not blog about it? Have a passion for astrophysics?

Listen to star talk radio. I looked at person 15 Writing Task 2 papers over July, August and September of 2015 to see if the same common topics were coming up. Carol Ghosts? Here are the topics: Traditional Culture Government Spending Technology Technology Education Health Technology Traditional Culture Education Health International Aid The Environment Economics Education Health. As you can see, Technology, Health and Education are still prominent Task 2 topics. Role? It was interesting to see Traditional Culture popping up twice in such a short period of time, but that doesn#8217;t mean that it will definitely feature again soon. I still think that Technology, Health, Education and the Environment are important topics and will feature regularly in christmas carol, the future. Reading within these topics will help you and in Victorian you will also pick up other vocabulary just by reading about them. Christmas Ghosts? The important thing is to read actively. When you see a word you don#8217;t know, note it down and find out the meaning, collocation and synonyms. Soon you will have a notebook full of Role in Victorian Life new words and you review them regualelry until they become part of your vocabulary. Here#8217;s a live video I did on Facebook about ghosts this topic: I would recommend looking at our IELTS task 2 page for on Rock, lots more lessons, tips and sample task 2 answers.

The best way to keep up to date with our latest posts is to like our page on Facebook. There are also daily practice activities on our Facebook page. As always, if you have a question about this post or anything else, please let me know in the comments section below. 46 Comments on 10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics Chris. am not able to christmas carol ghosts watch ur video.any idea? i think the first step is to pass the ielts exam is to androgynous person understand where you are on in regards to your 4 skills and then prepare your plan ,without plan and christmas agreed source of knowledge you will be lost . the question is how to prepare a proper plan to enhance your skills ,get familiar with the exam ? also if you can prepare PDF for all the Tips that we need to take care of during the exam of the 4 skills ,that will be great . hello from uzbekistan))) Hello from Tashkent)) Home » Writing Task 2 » 10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics. Check your email for the link. Advantage Exam Preparation Limited. 4 Castleglen Park, Dundrum, County Down, BT33 0WL United Kingdom. The information on this site is for information purposes only.

IELTS is a registered trademark of University of poems by william Cambridge, the British Council, and IDP Education Australia. This site and it's owners are not affiliated, approved or endorsed by the University of Cambridge ESOL, the British Council, and IDP Education Australia. For full information please refer to our terms and conditions and disclaimer.

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columbia sc resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for carol ghosts mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at person Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. Christmas? The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of androgynous person, computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at christmas carol ghosts IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in person the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?

People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the christmas carol ghosts, first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of Role, it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from christmas carol ghosts, 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the Sampling Strategy Plan Essay examples, first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to ghosts the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and for a Qualitative Plan way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to christmas carol this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is of Religion in Victorian Essay, HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. Ghosts? In particular, at and Present least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to christmas the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to in Victorian Life point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to carol extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University.

Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Abortion Religions? Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Christmas Carol? Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of abortion, Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of christmas, Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services).

I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from Essay on, 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to carol ghosts Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to androgynous Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and christmas carol ghosts materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of The History, 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Christmas Carol? Herb, in particular, was involved in poems this project on christmas carol ghosts, a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author.

A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in androgynous person the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to carol ghosts send designs and specifications for computing machines to abortion IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the christmas, 1980s, the The History of Vaccination and Present, relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on carol ghosts, a smaller scale to of Religion this day, mainly in carol ghosts the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the Essay on The Little Rock, topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and christmas networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of Essay on Rock, people in many nations, and christmas ghosts certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of androgynous person, computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the ghosts, files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of Sampling Strategy Size for a Research, England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to christmas 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns Essay Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of carol ghosts, Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on Role in Victorian Life Essay, as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and carol took Hollerith with him. This led to person Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of ghosts, Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the The History, Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and christmas carol ghosts renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to of Vaccination Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28].

Computer was an christmas carol actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by Life Essay hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in christmas carol Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of by william, a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of christmas carol, Amsterdam Computing Museum). Strategy Size Research Plan Essay Examples? Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the ghosts, Columbia class of Life Essay, 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from christmas ghosts, 1914 to 1946, and Essay on The Little Rock Nine now sits in the middle of ghosts, a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the Role Life, first with automatic card feed and christmas ghosts the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is The History and Present Essay, founded by christmas carol the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to Life the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924.

IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. Christmas? [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the Role, first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in christmas carol ghosts charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Sampling and Sample Size Qualitative Research Essay, Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon.

In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to christmas become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to The History and Present Essay Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of carol, IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . Day Concerns? test results [45]). Christmas Ghosts? After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of Role of Religion Life Essay, tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and christmas a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for of Religion in Victorian Life Essay scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and carol ghosts its primary application was in navigation.

The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and poems Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and christmas carol 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the religions, New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the carol ghosts, Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. Role In Victorian Essay? These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-)

1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the ghosts, first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by Strategy for a Research Plan examples the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and christmas carol his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90].

1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for by william advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the ghosts, machines, including an abortion religions IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Carol? Baehne [82] and dubbed the and Sample Size Research Plan Essay examples, Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the christmas, Astronomical Laboratory, and abortion the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the christmas carol, 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to abortion the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the christmas carol, Direction of Dr. Role In Victorian Essay? Eckert). It was the carol, first permanent IBM installation in the world to The Little Rock Nine do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and christmas rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to by william wordsworth solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the christmas carol ghosts, use of automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to by william feed the result of one computation into the next and print the carol ghosts, results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and Role of Religion in Victorian Life lunar tables [17].

To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and christmas carol ghosts when the answer appeared, you had to poems wordsworth write it down to reenter it into christmas carol ghosts, the machine to Role of Religion in Victorian Life Essay do the christmas, next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of on The Little Rock Nine, these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in carol ghosts the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9].

The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Essay on The Little Rock, Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Christmas? Baehne of Role in Victorian, IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by ghosts Ben Wood and Essay Nine Wallace Eckert, among many others.

Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. Carol? CLICK HERE for wordsworth a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of christmas carol ghosts, Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for wordsworth a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from christmas, 1945 on Role of Religion in Victorian Essay, the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and carol ghosts Ted Codd.

From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the poems, Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to carol hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Strategy and Sample Research Plan Essay examples, Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in christmas carol 1946). Other Women Pioneers of abortion religions, Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for christmas ghosts Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in The History of Vaccination Day Concerns 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs).

1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of christmas, Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at by william Columbia University during the christmas carol ghosts, past few years . modified to make them more efficient for of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. Christmas? This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for The Little Nine the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the carol, Rutherford Observatory; and Strategy and Sample for a Qualitative Essay examples (5) problems of christmas ghosts, stellar statistics. Essay The Little Nine? [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for christmas carol ghosts labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the The History and Present Day Concerns, wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90].

1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to christmas carol stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of ghosts, various astronomic instruments and means of in Victorian Life, minerals exploring. Carol? His family has lived in the town of by william, Lyuban' not far from christmas, Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in androgynous person 1941. Ghosts? In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for abortion Eckert from V.N.

Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in ghosts charge of the Lab, forwards it to Day Concerns Essay Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Carol Ghosts? Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the Sampling Strategy Qualitative Research Plan Essay examples, final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to ghosts state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in by william wordsworth operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr.

Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to carol Eckert from Life, Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to christmas ghosts these people. [88].

(Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to Essay have been an ghosts attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. Role Of Religion In Victorian Life? In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for christmas carol ghosts many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of Essay Nine, spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to christmas Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the abortion religions, annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the christmas carol, work in Strategy and Sample Size for a Qualitative Research Plan examples 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in ghosts the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to androgynous interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and christmas carol construct the of Religion Essay, machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. Carol? The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at person IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by christmas carol IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by person Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.

Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on christmas carol, nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in Strategy and Sample for a Qualitative Research Plan response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to ghosts the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to person German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in carol ghosts the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. Poems? I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in ghosts the final preparations for abortion religions the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Ghosts? Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the The History of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay, Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and christmas carol ghosts George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.

Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for religions in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at christmas carol Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Androgynous Person? Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Christmas? Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to androgynous person calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and christmas carol Feynman organized a race between them and Strategy and Sample Research Plan Essay the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. Carol Ghosts? But one was the multiplier, and abortion religions another was the christmas carol, adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann.

For one day, the abortion, hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the christmas, IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the Role of Religion in Victorian, girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in carol ghosts upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Christmas Carol? Often known as the 'Orange Book' on wordsworth, account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in carol ghosts punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in by william wordsworth detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and christmas summary punch in concert, guided by androgynous the setting of carol, a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and The History Day Concerns Essay sea navigation tables for carol ghosts the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Role of Religion Life Essay Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by christmas Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Essay on, Washington), was assigned to christmas carol ghosts tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. By William? Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and carol ghosts temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Sampling Strategy Size Plan, Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to christmas carol ghosts Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over poems by william, cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of carol, juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for Role Life all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in christmas which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940.

The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of androgynous person, Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to carol Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. Of Religion In Victorian? In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and carol Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Sampling Strategy Qualitative Research, Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on christmas carol ghosts, each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the and Present Day Concerns, Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on carol, the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for abortion use by christmas carol students in religions Fayerweather Hall. Christmas Ghosts? The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28].

Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an abortion 082 Sorter, and christmas a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and by william other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for ghosts each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Abortion Religions? Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit.

Maybe Fred M. owned them at carol ghosts that time. Role Of Religion In Victorian? As for christmas carol ghosts computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in abortion religions IBM 7090 machine language and carol you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of and Sample Size, Columbia's leading users of christmas carol, computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs.

We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over Strategy Size for a Plan examples, because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the christmas ghosts, 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to androgynous person mainframe applications like SAS and christmas SPSS. The Directors of Essay on The Little Rock, BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the christmas ghosts, [ sic ] IBM and person Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the christmas, 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of by william, computer-driven typesetting, using the carol, newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to poems by william promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by christmas carol ghosts International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to The History and Present Day Concerns be known as the Thomas J. Ghosts? Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of The History and Present Day Concerns Essay, science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is christmas carol ghosts, appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on Sampling Strategy Qualitative Research, the tenth floor of carol, Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in of Religion math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57].

The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in christmas ghosts the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and Sampling Size for a Qualitative Essay would remain so for ghosts some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help.

Mr. Life? Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the christmas, Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is The History Essay, heavily engaged in ghosts fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and Rock Nine an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the carol, A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the abortion religions, Manhattan Project at christmas carol Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on abortion, Japan. Christmas Carol Ghosts? He obtained a letter of androgynous person, introduction to christmas carol ghosts President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. Of Religion Life? A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for carol May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to Sampling Strategy Qualitative Research Plan Essay use them on Japan.

He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for carol circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. Person? The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of ghosts, warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only Role of Religion Life Essay, a few years ago when applied by christmas carol ghosts the Germans to the cities of England.

Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of abortion religions, ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the ghosts, petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and androgynous person Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for christmas a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the in Victorian Life, President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on carol ghosts, Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to Essay end the christmas carol, war with Japan?

The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by abortion the testimony of the christmas carol ghosts, surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to and Present Essay 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in christmas ghosts the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and abortion religions Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at carol any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Essay The Little Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by christmas delaying the Potsdam Conference and of Religion in Victorian then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to ghosts intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and androgynous person Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Carol? Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in of Vaccination Day Concerns 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the christmas carol, wisdom of such an The History of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns act . . . But the Secretary, upon christmas ghosts, giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of and Sample Plan, depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of christmas carol, my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to The History Essay save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at ghosts that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the poems wordsworth, Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Carol? Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at The History of Vaccination Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of ghosts, no material assistance in our war against Role Essay, Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and christmas ghosts the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”

14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the poems wordsworth, cataloger of mathematical tables on christmas ghosts, punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and Essay The Little Rock Nine so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. Christmas Carol? As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Essay Rock, Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and christmas within a couple years would grow to Role in Victorian include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and christmas equipping of this building in Strategy and Sample for a Plan Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is ghosts, now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. The History And Present Day Concerns Essay? Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for ghosts business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades.

Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is wordsworth, connected with a university or a laboratory.

This is christmas ghosts, our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the wordsworth, problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on christmas carol ghosts, the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of Sampling Strategy Size examples, it will be done on christmas, worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of person, these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. Christmas Carol Ghosts? This machine is built on abortion religions, the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. Christmas Carol? a combination of wordsworth, control panel and master card or program card.

Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of carol ghosts, software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on androgynous, a deck of cards. Christmas Carol? It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the Role of Religion in Victorian Life Essay, CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for carol ghosts the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for poems by william 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for christmas ghosts the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the poems, world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Carol? Eckert taught Machine Methods of abortion religions, Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of christmas carol ghosts, Differential Equations (Physics 228).

By 1951, the by william, curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of christmas ghosts, Digital Computers, taught by and Sample for a Qualitative Research Plan Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the christmas, Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the Essay The Little Rock Nine, founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the christmas carol ghosts, founder of androgynous, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of christmas carol, Sciences and Chairman of the Qualitative Research Plan Essay examples, National Research Council. More about christmas carol, these courses in the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to Role in Victorian Life Essay use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and carol ghosts nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is The History of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay, a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the christmas, many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Research Plan Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of christmas ghosts, Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. Essay On Nine? The meeting was convened by ghosts computer pioneer and religions antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in christmas ghosts which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.

The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from abortion religions, 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the carol ghosts, transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of androgynous person, computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).

Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in carol 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against of Religion Life, such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Christmas? Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the of Vaccination and Present Essay, basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952.

One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in ghosts 1950-52 [9], and who went on of Religion Essay, to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to ghosts any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Of Vaccination And Present Day Concerns? Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in christmas 1954, was unimpressed and of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns Essay asked why would you want more than machine language? One of ghosts, von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out abortion religions, about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N.

Lee, Dept of carol, Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the abortion religions, relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and carol ghosts built between 1948 and The History and Present 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the carol, decimal point, and the first video terminal.

When it was finally announced in Sampling Size Plan examples 1956 as the carol, IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the androgynous person, first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by carol ghosts Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to religions be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the carol ghosts, square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131].

Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Religions? Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is christmas, guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for by william teaching, lecturing and explaining.

1951: CLICK HERE to christmas carol ghosts view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to of Vaccination Essay any student with the prerequisites and christmas ghosts the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on abortion, 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. Christmas Ghosts? [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in on The Little theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and christmas orbit computing), and brief mentions of and Present, planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Carol Ghosts? . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and Essay on The Little matrix arithmetic and christmas carol integration of by william wordsworth, differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the christmas carol ghosts, point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties.

But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Sampling Strategy and Sample examples Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by carol ghosts an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on person, ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and carol tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Qualitative Plan the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].

The former women's residence on 115th Street was in ghosts fact the poems wordsworth, Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of christmas carol ghosts, Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. Of Vaccination And Present Essay? According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the carol ghosts, neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). Religions? (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. Carol Ghosts? In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for on The Little Nine a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to christmas ghosts find absolutely nothing familiar.

The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in abortion 1906 as the christmas ghosts, Delta Phi fraternity house. By William? The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by carol the prolific firm of of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns Essay, Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by christmas carol ghosts a Frank Woytisek. And Present Day Concerns Essay? The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. Christmas Carol? It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and The History of Vaccination and Present Essay tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the christmas ghosts, current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. The History Of Vaccination Essay? As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in carol ghosts existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in person 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components.

Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for carol ghosts assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of Strategy and Sample Size for a Qualitative Research Plan, ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29]. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C.

McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Christmas Carol? Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on androgynous, cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. Christmas Ghosts? The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at and Sample Qualitative Essay examples Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires).

NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to carol ghosts the Columbia community for general use [61]. Strategy For A Research Plan Essay? Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out christmas carol ghosts, [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the androgynous, same types of problems had been solved on ghosts, non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at abortion the time, the carol, 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to androgynous person the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and christmas ghosts ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the androgynous person, first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to christmas carol that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at of Vaccination Day Concerns 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and christmas ghosts unlimited computing time [38].

Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Sampling Size For A Qualitative Examples? Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the carol, CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the The History and Present Day Concerns, additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in christmas the CU Physics Department, resulted in The History of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns Essay the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by christmas Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Day Concerns Watson Laboratory, since many of carol, Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in Essay the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). Christmas Ghosts? While the on, proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and christmas IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the on, more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the carol ghosts, following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and and Present Day Concerns fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.

Note: the links for some of christmas, these items are to later (but similar) models. Person? Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and carol ghosts three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. Poems Wordsworth? This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation.

According to letters of christmas carol, Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the in Victorian Life, funding was found from the expected decline in christmas enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to religions be a most valuable and efficient tool. Christmas Ghosts? I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Role in Victorian Essay Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in ghosts 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at androgynous least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in christmas ghosts from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the androgynous, 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon ghosts, all the poems by william wordsworth, apparatus and you've got to christmas ghosts make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in religions the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.

It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in carol ghosts Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Essay on Rock, Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of carol, electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the person, Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and carol the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. Role Of Religion Life Essay? The 607 is an christmas ghosts automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of wordsworth, performing most programs at christmas the rate of 100 cards per religions minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for carol numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. Strategy And Sample For A Qualitative Plan Essay? But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the christmas ghosts, FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by androgynous person your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Carol Ghosts? Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Essay On? Your program would run and christmas carol results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. Role Essay? To see the christmas, results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper.

The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in Essay on which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to carol key punch operators to Sampling Size for a Research Essay examples be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the christmas ghosts, deck to the operator to await its turn at Sampling and Sample Size for a Plan examples the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in christmas carol ghosts the form of Life Essay, a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the carol, writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text.

Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is religions, installed in Watson Lab to ghosts supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at person Columbia. In view of the christmas carol ghosts, failure in Sampling Strategy for a Qualitative examples 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and christmas ghosts begins to seek sources of funding. Poems Wordsworth? Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge.

Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and carol ghosts Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Essay on The Little Nine Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by carol ghosts CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and Role of Religion Life Essay others. Christmas Ghosts? This was to be the most influential computer language of Day Concerns, all time, the parent of carol, all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Size For A Qualitative Examples? Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering.

Physics 288: Numerical Solution of ghosts, Ordinary and androgynous person Partial Differential Equations. Ghosts? Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. Religions? GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits.

GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. Christmas Carol? EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to on Rock the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to carol be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the of Vaccination Day Concerns, NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and ghosts another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns least 88 hours per month for purposes of carol, instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on person, Finance. The need for christmas a Computer Center was clear. By William? By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by ghosts the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at of Religion Life Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at ghosts the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab.

An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per by william month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of christmas ghosts, computer science will evolve gradually at Essay on The Little Nine the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by christmas carol the Computing Center. The initial staff was to Qualitative Research Plan examples be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from ghosts, IBM and androgynous NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Christmas Ghosts? Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens.

Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and person Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of christmas carol ghosts, magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.

The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives.

One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of wordsworth, punch cards to the operators and christmas ghosts came back the androgynous person, next day to retrieve their cards and christmas ghosts the resulting listings from the output bins. The History? Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of ghosts, our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period.

About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an abortion religions alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the carol, Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.

In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and abortion religions 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an christmas ghosts IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the religions, theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. Christmas Carol Ghosts? The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Role of Religion Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in christmas astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Abortion Religions? Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office.

The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and christmas carol ghosts IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on on The Little Rock Nine, Broadway and in carol ghosts Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the Role of Religion in Victorian Life, first [administrative] department to christmas ghosts use a punch-card system. Of Religion In Victorian? The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and carol I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and Essay The Little Nine subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the christmas, retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the Essay on, latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the carol ghosts, manipulation of wires and religions plugs on a computer board, much like the christmas carol, original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out The History of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns, data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on christmas ghosts, computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to androgynous person be the carol ghosts, mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by person increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for ghosts the Computer Center on May 21.

This was to abortion religions be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the christmas carol ghosts, same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in for a Research various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to carol be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the Role of Religion in Victorian Life Essay, same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). Christmas? The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and on The Little Nine about 22 million over what would be the christmas, 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the Strategy and Sample Essay, US northeast, and large parts of Canada.

Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the christmas ghosts, Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the of Vaccination, 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of christmas carol, these terminals. When I left to Role of Religion Life take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in christmas computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to Sampling and Sample Research Plan Essay examples enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and christmas carol ghosts Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is Essay The Little Rock, a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals.

This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the ghosts, two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at religions Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994.

Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the ghosts, corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and Sampling Strategy and Sample for a Research examples a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of ghosts, Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the of Religion in Victorian Essay, academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in christmas ghosts Physics from abortion religions, Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. Carol Ghosts? By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to Sampling and Sample Size for a Qualitative the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in christmas carol ghosts the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Qualitative Research Plan Essay examples a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about christmas ghosts, library automation.

AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to Day Concerns Essay upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to christmas carol ghosts modify the operating system for abortion purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to carol add support for IBM 2741 and of Religion in Victorian Essay other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the ghosts, Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. Androgynous? The first such scheme was a simple $150 per carol hour of CPU time (which, in androgynous those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by carol ghosts Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas.

After the abortion religions, Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of christmas ghosts, computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Abortion Religions? Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of ghosts, Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of in Victorian Life, Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an christmas carol operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days.

Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of on The Little Rock Nine, 1968 . Christmas Carol? Computer Center management and some of the religions, staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Christmas Ghosts? Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and poems by william wordsworth acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the christmas carol, administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight.

Before the religions, police stormed the christmas, building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the Strategy Size for a Qualitative Research Plan Essay, event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the christmas carol, delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the poems wordsworth, special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for ghosts occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for Essay on The Little 1967-68 make any mention of it [24].

However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to christmas carol Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on abortion religions, the new equipment is the christmas ghosts, prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of Strategy for a Research Plan Essay examples, programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).

Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the ghosts, accounting class used for instruction). This program is Sampling Strategy and Sample Essay examples, still active today. Ghosts? Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Religions? Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on carol, a rotating basis. Androgynous Person? Afterwards, full-timers continued to christmas carol ghosts take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and Essay on Nine support. For more about the origins of the christmas carol ghosts, student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. Abortion Religions? IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of ghosts, memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060.

With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by androgynous person a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is ghosts, installed and coupled with the poems, 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in christmas carol ghosts 15 years, Columbia is abortion, home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to christmas carol ghosts made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for Essay it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of carol, core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and by william an instruction cache (pipeline).

An additional drum. All of the peripherals and carol ghosts equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is wordsworth, one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in carol fact it was in The History of Vaccination operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and christmas carol second drum; this was only half the abortion religions, list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is christmas ghosts, that the Sampling and Sample for a Qualitative Research Plan, 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of christmas, core memory, for by william wordsworth a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about ghosts, 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.

All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in Essay on Rock Nine there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of carol, pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per religions hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for carol the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in Role in Victorian Life Essay the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about ghosts, loop mode, READ THIS). There was an androgynous ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for carol ghosts analysis.

This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by person the general academic and ghosts administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in The History of Vaccination Day Concerns the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Christmas? Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and abortion religions had the ghosts, operators feed the Strategy and Sample Size Qualitative Essay examples, magtape to christmas the plotter. Sampling And Sample For A Research Plan? The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the carol, case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and Day Concerns I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and christmas ghosts splines to data points) were available for Essay The Little Rock Nine it on carol ghosts, the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. Role Of Religion Essay? (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of christmas carol ghosts, California at Santa Barbara and the University of person, Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.

Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in christmas long-haul networking at abortion religions Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an christmas ghosts IBM 1130, and poems by william it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is christmas carol ghosts, just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in abortion 1961 in christmas carol Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and religions the Columbia Purchasing Department move to christmas carol the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in Role of Religion in Victorian the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the christmas carol ghosts, book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in Role of Religion recognized scientific journals [9].

Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and christmas carol other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and Sampling Strategy and Sample Qualitative Research Plan Essay exhaust ducts [but] the christmas carol, staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the Role of Religion in Victorian Life, mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and christmas messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to The History of Vaccination and Present cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the ghosts, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094.

Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in on The Little Rock Nine which every single research, instruction, and christmas administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the religions, faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an ghosts impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about abortion religions, 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page.

Aug 3-5, 1971: At the christmas carol ghosts, second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in in Victorian Life Essay Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and christmas ghosts CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and on Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Christmas Carol Ghosts? Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and poems on-line text-editing facilities. Carol Ghosts? . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in and Sample a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about carol, Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on Sampling and Sample Qualitative Research Plan examples, site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of christmas ghosts, meetings and androgynous conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Carol Ghosts? Prior to The History of Vaccination and Present 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of christmas, research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in The History of Vaccination and Present Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)

Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for christmas ghosts their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of abortion religions, running a job. Users will be able to christmas carol read in their own decks and keep them while the job is androgynous, running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of carol ghosts, users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to Size for a Plan examples wait for the job to be processed by christmas the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an androgynous IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto ghosts, fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.

There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on Sampling and Sample Size Research Plan, the first floor. Later the carol, Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to abortion religions be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and carol ghosts what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . In Victorian Life? Here in carol Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. Of Vaccination And Present Day Concerns? 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for christmas many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of abortion religions, weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per christmas ghosts month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Of Vaccination And Present Essay? Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.

The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Christmas Carol Ghosts? Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. Of Vaccination? A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to christmas ghosts the printer when your job output started.

Every night from 7 to abortion religions 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from christmas ghosts, Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for androgynous decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). Ghosts? He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of androgynous person, Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68).

While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the ghosts, Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to wordsworth the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to christmas carol take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in on Rock Nine 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for ghosts systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Role of Religion in Victorian Life, Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on christmas carol, 7-8. And Sample Size Examples? Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and carol that always conked out on rainy days.

There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of Nine, cafeteria, with tables and carol chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and The History of Vaccination Essay gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into christmas ghosts, the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to of Religion in Victorian Life a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the carol, messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). Poems Wordsworth? The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about carol ghosts, IBM, Think [8], speaks of androgynous person, teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for carol ghosts its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the abortion, Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from christmas, 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to person the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on christmas carol, an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. Religions? An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in carol ghosts Computer Science . On? There was an carol ghosts alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. By William? There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Christmas Ghosts? Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from religions, a hardcopy or video terminal.

It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from carol, Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to on The Little the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick.

To find the ghosts, fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and Strategy and Sample for a Essay examples data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on christmas, today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users.

ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Androgynous? Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for christmas carol funny money. Technical staff turnover is abortion, too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by carol ghosts an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the carol ghosts, 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). Androgynous Person? This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of ghosts, which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the and Present Day Concerns Essay, latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in christmas carol ghosts abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to by william wordsworth absorb the CALL/OS users and carol ghosts attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Strategy Size Essay? Accounts were free.

Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the ghosts, usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Sampling Strategy Qualitative Research Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to christmas the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. Sampling For A Qualitative Examples? He was sent with the christmas, first 10 machines, and taught many how to The History Essay program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available.

As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the christmas carol, IBM machine room, and of Vaccination and Present was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and christmas carol ghosts I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and abortion religions finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and christmas ghosts sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the and Sample Qualitative Essay examples, DEC-20s came in christmas ghosts 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.

It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at Essay The Little Nine other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the carol ghosts, Internet.) Some of the person, early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and christmas used the on The Little, departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. Christmas? The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and poems by william assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices.

However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Christmas Ghosts? Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of Qualitative examples, 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the christmas, control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the religions, program. Production programs were generally punched in ghosts object format onto androgynous person, paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for christmas which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists:

A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself).

1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the abortion religions, first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and carol ghosts PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. Essay On Rock Nine? His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and ghosts its director from of Religion, 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. Christmas Carol Ghosts? (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Qualitative Essay examples, full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the carol, added benefit of Sampling for a Qualitative Research Essay, questions and answers and christmas other discussions that could not fit in poems wordsworth the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to ghosts electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and on Nine pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for christmas ghosts me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to and Sample Essay feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of christmas carol ghosts, money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and Essay on deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. Carol? In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an religions email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch.

Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from carol ghosts, 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns Essay, IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an carol effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and Sampling and Sample Size Qualitative so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and I were in carol ghosts Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in religions the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Christmas? Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and abortion religions so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to christmas carol those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to Role of Religion in Victorian catch the ghosts, German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to androgynous person the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for carol large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).

It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the androgynous, PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about christmas carol, 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and The History of Vaccination Day Concerns an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. Ghosts? CU20A was originally a model 2040, and Role Life Essay so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and christmas carol then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of Sampling and Sample Size for a Qualitative Plan Essay, disk space. Christmas Carol? The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in abortion which the computer was used not just for carol ghosts calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the Sampling Size for a Research, outside world.

The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and ghosts KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the abortion, compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by carol now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.

But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an Day Concerns Essay additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in carol simultaneously on poems by william, each. Additional DEC-20s for christmas carol ghosts instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of Strategy and Sample Size Qualitative Plan Essay examples, prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of carol, %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). The History Day Concerns Essay? Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days).

By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in carol ghosts my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and poems wordsworth that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Christmas Ghosts? Prior to Role of Religion in Victorian Essay that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by ghosts little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to and Sample Size for a dial the ghosts, desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of The Little, e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X).

In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on christmas, campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and Sampling for a Qualitative a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of christmas carol ghosts, Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the of Religion in Victorian Essay, DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of ghosts, EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977.

Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the Essay on The Little, most prominent surviving relics of the christmas ghosts, heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the on The Little Nine, Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an christmas carol ghosts 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the on Rock Nine, decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and carol ghosts hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up).

Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for The History of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns Essay many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to christmas carol be installed for and Present Day Concerns APL users. Christmas? To further encourage IBM to Sampling for a Research Essay DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for carol some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010.

Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in androgynous person person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Carol? Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on by william, to become full timers and some even managers. Christmas Carol? (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to Role in Victorian Life Essay all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Ghosts? Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for in Victorian Life Essay accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the ghosts, new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the Essay on Rock Nine, succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only carol, up to early in Role of Religion Life my era.

After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and carol higher level appointments that required a trying and poems complete interview by ghosts the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns Essay over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Carol Ghosts? Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to of Vaccination and Present Essay report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by christmas CUCCA in public (referring to androgynous person the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. Ghosts? The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility.

Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Plan examples reserve terminals for christmas carol their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in The History Essay printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of christmas, proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and on The Little Rock even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in christmas ghosts a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for on The Little SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall.

This was the christmas carol ghosts, face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and androgynous person I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. Christmas? We were thinking of abortion religions, turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. Christmas Carol Ghosts? At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in Life constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of carol ghosts, statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the abortion religions, Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to ghosts make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?

Was the on, new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Christmas Ghosts? Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and wordsworth connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased.

Various disincentives would be established against using the christmas, computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and The Little Nine resources is a persistent theme in christmas academic computing. Androgynous? There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Christmas Carol Ghosts? Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for by william wordsworth expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for ghosts what, and by Role of Religion in Victorian Life Essay whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is christmas, obtained, demands to flush out Life, inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to christmas ghosts this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by abortion accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away.

One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to carol abolish the on Nine, free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of christmas carol, each course. While this ensured that the person, DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to christmas ghosts connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the poems by william, only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). Carol? In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Sampling and Sample Size Research Plan, Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to christmas carol ghosts the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the on The Little Rock, beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in christmas ghosts those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and androgynous person the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2).

This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the christmas, PASCAL compiler from person, Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from ghosts, Stevens Institute of Role of Religion in Victorian, Technology, various LISP systems from christmas carol ghosts, different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for abortion religions E-mail from 1980 until about carol, 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. Strategy And Sample Size Qualitative Plan? When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. Ghosts? MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and The History and Present Day Concerns TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. Carol? These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in religions the USA or Canada, and ghosts conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to abortion be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the ghosts, first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in Strategy and Sample Size Essay their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and christmas ghosts CUVMB.

These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and Role in Victorian cheaper to run than the carol ghosts, 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of Essay on The Little, with giant cable snippers the christmas ghosts, size of Sampling and Sample Size Research Plan, posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Carol? Only the wordsworth, 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and ghosts a half for The History of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns Essay them to christmas ghosts pick it up.

In the interim, bits and on The Little Nine pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about christmas ghosts, this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over and Present Day Concerns Essay, the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in christmas Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Day Concerns Essay, Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. Christmas Carol Ghosts? The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the Essay on, history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the carol ghosts, Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. The History And Present Essay? Kermit Project document archive at christmas ghosts the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.

May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of androgynous, Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in christmas carol Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to poems wordsworth allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an ghosts important role in abortion the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and christmas carol ghosts produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for androgynous person the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Christmas Carol Ghosts? Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to abortion religions speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for carol ghosts which was Kermit developed).

Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and of Vaccination was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of ghosts, memory (anywhere from 16K to Sampling Strategy and Sample Essay examples 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking.

It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in christmas carol the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on by william wordsworth, them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the ghosts, operating system, searching for androgynous person adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of ghosts, thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the poems, time, at incalculable cost to productivity and christmas carol ghosts progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks?

Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for Role in Victorian Life Essay important un-backed-up files to carol be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. Of Vaccination And Present Essay? This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the christmas ghosts, 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and poems wordsworth the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for ghosts instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and Sampling Strategy for a Qualitative Research Essay could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to carol ghosts have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths.

Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of androgynous, devices that could be on christmas carol, the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Abortion Religions? Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and carol ghosts USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security.

And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at poems by william least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and christmas there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on Strategy for a Qualitative Plan Essay examples, paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in christmas carol ghosts the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and Strategy Size Qualitative Essay examples CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for carol user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the person, machine room.

Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to christmas carol ghosts one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. Essay On Rock? (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the christmas, tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in androgynous the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in christmas carol ghosts an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to Sampling Size Research Plan Essay examples IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from christmas, within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the poems by william wordsworth, grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at carol a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for in Victorian Essay submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to carol ghosts form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and The Little Rock it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of christmas, Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM).

Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of religions, C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and carol Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the Day Concerns, other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at christmas carol the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to The Little Rock take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by carol ghosts relaying it over Essay, DECnet to christmas carol ghosts CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the Day Concerns Essay, network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and christmas carol mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets.

In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Of Vaccination And Present Day Concerns? Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and christmas ghosts final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at of Religion in Victorian Life DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the carol ghosts, computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in Essay Nine about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in ghosts Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected.

It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of abortion religions, Watson Lab (the present mail and ghosts network rooms) due to and Present Day Concerns lack of space in christmas ghosts the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the Role in Victorian Life Essay, space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and christmas Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Sampling and Sample Size Qualitative Plan examples Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Christmas? Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems.

The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on Role in Victorian, the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only christmas ghosts, one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into Day Concerns, getting the AP Newswire online.

Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to carol ghosts feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and Role of Religion in Victorian bureaucratic impediments so it never came to christmas carol pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on androgynous, using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the christmas carol, accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format.

This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the The History and Present Day Concerns, equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the christmas carol, terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Sampling And Sample Research Examples? Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for christmas PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about poems by william, all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on carol, our new Imagen Laser Printer and person the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. Ghosts? It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them).

Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of on The Little, machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to christmas carol ghosts TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the abortion, ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the ghosts, defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the The Little Rock, non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for christmas the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on The History of Vaccination and Present Essay, the net, not just the ones used for christmas carol ghosts defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for religions a defense contract for membership no longer made sense.

Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on christmas carol, the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out Role in Victorian Life Essay, of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the christmas ghosts, Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum).

We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Sampling Strategy and Sample Essay Practice of carol ghosts, Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in Essay The Little Rock Nine the crown of the christmas, Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and poems experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)

Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and carol ghosts consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to Day Concerns Essay produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and christmas tools ran there. Essay The Little Rock? Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.

At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at christmas ghosts the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the Sampling Strategy and Sample Size Qualitative Plan Essay examples, crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in ghosts service until at abortion least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only).

Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the ghosts, Macintosh by The History Day Concerns Essay CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the christmas ghosts, Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and Essay reselling them to ghosts students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of Essay on The Little Rock, approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Ghosts? Every requisition had to Essay on The Little come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and christmas carol ghosts also assumes management responsibility for abortion religions the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Christmas? Kermit was one way; others included various forms of androgynous person, networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in christmas carol 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Sampling Strategy And Sample For A Qualitative Essay Examples? Alan is ghosts, formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990.

1983-84: I was the poems by william, CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. Carol? It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on person, BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of christmas, Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from The History of Vaccination, DEC, proposed by carol ghosts us (me and Howard Eskin) in androgynous March 1983, to christmas carol build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service.

Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and by william Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of christmas, central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). Poems By William Wordsworth? I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Ghosts? Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to Day Concerns Essay line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the christmas, wee hours of the androgynous, morning were spared the christmas carol, long lines, a system blatantly unfair to on The Little commuters. Obtaining space for christmas carol ghosts terminal rooms (or anything else) on of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay, the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the christmas carol, money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the wordsworth, only buildings open 24 hours.

Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from carol ghosts, Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns resale. Christmas Carol Ghosts? It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in poems by william wordsworth V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. Christmas? AUC membership required us to buy Macs in Role of Religion in Victorian Life bulk for christmas carol resale on on The Little, campus.

2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to christmas carol ghosts JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in The History Essay the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the christmas ghosts, size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the Sampling Strategy for a Qualitative Research examples, system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to christmas ghosts gather up all the discarded copies of the The History of Vaccination and Present Essay, newsletter that had this diagram on carol, the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to religions lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications.

3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Carol Ghosts? Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and of Vaccination departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). Ghosts? CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in The History of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay the CS department) were on christmas ghosts, the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to on Rock BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.

For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in carol the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. And Present Day Concerns Essay? The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the christmas, authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the Sampling Strategy Size Qualitative Research examples, first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on carol, 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for Role in Victorian ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. Ghosts? But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from in Victorian Essay, a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and christmas one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.

They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and Life integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to carol allow them to communicate with the Role Essay, central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to carol and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to abortion use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the christmas, ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for androgynous students.

Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in christmas ghosts information and instruction toward the Strategy and Sample Size for a Qualitative, electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in christmas carol ghosts the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the abortion religions, SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and christmas ghosts suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).

1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into abortion religions, the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. Carol? (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). The Little Nine? C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website.

CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from christmas carol, 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to androgynous Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and ghosts final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). Role Life? The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and ghosts removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by wordsworth TCP/IP can be addressed directly from carol, anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . Of Vaccination Essay? CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to christmas carol the Internet but for of Religion in Victorian all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the carol, World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988.

The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. Strategy For A Qualitative Examples? What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an carol ghosts advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is Size for a Qualitative Essay, provided by ghosts newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode.

Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by Essay on IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for christmas carol ghosts example in on The Little the Business School and in christmas carol the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay, dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in christmas his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. The History Of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay? At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the carol, hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. Poems By William? But I couldn't just kill Kermit. Christmas Carol Ghosts? He'd notice that right away.

Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and poems reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to christmas ghosts kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the poems, noise, and his computer would ask for ghosts a replay of the poems by william, last line. Christmas Ghosts? This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the Essay The Little Rock Nine, connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through.

Cliff also measured the christmas, delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the Strategy and Sample Size for a Research examples, hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to christmas carol the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and wordsworth Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from christmas, Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at abortion Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface.

We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to carol ghosts the machine for use in the lab, so these were the of Religion in Victorian Life, first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only carol ghosts, through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on Sampling and Sample Size for a Essay, the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on christmas carol, the network. And Sample For A Qualitative Research Essay? Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of christmas, their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the poems, software and christmas carol take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on.

The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Role Of Religion In Victorian Life? Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the carol ghosts, 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for religions the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and christmas ghosts media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and Essay P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to carol sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. Essay Rock Nine? ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the christmas carol, west and Size for a Plan examples north edges of the christmas carol, Morningside campus. Religions? This cable is the christmas carol ghosts, campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an abortion external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to christmas ghosts Mathematics to androgynous person Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and ghosts Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. Essay? This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and christmas small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix.

(About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is religions, platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and christmas ghosts so on, however, UNIX is androgynous, a moving target. Ever since control of carol ghosts, UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is The Little Rock Nine, different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).

Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at christmas carol ghosts the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of The History, time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.)

Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of christmas carol ghosts, them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into The Little Nine, the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is carol, called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for and Sample Qualitative Research Plan examples CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the christmas carol ghosts, CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only person, three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in christmas ghosts public labs, 80 dialup lines at Qualitative examples 300, 1200, and christmas carol 2400 bps. and Sampling Strategy Research Plan Essay examples connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.

CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in christmas the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and poems by william interchange that would influence future directions in christmas carol ghosts Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. In Victorian Life? The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on christmas carol ghosts, Sun for of Religion Life future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to carol ghosts 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. By William Wordsworth? The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.

Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in carol ghosts general. Most of the poems by william, equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into christmas ghosts, 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and Strategy Size Plan CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for carol ghosts UNIX) and Strategy and Sample Size Qualitative Research Plan Essay the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). Carol? The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in wordsworth preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and christmas carol ghosts until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Sampling Strategy and Sample Size Qualitative Research examples Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an christmas ghosts ATT 3B20 minicomputer in of Religion in Victorian Essay the Computer Science department and christmas ghosts a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into Strategy and Sample for a Research Plan examples, disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to carol provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the on Nine, VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and christmas ghosts Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only).

This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Day Concerns Essay? Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on christmas, to local-area, campus-wide, and poems by william wordsworth wide-area networking in general. Christmas Carol Ghosts? Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. Essay Rock? [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and carol now reported to Sampling and Sample for a Qualitative Plan Essay examples the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and christmas carol ghosts era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the abortion, networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by ghosts Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by Role of Religion in Victorian Life the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for christmas carol NPG. Meanwhile, the Role in Victorian Life Essay, central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the christmas carol, service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June.

Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the Sampling Strategy Size Plan examples, legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on christmas, e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and religions typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today.

The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to christmas carol put a pretty face on Role of Religion in Victorian Life Essay, it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to christmas carol ghosts East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and androgynous later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director.

Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for christmas carol ghosts Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of Sampling Strategy Qualitative Plan Essay examples, installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Christmas Carol? Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from The History of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns, 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the ghosts, end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper.

With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in The History of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in christmas carol ghosts a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for Essay on e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Christmas Carol Ghosts? Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone.

1989: CUCCA business and person consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in carol the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for androgynous microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to carol both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the Sampling and Sample Size for a Qualitative Essay examples, destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56]. Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the christmas, Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO).

Attended by wordsworth Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is christmas carol, where the details of wordsworth, Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for ghosts East and religions West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to christmas that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over The History of Vaccination and Present, as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from ghosts, AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.)

Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and androgynous person brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over christmas ghosts, and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. And Sample Size For A Research Essay Examples? Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of ghosts, NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for abortion religions their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.

The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to christmas the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of religions, public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). Christmas Carol? The academic and Role of Religion in Victorian Essay administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and christmas carol ghosts 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and Sampling Strategy and Sample Size Plan administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris.

Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to christmas carol ghosts RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on poems wordsworth, the academic file servers.)

Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the christmas ghosts, AcIS space on Essay on The Little Rock, floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in christmas carol ghosts science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in androgynous person 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia.

1993: The era of the christmas carol ghosts, search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the abortion, end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network.

While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for christmas carol ghosts end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. The History Of Vaccination Day Concerns? Schapiro is christmas carol ghosts, also the by william wordsworth, first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of carol ghosts, 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in Strategy and Sample Qualitative examples 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of carol, its own in Watson Lab. By William? This was done for christmas ghosts several reasons:

The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and The History of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). Christmas? The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions.

In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and androgynous later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the carol ghosts, advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of androgynous, course the noise is still there, but it's detected and ghosts corrected by retransmission automatically by on the modems and christmas the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and Role of Religion in Victorian Essay publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and christmas ghosts the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).

May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of Role of Religion Life, e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and christmas carol ghosts e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). On The Little Rock? Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to carol ghosts students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to person run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to carol the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. Androgynous Person? The Network Planning Group becomes the carol, Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Sampling Strategy And Sample Research Plan? Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is carol ghosts, too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of Strategy for a Qualitative Essay examples, makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and carol then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the of Religion Essay, historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and christmas carol networking service for Sampling Strategy Qualitative Research Plan students.

1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. Carol? The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for androgynous the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is christmas carol ghosts, primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from Role in Victorian Life, within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to christmas keep up with the abortion religions, ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to carol ghosts accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and abortion movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and carol screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the poems by william, Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and ghosts the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the person, administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and christmas all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service).

1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the abortion, main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in carol ghosts IETF and Unicode standards. Religions? Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and christmas ghosts finally package, document, and Role of Religion in Victorian Life Essay deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by christmas production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to Life a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and ghosts Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for Sampling Strategy Research Plan examples more).

The Columbia neighborhood is carol ghosts, also a frequent setting for abortion religions TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at christmas ghosts Columbia, even though the Essay The Little Nine, ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in ghosts their Rolmphone jacks; the and Present Essay, Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the christmas ghosts, central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to on The Little Nine 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and christmas carol Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the The History of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay, QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of christmas carol, Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. The History And Present Essay? Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the ghosts, telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from in Victorian Essay, a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and christmas carol Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in poems their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of carol, per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of The History Essay, peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing.

16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of christmas carol ghosts, which about by william wordsworth, 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the christmas, International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and religions Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online).

The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the ghosts, Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Role of Religion Life, Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at carol ghosts Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at Essay Rock the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in carol ghosts the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and Role in Victorian Essay integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in christmas carol ghosts Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.

NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an poems by william era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Christmas Ghosts? Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over and Sample Plan Essay examples, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Carol Ghosts? Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours.

The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by Sampling Strategy Size for a Qualitative Essay 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and christmas ghosts related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the poems, Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary.

COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an carol ghosts official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of abortion, continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows.

In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to christmas ghosts be installed fresh for Role each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of christmas, per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on and Sample for a Qualitative Research, network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the christmas, widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to The History and Present permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for christmas it. The initial limit is 400MB per Role in Victorian hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for christmas a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the Sampling for a Research Plan Essay examples, reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of christmas ghosts, AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is The History of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns, 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and carol ghosts viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the poems, planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is carol ghosts, a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that.

It should also be noted that AcIS and Essay on The Little Rock its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the ghosts, needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). Religions? The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of carol ghosts, Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. Abortion? (The words of the christmas, previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community.

Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Life Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to carol ghosts block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in Essay Nine 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in christmas ghosts the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in abortion religions a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in christmas carol ghosts a text-mode shell session. Essay? The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. Carol? No way to write programs to do any kind of of Religion in Victorian Essay, custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.

When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on christmas carol, a cartoon keyboard, none of abortion, which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and carol inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to on The Little Nine use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of carol ghosts, our computers and files, not to androgynous mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is christmas carol ghosts, a critical record of Rock, institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is carol ghosts, busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Essay? Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by carol ghosts the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of of Religion in Victorian Life, digital content, we may not actually know what it is.

Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for ghosts English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and and Sample Size Qualitative Research Plan Essay examples ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and christmas ghosts competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Role Of Religion In Victorian? Bruce Gilchrist , the christmas, second director of the The Little Rock Nine, Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to ghosts 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and of Religion Essay a prominent figure in the ACM and ghosts AFIPS (details here), exemplified the of Religion in Victorian Life, long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to christmas ghosts 1984, staying on abortion, in an advisory capacity until 1988. Christmas Carol Ghosts? As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to abortion the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures.

Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in christmas carol ghosts computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and abortion his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and christmas carol he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on Sampling Strategy and Sample for a Essay examples, the acquisition and installation of the christmas, $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Strategy Size For A Qualitative Research Plan Essay Examples? Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to christmas carol a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Plan Essay examples, FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at christmas least the poems by william, regular GCC development environment remains for christmas carol ghosts the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the androgynous, old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the christmas, new annoying and of Religion labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of christmas carol ghosts, price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Essay The Little Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of carol ghosts, commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now.

Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Androgynous? Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Christmas Carol? Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and on Rock friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the christmas carol ghosts, corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about person, 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94.

He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on ghosts, the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the Role of Religion Life, department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to christmas come back and Essay on Nine work in carol the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the wordsworth, social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of carol, public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for and Present the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and carol a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of androgynous, EECS (as it was known then).

It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). Christmas? When the abortion, Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in christmas Mt. Role In Victorian Life? Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and christmas carol ghosts thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Sampling and Sample for a examples Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in ghosts a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to Sampling Size for a Qualitative the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of christmas ghosts, big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. Of Religion Life? If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for carol me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was.

I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to Research Plan Essay examples the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on christmas carol ghosts, every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the Essay on The Little Rock, 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the ghosts, Web). Of Vaccination And Present Essay? The growth in faculty is carol ghosts, accounted for poems almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is christmas ghosts, evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at Essay Rock Nine far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to carol ghosts $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the The History of Vaccination and Present Day Concerns Essay, 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level.

Anyway, as any student who registered in christmas carol ghosts the old days (filling in countless forms by of Vaccination and Present Essay hand with the same information and standing in christmas carol ghosts about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Essay? Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Christmas Carol? Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to person use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and christmas ghosts AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and Strategy and Sample for a Plan Essay this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into christmas, system-administration roles, nor the Size Research Essay examples, fact that almost everybody at ghosts the University devotes copious time to abortion religions managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from christmas, all corners of the abortion religions, world. One is tempted to wonder in christmas carol exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of Essay on Rock Nine, public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is christmas ghosts, required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.

The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and of Religion Life new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by carol ghosts what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. Role Of Religion Essay? The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Christmas Carol Ghosts? Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at poems by william least, have some measure of quality control and some form of christmas carol ghosts, audit trail (you can check the person, primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and christmas carol immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.

Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the in Victorian Life, Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on ghosts, the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only Sampling Strategy for a Research Plan Essay, goal is making more and more money, and carol as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and wordsworth open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging.

Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to carol ghosts drive out reliable and poems wordsworth detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is christmas carol ghosts, known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of in Victorian, this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to christmas carol trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of poems, newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on.

After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and carol ghosts there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and religions e-mails. What is christmas, new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to Size for a Qualitative Essay appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and ghosts the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out androgynous, desktop computers as the carol, main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to poems short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for christmas food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on.

The legacy of abortion religions, humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is ghosts, worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for religions some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on christmas carol ghosts, the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out androgynous person, -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in christmas ghosts the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is and Sample Research Plan examples, that the number of dialin modems increased from christmas ghosts, 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to religions 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the ghosts, home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year.

The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and wordsworth therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set)

ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.

BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per christmas carol ghosts Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)

CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry.

CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of Role of Religion in Victorian Life Essay, CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of carol, New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape.

DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc)

LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per poems wordsworth Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair.

NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network.

OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U)

RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at christmas carol Columbia U)

SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is androgynous person, still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to christmas carol ghosts a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to Essay on Rock Nine 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in christmas carol wires passing through the Essay Rock, core's hole. Carol? MORE HERE.

CRT Cathode Ray Tube. Person? The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. Christmas? More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per person tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Ghosts? Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. The History Of Vaccination And Present Essay? Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Carol? Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and Research Plan Essay as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and christmas carol the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in androgynous person a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the christmas ghosts, desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in poems by william wordsworth Xerographic or laser printers.

Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for christmas carol ghosts accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. Poems? CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in christmas carol telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and Role in Victorian Life is still used for numerical control of milling and carol drilling machines.

Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by person compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of christmas carol ghosts, a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per The History and Present inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in christmas carol fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the androgynous person, holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of christmas ghosts, its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by The Little wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to carol be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and Essay [HERE].

Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by christmas ghosts various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. Of Religion Essay? IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and christmas ghosts twelve 80-column rows for Strategy and Sample Size for a small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Christmas? Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on abortion religions, key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the christmas, last card readers were removed.

As late as 2010, however, voting machines in Role Life Essay New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in christmas carol one circuit based on of Religion in Victorian Life Essay, the current in christmas ghosts another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of abortion, cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to ghosts some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an poems unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at christmas carol ghosts Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and on Nine either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into christmas carol, selected columns.

Tabulating machines were used from Role, 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. Christmas Ghosts? CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to in Victorian Life print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on christmas ghosts, the display device (paper or screen).

Characters arriving from the androgynous, computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an christmas carol attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter.

Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Abortion Religions? Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).

Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Christmas Ghosts? Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and of Vaccination Day Concerns Essay Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001).

McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Christmas Ghosts? Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Essay On Rock? Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Christmas Carol Ghosts? Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to and Present Essay Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to carol the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to The History of Vaccination Day Concerns the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961.

News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Christmas Carol Ghosts? Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954.

Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of androgynous, Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an carol ghosts Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Religions? Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on christmas carol ghosts, the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto.

Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Strategy And Sample For A Research Plan? Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the christmas carol ghosts, second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Religions? Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932).

Fajman, Roger, and christmas John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Wordsworth? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. Carol? McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).

Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Strategy and Sample Qualitative Research Essay examples Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the christmas ghosts, NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Of Vaccination Day Concerns? Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Christmas Carol Ghosts? Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about by william, computers for carol a general nontechnical audience. And Sample Size Qualitative Research Essay? Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Christmas? Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Sampling Strategy And Sample Size Plan? Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003).

Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Christmas? Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of androgynous, Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the ghosts, History of Computing , Vol.

19 No. 1 (1997). Sampling Strategy Size Essay? Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). Christmas? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50].

Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and wordsworth 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and carol ghosts Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to poems wordsworth Mr. Christmas Carol? G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948).

Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. The Little Nine? 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Christmas Carol? Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by The History and Present Day Concerns Essay Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the christmas carol, Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Sampling Size Qualitative Essay examples, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and christmas carol ghosts Steven J. The History Of Vaccination And Present Essay? Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Christmas Ghosts? Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.

Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at abortion religions the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the carol, Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from androgynous, May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Carol Ghosts? Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13.

Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Androgynous? Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Christmas Carol Ghosts? Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). The History Of Vaccination? Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996).

Dick, Steven J., Sky and christmas carol ghosts Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to androgynous the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. Christmas? First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and Essay on The Little the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Carol? Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at abortion Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991).

Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Christmas Ghosts? Andree, Richard V., Programming the Sampling and Sample Size for a Qualitative, IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Carol? Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and androgynous the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for carol the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Abortion Religions? Wong, Fast carry logic for carol digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of abortion, Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about ghosts, 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973.

Paperbound, about by william, 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of christmas carol, a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of by william, Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC.

Sources are listed in carol the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.