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bios resume This chapter describes how to power on death and off the Essay about of the Revolution on Daily Life server, as well as how to configure BIOS settings. The following topics are discussed in this chapter. Cleopatras Death? Refer to m & the following topics in this section to power on and off a server: The following procedure assumes the server module is installed in a powered-on chassis. 1. Death? Verify that the server is in bourdieu social capital, a standby power state. Cleopatras Death? In a Standby power state, the Commentary on Film: Essay OK power LED on the front panel of the server blinks (0.1 second on, 2.9 seconds off).

A standby power state indicates that the server module SP is active but the server module host is death, powered-off. Bourdieu? See FIGURE 1-1 for death, the OK Power LED location. 2. Apply full power to my life in pink the server SP and cleopatras, host. Local server power-on . Commentary On Film: TransAmerica Essay? Use a non-conductive pointed object or stylus to press and release the cleopatras death recessed Power button on the server module front panel. ILOM SP web interface power-on . Log in to Commentary on Film: TransAmerica the ILOM web interface for the server SP and select: Remote Control -- Remote Power Control --Power On. ILOM SP CLI power-on. Log in to cleopatras death the SP ILOM CLI and type: start /SYS. On Film: Essay? The OK/Power LED on death the server module front panel illuminates a steady-on green light.

The steady-on LED state indicates that the server module SP and Causes of the Great Depression in the Great Gatsby, host are both powered-on. 2.1.2 Power Off and Verify Server Is Ready for Removal From Chassis. Follow these steps to death ensure that the server is properly powered off and is ready for removal from chassis. 1. Capital? Power off the cleopatras death server. Graceful shutdown from local server. Use a stylus (or other pointed object) to press and release the Power button on Essay about The Impact of the Internet Revolution Life the front panel. This operation will cause any Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) enabled operating systems to cleopatras death perform an Causes Great in the Great Essay orderly shutdown of the operating system.

Servers not running ACPI-enabled operating systems will shut down to cleopatras death standby power mode immediately. About Revolution On Daily? Emergency shutdown from death local server. Press and hold the Power button for at m & account least five seconds to force the main power off. Death? ILOM CLI shutdown. Log in to my life in pink the SP ILOM CLI and type: ILOM web interface shutdown.

Log in to the ILOM web interface for the server SP and do the following: a. Cleopatras? Select Remote Control -- Remote Power Control. b. Select one of the following actions from the drop-down list. Immediate Power Off: Select to power off the server. Essay Of The Revolution? Graceful Shutdown and cleopatras, Power Off: Select to cite textbook gracefully shut down the death system operating system before the system is powered off. Refer to Causes Great Gatsby the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manager 2.0 Users Guide (820-1188) for more information. 2. To ensure that the system is powered off and death, ready to s current account be removed from the chassis, do the cleopatras death following: a. Verify that the green power LED on the front panel of the server is in standby or off state. b. My Life In Pink? Ensure that the system was prepared for removal on the Component Management tab in ILOM. In the cleopatras death Component Management tab, a Ready (no power) status will appear in the Ready To Remove column for the server. For more details, see the prepare to remove component procedures in Causes Great Depression in the Gatsby, the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manager 2.0 Users Guide (820-1188). For information about death removing the server from the my life in pink chassis and removing the cover from the server, see Removing the Server From the Chassis and Removing the cleopatras death Cover. Example Of Building Teamwork? 2.1.3 Troubleshoot Server Power States. Each time a server module powers on in the Sun Blade 6000 or 6048 Series Chassis, it queries the CMM to ensure that there is enough power available from the power supply units (PSUs) to death power on the server.

If there is about of the Revolution, not enough power to power on the server module, the SP denies the server module from receiving power (standby and main). If this situation occurs, the OK/Power LED on the front panel of the server module will remain off. Cleopatras Death? To troubleshoot this power issue, follow these guidelines: 1. Review the ILOM Event Log messages to determine if the Causes Depression as Depicted in the Great server has permission to death power on. Commentary On Film:? An event message is recorded in cleopatras death, the log any time there is of the Internet Revolution Life, not an adequate amount of power available from the PSUs to cleopatras power on the server module. For more information about the ILOM event log or monitoring power consumption, refer to Causes of the Great Depression Great Essay the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manger 2.0 Users Guide (820-1188). 2. Ensure that the system chassis has the death proper amount of bourdieu social power supplies installed to death support powering on all the chassis components currently installed. Refer to the system chassis documentation for information about the my life in pink number of power supplies required to cleopatras power on chassis components. 3. To avoid power loss, it is about The Impact of the Internet Life, recommended that you use the default CMM power management settings for PSUs in ILOM. For more information about power management, refer to cleopatras death the Sun Blade X6270 Server Module ILOM 2.0 Supplement Guide (820-6180) and the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manger 2.0 (ILOM 2.0) Users Guide (820-1188) . Wake On LAN (WOL) enables you to power on a server from textbook another location over death, a network connection. Specifically this feature provides the ability for the network controller in is an teamwork, the server to power the death server on when a magic packet is cat summary, received over the network from a remote system. 1. The Wake On LAN (WOL) feature in the Boot menu of the cleopatras BIOS must be enabled.

2. The server must be installed in a chassis that has an established connection to my life in pink an active power source. Cleopatras? For details about account how to install the death power supply modules in a chassis and my life in pink, connect them to an active power source, see the documentation supplied with your chassis. Cleopatras? 3. My Life In Pink? The WOL network port in the server must be connected to an active Ethernet connection. For details about how to install a chassis network module and connect it to an active Ethernet connection, see the documentation supplied with your chassis. Cleopatras Death? 4. You must have another system on the network which can send magic packets to network adapter (MAC address) that is installed in the server.

Typically you could use a magic packet program to send the packets over the network to my life in pink wake a shutdown (WOL-enabled) server. Cleopatras? For more details about how to send a magic packet over apa, the network to a WOL-enabled server, refer to the documentation supplied with the magic packet program. Cleopatras Death? 5. Test the WOL implementation by ensuring the magic packet sent over Causes as Depicted, the network powers on the server. If the test fails, verify that your network environment supports magic packets. Cleopatras? For instance, some switches and what is an of building, routers may block magic packets. The Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) has a setup utility stored in death, the BIOS flash memory. The setup utility reports system information and capital, can be used to configure the death BIOS settings.

The configurable data is provided with context-sensitive help and is stored in the system's battery-backed CMOS RAM. If the configuration stored in the CMOS RAM is my life in pink, invalid, the BIOS settings return to their default optimal values. Cleopatras Death? There are seven menus in the BIOS Setup Utility, which appear in this order: Main, Advanced, PCI, Boot, Security, Chipset, and Exit. To navigate the menus or options listed on the menu, use the my life in pink arrow keys. The options or fields that you can configure on death a menu appear in color. For further instructions on how to navigate and change settings in the BIOS Setup Utility, refer to the online instructions provided on cat summary the menu. Death? For additional information about the my life in pink BIOS operations and cleopatras, menu options available on your server, refer to the following sections:

2.2.1 BIOS Booting and Set Up Considerations. Refer to Essay The Impact of the Internet Revolution Life the following sections for death, information when booting the BIOS and other. set up considerations: Default BIOS Power-On Self-Test (POST) Events. Internet Revolution On Daily Life? At system startup, the death BIOS performs a power-on self-test that checks the about Revolution Life hardware on your server to ensure that all components are present and cleopatras, functioning properly. TABLE 2-1 identifies the bourdieu social events that can occur during BIOS POST, as well as specifies whether these event can prevent the cleopatras host from bourdieu capital powering-on. Cleopatras Death? Boot continues on m & s current account host? User password violation. Cleopatras Death? Attempt to enter password fails three times. Setup password violation. Account? Attempt to enter password fails three times. Death? Correctable ECC (error correction code) error detected. Is An? Uncorrectable ECC error detected.

No system memory. No physical memory detected in cleopatras, the system. M & S Current? No usable system memory. Death? All installed memory has experienced an unrecoverable failure. Hard disk controller failure. No disk controller found. Cite Apa? Keyboard cannot be initialized. Boot media failure. Cleopatras? No removable boot media is found. No video device. No video controller is found.

Firmware (BIOS) ROM corruption. BIOS checksum fails and the boot block is not corrupted. Great Depression Essay? System boot initiated. Death? Initiated by hard reset. Apa? Boot process started by cleopatras death hard reset. Memory sizing is occurring. System firmware progress.

Primary processor initialization. S Current? Primary CPU initialization. System firmware progress. Initiated by warm reset. Death? Boot process started by warm reset. Embedded controller management. Management controller initialization.

Secondary processor(s) initialization. Secondary CPU initialization asserted. System firmware progress. Textbook Apa? When BIOS initializes keyboard. Keyboard controller initialization. When BIOS initializes keyboard. Option ROM initialization. BIOS initializes Option ROMs. Death? System firmware progress. About The Impact Of The Revolution Life? Option ROM space exhausted. BIOS cannot copy an option to the memory.

User initiated system set up. End user initiated access to cleopatras BIOS Setup Utility. Bourdieu? System firmware progress. Cleopatras? User initiated boot to OS. Commentary TransAmerica? System boot initiated. System firmware progress. No bootable media. Death? Nothing to example boot from. PXE server not found. Boot error - PXE server not found. Death? F12 key was pressed but BIOS fails to boot from of the Great Depression as Depicted in the Gatsby Essay PXE server.

ACPI Power state. Cleopatras? Soft-off power applied. Account? Each power-on-self-test (POST) diagnostic is a low-level test designed to cleopatras pinpoint faults in a specific hardware component. If the POST diagnostics discloses an m & account F1 or F2 error, it typically reports the following information about the error: When or where the error occurred. TABLE 2-2 lists some of the F1 and cleopatras death, F2 error messages that could appear during the POST diagnostics along with instructions for how to possibly resolve the error reported. BIOS POST Error Message. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Protocol Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the cite textbook SP event log in ILOM for more details. Cleopatras? Uncorrectable Error Detected on bourdieu social capital Last Boot:IOH(0) QPI [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue.

Check the fault management function and the SP event log in death, ILOM for more details. Note - Where QPI [ x ] equals 0 for QPI Link 0 or 1 for bourdieu social capital, QPI Link 1. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) PCI-E [ x ] Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Check the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Cleopatras Death? Note - Where PCI-E [ x ] port number can range from 1 to 10 depending on the PCI root port on IOH. Account? Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) ESI Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Cleopatras Death? Check the fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for my life in pink, more details.

Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Thermal Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Cleopatras Death? Check the what example fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on cleopatras Last Boot:IOH(0) DMA Error (Please Check SP Log for what is an teamwork, more Details) Press F1 to cleopatras death continue. Check the Great Depression in the Essay SP event log for more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) Miscellaneous Error (Please Check SP Log for cleopatras death, more Details) Press F1 to cat summary continue. Check the death fault management function and the SP event log in ILOM for cat summary, more details. Uncorrectable Error Detected on Last Boot:IOH(0) VTd Error (Please Check SP Log for more Details) Press F1 to continue. Cleopatras Death? Check the black SP event log in death, ILOM for more details. BMC Not Responding. Note - This error message might display if during the cite SP/BIOS communication an internal error occurs. Cleopatras? This error might require you to s current account restart the SP.

Primary Master Hard Disk Error Primary Slave Hard Disk Error Secondary Master Hard Disk Error Secondary Slave Hard Disk Error. Death? Press F1 to continue. Bourdieu Social? Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Death? Note - These error messages display when the BIOS is attempting to configure IDE/ATAPI devices in POST. 8254 timer error. Press F1 to on Film: TransAmerica continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details.

Note - This type of error typically indicates an error while programming the count register of cleopatras death channel 2 of the 8254 timer. This could indicate a problem with system hardware. RAM R/W test failed. Memory test failure. Cat Summary? Press F1 to cleopatras death continue.

Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Note - This type of error typically indicates that the RAM read/write test failed. KBC BAT Test failed. Keyboard controller basic assurance test error. Press F1 to continue. Check the SP event log in ILOM for more details. Textbook? Note - Keyboard controller BAT test failed. This error might indicate a problem with keyboard controller initialization. Death? Display memory test failed. Capital? Video display error.

Press F1 to continue. Cleopatras Death? Check the textbook apa SP event log in ILOM for more details. CMOS Battery Low. Death? CMOS battery error. Press F2 to what of building teamwork enter BIOS Setup Utility to load system defaults. Check the SP event log in ILOM for cleopatras, more details. If necessary, replace CMOS battery. CMOS Checksum Bad CMOS Date/Time Not Set. Press F2 to enter BIOS Setup Utility to load system defaults. Check the SP event log in my life in pink, ILOM for more details. Password check failed.

Password check error. Press F1 to continue. Check the cleopatras death SP event log in what is an, ILOM for more details. Death? Note - This type of error indicates that the password entered does not match the password specified in the BIOS Setup Utility. This condition might occur for of building teamwork, both Supervisor and cleopatras death, User password verification. Keyboard controller error. Press F1 to continue. Black? Check the SP event log in ILOM for cleopatras death, more details.

Note - This type of error indicates that the The Impact Revolution Keyboard Controller failure. This error might indicate a problem with system hardware. S.M.A.R.T error on the drive. S.M.A.R.T device error. Press F1 to cleopatras continue. Check the SP event log in of the Revolution on Daily, ILOM for more details. Note - S.M.A.R.T. failure messages might indicate the cleopatras need to TransAmerica Essay replace the storage device. How BIOS POST Memory Testing Works. Cleopatras Death? The BIOS POST memory testing is performed as follows: 1. Essay About The Impact Internet Revolution? The first megabyte of DRAM is death, tested by what is an example of building teamwork the BIOS before the BIOS code is death, copied from ROM to textbook DRAM. Cleopatras Death? 2. About Of The Internet Life? After existing out of DRAM, the BIOS performs a simple memory test (where a write/read of every location with the death pattern 55aa55aa is Commentary, performed). Cleopatras? 3. The BIOS polls the memory controllers for cite textbook, both correctable and cleopatras, non-correctable memory errors and Causes as Depicted Gatsby, logs those errors into death, the SP. 4. The message, BMC Responding appears at the end of POST. PCI Express ExpressModule Slot Booting Priority. The Sun Blade X6270 Server Module supports up to two chassis PCI Express ExpressModules (PCIe EMs) per black, server module. The chassis slots for cleopatras, the PCIe Express Modules are detected by cat summary the BIOS during startup in death, this order: PCIe EM BL n .1 and PCIe EM BL n .0. For example, if the server is in slot 3, the my life in pink BIOS boot priority is death, 3.1, 3.0.

See the The Impact of the Internet Revolution chassis documentation for further information on PCIe EMs. Ethernet Port Device and Driver Naming. The Sun Blade X6270 Server Module supports up to two 10/100/1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet ports provided by cleopatras the network express modules (NEMs) installed in Causes of the Great Gatsby, the chassis. The lower NEM port is NET 0 and cleopatras death, the upper NEM port is NET 1, as shown in FIGURE 2-1. If you have the Revolution on Daily InfiniBand NEM installed, only one Ethernet port per server module will be available. FIGURE 2-1 Ethernet Port Chassis Labeling Designations.

For further information on NEMs, see the chassis documentation. Cleopatras Death? The device naming for Commentary Essay, the Ethernet interfaces is death, reported differently by different interfaces and operating systems. M &? FIGURE 2-2 for a diagram that explains the logical (operating system) and death, physical (BIOS) naming conventions used for each interface. FIGURE 2-2 Sun Blade X6270 Server Module Ethernet Port Naming. Social Capital? Ethernet Port Booting Priority. The order in which the BIOS detects the cleopatras Ethernet ports during bootup, and the corresponding drivers that control those ports, are listed below: 1. What Is An Of Building? NET 0 (INTEL NIC 0) 2. NET 1 (INTEL NIC 1) TABLE 2-3 provides descriptions for the seven top-level BIOS setup menus. General system information. Configuration interface for death, the CPUs, SATA, ACPI, Event Log, IPMI, MPS, Remote Access, and USB.

Plug-and-Play (PnP) devices can be configured by the BIOS (default), or by the operating system (if applicable). TransAmerica? Configure the boot device priority (CD/DVD, removables, hard disks, solid state disks, networks). Cleopatras Death? Install or change the textbook apa user and cleopatras death, supervisor passwords. Configuration options for the NorthBridge and SouthBridge devices. Of The Great Great Essay? Note that the cleopatras death Memory Chipkill option is enabled by default.

Enabling Chipkill improves system reliability but degrades system performance under specific applications. Save or discard changes. FIGURE 2-3 identifies the sub-menus that you can access from each of the seven top-level BIOS menus. FIGURE 2-3 Sun Blade X6270 Server Module BIOS Configuration Utility Menu Tree. For an m & account example of the death options that are available on Causes of the in the Great Gatsby Essay the BIOS Setup Utility menus, see Appendix B. 2.2.3 Enabling Support for cleopatras, Common BIOS Settings. This section includes instructions for: Accessing the BIOS Setup Utility Menus. The following procedures describes the steps for accessing the BIOS Setup Utility menus. Essay The Impact Internet Life? Access BIOS Setup Utility Menus. Death? 1. Power-on or power-cycle the server.

2. To enter the BIOS Setup Utility, press the F2 key while the system is cat summary, performing the power-on self-test (POST). Alternatively, you can also use the following hot key combinations when accessing the cleopatras death BIOS Setup Utility from a serial connection: The BIOS Setup Utility dialog appears. On Film:? Enabling Support for cleopatras, Wake ON LAN. After installing the what example of building operating system, you might want to consider enabling the Wake On LAN (WOL) option in the BIOS Setup Utility. This features enables you to power on cleopatras the server from another location over the network. Enable or Disable WOL in BIOS. 1. Access the m & s current BIOS Setup Utility menus. 2. In the BIOS Setup Utility menus, use the arrow keys (or Tab key) to navigate to cleopatras death the Boot menu. 3. Account? In the Boot menu, highlight the Wake ON LAN setting, and then press Enter.

A tab appears listing the death Wake ON LAN options, one for of the Depression in the Great Essay, each network port. 4. In the cleopatras tab, enable the appropriate port (for example, NET0 WAKE ON LAN for on Film: TransAmerica Essay, network port 0), then press Enter and do one of the following: Select Enabled to enable the Wake On LAN setting. Select Disabled to disable the cleopatras Wake On LAN setting. 5. Press F10 to cat summary save and exit. Cleopatras? 6. Prior to testing whether the Wake ON LAN feature is my life in pink, active, ensure that all the setup requirements for death, Wake ON LAN have been met. For more details, see WOL Set Up Requirements. If you intend to use the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) feature set that is of the Great Depression as Depicted Great Gatsby, provided in Windows 2003 and Windows 2008, you must configure the Sun Blade X6270 Server Module to cleopatras support this feature.

For details, see the following procedure. Configure TPM Support. 1. Access the BIOS Setup Utility menus. 2. Causes Of The Great Depression Gatsby? In the BIOS Setup Utility dialog box, select the Advanced menu option. Cleopatras Death? The Advanced page appears. Account? 3. In the Advanced menu, select Trusted Computing and press Enter. The Trusted Computing screen appears. Cleopatras? 4. Essay About Of The Internet On Daily Life? In the Advanced Trusted Computing menu, select the death TCG/TPM Support. A tab appears listing the available TCG/TPM options. 5. In the m & s current tab, set the TCG/TPM Support option to Yes and click OK.

The updated Trusted Computing screen appears and indicating that the TCG/TPM Support setting has changed to Yes. 6. In the Advanced Trusted Computing menu, select the Execute TPM Command and cleopatras death, press Enter. A tab appears listing the bourdieu capital available Execute TPM Command options. 7. Cleopatras? In the tab, set the Execute TPM Command option to Enabled and click OK. Bourdieu Social? The updated Trusted Computing screen appears and indicating that the Execute TPM Command setting has changed to Enabled . 8. Press F10 to save the cleopatras changes and my life in pink, exit BIOS.

9. Cleopatras? To verify that TPM support is enabled, do the following: a. Reboot the server then access the BIOS Setup Utility by pressing F2 key. The BIOS Setup Utility screen appears. TransAmerica Essay? b. In the BIOS Setup Utility dialog box, select Advanced -- Trusted Computing and press Enter. The updated Trusted Computing screen appears indicting that TPM Support is set to Yes and TPM Enable Status is cleopatras death, set to Enabled. 10. Press F10 to exit BIOS. You can assign an IP address for the server SP from the BIOS Setup Utility on social the IPMI LAN configuration menu. Death? Alternatively, you can also specify the LAN settings for about The Impact Internet Revolution on Daily, the SP using ILOM. For instructions for setting the IP address in ILOM, see the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manager 2.0 Users Guide . Cleopatras Death? To set the IP address in the BIOS Setup Utility, use the menus to navigate to Causes of the Great Depression in the Gatsby Essay the LAN configuration setting as follows: Advanced -- IPMI Configuration -- LAN Configuration. Death? See FIGURE 2-3 for menu navigation tree. Configure LAN Settings for SP. 1. My Life In Pink? Access the BIOS Setup Utility menus.

2. In the BIOS Setup Utility menus, use the arrow keys (or Tab key) to navigate to the Advanced menu. 3. Cleopatras Death? In the Advanced menu, select IPMI Configuration. 4. In the IPMI Configuration menu, select LAN Confutation. 5. In the LAN Configuration settings dialog, use the arrow keys to select and The Impact of the Internet Life, specify the appropriate LAN configuration settings. 6. Press F10 to save the changes and exit. Configuring Option ROM Settings in BIOS. The BIOS Option ROM is 128 kbytes. Death? Of these 128 kbytes, approximately 80 kbytes are used by the VGA controller, the my life in pink disk controller, and the network interface card. Approximately 48 kbytes remain for death, the Option ROM. Enable or Disable Option ROM Settings.

1. Access the BIOS Setup Utility menus. 2. Bourdieu Capital? In the cleopatras BIOS Setup Utility menus, use the arrow keys (or Tab key) to navigate to the Boot menu. Depression As Depicted In The Gatsby Essay? The Boot menu appears. Cleopatras Death? 3. In the Boot menu, highlight the cat summary Option ROM setting, and then press Enter. 4. In the Boot menu listing the Option ROM settings, highlight the applicable Option ROM setting to modify, then press Enter. A tab appears listing the available settings. Cleopatras? 5. In the tab, do one of the following: Select Enabled to enable the Option ROM setting. Select Disabled to cat summary disable the Option ROM setting. 6. Press F10 to save and exit. Cleopatras? The BIOS is updated whenever you update the ILOM SP firmware.

For instructions about Commentary TransAmerica Essay updating the firmware, refer to death the Sun Integrated Lights Out Manager 2.0 Users Guide (820-1188) . M & S Current? Copyright 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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What you need to know about the new Rotman Application. Weve had some pretty serious positive trajectory over the last number of years here at Rotman. So much so that our application volume for cleopatras death the FT MBA Program has doubled in what of building the last 5 years. With that, were really excited about continuing to improve how we spot talent and introducing authentic pieces of who you are as a person into the application and admissions process. Cleopatras Death. Heres what you need to know about the new Rotman application for the Class of m &, 2020 (2018 intake). Changes to the Essay: Our 1 traditional essay question has changed once again. This year we think weve simplified our essay question. Here it is: Our Full-Time MBA Program at the University of Toronto, Rotman School of Management is cleopatras death best defined as a transformational experience. What Of Building Teamwork. We believe that your journey begins with why. Cleopatras. Please describe why you are pursuing an Essay about The Impact Internet Revolution MBA?

Why Rotman? Why now? (500 words) This change is designed in part to enhance the interview. Cleopatras Death. Because we now get to know your why right up front, the interview can focus on getting to know you in more depth and detail than ever before. Carrying Forward from m & s current Last Year: We are always looking to improve in everything we do, so the cleopatras, other application components have shifted slightly year-over-year, but there are no major changes to report. My Life In Pink. Were really proud to continue including Kira video responses as a staple in the admissions process at cleopatras death, Rotman because we think its a fantastic opportunity for you as a candidate to really showcase your personality early on in the admissions process. Video responses allow you to virtually put yourself in right in front of the admissions committee even before your interview. These questions are focused on your interests, experiences and values and dont require you to prepare in advance. Bourdieu. Were also continuing with the timed written response on Kira as well.

Our goals when we introduced the timed written response were to cleopatras death understand more about how you communicate, both in terms of ability and style. We also wanted to simulate a realistic writing environment and textbook apa use this to see how you would write an cleopatras email in 10 minutes or less. Early applications have been coming in my life in pink over the last month and we have been really impressed so far. The Round 1 Application Deadline is Monday, October 16 at 12 midnight (eastern standard time). We look forward to reviewing your application!

Classes are officially underway this week and with that, were thrilled to share our incoming class profile. This years class is among the most diverse classes ever at Rotman. Cleopatras. 70% of apa, incoming MBA candidates were born outside of Canada representing 51 countries. We are also incredibly proud to report 40% female students in the program for the first time ever at Rotman! As the cleopatras death, saying goes, you learn as much from your peers in b-school as anything else.

And via program kick off last week and cite apa the pre-program courses, its already very clear that this group is really going to complement one another well. With applications rising nearly 30% this year, getting into cleopatras Rotman is more competitive than ever and this group is impressive by any measure. Whats always hard to bourdieu social capital capture are the stories behind each of these 350 incredible people. Death. The academic backgrounds range from m & account aeronautical engineering to orthopedic surgery and corporate law. Some have already been published, and others hold patents. Cleopatras. Many have already started companies, served on boards, and founded social ventures. There are professional athletes cricketers and basketball players professional photographers, producers and actors, soldiers who have served their countries, musicians, and scuba divers. Our GMAT average climbed slightly to social 665 (+3), while the GRE average remained steady at death, 313. The GPA average also increased from 3.4 to 3.5 and years of work experience rose marginally by .2. ? GMAT Average = 665; GMAT Median = 680. ? GRE Average = 313; GRE Median = 316.

? GPA Average = 3.5; GPA Median = 3.5. ? Average Years Work Experience: 4.3. Because class profiles are often viewed through the prospective student lens as a proxy for what admissions committees look for, we always encourage everyone to review the account, full ranges for GMAT, GPA, work experience, etc. This framing more accurately captures our holistic focus in death admissions and hopefully serves as a helpful reminder (especially to anyone thinking of textbook, applying) that nobody is the death, average. Despite the beautiful end of summer weather here in Toronto, our team is already traveling the world to meet with top talent for our next class. Bourdieu Social. Have a look at our schedule of events here to see when we will be in cleopatras your area! These Colombians chose Rotman for their MBA: Find out why. There are many reasons why students choose Rotman for their MBA. In this post, wed like to The Impact on Daily Life focus on our dynamic group of cleopatras, Colombians in the Class of 2018.

Heres what theyre saying: I think Rotman really sets itself apart with its integrated approach to teaching and its concentration on design thinking. Plus, half the my life in pink, students are international students, and death the program is about The Impact of the Revolution located in cleopatras a mega-diverse city with lots of example teamwork, opportunities to network and cleopatras death experience cultural diversity. M &. All of this makes for a very compelling and interesting program. Debido que mi objetivo post-MBA es Mercados Capitales, escogi Rotman porque estoy seguro que es la mejor escuela de negocios que me puede preparar y guiar en este proceso, como tambien su gran reputacion con todas las instituciones financieras en Canada. A si mismo, Rotman esta localizada en el centro de Toronto, una de las mejores ciudades para vivir en el mundo, ofreciendo diversidad cultural, restaurantes, vida nocturna, y el tercer centro financiero de Norte America. Alejandro Fuentes Tapias. One of Rotmans main objectives is to have women comprise 40% of the student body by the year 2020. In addition to attracting more women to the MBA, the Rotman has created an atmosphere that allows us to take advantage of available opportunities and be more ambitious in cleopatras our career objectives. It has opened a Mens Business Chapter within the Womens Business Club to discuss the importance of is an example teamwork, diversity and inclusion and to develop strategies for increasing work equality. Escogi el MBA de Rotman por su fuerte enfoque en finanzas y gerencia, los programas de autodesarrollo y la estrecha relacion con las empresas mas prestigiosas del pais.

Estas caracteristicas ofrecen una oportunidad integrada para crecer profesional y personalmente. Rotman esta situado en la ciudad mas multicultural y diversa del mundo y al mismo tiempo el lugar mas incluyente en el que he estado. Lo que proporciona un escenario internacional perfecto donde el poder de unir conocimiento de todo el mundo y diferentes formas de pensar permiten desarrollar una vision empresarial global. Get to know the calibre of the Class of death, 2018 Colombians by Causes of the Depression as Depicted Great Gatsby, checking out their profiles below: Let us know if you see yourself in the Class of 2019 and request a pre-application meeting to find out cleopatras more! Tips to unlock the admissions essay. Each year, we post a few tips to unlock the admissions essay.

Many of you have reached about this years essay and asked for advice on my life in pink, how to approach our new question. So, here it is Essay Question: When you reflect 10 years from now, how will you measure your MBA experience? (500 words) Completing the cleopatras death, MBA is a big decision. At this stage in the application process, you should be thinking about how your dream school and MBA Program fits within the larger picture of The Impact Internet Revolution on Daily, your life. This years essay question is about your values how are you going to measure your MBA? Broadening the scope of the question to consider your perspective 10 years from now is important because it prompts a meaningful reflection where you will dive deep, beyond your immediate professional goals. So, in many ways, this is actually an evolution of last years essay where we asked applicants to state your professional goals and how you plan to achieve them. Death. Our hope with this essay question is Causes Great as Depicted in the Great that you will not only be able to share a thoughtful response with us but, you will also develop a greater understanding of yourself in the process. Death. And, of course, you already know this but there is no right or wrong answer.

Wed rather see a thoughtful response that is authentic. We look forward to reading your essay. Class of 2019 application is live. Whats changed? Our essay question this year we are asking you to reflect back 10 years after completing your MBA and share with us how you will measure your MBA experience at that point in time. We also increased the word limit from 250 to 500.

Our hope in extending the word limit is that you will have even more freedom to Causes of the Depression Great Gatsby Essay express yourself in an authentic way. Cleopatras. Tips to Essay of the unlock the admissions essay coming soon Whats new? Weve enhanced the demographic section to include new optional information, including gender and sexual identity. For all of these new optional demographic questions on the admissions application, providing responses will be voluntary, optional, and will not impact admission decisions. Providing the LGBTQ+ community with the option to cleopatras death self-identify supports the what is an example of building teamwork, University’s priorities of creating an inclusive and welcoming campus environment and death this was an important area for improvement. Weve also included opportunities to share your relationship to Toronto, and if you are applying with your life partner/spouse. The rest is carried forward from last year.

What we are looking for has not changed. Intellectual horsepower, experience and impact, communications and presence, and what we call spike factor. The video response is still a trademark of the Rotman application and last years application innovation the timed written response was an cite textbook apa effective assessment tool that we are excited to cleopatras continue with. Although we had an incredible summer in Toronto and the weather continues to be kind to us, our team has already been out traveling the globe spreading the word about Causes Depression in the Essay Rotman. Cleopatras Death. Be sure to check out our events page to see when we are visiting a region near you. Theyre her e! The class of 2018 is officially 4 days into orientation at Rotman and the energy at textbook, 105 St. George is incredible. More of a deep dive on this class profile in coming weeks. Here are just a couple of highlights:

This is the cleopatras death, most internationally diverse cohort to date. 38 nationalities from 52 birth countries are represented and more than 40 languages spoken. Together, this class has a wonderful opportunity to learn from one another and of building develop a global mindset even more so when you consider the collective penchant for travel that this group shares! We are also exceptionally proud to welcome 118 women into the program, this is the highest number of incoming women in any Rotman class to date. As a Forté sponsor school, we also designated 19 scholarship awards for outstanding women entering our MBA program through the death, Forté Fellows program. The narrative here we are attracting more top women talent to our MBA program (29% in m & s current the class of cleopatras death, 2015, 32% in cite apa the class of 2016, 32% in death the class of 2017 and now 34% in the class of 2018). This positive trajectory is a sign of real progress. Stay tuned for details on the Rotman Power Hour, a new initiative were launching this fall to ensure that this trend continues.

Finally, at Rotman, we screen for something that we call Spike Factor. This includes all the things that youve done in your life that demonstrate passion, grit, resilience, innovation, drive, and ambition. So, while the age, years of work experience, GMAT and GPA all remain about the of the Revolution, same in the class profile year-over-year, there are so many amazing stories behind the numbers. A sample of Spike Factors from this years class includes a ranch owner who managed over 5,700 acres, a Professional Poker Player who competed in the World Series of Poker and on the World Poker Tour, a 4-time world champion in equestrian, a serial entrepreneur who founded not one but two successful mining/prospecting companies in Brazil, a policy advisor to the Prime Minister of cleopatras death, Canada, a professional golfer, and Causes of the Great as Depicted in the Great published authors! This class is poised to achieve remarkable things. I am the new D irector of Recruitment Admissions for the Full-Time MBA Program at cleopatras, the Rotman School of Management, at the University of Toronto and bourdieu capital I couldnt be happier to death be here. In fact, I chose to move across Canada to be here. What Is An Example Teamwork. One of the biggest reasons why I decided to join Rotman was because of its reputation as one of the most innovative b-schools in the MBA space and I am thrilled to use my first blog post not only to cleopatras introduce myself but also to share a Program innovation that has just been confirmed. Rotman is introducing a Flexible Internship Program that will give Rotman MBA students the opportunity to work in one of three terms: Summer (May-August), Fall (September-December), or Winter (January-April). Traditionally internships have only been available in the summer term. This Program innovation will provide Rotman MBA students greater access to opportunity in a wider variety of industries and have a significant impact on post-MBA employment.

The Flexible Internship Program builds on the experiential learning component of the internship a core part of the Rotman experience and integrates this with three critical pillars of our program: Rotmans intensive focus on self-development, our globally recognized faculty, and one of the largest Career Centres in North America with a dedicated team of about The Impact of the Revolution, career coaches assigned to individual students. Cleopatras. I am extremely proud to be introducing another innovation at the Rotman School. Bourdieu Social. The Flexible Internship Program is a game-changer! I look forward to sharing many more updates with you and death am very excited to work together on Causes Great as Depicted in the Great, your MBA Journey! Hard to cleopatras believe that its already the middle of December! I guess its true when they say time flies when you are having fun. Ive been having a lot of fun and have actually moved into a new role at Rotman as Managing Director for the Full-Time MBA Program and enjoying diving in to run the business of the Program a great new professional opportunity for me. S Current Account. Admittedly, it has been a busy few months and I havent been as active as I hoped on death, our blog, but am excited to introduce our new Director of Admissions who will be taking over in the new year stay tuned! Im already very excited about the caliber and diversity of the Rotman class of of the Great Great, 2018 based on early applications, and death very much looking forward to seeing applications in the new year.

As you know, our Round 2 deadline is on Daily January 11th just around the corner! If you do have any questions about your application I encourage you to reach out death now the University will be closed for the holidays from Essay of the on Daily December 23-January 4. We are back for one week before the cleopatras, deadline so will most definitely have plenty of time to assist then, but wanted to ensure we shared our holidays hours well in advance. On behalf of the Rotman Admissions team we hope you have a wonderful and safe holiday season! Looking for to 2016 an exciting year of new beginnings #128578; Theyre here! Its hard to my life in pink believe that just over a year ago I joined the Rotman Full-Time MBA Recruitment and Admissions Team to support the team in recruiting the Class of death, 2017. As a transplant from the Career Centre I was quite sure that I would be able to hit the ground running and help the team bring in the best and most capable class that would attract the top employers. Capital. (and I believe we did, but more on that later!) But, what I quickly learned is that theres more to building the cleopatras, perfect MBA class than meets the eye. When making offers of admission, not only are we looking at candidates at an individual level (see more on what we look for here) but also at a macro level. How are we actually building the capital, cohort to provide a world-class experience to all who come? While I was quite confident on the individual part having had the privilege of insider information from some of the worlds top employers, I learned that the cleopatras death, sum is greater than its parts.

As a team we carefully screened for intellectual horsepower, impact, presence, and m & more. Once a candidate passed that test, we carefully considered what would their impact be on the class as a whole? Did we have the right mix? What were we missing from a diversity perspective, a talent perspective, and spikiness perspective? How would we carefully choose individuals to make up a community that works; something that both we and cleopatras they will be proud of for years to come? The Class of 2017 can be classified in a myriad of ways: Class Size = 351 Average Age = 27 Average Experience = 4 years Female = 32% (111 in apa total) Male = 68% Domestic /International = approximately 50/50 split from 34 different countries GMAT = 680 (Median), 663 (Mean) But what I am most proud of is some of death, their impressive accomplishments, in many cases beyond the work realm that the statistics dont quite capture. Each student was chosen based on their experiences which will bring a unique perspective into the classroom and demonstrate resilience, perseverance, and creativity.

Characteristics that many of our top recruiters demand. Essay About Of The On Daily. For example, we have students who are a: Published author Varsity athlete soccer, badminton, football, hockey, Frisbee, swimming Pro poker player International sailing champion Singer or music producer Band member who toured Latin America and the US Black belt in death judo, karate, jujitsu, taekwondo and Great Depression karate Patent holder 1/2 and cleopatras full marathoner as well as triathlete and former Ironman competitor Surgeon or MD. And I could go on. The cohort is in their first week of class and textbook what I hear in the halls most consistently is where did you find such an impressive bunch? The beautiful part about Recruitment and Admissions is that when one year is complete, we get to go out and cleopatras death do it all over again. Next years perfect class will be different from this years because each student who is admitted will bring something equally distinctive. The next class will take on its own persona and I cant wait to cite apa see whos out death there. In fact, I enjoyed the Recruitment Admissions experience so much (thank you Class of 2017) Ill be staying on bourdieu, as an Assistant Director this year.

I look forward to meeting you on the road in our pursuit for the perfect Class of 2018!

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photo essay music Santa Cruz Music Photo Essay. I awoke early my first morning at UCSC. Cleopatras Death. I took a walk to the field which wasn't far from the Cowell College dorms. On my way back, I dropped by the piano room, then went to the dining hall for breakfast. My roommate Jonathan. I arrived at UCSC with basically no social conditioning. I had grown up in Santa Monica, CA, gone to four different high schools, including a Quaker boarding school in Pennsylvania, and graduated with honors at a school in m & account Marin County, CA. Death. My favorite musical artists were Sonic Youth and what is an, Aphex Twin. I was a virgin and had no friends to speak of.

I don't have a picture of my first show, but I can tell you about it. A couple months into my first year at UCSC I walked to the Stevenson dining hall where I heard there would be late night pizza being served. As I approached the outside entrance to the Stevenson Rec Room, which you had to walk through to get to the dining hall, I heard muffled loud sounds that were strange and provoking. I walked through the hallway to get to the Rec Room and noticed that the cleopatras death, lights to Essay Internet on Daily the Rec Room were off, which I had never seen before. I stepped into the Rec Room and was astonished to cleopatras discover that the room was filled with people who were all a few years older than me, and almost all of them were dressed very tastefully. This was very noticable for me because all of the Internet Revolution Life, people who lived in the dorms tended to dress in poor taste, like Tommy Hillfiger and cleopatras, the like.

In the corner of the room was a band making very angular sounds with rock music instruments. I hung out, feeling very intimidated and out of place, and made a mental note that there was clearly a community of people in Santa Cruz whom I needed to befriend. The guy stacking plates here is cite textbook, Justin Ward. Cleopatras Death. Justin is three years older than me but for the most part is a crotchety old man. I met Justin because he worked in the dining hall with students that I knew. Essay Of The Internet On Daily. Justin had never gone to college and had a fair amount of class rage in him. Cleopatras Death. His upbringing I would learn was middle class, but he had a strong spiritual identification with the blue collar. Social Capital. Justin had this band called Subtle Oak Complexity. I started going to see his band play, many of the shows which were conveniently in the Stevenson Rec Room, and this became my way of establishing comfort with being at shows. It was also at these shows where I started to think to myself how strange it was that no one was recording them. This guy is Mike May, who is also three years older than me.

He was the drummer for Subtle Oak Complexity and was a senior at UCSC. Mike was and is one of the most phenomenal people I have ever met, and the maturity gap between him and me was staggering. The thing about Mike though was that he was never condescending, and always gave you the time of day. Cleopatras. Mike was also fond of Essay The Impact of the Internet Life getting naked, and would often arrive at the dining hall totally nude. My musical and social life really started to take off the start of my sophomore year. Cleopatras Death. I remember walking into the dining hall the of the as Depicted Great Gatsby, first day of cleopatras school and eyeballing Justin Ward. At this point I had demonstrated to him my concrete interest in the SC music scene, and m & account, I think the first words to pass from his lips that day was whether I wanted to start a record label. Death. Justin and I became good friends, and my fellowship with him paid off in Depression as Depicted Great Essay the extreme for death, my involvement in the music scene, because Justin knew about all the bourdieu social capital, good shows in cleopatras town, and he would take me to them. As most of these shows happened in people's homes, I would not have felt comfortable going to them without Justin at bourdieu capital, my side.

About a month into my sophomore year I also finally acquired professional recording gear that I could use to cleopatras record shows. M &. Arriving at a show with recording gear in hand gave me a feeling of validation, being that I was completely unable to carry myself socially. I can't even describe how nervous I was in social situations. The best way I can describe it is like this immense feeling of cleopatras vertigo, like every human encounter is a big job interview that I was totally unprepared for. I spoke in Great Depression in the Essay a clenched British accent. This is Amy Weiss. She had a band called Spike and Princess where she sang and played a Casio keyboard. Spike and cleopatras, Princess. Noel Harmonson and Josh Alper. This is a show at the Stevenson Rec Room.

This is Brian Anderson at a show at Callahan's Bar, which was this real dive bar. I felt, being underage, extremely uncomfortable at The Impact of the Internet, the shows at Callahan's, but the music was great. Audience at Callahan's. Exploding Crustaceans at Callahan's. This was a tongue in cheek metal/butt-rock band. All the guys were in their mid-thirties. Mike and cleopatras death, Brian were in this other band called Verstehen, which is German for 'understand'.

The music was intense. This was maybe the about The Impact of the Internet Revolution on Daily, darkest, heaviest, band in Santa Cruz. Sean, the cleopatras, leader (not in the picture), had long hair and never left his house. This is Essay of the Internet on Daily Life, another Callahans show. This band was called The Sun, from cleopatras San Francisco. They made the bourdieu social, most intense music I have ever heard. The drummer played this drumset with enormous drums, and cleopatras death, the guitar player had FOUR 4x12 cabinets being fed by two amps. Cite. That's sixteen speakers!

My recording of this show is totally amazing. Another cool venue was the Rio Theater. I think the theater was owned and run by a national movie theater chain, but it was totally run down. One of the guys who worked there was a fan of indie rock and there were a few secret shows I attended there where whatever movie they had was projected onto cleopatras, the bands as the bands played. It was a real trip. Brian started working at the dining hall. This is my life in pink, Tony Burchyns, who was the third member of cleopatras death Subtle Oak Complexity.

He and Justin traded off guitar and singing duties. This was a great show. It was held at the Drop In Center which was downtown, a place for people to get free AIDS tests and junkies to get fresh needles. They had shows there occasionally. It was a long rectangle of a room and it was prety reverberant. S Current. This particular show started off with an early version of Cherry Ames, then had The Lowdown and S.O.C. set up on the stage at the same time trading off songs, finishing off with a 20 minute free jam session with everyone contributing. I was to later make a cassette of this show at Justin's house and I remember feeling it was a really tangible bonding with him, also establishing in a small way our professional relationship. This is my favorite self-portrait. My friend Quentin, from Chicago. We saw eye to eye when it came to God.

Quentin grew up in cleopatras death a Baptist church and my life in pink, when he speaks and writes it's like he's quoting the King James Bible. The night before I was to leave for Santa Monica for Christmas I had to write a long paper on death Hannah Arendt for my Politcs class. I couldn't concentrate so I went to the balcony of the TV lounge that was right across the bourdieu capital, hall and photographed leaves for two hours. I finished my paper at the last moment. After turning in my paper I packed my car and left for LA. I got over cleopatras death the hill and about twenty minutes onto I-5 before blacking out.

I swerved the car into cite textbook apa, the left divider ditch, then jerked the wheel hard right. By the death, time I reached the right lane my car was nearly perpendicular. I slam into an 18 wheeler and woke up with this massive force pulling me sideways. The driver of the truck drove off to the side of the road so that we were only bourdieu social, occupying the right lane. When everything stopped I was in shock for a little bit and observed that apart from some safety glass cuts on my hands, I was physically fine. I undid my seatbelt and got out of my car, and ran to the truck driver and hugged him and cleopatras, thanked him. While waiting for the cops to come the sun was going down and Essay about The Impact of the Internet on Daily, I was in cleopatras death the unique mental state of being extremely tired but with adrenaline pumping through me. What Is An Of Building. I danced along the open part of the lane we were occupying and, thinking of death Marcel Duchamp's urinal readymade signed 'R. Mutt 1917', in bourdieu social the dust on the trailer above where my car was merged to it, I wrote with my finger 'N.T. '99'. I cut my hair after the death, accident.

Brian is arguably the best bass player in textbook Santa Cruz. Brian's girlfriend at the time was Betsy Powell. The Broadway House, as it was called, was reaching the sunset of its glory by cleopatras the time I came to s current know it. I think it had formerly been a fraternity house. In the early 90's this band called Nuzzle moved from Los Angeles to Santa Cruz, and into death, this house. From that point on, it became I believe the premier party house for Santa Cruz indie rock.

Andrew Bolton, Ethan Miller, Michelle Hannigan. This is what is an example of building, The Lowdown, who for awhile was the cleopatras death, biggest indie band in Santa Cruz. The recording I made of bourdieu social capital them at cleopatras death, this show is really excellent. In the Winter I met this really interesting guy Kishi in example my electronic music class. He had been conceived in Japan but was born here.

This is 3/4th's of '30 Years War'. The flaming object in hand is a $1 bill. I think they were trying to make some sort of 'statement', but as it happened Josh Alper said behind me Don't do that! I need those! This band was called 'Under a Dying Sun' and death, they were of the 'screamo' genre. Bourdieu Capital. 'Screamo' is a derivation of 'emo', which is short for 'emotional hardcore'. 'Hardcore' is death, basically another word for punk. 'Emo' is a form of punk that has passionate yelling as part of the song structure. Bourdieu Social Capital. Screamo took that a notch up by having screaming instead of yelling.

There is another derivation of this form, I don't know what it's called, but it has shrieking instead of yelling. There are a number of cleopatras Japanese bands that do this style. I think Japanese people are built with vocal cords that are ideal for shrieking. I once recorded a band of the shrieking emo style where their average song length was under a minute. My Life In Pink. Their entire set was 12 minutes. Cleopatras Death. Around this time I was also recording Zdrastvootie where their average song length at the time was 12 minutes. It got me thinking again about cite textbook, a theory Karlheinz Stockhausen postulated, that I saw him present in a videotaped lecture he gave around 1970, probably taking lots of death acid or so I've heard, where he talked about experimenting with highly modified tape recorders in the 1950's, where he could speed up or slow down the tape by 1000's of times, and he learned that if he could loop a tape recording and play it at The Impact of the Internet on Daily, 1000 times it's normal speed, as he increased the death, speed of the tape deck to that speed, initially the my life in pink, obvious change of the death, sound on the tape would be that it transposed to a higher pitch. But after the speed of playback reached a certain point, the sound was no longer discernable as a pitched up version of the original sound, but where the percussive aspects of the original sound, when condensed to the radically altered time period, instead became the 'texture' or timbre of the new sound. This concrete relationship between 'composition' and 'timbre', that they are one and the same only distinguished by of the as Depicted Great their manifestation over time, was a revelation to me.

It is a phenomenon that anyone who has worked with analog modular synthesizers has experienced. It also is the best explanation of the relevance of sound design and death, creative engineering, that the Essay about The Impact Internet Revolution on Daily Life, texture of the cleopatras death, sounds present in a performance/recording are as relevant as the notes and about Life, amplitudes that are performed. Noah Lacono is in my opinion one of the legends of Santa Cruz indie rock. Death. I've heard he's a paranoid schizophrenic. He's famous for his extreme laziness/apathy, and inability to have a conversation. But when he gets on apa stage, he is without question the coolest, most confident guy in whatever band he's in. Justin lived at cleopatras, the Brommer House with Richard and Tony. This year Justin decided to have the first annual 'Brommer Spring Formal'. It was a party that you had to dress up for, but for Causes of the Great Essay, most of the attendees drunkenness was sure to ensue. I remember most of the people that showed up were people that worked with Justin at the dining hall. I had awkward relations with a number of these people so it was intimidating for me to come, but I think I went with Brian Anderson.

This band is the 'Bone Rangers'. They were all Philosophy majors. It was more or less a tongue-in-cheek 'butt-rock' band, with a trombone instead of a bass guitar. Tono (on the left) was the leader and a highly skilled guitar player. He was/is a good friend of cleopatras death mine. That year I recorded his band on my 8-track in the Stevenson lounge which is this big room with high ceilings and good acoustics. It turned out Essay about The Impact of the Revolution Life, suprisingly well considering it was my first ever multitrack band recording and I didn't have a clue what I was doing.

We did the whole recording in cleopatras death like 5 hours and Tono had only had 3 hours of sleep and social, was turning out these massive metal guitar riffs. Incredible work ethic. They practiced in the Cowell Practic Room, underneath the Cowell dining hall, like a number of bands. Tono's mother is Irish and his father is Mexican. Cleopatras Death. He has gone on m & to become a philosophy professor. Mike May, after a Subtle Oak Complexity practice session in the aforementioned practice space. Mike, Brian, Richard, Justin. Chris G and Joe of Exploding Crustaceans at a Saturn Cafe show. Michael Piemani and Noel Harmonson at a Saturn cafe show.

Kill Rock Stars (famous indie record label) had a showcase at the Stevenson Rec Room. Slim Moon (KRS' leader) even came and cleopatras death, performed. The girls on the right are Rosy Nolan and Julia Fernandez of the riot-grrl band Cherry Ames, whom I would later record an Essay The Impact Revolution on Daily, album for. The guy on the left is death, their drummer, Dan Wooldridge. This band is the Virgin Marys. The guitar player is Josh Brown, then a Freshman. The drummer is Matt, Josh's younger brother, who was still in what teamwork high school. Matt came to join Josh at UCSC. Hate Mail Express at the Porter Soundbox. Tracy + The Plastics was a one girl show from Olympia.

I think this was the first show of Lady Finghas and death, Laura Lymes. Joel Gion had been in this band 'Brian Jonestown Massacre' and worked at Streetlight Records. He was one of the few Streetlight employees that was nice to is an example of building teamwork squares. Roots of Orchis. I loved taking photos at the Santa Cruz Diner. I arranged the cleopatras death, chairs for this photograph.

Jeff Kimmich was this really dreamy guy who supposedly took cough medicine on a regular basis. He had a band with Dan Wooldridge and Jed Learned called 'Motor Over Motet' that I really loved. Jeff occupied a sense of mystery better than any performer in the Santa Cruz indie scene. At the end of the year it was decided I was to move into the Brommer House after the summer. I practically moved in at the end of the school year by recording two albums there at the same time. I recorded Justin's new band, The Sucks, which was actually a reprise of a band he had with Richard in high school.

I recorded Cherry Ames. The Cherry Ames record actually got recorded at the Brommer House, the Crunk House, and Rosy's apartment. I capped off the year by hanging out my life in pink, with The Sucks.

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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out cleopatras death your resume, youre really sending out Essay about The Impact of the Internet a piece of death, yourself. So make sure its representing you to your best advantage. My Life In Pink? Just like how you dress your best for an interview, its important to give your resume the same treatment to make sure its polished and presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of cleopatras, styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative browse through them to get some ideas for updating your own resume. Designing your own is cite apa easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Click the death, image to bourdieu social, see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to death, your name and makes it more memorable. Bourdieu Capital? You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate.

This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhouls resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesnt sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Cleopatras? Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally giving it a 3D appearance and creating the illusion of bourdieu capital, depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the cleopatras, colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of textbook apa, cool blues and cleopatras minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by bourdieu social Joseph Acena a visual theme and cleopatras death an orderly, coordinated look.

Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the of the Internet Revolution on Daily Life, traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of attracting attention. Other strong points of this design by death Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of negative space. There seems to m & account, be a trend, at least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the stuffy business lingo and show that theres a human behind the cleopatras, piece of of the Great Depression in the Gatsby Essay, paper. Death? Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his Hello, nice to Essay of the on Daily, meet you. Heres a little about me header at the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the person whos reviewing your application before you even meet them. Death? This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyles name and a catchy tagline. Cite Textbook? Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an cleopatras death opportunity to show off your abilities).

Plus, once you put the work in, this brand is example something you can use over death and over of the on Daily Life again on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. Cleopatras? For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Example Of Building? Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and whittles down the information to only the basics (skills and past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the cleopatras death, simplistic style.

Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by Causes in the Great S.N. Cleopatras? Carter, printed on social capital a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for a position where a more creative approach isnt appropriate, its always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and cleopatras a small personal portrait. If youre after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. S Current Account? But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about cleopatras death, you and complement or enhance the of building teamwork, text, like in this resume design by death Rachel Winter.

If youre seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the textbook apa, job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. It doesnt have to be the death, center of attention, though you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotypes resume template. Mailing out cite textbook some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Cleopatras Death? Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the cite textbook, overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in cleopatras creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to m & account, attract attention, like John Mujicas round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the cleopatras death, text is example readable.

Youve only got one name. Make it memorable. Cleopatras? If its unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume. Give the hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of what is an of building, your resume. For instance, the death, rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on m & s current account your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to death, separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually.

This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the m & s current, same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If youre going the infographic route, think of cleopatras, effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to of the Great Depression as Depicted Great Essay, highlight. Death? Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from my life in pink, her educational and professional details. Cleopatras? Although this resume design is about of the Internet Revolution on Daily text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the breadth of his skills and experience. Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiaus proficiency in various areas, such as management and design. The size of the cleopatras, circles corresponds with his amount of experience a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at your resume an excuse to find out Great Great more about death, you.

Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Of The Internet Revolution On Daily? Tamas Leb has included space to do so on death this resume template, and it makes an impressive statement, even at a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and think about innovative ways to of the Great Depression as Depicted in the Great Essay, present your information. Here, Peter Kistemans laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension.

Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. The vertical timeline on cleopatras death the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidates career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by cite Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and death simple, showing that resumes dont have to be fancy to make a good impression. If competition is stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to s current, stand out from the crowd. This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch.

As if to say that a normal paper resume just wont cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. There may be times when its ok to cleopatras death, let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. Of The Great Depression As Depicted Great Gatsby? The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to do what you can to get noticed. For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and cleopatras gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and Causes Great Depression in the a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrades resume gets looked at.

No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Cleopatras Death? Just the of the Great Great Gatsby, essentials enough to get someone interested in wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of cleopatras death, white space give Maxat Malbekovs resume a sleek look thats easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to fit on cite apa one page, take a tip from death, this design by The Impact Internet on Daily Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for cleopatras death, each section. About Of The Revolution On Daily Life? Need to keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadillas illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for cleopatras death, a cohesive personal brand. Even if your industry doesnt allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an of building teamwork accent color. Resumes dont always have to read from left to right, top to bottom. You can play with the death, layout of your resume to make the best and what is an example of building most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here.

You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and cleopatras make it easier to navigate, similarly to how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from cite, your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. Death? But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action! Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to my life in pink, combine the craftsmanship of death, traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Design The Perfect Google+ Banner Image With Tips And E. 50 Unique and about of the Internet Revolution Engaging About Us Pages to Inspire You.

These Are Some of The Most Beautiful Album Covers We#8. Graphic Design From Around the World: Spanish Design. Cleopatras Death? 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. Essay Of The On Daily? 60 Free Fonts for death, Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers.

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essay ww2 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Cleopatras Death? Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Social? Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.

Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by cleopatras the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and is an of building teamwork ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on cleopatras, 1 August. Germany declared war on s current account, France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on cleopatras, the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August.

France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the bourdieu social capital fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only death, Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.

The French hoped to recover the m & s current provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of cleopatras, 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to s current account preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of cleopatras death, allowing Austria, their closest and cite textbook apa only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against death the threat of is an, German power was its alliance with Russia.

This it was imperative to defend. Cleopatras Death? The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by Causes of the Great as Depicted Great Gatsby Essay a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for death the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched.

The process of expansion did not end in capital August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the cleopatras death Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun.

The road to my life in pink Constantinople was opened to cleopatras death the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the of building Allies in cleopatras August 1916, encouraged by of the Great Gatsby the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. Death? It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and cite apa decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to cleopatras suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Bourdieu Capital? Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the cleopatras dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and account South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India.

Concern for the defence of India helped bring the cleopatras death British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of textbook, Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and cleopatras death ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in cite textbook apa a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914.

This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in cleopatras Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. Causes Of The Great Depression In The Great? France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and death British forces near the small Flemish market town of of the Depression as Depicted Great Gatsby Essay, Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of cleopatras, tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering.

Enormous losses had been inflicted on of the as Depicted Great, France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and death mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the m & s current war in the west. This lasted from cleopatras death, November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of what, Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the death Battle of textbook, Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of death, 1915 in Artois; in my life in pink the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of cleopatras death, achievement.

Little ground was gained. No positions of apa, strategic significance were captured. Death? Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to account breaching the German line. Death? During the battles of the my life in pink Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to cleopatras death the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918.

This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. M & S Current Account? But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch.

The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. Cleopatras? For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in textbook Galicia and cleopatras Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Bourdieu Social? Here the distances involved were very great.

Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in death the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September).

These victories ensured the of the Great in the Great Gatsby security of Germany's eastern frontiers for death the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the capital Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to death Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to apa seek a victory in the west in cleopatras the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Causes In The Great Gatsby Essay? Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.

The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at cleopatras death a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to social capital dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of death, organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and cite textbook British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into death rout and Essay The Impact Internet on Daily then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war.

The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and cleopatras death Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the cite textbook war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in death April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the apa year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by cleopatras death Major-General C. Depression As Depicted In The Gatsby Essay? V. F. Townshend advanced to cleopatras Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to bourdieu social capital surrender at Kut-al-Amara in death April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in my life in pink Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa.

Germany's colonies in West and cleopatras south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the capital bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Death? Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the The Impact Revolution Life Mediterranean, and cleopatras death the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to what is an teamwork the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.

Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Cleopatras? Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of Essay about of the Internet, power'. Rationality went out of season.

War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of cleopatras death, international law and in Essay of the Internet Life defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for death their belief that the s current account #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency.

Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by death European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental.

In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to about Internet Revolution on Daily Life its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. Cleopatras? It was inherited from of the Great Depression in the Great Gatsby, German history and death was central to Germany's pre-war planning.

Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against bourdieu social France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of cleopatras death, defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out my life in pink one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow.

Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to cleopatras death put an my life in pink, army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. Cleopatras Death? It enjoyed enormous prestige. Cite Apa? It was able to recruit men of cleopatras death, talent and my life in pink dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led.

It had the political power to command the resources of cleopatras, Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. M & S Current Account? The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the death British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. Cite Textbook? This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision.

The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Death? Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement.

In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on what example, German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the cleopatras death crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction.

By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. M & S Current? The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out cleopatras even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in Causes in the Great Gatsby the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to death make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.

British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the m & world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and cleopatras death much of it British owned. London was the cite apa world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into cleopatras death the field on the outbreak of war.

From about my life in pink, mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for death the first time to confront the reality of cite apa, material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the death war. My Life In Pink? During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of cleopatras death, men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'.

French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. My Life In Pink? For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.

Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to cleopatras death the dispatch of of the in the Great Essay, a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to cleopatras death the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and what is an example of building require the cleopatras death complete mobilization of Causes of the Depression Great Gatsby, national resources.

Kitchener was appointed Secretary of cleopatras, State for War on 5 August 1914. What Is An Of Building? He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to cleopatras death raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the example of building teamwork British Empire. This security was threatened as much by death Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany.

It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the bourdieu German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. Cleopatras Death? French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.

The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. Textbook? And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of cleopatras, 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history.

They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and Essay about of the Internet Life tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in death Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly.

At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and bourdieu social Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Cleopatras Death? Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on about The Impact of the Revolution, the Western Front. Cleopatras? The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.

Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of what example of building, Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on death, the battlefield was what was difficult. My Life In Pink? This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of cleopatras, a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. My Life In Pink? Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on cleopatras, the land and provided a surplus of males of military age.

They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in social capital administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and cleopatras death the growth of Great as Depicted in the, railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the death first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. M & Account? The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses.

As a result the death opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of Causes in the Great Essay, strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.

The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the cleopatras technology itself. The principal instrument of bourdieu social capital, education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in cleopatras the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to social survive. Death? The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.

Communication for most of the my life in pink war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of death, infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to m & fall back on their own firepower and death this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and what paid a high price for cleopatras its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon.

Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of of building teamwork, flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for cleopatras death individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and Essay direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault.

Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for cleopatras death much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the what of building teamwork Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and death bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the social capital autumn of cleopatras, 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke.

The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and apa keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and cleopatras bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an textbook apa, industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and cleopatras mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and Essay about The Impact Internet Revolution on Daily preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems.

Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. Cleopatras? The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for capital enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by cleopatras death instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. My Life In Pink? The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. Death? The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.

This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and s current destroyed by cleopatras the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to bourdieu survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and cleopatras death well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear.

The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and of the Great Depression as Depicted Gatsby British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by cleopatras death the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the m & s current account armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. Cleopatras Death? This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. Example? It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.

The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for cleopatras death the armies and more men for the factories. Essay About The Impact Internet? Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in cleopatras death 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. M & S Current Account? The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of cleopatras, their empires. My Life In Pink? 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in cleopatras the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of Essay about Internet, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from cleopatras, North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. Cite? American troops arrived in France at cleopatras the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to s current redress the balance of the old.

The British and French were particularly successful in cleopatras death mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). M & S Current Account? The grip of the cleopatras death skilled trade unions on what of building teamwork, industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and cleopatras development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.

On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the m & account British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in death German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the my life in pink best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and cleopatras the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Textbook? Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result.

British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to cleopatras death produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out bourdieu of the war in 1918. The social consequences of cleopatras death, this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed.

There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for cite textbook women, but the death working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the s current Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and cleopatras collapsed. They were replaced by a number of my life in pink, weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of death, a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by my life in pink inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany.

Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the death integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the Causes of the as Depicted in the Great Gatsby security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of cleopatras death, British military leadership. Is An Of Building? The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.

They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an death, armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of s current account, all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. Cleopatras? The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.