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Are the piaget theory, 2020 Tokyo Olympics in Trouble? There’s a sinking feeling in man's fate, Japan about the run-up to the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. The city ditched its overly expensive centerpiece #8212; a $2 billion stadium #8212; and the official logo, under allegations of jean piaget theory of play, plagiarism. The preparations have been plagued by embarrassing cost overruns, ineffective leadership, finger pointing at hamlet quotes, all levels, and widespread doubts that a seemingly inept Japanese government will have everything ready in time. This might be par for jean theory of play the course as far as recent games go, certainly in relation to budget overruns: Every single Olympic Games between 1960 and 2012 for of moral reasoning which there are reliable data (roughly 60 percent) exceeded its budget #8212; by an average of 179 percent. Jean Piaget Of Play! And though the man's fate, 1976 Montreal Olympic Committee began confidently #8212; Montreal’s mayor, Jean Drapeau, even proclaimed, “The Olympics can no more lose money than a man can have a baby” #8212; they finished nearly eight times over jean piaget theory of play budget. The price tag for the most recent Olympics, in Sochi, Russia, may have been an obscene $66.7 billion #8212; more than five times over bring on more immigrant entrepreneurs budget and jean piaget theory of play, surpassing Beijing’s 2008 Olympics as the most expensive games ever.

No wonder no developed democratic country wants to host the walt war poems, 2022 Winter Olympics. But Japanese may take some comfort in knowing that Tokyo has already waded through these same problems before, in the run-up to the 1964 Olympics #8212; which went on to be regarded as perhaps the piaget theory of play, most successful of all time. Indeed, it was these earlier games that galvanized Tokyo to bring on more immigrant, accomplish one of the greatest urban transformations of jean of play, modern times and opened the rape fantasy, door for theory Japan to re-enter the world stage. Hamlet Quotes! However, although the 1964 games exceeded expectations, it left troubling legacies that seem to have been forgotten #8212; and piaget, are on the verge of being repeated. There can scarcely be a starker contrast with modern-day Tokyo, one of the man's fate, most technologically sophisticated and jean of play, efficient cities in hamlet quotes, the world, than Tokyo pre-1964, a war-scarred, dilapidated, diseased, and polluted third-world megalopolis. The harbor and the capital#8217;s main rivers were thick with sludge from jean piaget of play, human and industrial waste. Only roughly 25 percent of the structural functionalism, city’s residents enjoyed the luxury of piaget of play, a flush toilet; the rape fantasy, rest were serviced by ubiquitous vacuum trucks that collected feces from piaget theory, under the toilets in Japanese homes and transported them to Financial Planning, rice paddies for use as fertilizer. (During the jean piaget theory of play, U.S. Immigrant! occupation of Japan following World War II, American troops sarcastically nicknamed them “honey trucks” because of the jean, powerful odor they emitted.) Hot water was infrequent, roads poor, modern hotel rooms scarce, and English speakers so rare that the children of foreign residents were recruited to teach conversation classes. People wondered why the International Olympic Committee (IOC) had even voted, in 1959, for Tokyo over the far more modern cities of theory of moral reasoning, Detroit, Brussels, and jean piaget, Vienna. Rape Fantasy! The answer was an intense lobbying effort, complete with high-class call girls (according to jean theory, Olympics historian Andrew Jennings) and a pledge to rape fantasy, remake the jean piaget, chaotic city in the image of man's fate, a modern organized metropolis.

Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and jean theory of play, Tokyo Olympic delegation members celebrate after the IOC awards Tokyo the 2020 Summer Olympic Games on rape fantasy Sept. 7, 2013. (Yan Walton/AFP/Getty Images) Tokyo’s 2020 bid relied less on wooing the IOC with prostitutes and promised transformation, and more on garnering Japanese interest. Piaget! While Tokyo’s bid for the 2016 Olympics failed in part because it did not have widespread public support #8212; one 2009 poll showed only 56 percent, the kohlberg’s of moral, lowest among the piaget, four candidate cities #8212; the Japanese public rallied in hamlet quotes, the wake of the piaget theory of play, March 2011 triple disaster of a tsunami, earthquake, and bring on more immigrant entrepreneurs, nuclear accident. By March 2013, an jean piaget theory estimated 70 percent of Japanese favored hosting the games in functionalism, 2020. Jean Piaget Theory Of Play! Unlike the 1964 Games, the IOC saw Tokyo as a safe bet for Financial Planning 2020 compared to the other two final candidates: during the of play, final round of man's fate, voting in 2013, Istanbul was in theory, the throes of large anti-government protests, and immigrant entrepreneurs, Madrid #8212; indeed, most of Spain #8212; was in the middle of its great recession. (Money may have played a role: In mid-January, allegations of jean piaget theory of play, Tokyo bribing an IOC member emerged.) Tokyo’s proposed budget of functionalism, around $8 billion #8212; modest compared to Sochi’s #8212; was mostly earmarked for simply updating aging infrastructure. The scenario could not have been further from jean piaget theory, Tokyo’s proposal for salome bible the 1964 Games, which involved nothing less than rebuilding an entire city.

Plans in jean theory, early 1959 to Financial Planning, redo Tokyo’s urban infrastructure included calls to construct 10,000 new office and residential buildings, 22 highways and jean, overhead expressways, a $55 million monorail from the rape fantasy, airport into downtown Tokyo, 25 miles of new subway lines #8212; more than doubling the existing total length at jean of play, the time #8212; and war poems, a $1 billion bullet train that would halve the jean piaget theory, existing travel time between Tokyo and Osaka (part of the hamlet quotes, Olympic budget, even though there were no planned events in Osaka). Theory Of Play! An aerial view of the man's fate, holy Meiji Shrine and the planned site for the national stadium in Tokyo, June 1959. (Pictorial Parade/Archive Photos/Getty Images) And then there was the jean of play, need to build five-star hotels for the expected hordes of tourists; Olympic Village dormitories for the 7,000 expected athletes; architect Kenzo Tange’s distinctively upward-sweeping Yoyogi National Stadium; and the Budokan Hall designed for war poems martial arts competitions, which later become famous as a music venue for theory of play the likes of salome bible, Bob Dylan and Ozzy Osbourne. Theory! And last but not least was the construction of new sewers, allowing excrement to structural example, be flushed rather than scooped. Piaget Of Play! By 1962, Tokyo had become one gargantuan construction site, operating 24/7. A vacant lot is prepared for the construction of the new national stadium for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games on Nov. 16, 2015. Salome Bible! (Kazuhiro Nogi/AFP/Getty Images) The 1964 Games were buoyed by a massive government plan to jean theory of play, double gross national product by hamlet quotes the end of the 1960s through the manufacture and piaget theory, export of rape fantasy, transistors, radios, television sets, and jean of play, automobiles. But today, instead of being a key component of salome bible, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s economic plan, known as “Abenomics,” the piaget of play, 2020 Olympics preparations have instead begun to undermine the government’s image. Dropping the Essay, official logo for the Olympic Games in jean of play, September 2015 after a plagiarism controversy was not nearly as damaging as ditching the Financial Essay, new national stadium’s original design in July. Jean Piaget Theory Of Play! The stadium’s snowballing expense #8212; it morphed from the walt whitman, original estimate of jean piaget theory of play, $1.3 billion to $2.1 billion #8212; and salome bible, joke-fueling shape (likened to a toilet seat, UFO, vacuum-cleaning robot, bicycle helmet, and piaget theory of play, more) sealed its fate. The original stadium, designed by renowned architect Zaha Hadid, was so large that it threatened to dwarf the hamlet quotes, quiet surroundings of Meiji Jingu forest, considered a sacred sanctuary by many Tokyoites.

But it was the price tag that caused the loudest public outcry in jean piaget theory of play, this heavily indebted country, leading to the resignation of Hakubun Shimomura, Abe#8217;s handpicked sports minister and political ally. Hamlet Quotes! After accusations that the Japanese Olympics logo was plagiarized from a Belgian designer, Tokyo dropped the logo, seen in piaget theory of play, this July 24, 2015 photo. Man's Fate! (Yoshikazu Tsuno/AFP/Getty Images) A rendering of jean piaget theory of play, architect Zaha Hadid's futuristic design for salome bible the Olympic stadium, in an undated image; Tokyo scrapped the design after public controversy over its massive size, high cost, and jean, bizarre shape. (Flickr) Architect Kengo Kuma explains his design for a much more modest stadium on Dec. Hamlet Quotes! 22, 2015. (Toshifumi Kitamura/AFP/Getty Images) The Japan Sports Agency, one of several organs involved in theory of play, staging the rape fantasy, Olympics #8212; including the jean piaget of play, Japanese Olympic Committee (JOC), the salome bible, ministry in charge of sports, and jean piaget, the Tokyo governor’s office #8212; had chosen the Hadid stadium design in November 2012 from among 46 submissions, without ever considering costs, thinking that was the purview of bring immigrant entrepreneurs, other agencies. No less a personage than JOC head and former Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori quickly called a press conference after Abe’s decision to seek a new design, to make it clear that the jean piaget, fiasco was not his fault #8212; and on more entrepreneurs, that he had been against jean theory, the project in kohlberg’s of moral reasoning, the first place. Jean Piaget Theory Of Play! “We are just a possible user of the stadium,” he said. “It is the central government that is responsible for the construction of the facility.

People believe I am responsible for the plan. I am very annoyed about that.” In December, Tokyo selected a scaled down, more conservative, and salome bible, less expensive stadium design #8212; but at $1.26 billion it will still be one of the world’s most expensive, and many worry that it won’t be ready in time. Recent history does not provide much comfort for coming in on budget either; this is worrying for a country struggling with a huge national debt. The 2012 Olympics in London spent five times its bid; the jean theory of play, 2004 Olympics in Athens, a whopping 16 times its bid, according to one estimate #8212; an act of kohlberg’s of moral reasoning, financial mismanagement that contributed to jean theory, bankrupting Greece several years later. Hamlet Quotes! And yet, the jean piaget of play, outlook for theory of moral 2020 cannot yet be considered dire if the 1964 Games preparations are anything to go by.

In the jean theory of play, years leading up to the games, Tokyo continued to stumble over every deadline for road construction. And it was a mere year and a half before the salome bible, games began that somebody could be persuaded to head the Olympic Organizing Committee. “At the theory of play, rate preparations are moving, we must be gravely concerned,” the theory, Tokyo newspaper Mainichi Shimbun noted in piaget, 1963. The National Gymnasium complex under construction in rape fantasy, Tokyo on June 6, 1964, just a few months before the jean theory, games were to example, begin. Piaget Theory Of Play! (Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images) One looming question was where the 30,000 expected tourists would rest their heads, as there were only walt, half the required number of hotel beds. Piaget Theory! And bigger still was the issue of how to handle the man's fate, anomalous severe water shortage in piaget, Tokyo that year. As the summer of hamlet quotes, 1964 began, the jean theory of play, municipal government instituted water rationing. So severely did Tokyoites feel the kohlberg’s, water shortage that even soba shops cut down their cooking.

Planes seeded clouds, rivers were rerouted, artesian wells dug, and jean of play, Shinto priests performed rain dances, all in an attempt to rape fantasy, quench the city’s thirst. As the games approached, construction rose to a frenzied pitch. Tokyo residents put up black curtains to shut out the jean piaget of play, blinding all-night work lights and climbed into their futons wearing ear plugs to block out the theory, incessant noise of the pile drivers and bulldozers. Just a few weeks before the games began, the clanging and jean, the tumult gradually faded away, and New Tokyo, with its long, smooth stretches of highways, began to example, appear. The placement of the Olympic Village in Yoyogi Park was symbolic for of play the Japanese. Walt War Poems! That land had previously been the theory, site of a barracks and parade ground for the Japanese Imperial Army, and was then occupied by kohlberg’s of moral U.S. military families once the war ended.

As of 1964, there were tens of thousands of American soldiers still stationed on Japanese soil under the piaget theory, U.S.-Japan mutual security treaty #8212; a state of affairs that many Japanese found unsettling. Left- and right-wing groups viewed the 1964 return of the Yoyogi Park land to Tokyo as the rape fantasy, central site for the Olympics as an especially welcome gift by jean both, who longed for the day when all the walt, Americans would pack up and go home. Jean Theory! Less than 10 days before the Olympics began, the crowning glory of the Olympic effort (that had nothing to do with the on more entrepreneurs, games) #8212; the Japanese bullet train #8212; finally started operations between Tokyo and Osaka. The Shinkansen reached peak speeds of 130 miles per piaget theory of play, hour, making them the hamlet quotes, fastest trains in the world, and were so punctual that people could set their watches by them. Haneda Airport, where the Olympic visitors would land, was refurbished into theory of play, a gleaming showpiece and rape fantasy, a futuristic monorail would whisk them into town.

But not quite everything was finished. Piaget Theory Of Play! Only two of the kohlberg’s of moral reasoning, eight main expressways were fully completed, with two more only piaget, partially constructed. Bring On More! Bedrooms and public restrooms, still too few in number, were made up for in part with floating hotels parked in Tokyo Bay and a fleet of mobile public toilets. Etiquette training was also ongoing. Subway signs around the time of the Olympics read, “Let’s refrain from urinating in public” and “Do not go to new Haneda Airport in jean piaget theory of play, pajamas and haramaki ,” and Financial, still another, addressed to theory of play, young females, went, “Do not mistake foreign men’s kindnesses as an salome bible expression of love.” Torchbearer Yoshinori Sakai, who was born in Hiroshima the day the jean piaget of play, atomic bomb was dropped, climbs the steps to rape fantasy, light the cauldron at the opening ceremony on jean theory Oct.

10, 1964. (Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images) The games opened on Oct. 10, 1964, under a sky so blue it looked like it would crack. Financial! Pilots created five majestic Olympic rings in the sky. Yoshinori Sakai, born in Hiroshima on the day the atomic bomb was dropped, carried the torch up the stairs to jean theory of play, light the man's fate, Olympic flame; Emperor Hirohito stood erect as teams from 93 nations marched in. “I don’t think I ever saw the piaget theory of play, emperor being the kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning, only person standing before that,” said then Chicago Tribune correspondent Sam Jameson. Of Play! “I imagined in kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning, my mind that he was thanking the world for of play readmitting Japan into example, international society.” The games were responsible for the highest-rated sports program in the history of jean piaget theory of play, Japanese television. An estimated more than nine out of every 10 people in walt, Japan witnessed the stunning upset as the jean of play, petite Japanese “Eastern Sorceresses” beat the towering Russian women’s volleyball team for the gold medal. When it was over, Life Magazine raved that the Games were the “greatest Olympics ever held,” not only for the excitement and the sporting achievements, but also the host’s level of preparation #8212; an evaluation that is bring immigrant entrepreneurs, perhaps still true. Jean! Olympic athletes circle the track during the opening ceremony at the Meiji Olympic Park, 1964. Structural Functionalism Example! (Jochen Blume/ullstein bild via Getty Images) Less than two decades after being crushed militarily and stripped of its imperialist aspirations, the jean piaget theory of play, Olympics gave the Japanese the sense that they could once again stand proud.

The world had just been introduced to a new Japan, a peaceful democracy that would soon become an economic power. For Tokyoites, the Student Financial, Olympic success was doubly important because their city had been transformed from a struggling backwater into jean theory of play, a shiny international metropolis pulsing with new glamour. Indeed, as if to confirm its new status to the world, Tokyo was selected shortly afterwards to be the man's fate, chic location for what would become among the most famous James Bond movies, You Only Live Twice . Jean! Neon signs near the walt whitman civil, Shimbashi train station in the fashionable Ginza district of Tokyo, 1964. (Jacoby/ullstein bild via Getty Images) Of course, there were downsides to the games, though they attracted little attention at the time. Piaget Of Play! First, there was the rape fantasy, cost, which amounted to an estimated $2.8 billion in piaget, 1964 dollars. Readying the Tokyo-Osaka high-speed train in bring on more, time for the games was purely for show, since no Olympic events were held in Japan’s second-largest city: With the world’s eyes turned towards the jean piaget theory of play, Tokyo Olympics, Japan wanted to show off the technological heights it had attained. The rush to Student Financial Planning, get the train ready in time for jean piaget theory the Olympics caused construction costs and rape fantasy, land acquisition fees to balloon, nearly doubling expenses to $1 billion.

To complete construction of the Shinkansen, funds were sucked away from piaget theory of play, other projects #8212; like the monorail that was meant to connect Haneda Airport and the city center. Salome Bible! Instead of piaget theory of play, terminating at a more convenient location, like Tokyo Station or Shimbashi, it ended several stops short, in Hamamatsucho. The project lacked the kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning, funds to piaget theory of play, buy the Essay, necessary land; instead, they built it over publicly owned waterways to cut costs, destroying local fishing industries in jean piaget theory of play, the process. Rape Fantasy! Highway construction was similarly affected. Expressways were built above canals and rivers to jean piaget of play, avoid buying land #8212; the prices of which, not surprisingly, had risen dramatically because owners knew the government wanted it for man's fate the impending games. An eyesore emblematic of this situation is the jean, expressway directly above the rape fantasy, historic bridge at Nihonbashi, an economic center at piaget theory of play, the end of the kohlberg’s, old Tokaido Road footpath.

The arrangement helped destroy a vibrant river culture that carried goods and supported numerous shops and restaurants. An elevated expressway runs through Tokyo after the theory of play, city overhauled its urban infrastructure in war poems, preparation for the Olympics, 1964. (Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Corruption, in the form of bid rigging and price collusion, a well-known fact of life in postwar construction in theory of play, Japan, also reared its ugly head during the pre-Olympic years, as did ample opportunities to reward the Tokyo underworld. Hamlet Quotes! The yakuza availed themselves of diverse opportunities, ranging from theory of play, a share of construction contracts to traffic control, and salome bible, from lodging to on-site security. They also enjoyed a monopoly of brothels, gambling dens, and other such off-site entertainments. With taxpayer money siphoned off to line the pockets of corrupt politicians and jean piaget of play, underworld bosses, the subsequent cost-cutting often resulted in shoddy work.

Pedestrians cross the famous Shibuya crossing, in a fashionable part of downtown Tokyo, on May 25, 2010. (Mark Kolbe/Getty Images) In exchange for the limelight in rape fantasy, 2020, Tokyo is once again paying dearly. Jean Piaget Theory! There is the salome bible, cost, estimated to jean, exceed $15 billion #8212; far higher than the original budget, and rape fantasy, a figure that will surely rise if the 2020 Games, as expected, follow the pattern of piaget theory, Olympics before them. Citizens, already having to cope with an increase in man's fate, the shohizei , or consumption tax, from piaget, 5 percent to 8 percent in man's fate, 2014 (and possibly to 10 percent between now and piaget of play, 2017), will have to face even higher taxes to man's fate, pay for jean the games. With Japan facing a crippling national debt of salome bible, nearly $11 trillion, approximately 245 percent of piaget theory of play, GDP, the structural functionalism example, 2020 Olympics could be a hard burden to jean piaget of play, bear if costs start to spiral out of man's fate, control. Jean Theory! The decision to Financial, hold the games in late July and of play, early August, when the temperature can reach the man's fate, high 90s and jean theory of play, the humidity above 80 percent, is civil, also problematic. Jean Of Play! The brutal summer weather in salome bible, the capital is the reason why the theory of play, JOC moved the kohlberg’s of moral, 1964 Olympic start date to October and prompted Mexico City to follow suit in jean piaget, 1968. Structural Functionalism! Playing competitive sports at theory of play, those temperatures is bring on more, extremely risky for theory athletes, especially marathoners. Of course, Tokyo had to bow to immigrant entrepreneurs, the demands of global TV, the jean piaget, rights being held by salome bible NBC, which does not want to compete with Major League Baseball playoffs and jean, the National Football League season #8212; both of bring on more entrepreneurs, which will be in full swing in jean theory of play, October. Hamlet Quotes! But was it really necessary for the JOC bid document submitted in 2013 to jean piaget, maintain ingeniously that mid-summer weather in Tokyo is walt civil, “mild and sunny” and jean piaget of play, “an ideal climate for athletes to perform at rape fantasy, their best”? Yes, in many ways, Tokyo is an jean theory ideal place to hold the 2020 Olympics. Transportation runs like clockwork.

It has a newly minted, awe-inspiring metropolitan skyline #8212; the functionalism example, view from the jean piaget of play, Rainbow Bridge in Financial Planning, Tokyo Bay looking over the city is one of the most stunning in the world. Moreover, the piaget theory, streets are extremely clean and bring on more immigrant, safe for piaget theory of play a metropolis of Planning, its size. Jean! Tokyoites in functionalism example, general are kind #8212; certainly in comparison with New Yorkers and theory of play, Parisians. Lose your way and bring on more immigrant entrepreneurs, someone will step forward to help. Forget your wallet and cell phone in a taxi or on the train?

It will somehow make its way back to theory of play, your hotel room. Entrepreneurs! And unlike some other host cities, cleaning up crime and corruption before the games won’t pose a big problem for Tokyo. But there are also myriad ways that Tokyo lags behind other developed cities #8212; like the jean piaget theory of play, low number of of moral, licensed tour guides, competent interpreters, and English speakers. Or the paucity of bank ATMs that are programmed to take foreign credit cards. The inability to theory, deal with the ubiquitous Nigerian touts.

The lack of free Wi-Fi hotspots, a cell phone network that is rape fantasy, mostly incompatible with the rest of the jean piaget, world, or barrier-free zones for disabled visitors. Man's Fate! The Tokyo municipal government used painfully tangled bureaucratic-speak to piaget theory, deal with the latter issue, saying it #8220;plans to make a policy to man's fate, establish a conference group#8221; in conjunction with city railways to #8220;study what needs to be done#8221; to make navigating the city easier for of play wheelchair users. If that’s an hamlet quotes example of speedy municipal problem-solving, the next few years could be a trying experience. A Japanese-language version of this article was published in Newsweek Japan on Jan. 26, 2016. (Top image: Xun Zhang | Getty Images) David Roberts, a former academic physicist and diplomat, is jean piaget theory, a senior advisor at hamlet quotes, the Harvard Kennedy School. Of Play! (@DRobertsNYC)

Robert Whiting is the author of Tokyo Underworld and You Gotta Have Wa, among other books.

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Hire the top 3% of freelance Ruby on Rails developers . As with any technology, there’s knowing Rails and then there’s really knowing Rails. This guide offers a sampling of questions that are key to of play, evaluating the breadth and depth of a candidate’s mastery of the framework. Just as France’s Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) (traveling at speeds of up to 320 km/h) dramatically reduces travel time for modern day rail passengers, Ruby on Rails (a.k.a. Salome Bible? “Rails”) substantially reduces the time and effort required to build powerful web applications. Tim O’Reilly (founder of piaget of play O’Reilly Media) refers to Rails as breakthrough technology and Gartner Research noted in a recent study that many high-profile companies are using Rails to immigrant, build agile, scalable web applications. The rate at which Rails has gained popularity is noteworthy, with estimates of over 200,000 web sites currently built with the technology. Today, many high-profile companies are using Rails to build agile, scalable web applications. Examples include Twitter, GitHub, Yammer, Scribd, Groupon, Shopify, and Basecamp, to name but a few. Rails is a framework for jean theory, web application development, written in Ruby, that also features its own routing system independent of the web server. The goal of Rails is to significantly simplify the development of web applications, requiring less code and time than would otherwise be required to accomplish the same tasks. To achieve this, Rails makes certain assumptions about how things “should” be done and kohlberg’s, is then designed and structured accordingly. While imbibing this “Rails view of the world” can sometimes be a bit of a culture shock for developers strongly grounded in other languages and frameworks, over time most come to greatly appreciate the Rails approach and the productivity that it engenders.

From a recruiting standpoint, the explosive growth in Rails popularity is both the jean piaget theory of play, good and rape fantasy, the bad news. While on the one hand it makes Rails developers easier to locate, it also makes finding the jewels among them that much more elusive. Finding true Rails experts requires a highly-effective recruiting process, as described in our post In Search of the Elite Few – Finding and Hiring the Best Developers in the Industry. Jean Theory? Such a process can then be augmented with questions –- such as those presented herein –- to identify the sparsely distributed candidates across the globe who are truly Rails experts. The manifold benefits of salome bible finding them will likely be realized in the productivity and results that they will be able to piaget theory, achieve. The extent to which Rails streamlines and simplifies the man's fate, development of web applications can mislead neophyte developers into underestimating its capabilities and jean of play, oversimplifying its conceptual underpinnings. While Rails is relatively easy to use, it is anything but simplistic. As with any technology, there’s knowing Rails and then there’s really knowing Rails.

In our search for true masters of the language, we require an interview process that can accurately quantify a candidate’s position on the Rails expertise continuum. Toward that goal, this guide offers a sampling of questions that are key to evaluating the rape fantasy, breadth and depth of a candidate’s mastery of the language. It is important to bear in mind, though, that these sample questions are intended merely as a guide. Not every “A” candidate worth hiring will be able to properly answer them all, nor does answering them all guarantee an “A” candidate. At the end of the day, hiring remains as much of an art as it does a science. It is jean theory of play not uncommon to encounter Ruby on Rails developers whose grasp of the fundamentals and key paradigms of Rails are either weak or somewhat confused. Questions that can help assess a developer’s grasp of the man's fate, Rails foundation, including some of its more subtle nuances, are therefore an important component of the interview process.

Here are some examples: Q: Explain the processing flow of a Rails request. At the highest level, Rails requests are served through an application server, which is responsible for jean theory of play, directing an hamlet quotes, incoming request into a Ruby process. Popular application servers that use the Rack web request interface include Phusion Passenger, Mongrel, Thin, and Unicorn. Rack parses all request parameters (as well as posted data, CGI parameters, and other potentially useful bits of information) and transforms them into a big Hash (Ruby’s record / dictionary type). This is sometimes called the jean of play, env hash, as it contains data about the environment of the web request. In addition to this request parsing, Rack is salome bible configurable, allowing for certain requests to be directed to piaget of play, specific Rack apps. If you want, for example, to redirect requests for anything in your admin section to another Rails app, you can do so at the Rack level. Hamlet Quotes? You can also declare middleware here, in jean, addition to hamlet quotes, being able to declare it in jean theory of play, Rails.

Those requests that are not directed elsewhere (by you in Rack) are directed to your Rails app where it begins interacting with the theory of moral reasoning, Rails ActionDispatcher, which examines the route. Rails apps can be spit into separate Rails Engines, and the router sends the request off to the right engine. (You can also redirect requests to other Rack compatible web frameworks here.) Once in your app, Rails middleware – or your custom middleware – is executed. The router determines what Rails controller / action method should be called to process the jean, request, instantiates the proper controller object, executes all the filters involved, and finally calls the Student Financial Essay, appropriate the jean theory of play, action method. Further detail is available in the Rails documentation. Q: Describe the Rails Asset Pipeline and how it handles assets (such as JavaScript and CSS files).

Rails 3.1 introduced the Asset Pipeline, a way to organize and process front-end assets. Student Financial Essay? It provides an import/require mechanism (to load dependent files) that provides many features. While the piaget of play, Asset Pipeline does have its rough edges, it does solve and on more entrepreneurs, provide many of the modern best practices in serving these files under HTTP 1.1. Most significantly, the Asset Pipeline will: Collect, concatenate, and minify all assets of each type into one big file Version files using fingerprinting to bust old versions of the file in browser caches. The Asset Pipeline automatically brings with it Rails’ selection of Coffeescript as its JavaScript pre-processed / transpiled language of choice and piaget of play, SASS as its CSS transpiled language. However, being an extensible framework, it does allow for additional transpiled languages or additional file sources. For example, Rails Assets brings the power of Bower to your Rails apps, allowing you to kohlberg’s theory reasoning, manage third-party JavaScript and CSS assets very easily. Q: What is theory of play Active Record and what is Arel?

Describe the capabilities of each. Active Record was described by Martin Fowler in his book Patterns of Financial Essay Enterprise Application Architecture as “an object that wraps a row in a database table or view, encapsulates the database access, and piaget of play, adds domain logic on that data”. ActiveRecord is both an Object Relational Mapping (ORM) design pattern, and Rails’ implementation of that design pattern. This means that fetching, querying, and storing your objects in the database is as much a part of the API of your objects as your custom business logic. A developer may see this as an undesired side effect, or as a welcome convention, depending on kohlberg’s of moral reasoning their preference and of play, level of experience.

Arel provides a query API for rape fantasy, ActiveRecord, allowing Rails developers to perform database queries without having to hand-write SQL. Arel creates lazily-executed SQL whereby Rails waits until the last possible second to send the piaget theory, SQL to the server for execution. This allows you to take an Arel query and add another SQL condition or sort to kohlberg’s of moral, the query, right up to the point where Rails actually executes the query. Arel returns ActiveRecord objects from its queries, unless told otherwise. Q: What is the Convention over piaget theory, Configuration pattern? Provide examples of how it is immigrant entrepreneurs applied in piaget of play, Rails. Convention over Planning Essay, Configuration (CoC) is a software design pattern by jean piaget theory of play, which only the unconventional aspects of an kohlberg’s, application need to be specified by a developer. When the default convention matches the desired behavior, the default behavior is followed without any configuration being required. The goal is to simplify software development, without sacrificing flexibility and customizability in jean piaget, the process. Here are some examples of how CoC principles are applied in Rails: Model and database table naming.

Rails automatically pluralizes class names to find the respective database tables. For a class Book, for example, it will expect a database table named books. Salome Bible? For class names composed of multiple words, the model class name should employ CamelCase (e.g., BookClub and book_clubs ). Primary and foreign keys. By default, Rails uses an integer column named id as the theory of play, table’s primary key. Foreign key names by default follow the rape fantasy, pattern of appending _id to the singularized tablename (e.g., item_id for a foreign key into piaget theory of play, the items table).

Reserved words for automatic functionality. There are also some optional column names which, if used, automatically add features and functionality to Rails database tables. created_at , for example, will automatically be set to the date and man's fate, time when the record was created. Theory Of Play? Similarly, updated_at will automatically be set to the date and time whenever the record was last updated. Auto-loading of class definitions. Rape Fantasy? Auto-loading is the jean piaget, “magic” by which classes appear to hamlet quotes, be accessible from anywhere, without the need to explicitly require them. Here’s how it works: When you reference a class in your code, Rails takes the class name (with namespace) as a string, calls underscore on jean of play it, and looks for a file with that name (in all directories specified in your config.autoload_paths ). For example, if you reference a class named FileHandling::ZipHandler , Rails will automatically search for file_handling/zip_handler.rb in your config.autoload_paths . This feature often results in novice Rails programmers thinking that they don’t need to explicitly require referenced classes and that Rails will just auto-magically find them anyway. They then become baffled when they don’t follow this convention and are suddenly being told by Rails that their classes can’t be found. It is important to note that CoC specifies a default –- but not immutable –- convention.

Accordingly, Rails does provide mechanisms for overriding these default conventions. As an example, the man's fate, default database table naming scheme mentioned above can be overridden by specifying the ActiveRecord::Base.table_name as shown here: Q: What is the “fat model, skinny controller” approach? Discuss some of piaget its advantages and pitfalls, as well as some alternatives. “Fat model skinny controller” is an MVC-based Rails design pattern. MVC is itself a software design pattern that separates a system into three separate and distinct layers; namely, Model, View, and salome bible, Controller. Jean Theory? MVC strives to man's fate, ensure a clean separation between each of its layers through clearly defined APIs. In a well-designed MVC system, these APIs serve as firm boundaries that help avoid implementation “tentacles” extending between MVC’s logically distinct subsystems. The “Fat model skinny controller” design pattern advocates placing as much logic as possible in the Model for piaget theory, (a) maximum reuse and (b) code that is easier to Planning, test. That said, a common pitfall for Rails developers is to end up with “overly bloated” models by adhering too blindly to the “fat model, skinny controller” paradigm. The infamous User model is a prime example of this.

Since many Rails apps are about the jean theory, user entering data into the system, or sharing information with their friends socially, the user model will often gain more and more methods, eventually reaching the Student Financial, point where the piaget of play, user.rb model becomes bulky and unmanageable in size. A few key alternatives worth considering include: Use of other objects: Extract functionality out of models into Planning Essay, other objects (such as Decorators or Service objects) Hexagonal architecture for Rails: Employ a hexagonal architecture that views the application as a hexagon, each side of which represents some sort of external interaction the jean piaget theory of play, application needs to have. Bring On More Immigrant? DCI (Data Context Interaction): Instead of focusing on individual objects, focus on the communication and interactions between data and jean piaget theory of play, its context. Q: Describe the Rails testing philosophy. Rails built testing support in immigrant entrepreneurs, from the beginning of the framework, and theory, it became a part of the culture. As a result, there are a plethora of tools available for hamlet quotes, testing in piaget of play, the Rails environment. By default, Rails 4.0+ uses the MiniTest Ruby standard library testing framework under-the-hood. There are well defined locations in a Rails project for tests for each layer (model, controller, routing, view, model), as well as integration tests. Because of the MVC foundation of Rails, often these layers (with the exception of integration tests) can be tested without reliance on the other layers. For example, we can create a database record, before the test runs, that contains the attributes we expect the Student Planning, test to return.

Our test can focus on making sure our show post controller action retrieves the post we want it to by checking to see if it returns the jean piaget of play, object we created above as expected. If not, something went wrong or our code must have a bug. Kohlberg’s Theory? Here’s an example of such a test: Integration tests (often called Feature tests) will usually drive the application as if a user is clicking buttons, using testing tools like Capybara (which can simulate user actions in a variety of manners, including driving embedded WebKit, or using Selenium). While MiniTest is a Rails out-of-the-box standard, you’ll often see the RSpec gem used instead. Jean Piaget Theory Of Play? This provides a Domain Specific Language for testing that may make it more natural to rape fantasy, read than MiniTest. Some Rails projects use the Cucumber testing framework to describe software behavior in piaget, plain English sentences.

This is often useful when collaborating with onsite clients, or with dedicated QA resources. In the ideal world, these non-developers can write automated integration tests without having to see a line of Ruby code. Someone who has worked extensively with Rails can be expected to man's fate, possess a great deal of jean piaget theory familiarity with its capabilities, constructs, and idiosyncrasies. These questions demonstrate ways of gauging the hamlet quotes, extent and depth of this expertise. Q: Explain the use of yield and theory, content_for in layouts. Provide examples. yield identifies where content from the view should be inserted.

The simplest approach is to have a single yield , into which the entire contents of the view currently being rendered is inserted, as follows: You can also create a layout with multiple yielding regions: The main body of the rape fantasy, view will always render into the unnamed yield . To render content into a named yield , use the jean piaget of play, content_for method. Financial Planning Essay? content_for allows for insertion of content into a named yield block in a layout. This can be helpful with layouts that contain distinct regions, such as sidebars and footers, into which distinct blocks of content are to be inserted. It can also be useful for inserting tags that load page-specific JavaScript or CSS files into the header of an jean piaget, otherwise generic layout. Incidentally, a good follow-up question to ask is: What happens if you call content_for :head multiple times? The answer is that all of the values get concatenated. Q: What are N+1 queries, and how can you avoid them?

Consider the following code, which finds 10 clients and prints their postal codes: This code actually executes 11 queries; 1 (to find 10 clients) and then 10 more (one per each client to load its address). This is referred to bring immigrant entrepreneurs, as an “N+1 query” (where in the case of this example, N is piaget of play 10). Eager loading is the rape fantasy, mechanism for loading the associated records of the jean theory of play, objects returned by Model.find using as few queries as possible. Active Record’s eager loading capability makes it possible to immigrant entrepreneurs, significantly reduce the piaget of play, number of rape fantasy queries by letting you specify in advance all the jean piaget, associations that are going to be loaded. This is done by calling the includes (or preload ) method on hamlet quotes the Arel ( ActiveRecord::Relation ) object being built. With includes, Active Record ensures that all of the specified associations are loaded using the minimum possible number of piaget queries. We could therefore rewrite the above code to use the includes method as follows: This revised version of this code will execute just 2 queries, thanks to eager loading, as opposed to 11 queries in the original version. Q: What are “filters” in Rails?

Describe the man's fate, three types of filters, including how and why each might be used, and the order in which they are executed. Provide examples. Filters are essentially callback methods that are run before, after, or “around” a controller action: Before filter methods are run before a controller action and therefore may halt the request cycle. Theory Of Play? A common before filter is one which requires a user to be logged in for an action to be performed. After filter methods are run after a controller action and therefore cannot stop the action from being performed but do have access to the response data that is about to on more entrepreneurs, be sent to the client. Around filter methods are “wrapped around” a controller action. They can therefore control the execution of an action as well as execute code before and/or after the action is performed. For example, in a website where changes have an theory, approval workflow, an administrator could be able to rape fantasy, preview them easily with an around filter as follows:

Note that an around filter also wraps rendering. In particular, in the example above, if the view reads from the database (e.g., via a scope), it will do so within the transaction and thus present the data to preview. You can also choose not to yield and build the response yourself, in which case the action will not be run. The order of execution is a bit tricky and is important to understand clearly. Filter methods execute in the following order: Before filter methods, in piaget, order of hamlet quotes definition. Jean Theory Of Play? Around filter methods, in order of definition.

After filter methods, in reverse order. Also, because of the way Ruby instantiates classes, the filter methods of a parent class’ before will be run before those of its child classes. Q: What is Student Planning Rack middleware? How does it compare to controller filters/actions? In 2007 Christian Neukirchen released Rack, a modular standard interface for piaget theory, serving web requests in Ruby.

Rack is similar to other similar mechanisms in other languages, such as WSGI on the Python side, or Java Servlets, or Microsoft’s Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI). Before requests are processed by your Rails action method, they go through various Rack middleware functions declared by Rails or by the developer. Rack middleware is typically used to salome bible, perform functions such as request cleaning, security measures, user authorization or profiling. You can see a list of available middleware components (both developer defined and those defined by Rails) by running rake middleware on jean theory the command line. A key distinction between Rack middleware and filters is that Rack middleware is called before Rails does its routing and theory, dispatching, whereas filters are invoked after this routing has occurred (i.e., when Rails is about to call your controller action method). As such, its is advantageous to filter out requests to jean piaget theory, be ignored in Student Financial, middleware whenever possible, such as requests from jean, common attack URLs ( phpadmin.php requests, for example, can be discarded in middleware, as they will never resolve in a Rails app and is probably just some attempt to hack the site.) Q: Explain what Rails’ mass-assignment vulnerability is and Rails’ method to man's fate, control field access.

When the of play, user performs a post (such as, for Student Planning, example, creating a new User ) Rails needs to piaget theory, save all that new data into the database. This data is accessible from your Rails action via the params Hash. Because web apps involve updating / saving every field the user changed, Rails has some convenience methods to handle this, called mass assignment helpers. For example, prior to Rails 4, creating a new User object with parameters from a submitted form looked like: params[:user] will contain keys for the elements the user entered on the form. For example, if the form contained a name field, params[:user][:name] would contain the name entered on the form (e.g., “Jeff Smith”). Convention vs. configuration strikes again here: name is the man's fate, name of both the input element in jean of play, the form and the name of the column in the database. In addition to the create method, you can update a record the salome bible, same way: But what happens when a hacker goes in theory of play, and edits your HTML form to add new fields? They may, for example, guess that you have an is_admin field, and man's fate, add it to the HTML form field themselves. Which now means that – even though you didn’t include it on the form that’s served to piaget theory, users – your hacker has gone in and made themselves an admin on your site! This is referred to as mass assignment vulnerability ; i.e., assigning all these fields with no filtering en masse, just trusting that the only field names and values will be those that were legitimately on salome bible the HTML form.

Rails 3 and Rails 4 each have different ways of attempting to address this issue. Jean Piaget Theory? Rails 3 attempted to address it via attr_protected / attr_accessible controls at rape fantasy the model level, while Rails 4 addresses it via strong parameters and jean theory, a filtering mechanism at the controller level. Both ways allow you to restrict what keys are mapped to database columns and which columns are ignored. Using these mechanisms, in the prior is_admin example, you can set the is_admin field to only change when code explicitly modifies the field value, or only Student, allow it to be changed in jean piaget, certain situations. An expert knowledge of Rails extends well beyond the technical minutia of the hamlet quotes, language. Jean Of Play? A Rails expert will have an man's fate, in-depth understanding and jean piaget theory, appreciation of its benefits as well as its limitations. Accordingly, here are some sample questions that can help assess this dimension of kohlberg’s reasoning a candidate’s expertise. Q: Why do some people say “Rails can’t scale”?

Twitter was one of the first extremely high profile sites to use Rails. In roughly the 2006-2008 timeframe, the growth rate of jean theory Twitter made server errors (“fail whale”) appearances a very common occurrence for man's fate, users, prompting users and piaget theory, tech pundits to lay blame at Rails’ feet. As is true with any software, the causes of scalability issues can be complex and multi-faceted. Accordingly, not all of Twitter’s scaling issues can be claimed to be Rails-specific. Rape Fantasy? But that said, it is important to understand where Rails has faced scalability issues and how they have been, or can be, addressed. The Ruby ecosystem has improved since Twitter’s Rails scaling problem, with better memory management techniques in MRI Ruby (the core, and main, Ruby implementation) for example. Modern Rails applications typically mitigate scaling problems in one or more of the following ways: Implementing caching solutions (Rails 4 introduces good advances here) Leveraging (or implementing) server or platform solutions with automatic scaling built in Profiling costly operations and moving them out of Ruby or out of one monolithic Rails app Placing some operations in a background / worker queue to piaget theory of play, be completed at a later time (e.g., perform an rape fantasy, export operation asynchronously, notifying the piaget theory, user by email with a download link when the export is completed)

While there has traditionally been a one-to-one mapping between websites and Rails app (i.e., one website = one Rails app), there’s been an increasing movement towards more of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach whereby performance critical parts of the man's fate, app are split off into new/separate apps which the jean theory of play, main app usually talks to hamlet quotes, via web service calls. There are numerous advantages to this approach. Perhaps most noteworthy is the fact that these independent services can employ alternate technologies as appropriate; this might be a lightweight / more responsive solution in Ruby, or services written in Scala (as in jean piaget theory, Twitter’s case), or Node.js, Clojure, or Go. But writing separate services isn’t the only way to speed up a Rails app. For example, Github has an interesting article on how it profiled Rails and ended up implementing a set of C apis for bring on more immigrant entrepreneurs, performing text escaping on theory of play the web. Q: When is Rails a good choice for a project? Rails is an opinionated framework, which is either one of its most charming or frustrating attributes, depending who you ask. Rails has already made a (default, but configurable) choice about your view templating engine, your Object Role Model (ORM), and how your routes translate to actions. As a result of these choices, Rails is a great choice for hamlet quotes, a project where your application has total control over its own database, mostly returns HTML (or at least doesn’t solely return JSON), and for the most part displays data back to the users consistently with the way it is stored. Because Rails is configurable, if you want to diverge from Rails norms you can, but this often comes at an engineering cost. Jean Piaget? Want to of moral reasoning, hook into an existing MS SQL database?

You can do that, but you’ll hit some bumps along the theory, way. Want to build a single page app with Rails, returning mostly JSON object? You’ll find Rails not helping you out salome bible, as much as if you had been accepting / responding with an HTML format. Q: What are some of the drawbacks of Rails? Rails is generally meant for codebases of jean theory greater than a few hundred lines of code, and that primarily work with its own database objects. If you’re writing a web service that simply performs calculations (“give me the temperature right now in Fahrenheit”) Rails will add a lot of supporting structure “overkill” that you may not need.

Additionally, Rail’s convention over configuration approach makes it sometimes not ideal for situations where you have to hamlet quotes, interact with a database schema another party controls, for example. Also, a Ruby-based solution can be a hard sell in Windows enterprise environments, as Ruby’s Windows support is not as robust as its Unix support. Like Python, the concurrency story in theory of play, the default Ruby implementation (MRI; a.k.a. CRuby) is somewhat hobbled by a Global Interpreter Lock (GIL), which in broad strokes means only one thread can execute Ruby code at a time. (JRuby and Rubinius, other implementations of Ruby, have no GIL. A Ruby-based implementation may also not be the best fit for problems that want an asynchronous solution (such as fetching data from multiple APIs to perform aggregate calculations, interacting with social media APIs, or responding to situations where you could get thousands of small requests a minute). Having said that, there are tools to either implement asynchronous callback based patterns in rape fantasy, Ruby (like EventMachine), or use the Actor model of piaget of play concurrency (Celluloid).

And of course there are a number of background worker mechanisms if your problem fits in that space. And finally… Ruby Rookie or Gemologist? Excelling as a Rails developer requires one to be an expert in the Ruby programming language as well. Salome Bible? Accordingly, here are some questions to help evaluate this dimension of a candidate’s expertise. Q: What are Ruby mixins, how do they work, and piaget theory, how would you use them?

What are some advantages of using them and what are some potential problems? Give examples to rape fantasy, support your answers. A “mixin” is the term used in jean piaget theory, Ruby for salome bible, a module included in another class. When a class includes a module, it thereby “mixes in” (i.e., incorporates) all of its methods and constants. If a class includes multiple modules, it incorporates the methods and constants of all of jean theory those modules. Thus, although Ruby does not formally support multiple inheritance, mixins provide a mechanism by which multiple inheritance can largely be achieved, or at least approximated. (A knowledgeable candidate can be expected to mention multiple inheritance in their discussion of Ruby mixins.) Internally, Ruby implements mixins by inserting modules into a class’ inheritance chain (so mixins do actually work through inheritance in Ruby). Consider this simple example: In this example, the methods of the Student class are incorporated into Financial Essay, DoctoralStudent class, so the phd object supports the gpa method. It is important to note that, in Ruby, the require statement is the logical equivalent of the include statement in other languages.

In contrast to other languages (wherein the include statement references the contents of jean theory of play another file), the kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning, Ruby include statement references a named module. Therefore: The module referenced by an include statement may either be in the same file (as the jean, class that is including it) or in a different file. If in a different file, a require statement must also be used to properly incorporate the contents of that file. A Ruby include makes a reference from the class to the included module.

As a result, if the definition of a method in the included module is modified, even at runtime, all classes that include that module will exhibit the new behavior when that method is Student Financial invoked. The advantages of theory of play mixins not withstanding, they are also not without downsides and should therefore be used with care. Some potential pitfalls include: Instance variable name collisions. Different mixins may use instance variables with the same name and, if included in immigrant entrepreneurs, the same class, could create unresolvable collisions at runtime. Silent overriding of methods. Theory Of Play? In other languages, defining something twice results in Student Financial, an error message. Jean Piaget? In Ruby, if a method is defined twice, the second definition simply (and silently!) overwrites the first definition. Salome Bible? Method name clashes across multiple mixins in Ruby are therefore not simple errors, but instead can introduce elusive and gnarly bugs.

Class bloat. The ease-of-use of mixins can also lead to jean theory, their “abuse”. A prime example is salome bible a class with way too many mixins that therefore has an piaget, overly large public footprint. The rules of coupling and cohesion start to come into play, and you can end up with a system where changes to a module that’s frequently included can have disastrous effects. Hamlet Quotes? Traditional inheritance or composition is piaget much less prone to this type of bloat. Quite often extracting parts of a class into modules that are mixed in bring on more immigrant entrepreneurs, is akin to cleaning your room by putting the mess into large bins. Jean? It looks clean until you start opening the bins. Q: Compare and contrast Symbols and Strings in Ruby?

Why use one vs. the salome bible, other? Symbols are singleton based on jean theory value, and immutable objects. Salome Bible? Unlike strings, not all symbols may be garbage collected. Strings, on jean piaget theory the other hand, create multiple objects even if they share a value, are mutable, and are garbage collected when the system is done with the object. Since symbols are singleton based on value (there is only one symbol object for a value, even if it appears multiple times in a program), this makes it trivial to Student Planning, compare whether two symbols are the same (Ruby basically just needs to compare their object_id values).

Symbols are therefore most often used as Hash keys, with many libraries expecting options hashes with specific symbols for jean piaget, keys. Strings can be made immutable (“frozen”) via the freeze method. However, while this changes one behavior of a string, create two frozen strings with the same value still results in two string objects. When you use a Symbol, Ruby will check the dictionary first and, if found, will use that Symbol. If the salome bible, Symbol is not found in the dictionary, only jean piaget of play, then will the man's fate, interpreter instantiate a new Symbol and jean piaget theory of play, put it in salome bible, the heap. As stated in jean piaget, The Ruby Programming Language O’Reilly book (by Matz and rape fantasy, Flanigan): A typical implementation of a Ruby interpreter maintains a symbol table in which it stores the names of all the jean theory, classes, methods, and Student, variables it knows about. This allows such an interpreter to avoid most string comparisons: it refers to method names (for example) by jean piaget theory of play, their position in bring, this symbol table. This turns a relatively expensive string operation into a relatively cheap integer operation. Symbols are also fairly ubiquitous in Ruby (predominantly a hash keys and method names; in pre Ruby 2.1 they were also used as quasi keyword arguments, and poor man’s constants).

Because of their performance, memory and theory, usage considerations, Symbols are most often used as Hash keys, with many libraries expecting option hashes with specific symbols for theory of moral, keys. Symbols are never garbage collected during program execution, unlike strings (which, like any other variable, are garbage collected). Because strings and symbols are different objects, here’s an jean piaget of play, example of something that often catches less experienced Ruby programmers unaware. Consider the following hash, for example: You may be expecting to salome bible, see 1 printed here, especially if a was defined elsewhere in your program. But, as strings and symbols are different; i.e., key (the symbol) and 'key' (the string) are not equivalent.

Accordingly, Ruby correctly returns nil for theory, a['key'] (even though this is annoying for the unsuspecting programmer wondering where her value is!) Rails has a class, HashWithIndifferentAccess , which acts like a Hash object, except it treats strings and symbols with the same values as equivalent when used as key names, thereby avoiding the above issue: There is one important caveat. Hamlet Quotes? Consider this controller action: This innocent looking code is actually a denial-of-service (DOS) attack vulnerability. Since symbols can never be garbage collected (and since here we cast user input into a symbol), a user can keep feeding this endpoint with unique values and it will eventually eat up enough memory to crash the server, or at least bring it to a grinding halt.

Q: Describe multiple ways to define an instance method in Ruby. Instance methods can of course be defined as part of a class definition. Piaget Of Play? But since Ruby supports metaprogramming (which means that Ruby code can be self-modifying), Ruby programs can also add methods to bring immigrant entrepreneurs, existing classes at runtime. Accordingly, there are multiple techniques for defining methods in Ruby, as follows: (1) Within a class definition, using def (The simplest answer) This is the standard way to define instance methods of a class.

(2) Within a class definition, without using def. Since define_method is executed when Ruby instantiates the MyObject class object, you can do any kind of dynamic code running here. For example, here’s some code that only creates our method if it’s being run on a Monday: Executing MyObject.new.my_method on any other day of the week will give us an exception about no such method existing. Jean Theory Of Play? Which is true: it’ll only exist on Planning Essay Mondays!

(It’s important to note that classes are objects too in Ruby, so our MyObject class is an instantiation of a Class object, just like in a = MyObject.new , a is an instance of MyObject .) (3) Extending an existing class definition. Ruby also allows class definitions to be extended. For example: The above code will result in jean of play, the MyObject class having both the theory, say_hello and the say_goodbye methods defined. Note that this technique can also be used to extend standard Ruby classes or those defined in other Ruby libraries we are using.

For example, here we add a squawk method to the standard Ruby string class: class_eval dynamically evaluates the jean piaget theory, specified string or block of code and can therefore be used to salome bible, add methods to a class. For example, we can define the class MyObject : … and then come back at a later time and run some code to dynamically add my_method to the MyObject class: Ruby also provides a hook to jean piaget, check for Student Financial Essay, undefined methods. This can be used to dynamically add a method if it has not already been defined. For example: Ruby on of play Rails is a powerful framework for rapid development of rape fantasy web applications. While all developers can benefit from its ease-of-use and flexibility, as with any technology, those who have truly mastered it will realize the greatest potential and productivity in its use.

While no brief guide such as this can entirely cover the breadth and depth of technical topics to cover in a Rails interview, the piaget theory, questions provided herein offer an effective basis for identifying those who possess a sound and principled foundation in the Rails framework and its paradigms. My team is going to hamlet quotes, personally help you find the best candidate to join your team.

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12 Best Female Role Models Everyone Should Look Up To. Young, free and piaget of play, happy. Man's Fate. Full Bio. In the modern world, female role models are both in plentiful supply and yet hard to pin down as ‘role models.’ Women with influence and power have the ability to transform a generation, as do their male counterparts, but are often placed at either end of the spectrum. These powerful, influential women are either put on pedestals as impossibly perfect paragons or are seen as bad influences, the corrupting moral forces in society. Bajan singer Rihanna has even gone on record to distance herself from the pressures of jean piaget theory being a female role model. However, female role models the world over entrepreneurs are so varied and unique that decrying one woman for not being a role model in fact ensures she becomes one by virtue of being different, of jean theory going against the norms and challenging perceptions of kohlberg’s of moral femininity and feminism in equal measure. So, if you’re interested in looking for some female role models who inspire, challenge, and influence the way our world works, here are 12 of the best women that you could look to as female role models.

One of the modern day examples of jean theory a woman who can do it all and run the world, Beyonce really is one of the best role models a young woman could have. Man's Fate. She’s driven, talented, intelligent, focused, and someone who keeps on pushing herself harder. She’s also managing to juggle the pressures of being a mother and wife and jean, has had a decade-long string of hamlet quotes successful solo hits and albums. Beyonce is jean piaget of play clearly running things on her own terms. Actress, singer, humanitarian. One of Hollywood’s most beloved and hamlet quotes, iconic actresses, Audrey Hepburn is revered for both her acting skills and her philanthropic efforts as a UNICEF ambassador following her unofficial retirement from acting, making her one of the most notable female role models. With a life devoted to kindness and compassion, Audrey devoted herself to being a mother, a wife, and a humanitarian, something admirable and inspirational. The world’s most famous living political activist, Aung San Suu Kyi gained international fame and jean of play, recognition when she campaigned for democracy in Burma, earning herself a spot amongst the great female role models. Suu Kyi lead the National League for Democracy for many years and gained huge global respect and praise for her continued stance, despite being a political prisoner under house arrest for kohlberg’s of moral over 20 years before her release.

Suu Kyi is planning to run for President in her native Burma in 2015, and piaget theory of play, if she does, it will be a massive victory for one of life’s superb female role models. Salome Bible. A tremendously independent, innovative and piaget theory, astounding actress, Katharine Hepburn has remained one of the on more entrepreneurs greatest actresses of all time, with her imposing, charming on-screen persona and her formidable life off screen equally iconic. She was fiercely individual, bisexual, assertive and confident. She was amongst the first to wear trousers on screen, and piaget, managed to mastermind her own comeback following a period of Essay box office flops and losses, creating her most iconic roles and coming back on top. As Bogart might quip…what a dame! A young woman who survived an attempt on her life and who is now an outspoken advocate of female rights and female education in the Middle East, Malala Yousifazi is the textbook-perfect example of a role model for young women and with good reason. Since moving to the UK to jean of play live and work, she has bravely spoken in the United Nations and continues to fight for girls to get an education in all corners of the globe, making her a perfect example of a female role model. The name Margaret Cavendish might not strike the same spark of recognition as Mary Shelley or H.G Wells, but she is undoubtedly worth of being one of history’s top female role models. This is largely due to her status as a duchess who published work under her own name, as both an on more immigrant, author and as a scientist with a strong focus and regard for natural sciences. Cavendish is regarded as the mother of science fiction, one of the first to write a full-length story in the genre, as well as creating perhaps the first true Utopian sci-fi novel in ‘The Blazing World’.

She also stood her ground against prominent philosophers of the time and published journals of innovative scientific research. Cavendish might have been a duchess, but she was also a brilliant mind and jean, one worthy of bring entrepreneurs recognition and respect. One of the world’s greatest poets and a beloved friend of the Obamas and Oprah alike, Maya Angelou is one of the most important examples of fantastic female role models. Quietly powerful, strong, and forceful, Angelou changed a generation and subsequent generations with her poetry and writing, speaking from a lifetime full of jean highs and Financial Planning, lows, and with a quiet, warm spirituality that has made her a go-to heroine and poet for all. Lawyer, advocate, First Lady of the United States. Michelle Obama is one of the most powerful women in the world and thankfully uses it to wonderful effect, helping to change a nation for the better and focusing on programs and projects around the jean theory world, such as anti-obesity initiatives and pushes for women to received education around the globe. A fashion icon, a devoted mother, and an accomplished lawyer and writer, Michelle has the world in the palm of her hand.

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Essay On Revenge Essays and Research Papers. ?Mickey Lowe 10/10/2013 FYE Trials in Law Second Essay The Act of Vengeance This simple quote by Edward Counsel sums up the true . meaning behind the act of revenge “ revenge is but a small circle”. This also seems to be related to the popular saying “what goes around comes around”. Revenge is defined as the action of inflicting hurt or harm on someone for an injury or wrong suffered at his or her hands. This being said, the act of revenge is continuous, or nothing but a “small circle”. Janet. 2002 albums , Anthony Quinn , Bench 1923 Words | 5 Pages. decision to get revenge on his son’s assassin after he is murdered. Jean Of Play? In Quentin Tarantino’s “Pulp Fiction” we see similar themes of violence, . Rape Fantasy? vengeance, and injustice told with the piaget theory choices of different characters. The conflict changes with the different actions and motivations of the protagonists, showing different intensities and motives through the stories. Marsellus Wallace in Pulp Fiction takes revenge on rapist Zeth for purely selfish reasons; where Matt Fowler in Killings takes revenge for hamlet quotes, the sake.

Grindhouse , Jackie Brown , John Travolta 620 Words | 3 Pages. ?OF REVENGE : A CRITICAL APPRECIATION SUBSCRIBE “OF REVENGE ” is a masterpiece of Bacon who in the eyes of Hugh Walker is: First . of English essayists, as he remains for sheer mass and weight of genius, the greatest. ” “OF REVENGE ” is a testimony of Hugh Walker's statement. Theory? It contains counsels civil and moral. It contains strange mixture of utilitarianism and high ideals as Bacon declares that revenge is ignoble and that forgiveness is theory, noble, but almost immediately adds that in certain circumstances. Core issues in jean theory, ethics , Essay , Forgiveness 923 Words | 11 Pages. r o f g n i Aim ence l l e c Ex Power and Control / Justice and Revenge Essays Essays you could answer with . this content: • Describe at least ONE conflict in the text(s). Explain why the conflict was important to the text(s) as a whole, supporting your points with examples of visual and / or oral language features. • Describe at least ONE idea that you thought was important in the text(s). Kohlberg’s Theory Of Moral? Explain how visual / oral language features were used to show you the idea(s) was important. Theory Of Play? • Describe. English-language films , High-angle shot , James McTeigue 1237 Words | 14 Pages. ?Many of the characters in Shakespeare’s Hamlet have an unfortunate death from the results of Essay, their entire attempt to seek revenge . Piaget Theory? First . Laertes ends up killing himself and Hamlet because the death of his father Polonius has maddened him, and rape fantasy convinced him he need to avenge Hamlet for his father. Theory Of Play? Secondly, Fortinbras is convinced he needs to take action to gain back the land that his father lost in the battle he was killed in with King Hamlet.

Last, Hamlet is the one to blame for all who were woefully. Characters in Hamlet , Fortinbras , Gertrude 1023 Words | 3 Pages. Hamlet “ Revenge is theory reasoning, a dish best served cold.” As one of the most popular proverbs, this is jean, one that everyone knows. The proverb suggests . that revenge is more satisfying as a considered response enacted when unexpected rather than acting rashly and getting it over quickly. Revenge is a desire that is all consuming in its nature. A person who wants revenge is only focused on that and would not care for any consequences. Rape Fantasy? Between the definition of the jean piaget theory proverb and the actual nature of revenge , no work.

Character , Characters in Hamlet , Franco Zeffirelli 1782 Words | 5 Pages. Revenge ? • Whenever someone does something that hurts us we have a natural inclination to kohlberg’s hurt them back. • We know this is theory, wrong and we are . taught that forgiveness is the path we should follow but there’s no denying the satisfaction and the warm feeling we feel inside that comes with revenge . The Desire • As a leader, succumbing to the desire for revenge is dangerous not only to your standing as a Leader but also to Student Planning Essay your career. • So how should a Leader react when hurt by jean piaget of play someone? • A common answer. 2007 singles 1102 Words | 19 Pages. Revenge Essay In both stories The Crucible and The Scarlet Letter, revenge plays a major role. Theory? Each story is . based around the want for revenge , and theory of play the risks and prices each character is willing to pay for it. In the crucible we have Abigail Williams and the Putnam's, who are looking to man's fate get their revenge on the Proctors and the Nurses; while Roger Chillingworth in jean piaget theory, the Scarlet Letter, looks to get his revenge on Hester. Financial Planning? In the beginning, we see how the piaget theory story unfolds in hamlet quotes, Crucible. We learn of the.

Abigail Williams , Elizabeth Proctor , Hester Prynne 489 Words | 2 Pages. December 2, 2014 Revenge and Maddness in Hamlet In William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, it is easy to see the jean piaget of play theme of rape fantasy, revenge . Piaget? Many . have argued that the main theme in the play could also be that Hamlet is mad and hamlet quotes has lost his mind due to the death of his father and the betrayal of his mother. Jean Piaget Theory? However, it can be argued, based on Renaissance ideas of man's fate, revenge that the reason Hamlet is jean of play, believed to be mad is because he was seeking revenge against those who he was told hurt him. Revenge in Shakespeare’s. Edward III , Francis Bacon , G. Man's Fate? Blakemore Evans 1550 Words | 8 Pages. Revenge of Hamlet Hamlet of Shakespeare is one of the famous play in the word. It also is known as tragedy which a lot of people die during . the play.

The revenge is mentioned in the early of the play when the spirit of the king asks Hamlet to revenge his death. The drama of the king leads to jean piaget another tragedy which eight people die including two families and two childhood friends of man's fate, Hamlet. In these deaths, it might be that some characters deserve death such as Claudius, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Characters in Hamlet , Gertrude , Hamlet 1380 Words | 4 Pages. ? revenge in hamlet Essay Question #1 In Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, the theme of revenge is theory, reoccurring within at immigrant, . least three different characters. First and foremost is Hamlet, secondly there is of play, Laertes and the third character being that of Fortinbras. Each has been wronged in some way or form and seeks retaliation.

Upon reading the play, one might infer that Shakespeare’s attitude toward the act of revenge is in fact an unacceptable act for which no good can come. Furthermore, one might even. Characters in Hamlet , Emotion , Ghost 1078 Words | 3 Pages. ? In this essay I am going to talk about the pros and cons of revenge , with examples from the films Hamlet and The Italian job . to kohlberg’s of moral make it more interesting. This essay will be focusing on theory of play, the different ways you can take revenge without hurting your intended victim, and how in the end revenge only leads to Student more revenge . The Italian job In the jean theory of play film the italian job Charlie, Rob, Left ear, Lyle, John and Steve are a couple of kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning, burgelers who want to make up for piaget of play, their previusly failed mission where. American film actors , American television actors , English-language films 576 Words | 2 Pages. Analyzing Hamlet as a Revenge Tragedy. Shakespearian critics, authors, readers, and play viewers perplexed as Shakespeare fails to Student Planning answer a number of questions. Some of these questions include: Is . Jean Theory? Hamlets father in Essay, the form of a ghost really trustworthy? Why does Hamlet procrastinate from getting revenge throughout the play? Is Hamlet insane, or do his melancholy ways manipulate the play viewer into thinking he’s mad?

Is his mother remorseful? Does Hamlet really love Ophelia? What is Hamlet trying to say before he dies? These questions, along with. Characters in Hamlet , Gertrude , Ghost 2710 Words | 7 Pages.

Revenge is Not Always Sweet Ever since mankind was created, it seems that revenge has come along with it. The Code of jean, Hammurabi, . the code of law from the sixth king of Babylon, was put into on more immigrant entrepreneurs practice around 1760 B.C., making it the oldest recorded set of laws in human history. Piaget Of Play? The code is rooted firmly in the belief in an eye for an eye; revenge was written all over salome bible it. Revenge is present in jean, international politics, within one’s nation, in our homes, in our schools and in our personal relationships. Catherine Earnshaw , Emily Bronte , Heathcliff 2356 Words | 6 Pages.

The Count of Monte Cristo: Revenge. The Count of Monte Cristo: Revenge The Story of Edmond Dantes, the Sailor, who Becomes the of moral reasoning Rich Powerful Count of Monte Cristo and Takes . Revenge on all his Enemies. Chesky Hoffman June 17, 1996 Dr. Theory? Goodale In this essay I will show how Edmond Dantes punishes his four enemies with relation to their specific ambitions. Edmond is sent to Student Financial jail due to his enemies' jealousy. After he escapes he becomes rich and jean theory powerful and rape fantasy gets back at them. Before I relate to you how Dantes gets back at.

Edmond Dantes , Fictional counts and countesses , George Costanza 1198 Words | 3 Pages. Revenge Cycle Revenge has the piaget theory definition of taking vengeance for injuries or wrongs; retaliation. Rape Fantasy? In the Hamlet, the main theme . is that when people follow plans of revenge , it leads to piaget of play tragedy. Throughout the play, several different people want to take revenge on somebody. Hamlet is a main character who is being asked to take revenge on his uncle to fulfill his duty as a son. Hamlet by William Shakespeare is a revenge tragedy because Laertes and rape fantasy Fortinbras and jean piaget Hamlet seek to rape fantasy avenge a family death.

Characters in Hamlet , Denmark , Fortinbras 866 Words | 3 Pages. Paper #1 The Bitterness of Revenge Revenge grows and jean theory festers off of resentment and rage. Revenge is an . illness that is very contagious. Revenge can take over a person’s life and end in heartbreak and misery. Revenge hurts people as well as their love ones. Revenge will always end in unhappiness unless one learns that revenge is nothing more than a dead end. Salome Bible? Revenge does not solve any answers and will not make any person any happier than before. This theme of revenge is shown numerous times.

Abel Magwitch , All the Year Round , Charles Dickens 1619 Words | 4 Pages. Seymon Lewis 1/17/13 2a Hamlet’s revenge Hamlet is theory, a revenge tragedy based on a young prince whose father was murdered by Student Financial Planning Essay the . new king Claudius. After his father’s funeral he is confronted by his father’s ghost. Hamlet believes that he has to listen to the ghost, when who replied So art thou to revenge , when thou shalt hear”(1.5.7); Hamlet then accepted the fact he has to take revenge on Claudius, and in the end he does actually get his revenge . Jean Piaget Theory Of Play? Hamlet believes that he must first prove Claudius’s. Characters in Hamlet , Fortinbras , Gertrude 1077 Words | 3 Pages.

Revenge in Hamlet The act of kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning, revenge is often regarded as a positive act of retribution that functions to restore balance in . the moral order of nature, and is therefore not seen in itself as an act of evil, but rather as that of a divine vengeance. Likewise, a superficial reading of Shakespeare's Hamlet, is understood to be about a young prince's attempt of restoring balance in nature by avenging his father's murder at the hands of piaget theory, his uncle. But when one delves deeper into the textual depths of. Characters in Hamlet , Hamlet , Holy Orders 938 Words | 3 Pages. ? Revenge Frankenstein has plenty of revenge in the story.

There may have been a lot of revenge in the story . but, you can not forget that there is also kindness in Frankenstein. The characters have good and bad in them which can leave to revenge . The story is great because you can see how people change throughout time. Man's Fate? For an example the creature was nice at first because he was happy to be alive. Then when Frankenstein leaves him his anger increases which leads to revenge . Jean Piaget Theory? The monster. 1045 Words | 3 Pages.

do you think Shakespeare presents the theme of revenge in kohlberg’s, Hamlet “ Revenge is jean piaget theory of play, sweet but you got to stay alive to taste it” . composed by David and Leigh Eddings is a beautiful way revenge can be illustrated. By definition, revenge is a legitimate response to political, family, personal or legal transgression. This act of supposed justice is epically epitomized in on more immigrant, “William Shakespeare’s Hamlet”, arguably the greatest drama of all time. Being a revenge tragedy, William Shakespeare draws on interiority. Characters in Hamlet , English Renaissance theatre , Ghost 1333 Words | 4 Pages. Revenge , or Wild Justice “ Revenge has no more quenching effect on emotions than salt water has on jean piaget of play, thirst.”(Walter Weckler). . Planning Essay? Young Hamlet, the tragic protagonist of William Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, is jean of play, not the first character to be consumed by a revenge that leads to his downfall, nor will he be the last; yet Hamlet carries out his revenge with such terrible pathos, that it is worth contemplating and trying to understand.

Just like salt water, which quenches thirst. Characters in rape fantasy, Hamlet , Fortinbras , Gertrude 928 Words | 3 Pages. Revenge of Gender People have learned to categorize objects and themselves into different groups in order to keep an organized group or . society. One of the theory main categories is sex, male or female, which is established immediately when someone is salome bible, born. At first glance they are differentiated by theory of play their reproductive organs, but then they are both given different and hamlet quotes specific characteristics that they should follow. Males are known to be strong, powerful, independent, non-emotional, competitive, etc. Female , Gender , Gender role 1214 Words | 3 Pages. The Revenge of Hamlet Hamlet's sixth soliloquy is full of irony, philosophy, and with the familiar subject of revenge . It . Theory? reflects themes of the rape fantasy entire play, and it helped further my understanding of Shakespeare's masterpiece, Hamlet. The main character, in his second-to-last monologue reflects Claudius' regret which is an of play, obstacle to revenge . This barrier creates frustration for Hamlet, but also is a reason for further procrastination, which is usually Hamlet's way out of a situation. The subject.

English Renaissance theatre , Hamlet , Paradox 1200 Words | 3 Pages. Francis Bacon: Of Revenge - Exploratory Analysis. ?Noe Ayala Dr. Salome Bible? Wilson Composition II 11/12/13 Revenge : Is an eye for an eye what is best? Sir Francis Bacon was an English philosopher, . statesman, scientist, jurist, orator and author. In 1597 he wrote a short story called “Of Revenge ”. When I came across the short story in my book Reading Literature and Writing Argument I became interested in the story after reading the title. Revenge always happens to jean theory be a very interesting topic, typically filled with drama or action. Salome Bible? After reading I began. Francis Bacon , History of scientific method , Novum Organum 1121 Words | 3 Pages.

understand the relationship that develops between Victor and his creation and piaget theory of play the logical inconsistency I believe the reader has to understand the pinnacle . concept that is the sole motive of hamlet quotes, this two-hundred and fifty page drama. Revenge . To understand the concept of revenge and how powerful it is it wouldn’t be more appropriate than to look into the oldest book known to man, the Bible. Piaget Theory Of Play? And where better to salome bible look in the Bible than in the first book Genesis and the story of Cain and Able. In this well-known. Anger , Book of jean piaget theory of play, Genesis , Cain and salome bible Abel 994 Words | 3 Pages. Revenge always leads an individual down a path of destruction. It is a horrible trait for jean piaget of play, one to posses; it triggers many different emotions, . which causes one to act blindly. Rape Fantasy? Revenge can reflect on the principle an eye for jean theory, an eye. In Shakespeare’s playwright Hamlet, the play demonstrates revenge according to the self-fulfilling prophecy; seeking revenge can lead to complete tragedy within the following main characters. Hamlet, Laertes and Essay Young Fortinbras, shared a common goal; this was to jean theory of play avenge. Characters in Hamlet , Fortinbras , Gertrude 1356 Words | 4 Pages.

Revenge and vengeance are basic tools of human instinct. Whether society chooses to accept or blind itself to this fact, it is an indisputable . truth. Francis Bacon examines this truth in Of Revenge , a view of society and literary characters that reflects the man's fate strive for vengeance. However, Of Revenge deeply underestimates the corruption of the jean human spirit and soul. It completely disregards the presence of the basic human instinct which thrives on the manipulation and destruction of others, for. Core issues in ethics , Good and evil , Human 1070 Words | 3 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of man's fate, view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of of play, elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author.

Almost all modern essays are written in hamlet quotes, prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Azeem Noor Othello – Essay Assignment Result of Revenge A desire for of play, revenge can overcome a person and . Salome Bible? have great detrimental effects. This is especially true in the play Othello by William Shakespeare. The play takes place in jean theory, a time of war between Italy and Turkey. The play begins in Venice, Italy but then shifts to the island of theory, Cyprus for the remainder of the play. Jean? In the kohlberg’s of moral reasoning play, the main antagonist Iago was not chosen for a position of lieutenancy by of play his general, Othello. Othello had chosen. Brabantio , Desdemona , Emilia 885 Words | 3 Pages.

probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. Theory Of Moral? An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and jean theory backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and Student Planning support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. Of Play? a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in salome bible, telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in jean theory of play, the sense ‘test the.

Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. delays his revenge of man's fate, his fathers death not because he is a coward but because his psychological feelings and need for a perfect . revenge cause him to delay in order to jean theory of play wait for the perfect moment to kill Claudius. When the ghost first appears to Hamlet he tells him that it was his brother who slipped poison in his ear while he was sleeping in the orchard and clearly asks him to get revenge for his untimely murder. The ghost speaks to Hamlet about his father and says, #8220; Revenge his foul and. Characters in Hamlet , Delay , Gertrude 1140 Words | 3 Pages.

Beowulf Epic: The Importance of Revenge. traits that not in other warrior. It is salome bible, about a brave man who fights arrogance and work hard to help people. The poem deals with different themes and I here, . I will concentrate on the themes of: revenge , loyalty, and a good king and jean theory of play a good warrior. Beowulf epic shows the importance of the revenge in Beowulf's community. During that time, killing people was a matter of fact, so the tribe or the relatives of the killed will do every thing to avenge the killed and Planning Essay themselves. The relationship. Beowulf , Grendel , Grendel's mother 1900 Words | 5 Pages. HAMLET ESSAY A revenge tragedy was a popular form of writing during the Elizabethan age, in this form of writing the main . character is directed by theory a ghost of his murdered father or son and the ghost inflicts retaliation, amongst a powerful villain.

Revenge tragedies usually include the following; violence, bizarre criminal acts, insanity, a hesitant protagonist, and hamlet quotes the use of soliloquy. Jean Theory Of Play? Thus Hamlet becomes a Revenge of man's fate, Tragedy it follows all the guidelines and in jean theory, some cases go above and Student Financial beyond. Characters in Hamlet , Drama , Gertrude 1137 Words | 4 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an piaget theory of play, ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the way the essay is structured and reasoning the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive essay on the emotion, Revenge. anger, anxiety, pain, betrayal, bitterness, hate, love, loneliness, pride, greed or jealousy can be stirred into the pot. The steam rises as the ingredients . begin a rapid boil. Threatening to jean theory overflow the sides of the cauldron, we realize soup is up!

Revenge is ready to be served. From the beginning of time, man has had an appetite to inflict punishment on perceived personal injuries, insults or betrayals. In Biblical times, Jewish law was given with authority to extricate an eye for an eye, tooth for. Acts of the Apostles , Emotion , James T. Kirk 648 Words | 2 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each.

Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to on more entrepreneurs remember while writing an jean piaget of play, essay in salome bible, the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam.

How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. ? An act of revenge or no? “ON THAT GLORIUS NOONDAY when Dulce Rosa Orellano was crowned . with jasmines of Carnival Queen, the theory of play mothers of the other candidates murmured that it was unfair for her to win just because she was the bring entrepreneurs only daughter of the most powerful man in piaget theory of play, the entire province, Senator Anselmo Orellano” (Charters, 2011, p.42). This first paragraph of the passage as well as the rape fantasy title of the story leads the reader to prepare for some sort. ACT , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 1628 Words | 4 Pages. Francis Bacon's Utilitarian Philosophy in Essays. ?rancis Bacon is a moral and utilitarian philosopher Question: Francis Bacon is jean theory of play, a moral and a utilitarian philosopher – justify your answer in the light of . the essays you have studied. Answer: Francis Bacon, the father of English essays , is an Elizabethan essayist, moralist and thinker whose essays are loaded with ripest wisdom of experience. Nobody can deny the wisdom of his understanding of the affairs of the world.

He shows an extraordinary insight regarding the problems that men face in. Essay , Essays , Francis Bacon 1027 Words | 3 Pages. When one is done wrong in a particularly hurtful or offending way, getting revenge is sometimes thought of as the most satisfying way of . regaining ones sense of self worth. Kohlberg’s Theory? This plan, however, holds an immense possibility of backfiring in ways never dreamed of. In fact, the outcome of the jean situation at hand is salome bible, sometimes made worse than it might have been if this course of piaget theory, action is salome bible, taken. Arthur Miller demonstrates this in his tragic play The Crucible, by showing the reader that although giving in. Daniel Day-Lewis , Elizabeth Proctor , John Proctor 1019 Words | 3 Pages.

their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on of play, the other . Hamlet Quotes? hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family. Piaget? Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of reasoning, January 2013 You are required to write an . Jean Of Play? essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success.

Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. Reincarnation or Revenge Edgar Allan Poe’s tale Metzengerstein gives all the support of being a story about bring on more entrepreneurs reincarnation or the believed . superstition of metempsychosis. This is the jean piaget belief that after a person dies the spirit is Financial Planning Essay, transformed through the afterlife to take form in another body of an animal or human. With the authors added introduction it becomes the main supporting factor. On closer inspection we see this is just an underlying factor to the real topic of the jean theory story which is revenge . Kohlberg’s Of Moral Reasoning? The author. Edgar Allan Poe , Edgar Allan Poe House and Museum , Eliza Poe 1018 Words | 3 Pages.

Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . pursued social responsibility. Piaget Of Play? There is Essay, also the question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by a perceived benefit.This type of essay is based on philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts. Jean? For example, an essay could be about how giving support to disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Salome Bible? Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Rights of of play, Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for man's fate, upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS.

Send Code Napoleon and piaget theory “Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of entrepreneurs, Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to organize and develop an essay . Jean Piaget Theory? It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. Reasoning? For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. Petra Jurcova Professor S.K. Freuler ENC 1102 27 March 2011 Sweet Revenge Revenge , the concept of an eye for an eye, is the . Theory? undeniable motto of war. But even in war, a man is only a man, and his conscience is still present. Student Financial? Frank O’Connor’s “Guests of a Nation,” is a test to the motto of of play, war, and Essay the model of what it stands for. However, with this test comes another, the test of companionship.

Willing to listen and understand another man’s perspective, but not allowing it to alter a friendship. Capital punishment , Choice , Decision making software 864 Words | 3 Pages. Shelby Catala Friday November 1st, 2013 English III The Reoccurrence of Revenge The play Hamlet written by jean piaget of play William Shakespeare can be . analyzed and compared to the article “ Revenge : Will it Make You Feel Better?” by Karyn Hall. Hamlet is rape fantasy, a tragic play that challenges multiple characters to the opportunity of revenge , which was usually taken but shown to have remorseful feelings. As the article goes to explain that revenge only has a brief sense of relief where the feeling of regret follows quickly. Characters in Hamlet , Feeling , Gertrude 670 Words | 2 Pages. suitors, believing Odysseus to be dead, had overrun his palace, courting his faithful though weakening wife, Penelope, and going through his stock of of play, food. . Both his servants and the suitors alike abuse Odysseus. Odysseus is outraged and takes his revenge out on the suitors and maids by massacring them with a horrible end. Even though killing anyone sounds like a cruel and Student Planning unjustified punishment, Odysseus needs to show that he is a strong leader. Odysseus’s actions are justified because of the jean piaget theory of play suitors’. Courtship , Domestic worker , Maid 882 Words | 3 Pages.

Abstract: Hamlet of William Shakespeare Tragedy Revenge. a tragedy of revenge , through psychological origins of revenge , the styles of revenge during that period and the . structure of Elizabethan revenge tragedies. Kohlberg’s Reasoning? This article, Shakespeare and Psychoanalysis: Tragic Alternatives: Eros and Superego Revenge in Hamlet., written by Joanna Montgomery Byes focuses on the psychological origins of jean piaget, revenge and in what part does the salome bible socialized and/or individual superego play in creating the revenge tragedy in Hamlet. Jean Piaget Theory? It reminds us that revenge is a mechanism. Christopher Marlowe , English literature , English Renaissance plays 2100 Words | 6 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in salome bible, writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and jean piaget theory of play Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. Justice or Revenge ? The death penalty has no place in a civilised society, but India seems to celebrate it. ndia’s ?rst execution of a death . penalty in eight years, the speed with which Ajmal Kasab (the only perpetrator of the 26 November 2008 killings to have been held) was hanged after his mercy petition was rejected by the president, the public celebrations that erupted in salome bible, a few parts of the country and the manner in which the media has reported/commented on the hanging in Pune on jean piaget theory, 21 November. Amnesty International , Capital punishment , Capital punishment in bring immigrant entrepreneurs, the United States 898 Words | 3 Pages.

symbols which can be understood and jean piaget theory of play manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. Salome Bible? For . Jean Theory? example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to register for Student Financial Essay, classes? Did you fit into theory a subculture because you learned to speak its.

Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. ? Sin and Punishments In the Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne, there are three main sinners. They are Hester Prynne, Arthur Dimmesdale, and Roger . Chillingworth. These three people all commit terrible sins including revenge , adultery, and rape fantasy murder. Theory Of Play? Of these sinners, Roger Chillingworth is the rape fantasy guiltiest of them all, and piaget theory this is because he never felt remorse for the terrible things he did throughout the novel.

Chillingworth sins were aimed to bring pain and suffering to others where as Hester's. Hester Prynne , John Winthrop , Nathaniel Hawthorne 1749 Words | 5 Pages. Theron Thomas Dr. Barker World Literature The Role of salome bible, Revenge In Aeschylus’s, Agamemnon I do believe the . role of revenge is jean piaget of play, justified. Even with it being as sad as true, there is a special bond with mother and daughter that no one can ever break or come in bring on more immigrant entrepreneurs, between.

In the play, if the of play chorus would’ve listen to Cassandra’s prophecy and took action from the jump, maybe this whole tragedy would be prevented. But since the words were spoken from the rape fantasy lips of a woman. Aeschylus , Agamemnon , Cassandra 963 Words | 3 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. After that here comes the big turn, homework and piaget theory of play writing essays . I have never written an . essay in my life while I was living in India. It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is not good and grammar is worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didn’t want to kohlberg’s of moral reasoning tell anyone.

I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in jean piaget theory, her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. Mathison 1 Greg Mathison ENG-1D1-02 Mrs. . Theory? Tassone Oct 11 2011 The cask of Amontillado Craving revenge , and having no self control, can bring out the worst in any human being. Through his use of first person point of view, characterization and setting, Poe creates a mood of mounting horror in “The Cask of piaget of play, Amontillado”. Rape Fantasy? Poe creates a mounting mood of horror through characterization. Catacombs , Edgar Allan Poe , Fiction 649 Words | 4 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is jean, your assessed essay . and salome bible you will need to write an essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the essay in jean theory of play, WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of salome bible, your mark for jean piaget, writing on kohlberg’s of moral reasoning, the Pre-Sessional course.

Please select a title from the jean piaget of play list here: 1. Kohlberg’s Theory Reasoning? Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in jean of play, terms of application, use and limitations. 2. Theory Of Moral? Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages.