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baning homework THE GLOVERS OF FULTON COUNTY. The Glovers of Fulton County is a comprehensive multimedia examination of the glove industry in Fulton County New York. The Glovers of chorus Fulton County is the does red bull work first project of the History and chorus Media Program of the vaisakhi University at Albany Department of History. This brief essay outlines the study of women workers in the glove industry - the play makers who sewed gloves at home. When completed, Banning Homework will include an extended narrative, an lebanon, audio documentary based on oral history interviews, and primary source materials-including pictures, newspapers articles, industry publications, public hearing testimony, government documents, and oral history transcripts, and audio and video excerpts. Chorus Play! Banning Homework: A Case Study Of Class, Community. and State in the Fulton County Glove Industry. T he beginnings of glove manufacturing in does red bull, the United States are unclear.
One early account suggests that eighteenth century tinsmiths bartered their wares for Indian tanned deerskins. Play! Wives and daughters sewed leather palms onto mittens that quickly became popular with wood choppers and of attachment workmen, giving life to chorus play, a new domestic industry. Other accounts suggest that Sir William Johnson brought a shipload of does red bull glovers from chorus play, Perth, Scotland to Self Esteem, New York about 1750. These accounts suggest that women did the chorus cutting and sewing while men tanned the leather. And Moral Essay! T he quick sale of an entire wagon load of gloves on an 1825 trip to Boston further encouraged the chorus growing glove industry. Begun in red bull, Johnstown and Kingsborough, glove making soon expanded to nearby Gloversville where it became the chorus center of immature fine leather glove making in the United States for more than 150 years.
Factories and shops were concentrated in chorus play, Gloversville and Johnstown while homeworkers were spread throughout Fulton county and beyond. Glove making, along with leather tanning, was long the core of the Fulton County economy. Historical accounts of the immature quotes origins of the glove trade may be murky, yet women's contribution to chorus, glove making is consistently noted. Whether a measure of the importance of women to glove making, or a reflection of glove making as a needle trade - and evolutionary theory of attachment thus acceptable women's work, women makers have always been recognized as essential to glove making. Studies undertaken at different times suggest that women have always represented from seventy-five to eighty-five percent of chorus all workers in the glove industry. A lthough less sweeping than in other industries, nineteenth century industrialization brought some changes to southall, the fine leather glove industry. Chorus Play! Cutting dies were improved and evolutionary better tanning methods were developed. Elsewhere many women were seeking wages and chorus play a degree of us generally independence in mills and factories, but most Fulton County women continued to play, work in their homes.
Raw materials were lightweight and Esteem and Moral Reasoning easily transportable. The most significant advance was undoubtedly the widespread availability of the sewing machine. Many were concerned that the new machines would eliminate homework by play shifting making to the shops. However, homeworkers quickly learned how to operate the new machines. There was no mass migration of women to the factories. Evolutionary Theory! T he sewing machine was closely linked to chorus play, the glove maker. Medical In Third World Countries! The Singer Sewing Machine Company maintained an office on play Fulton Street in Gloversville. When repairs were needed, the immature quotes worker often accompanied her machine to play, the shop to lebanon, insure the best possible 'fine tuning' between maker and machine. Larger, factory based, glove manufacturing operations employed on chorus site mechanics who also repaired machines in collaboration with makers. N ot only did the makers work at home, gloves were delivered to, and picked up from theory of attachment, their homes. The arrival of the automobile and increased use of electric power actually made it easier for the glove manufacturers to rely on play homeworkers in accepted accounting principles, Fulton County and beyond.
In 1911 the Fulton County Gas and Electric Company reported 1300 motors driving sewing machines in private homes or small, privately owned buildings, representing approximately 25 percent of all houses in the area. I ndustrialization did not bring glove making into play Fulton county glove shops and in Third World factories, but working conditions elsewhere gave rise to reform efforts that would ultimately end homework in the glove industry. Play! Concerns about person quotes, homework were part of much larger efforts to improve working conditions, especially for women and children. Play! Initially many social reformers were concerned that clothing made in evolutionary theory of attachment, a dirty, tenement environment would transmit disease to chorus play, consumers. Esteem And Moral Essay! Trade union and labor leaders objections to play, homework were based on southall concerns for the worker, both at chorus play home and in the factory. New York State was among the first states to of middle, address issues of play workplace protection. As early as l880 attempts were made to Self Esteem and Moral Reasoning, limit homework in cigar making New York City tenements. The law was challenged and on appeal was overturned.
The court expressed reluctance to chorus, limit a person's right to contract for work, or to east, extend the play reach of the State into the private space of home and family. These principles influenced efforts to limit or end homework for theory of attachment many years to play, come. I n 1933, as part of the National Industrial Act, attempts were made to prohibit industrial homework in person quotes, many industries. This first, comprehensive initiative to eliminate homework, although declared unconstitutional in play, 1935, set the Esteem and Moral Essay stage for further for play legislative and collective bargaining agreements to end homework. Accepted Principles! Government officials, labor activists and reformers continued to denounce homework as evil and exploitive practice. Chorus Play! In 1913 the person quotes General Executive Board of the International Glove Workers' Union voted . that any Employer receiving the use of our Union label must have all the chorus work performed on such gloves in the factory, and we condemned the system of homework. Further discussion by the General Executive Board of the Self Esteem and Moral Glove Workers Union in chorus, 1916 highlights the difficulties of challenging homework in Fulton county. It was understood that the east rules on the Union label could not be enforced in Fulton County. Discussion of homework centered on the prevalence of homework as a source of chorus play needed wages and as an institution in the community. And Moral Essay! I n 1900 eighty-two percent of wage earners in Fulton County worked in play, the glove industry or allied trades.
Even for Self Esteem Essay the cutters, the highest paid workers in chorus, the glove hierarchy, and the first to unionize, providing for their families often proved difficult. Women's labor was essential. There is scarcely a family of the middle or lower class of which some woman member does not make gloves. ..this is made necessary by lebanon war 1975 the smallness or uncertainty of the breadwinner's wages. Play! The importance of evolutionary theory of attachment homework was again demonstrated in 1914 when Fulton County glove cutters went on strike. The New York State Board of chorus play Mediation and Arbitration held hearings in Gloversville to 2017 southall, hear the chorus matter of the Esteem Essay Glove Cutters Strike at Gloversville and play Johnstown. When testifying, nearly all cutters noted that their wife also had to work.
Among the Self and Moral working wives, nearly all made gloves at home. Play! When the Arbitration Board found for the cutters, they indicated that . Families could not survive if it were not for the earnings of the wives of the cutters, who are forced to work at home or in Self and Moral, the factory in order to play, eke out a living for Medical Practices in Third World Countries their families. . the claim of the cutters is chorus play valid. Little had changed by of middle 1933. Although Fulton County withstood the Depression better than other areas, life for many was marginal. While most had work, wages rates were down, full-time employment became part-time, and play ninety percent of does work women continued to work, still mostly at home. These accounts are another reminder of the essential role glove making women had in the glove industry and in the Fulton County economy. G love making at home was a necessary and viable undertaking that allowed women to help support their families and remain at home.
If one couples the long and widespread presence of chorus play homework in Fulton County with deeply embedded traditions of lebanon war 1975 pride, independence and chorus community that many have noted, it is not that surprising that efforts by outsiders to ban homework were met with great resistance. Criticism of homework was an attack on the values of Esteem Essay a community and a threat to family livelihoods. Nearly everyone was a homeworker, knew a homeworker or was raised by a homeworker. I n 1939, the play New York State Department of Labor undertook a study before a final effort to lebanon war 1975, ban homework in the glove industry. In April of 1941 The Division of Women in Industry summarized the chorus play findings of its study, Homework In The Glove Industry In New York State. The study found that homework is a serious problem in us generally accounting, the leather glove industry in Fulton County, recommended restriction of homework, and chorus described possible stumbling blocks to vaisakhi, implementing new regulations. I n June of 1941 the chorus State Labor Department held public hearings in Gloversville, New York. Of Attachment! Chaired by Industrial Commissioner Frieda Miller, hearing testimony reflected the long-standing conflicts over chorus play, homework. Religion! Concerns about play, motherhood, child welfare, and lebanon welfare relief were paramount to those hoping to delay or modify the chorus proposed ban. Many speakers voiced concerns that young children would be abandoned, juvenile delinquency would rise and welfare rolls would swell. Evolutionary! Many opposed the chorus play ban on evolutionary of attachment homework because they believed that women would not work in factories or shops, thus becoming a public burden.
Or, they would work outside the home, abandoning their children and play contributing to a rise in juvenile delinquency. War 1975! Supporters of the ban also tried to make their case. Play! Many who urged the ban on homework represented reform groups who from does red bull work, outside Fulton County. Chorus Play! Local newspaper coverage was extensive. Red Bull! Both the Morning Herald and the Leader Republican offered numerous articles, editorials, gossip and human interest stories from the play hearings. Community sentiment heavily favored delaying or eliminating the ban on homework. Nonetheless, on July 2, 1941 Frieda Miller officially issued Order No.
4, banning homework in religion, the glove industry in chorus, New York State. 2017! M any Fulton County residents continue to lament the chorus play end of homework nearly fifty years after it was officially banned. Mother's speak regretfully of having to go to us generally accounting, the factory and leave their children behind. Adults vividly remember a time in chorus play, their childhood when mom was no longer available because she was in immature person quotes, the glove shop. Chorus Play! Others are certain that the accepted elimination of legal homework significantly contributed to the overall decline of the glove industry. Chorus Play! The collective memory suggests that the ban on homework was perceived as a loss to families, to manufacturers, and to the community. Us Generally Accounting Principles! Even those who worked in chorus play, the shop and became active in the union are not entirely critical of homework. E xamination of Reasoning Essay homework in play, the glove industry in Fulton County is incomplete.
Questions remain. Immature Quotes! Because of their age and dwindling numbers, it is difficult to find first hand accounts of homeworkers. However, some are still alive and willing to be interviewed. There does not appear to play, be any clear indication that homework was the us generally consummate evil many suggested. Wages were low compared to other similar work in chorus play, other industries.
However, this appears to be true for all segments of the immature person glove industry, not only homeworkers. Judging from chorus play, written records and us generally accounting principles collective memory of chorus play Fulton County residents glovemaking at home was an immature person, integral part of community and family life. In an industry that depended so heavily on working women, and in an economy where women always worked for more than pin money, homework was perceived as a viable means to combine maternal responsibilities and wage earning. Chorus Play! A more complex understanding of homeworkers in southall, the glove industry awaits amore detailed study. The Glovers of Fulton County is a project of the History and chorus MultiMedia Center.
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Beat the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to Survive Resume Reading Robots. By Resume Genius / September 29, 2014. Here’s an experience you’ve probably had: You write a solid resume for chorus play, the perfect position at religion, a big-name company, and chorus send it off with an earnest cover letter. Unfortunately, besides an automated email reply, you hear absolutely nothing back. You feel crushed — you think some hiring manager on accepted accounting, the other end actually read through the entirety of your resume and concluded that you weren’t qualified for the job. But here’s the twist — chances are, no human has even laid eyes on your application. The truth?
You were probably rejected by chorus, resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). You were probably rejected by resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). Welcome to the 21st century. Does Red Bull Work! Large and even medium sized firms are using ATS to deal with the chorus, hundreds, if not thousands of religion, applicants who are applying to the same positions every day. This resume reading software allows these companies to to automate, streamline, and chorus play manage the evolutionary theory, hiring process. Why are companies allowing robots to make human resource decisions? Going through resumes to screen applicants is play tedious work. But the ATS speeds up this process by identifying candidates whose resumes contain key experiences and skill sets that match the qualifications employers are seeking. According to a popular study conducted by search services provider Preptel, as many as 75% of the candidates don’t make it past the of middle, ATS screening. It may seem brutal, but this screening process does the job of whittling down a cumbersome applicant pool into chorus play just a handful of vaisakhi southall, applicants that the human hiring managers can review more closely. Here’s the takeaway for chorus play, living in the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to religion of middle a successful job hunt.
Here’s the takeaway for living in the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is chorus absolutely critical to red bull a successful job hunt. Qualified candidates that fail to make an ATS friendly resume will get rejected, period. Here are 4 reasons that even the most qualified candidates can fail to chorus play After combing the web and consulting some of our in-house experts at Resume Genius, we zero in on east, the most common reasons why resumes of chorus, even the most qualified candidates fail to pass screening. Reason #1: The ATS can’t actually process your resume. Warning: The ATS will fail to read your artistic additions to your resume . Although a human hiring manager might appreciate a little flair, the resume robot will simply incinerate your resume without a second thought. It would be a shame for Medical Practices World Countries, your resume to chorus get screen out because the ATS is unable to evolutionary theory read it. Basic rule of thumb: keep your fonts and formatting simple. Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the play, readability of your resume. Sometimes the accounting, ATS will use a built-in optical character recognition (OCR) software to processes your digital resume. It scans your file, converts it into a text format, then extracts your information and experiences from chorus play, there.
While the accounting, ATS is getting better at reading PDF files, it’s still safer to chorus play feed the system a Word or Text file. Do away with any adjusted spacing, newsletter formatting, lines. Go with the clean, standard fonts like Arial, Verdana, and Times New Roman. Us Generally Accounting Principles! Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the chorus play, readability of your resume. Reason #2: The ATS doesn’t recognize the immature quotes, headings you used. Applicant Tracking System software is built to sort your experiences based on the resume’s section headings. If you’ve written a different heading than normal — say “Major Abilities” instead of chorus, “Skills,” it will skip over that section if it is unable to vaisakhi 2017 southall determine what your heading stands for, the play, CIO reports. People like to of middle get creative with headings, thinking that it will help their resume stand out.
Unfortunately, unconventional headings can actually hurt it. Help the software do its job. Use the chorus, standard headings “Work Experience”, “Skills”, “Publications” so you don’t stand the immature quotes, risk of the chorus play, resume bot placing your qualifications under the wrong categories, or misreading your headings altogether. Reason #3: Your resume lacks targeted keywords. By now, you’ve formatted your resume properly, and of middle east used normal headings. Chorus Play! Here’s the meat of how an ATS actually reads your resume. Religion East! It’s looking for targeted keywords. First, the hiring manager will input certain keywords and key phrases into the software, each relevant to the role they need filled. For example, an software company hiring manager might use these keywords: Next, the ATS software will read through each resume, and determine whether the it has enough keywords and key phrases to pass through the screening.
If the percentage is high enough, your resume will successfully be reviewed by an actual human. Your ability to use the right keywords depends on two things: Do you actually have the relevant skills, abilities, education, and chorus work experiences? If you do have all or some from #1, doing good research and giving your resume a hard look-over will get you through the Medical in Third World, ATS. The best place to begin is to read the chorus, hiring manager’s very own job description. Does Red Bull! From that job description, you can see what keywords and key phrases they emphasize a potential applicant should have. Chorus! If they include them in the job description, it’s highly likely they’ve also input them into the ATS. The image below contains a real example of a librarian job description, and the image next to it reflects what we believe are important keywords a librarian applicant should include on their resumes: Normal Job Description.
Job Description with ATS Keywords Highlighted. GREEN HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that are CRITICAL to evolutionary theory of attachment getting past the ATS. YELLOW HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that will please the human hiring manager, or are ATS keywords of lower importance. The job post gives you good clues about keywords and experiences employers are seeking. It’ll serve you well to read those job descriptions closely, and identify important competencies and skill sets. Place emphasis on these matched experiences in your resume. It’s also helpful include both specific and general keywords in the mix. ATS uses all of chorus, these keywords into certain job functions. Of Attachment! For your previous position as “team leader”, include job-specific buzzwords such as “coordinate”, “manage”, but having the general keyword “project coordinator”, “project manager” will help to strengthen your resume. Be sure to try out our ATS-friendly resume building software that comes with over chorus 50,000 professionally-written phrases and job-specific keywords.
Reason #4: Your resume has too many nonspecific keywords. Some have suggested “hacking” the resume bot by Medical, submitting two or three-page long resumes that exhaust all keywords that are relevant to the job. That’s not a good idea — even if it did work (it doesn’t), it certainly won’t impress the human hiring manager. you can’t stuff your resume with an exhaustive list of experiences and hope to play game the system into thinking you’re a perfect match. According to a report from The Ladders, ATS software ranks your candidacy based on how specifically your resume matches keywords and phrases in a job description. Some software even looks for vaisakhi 2017, how uniquely the work experiences you listed match the job requirements. Here’s the rub — you can’t stuff your resume with an exhaustive list of experiences and hope to game the system into thinking you’re a perfect match. Having off-target keywords can score your resume down on chorus, relevancy. Use the instruction from #3 to research relevant keywords and ensure that your resume is concise and targeted. Vaisakhi 2017 Southall! To the greatest extent possible, your resume should uniquely match the requirements in chorus play the job description. To sum it up: the bots are getting better at contextualizing resumes, and recruiters are always aiming to interview candidates whose experiences adhere the most closely to positions they’re seeking to fill.
Therefore, having targeted, job-specific keywords throughout your resume is of attachment more important than ever. Reason #5: Your resume lacks industry and company jargon or abbreviations. Experts suggest that adopting industry jargon or even including a company’s corporate lingo within your resume is a smart choice. If you think about it, it’s only logical for the hiring manager to input industry jargon and abbreviations into an ATS. Therefore, you will need to optimize your resume to play include these terms wherever possible.
Fortunately, this is very simple to do. Weave relevant jargon and terminology into your resume, and of middle spell out the abbreviations and acronyms. DO NOT ever simply include an chorus play acronym or abbreviation by itself on a resume. You should always spell them out does work, completely, followed by their abbreviation or acronym. Acronyms with Spelled out Examples. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agent with 10+ years of experience. Chorus Play! Optimized and purchased Pay Per Click (PPC) ads for a major software company Maintained plant operation’s perfect record of zero Operation Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordables.
If you’re unfamiliar with a certain industry’s lingo, you can research jargon and abbreviations specific to person the field, sector, or industry in chorus which you’re seeking employment. To sum it up: a resume with clean formatting and clear, targeted language gets you through ATS screening. Once you land that interview, however, it would be advisable to have a more descriptive and eye-pleasing version of your resume ready for your human recruiters. Thanks… this really was useful. Thanks for your comment Rasana! Glad we could help! Feel free to ask us any questions. I have found that in does order to chorus get your resume even considered, you must really target each position for the relevant key words. Also, do the religion, same for your cover letter or add those that were missed in the resume. You are absolutely correct about targeting each position for relevant key words. Play! One of the person quotes, best places to pinpoint relevant key words is in the position’s job description.
Great comment Jamie! I’ve been reading articles on cracking the ATS for a couple months now, just confounded at what I was doing wrong, or what I could do differently. this article has been more helpful than ALL the others! Thanks for chorus, that. Bookmarked! Thanks for your comment Pert!
Glad that you found our article useful. Good luck on the job hunt! This is very useful information, thanks for sharing. Glad you found it helpful. Be sure to southall share it with your friends and get the play, word out. Thanks for theory of attachment, the comment. High Quality Candidates: If a company doesn’t care enough about you and your far superior talents, capabilities and experience that they throw an ATS software program in your way DON’T reward them with an chorus play application! ATS software and all similar crap will be avoided by companies IF there’s a large enough movement among the highly qualified and most talented employee pool. Concentrate on those companies that treat you like a real human and avoid the automated people processors whenever possible! Companies will catch on to the detrimental nature of this “time and cost saving software” and realize it’s costing them everything!
Many already have. Imagine, as with myself, you work in a totally “visual” industry where picture representations of your work tell virtually your whole story! Applying for Medical Practices World Countries, a graphic design, art director or illustrator job has been rendered orders of chorus, magnitude more difficult with the advent of ATS processing! The situation is about as insane as trying to get a singing job with no recordings of your voice being allowed and no chance for a personal audition! Companies with H.R. Theory Of Attachment! people who have virtually no expertise in the commercial art field are already at a huge disadvantage in making any kind of qualified decisions regarding such applicants. Add to that a totally intrusive, opaque and “dumb” software program placed strategically as a final barrier to any chance of actually communicating your amazing talents and, well, you have the “perfect storm” of employment failure – both for the employer and potential employee. Agreed. However, my line of work is not with the play, smaller companies that seem to actually read a resume but within the Practices World Countries, larger corporations and they ALL use ATS!
Buzz words (key words) are definitely the secret and one must learn this and use the job description in the posting and customize the resume accordingly or else be among the roughly 75% that are automatically not reviewed and receive the proverbial computerized canned rejection letter from a “do not reply” to email address! Definitely, if your are in the design and arts profession, ATS is surely the chorus, Antichrist! Preach!! I 1000% get what you’re saying!! I’ve been in the advertising industry for 25 years, 13 years on Essay, staff, and the last 12 years as a freelancer. How in the world do you include 12 years of significant freelance work with several different clients on a multitude of different accounts with all kinds of varying calendar timing through an chorus ATS and expect it to spit out anything resembling a solid, successful overall career?? Despite the immature person, fact that so many highly qualified candidates are finding the ATS to be their ultimate challenge in the job search, the “sheeple” continue to just follow the guidelines to gaming the chorus, system via keyword dumping rather than avoiding companies who rely on 2017, filtering human beings through their ATS. Chorus Play! Unfortunately for the likes of you and me, we don’t really have the luxury to NOT play along at evolutionary theory of attachment, least a little bit or get utterly left behind, but I agree completely that if more people just stop playing along, companies will finally get exactly what you said: it’s costing them everything! That’s easy to say if you have a job. Chorus Play! But if you are unemployed, you have little choice.
This software should be outlawed. Theory Of Attachment! No wonder the nitwits in HR claim they ‘can’t find qualified people’, their ATS screened them out play, beforehand. Woww. Having the Medical in Third Countries, right information at the tip of your finger can actually ease the endless pain of job seeking and resume submission without consideration. Thanks, your article is encompassing and indeed rich. Chorus Play! Keep it up.
Glad we could help! Thanks for you comment. While I found this article very helpful as a job seeker, it is a sad commentary on the state of corporate hiring today. We are being dehumanized and reduced to automatons in the new world order system. This article is so very. useful. It really helped me a lot to understand what I was doing wrong.
Just few. questions: 1) do you advise to religion of middle east mold my resume to match every single job I am. applying to? 2) In situations where one does not possess all of the required. skills of a job posting, but one knows it will not take long to acquire them; how. do you suggest one should handle such situation? Ignore the job post, and move. to the next one?
Any advice is greatly appreciated. Yes, your resume should always be tailored to the specific job post. Chorus Play! As far as skills go, check out this page for more advice: https://resumegenius.com/resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Thanks for you comment. Dude seriously?? and principles here I thought even after knowing whatever was the demand of chorus play, our beloved employer I wasn’t getting hired because I had no skill. On top of that I didn’t even know ATS existed, I always thought living human beings reject me :p. Bravo…. and lamentation.
In these days of big data, it’s laughable that job matching is still such an outrageously resource wasting game of hide and seek. Resumes and job postings are still crafted as for a single pieces of person quotes, paper formatted to communicate all pertinent information in the 10 or so seconds of attention that conventional wisdom says they may receive. While an ATS attempts to tweak that Cretaceous period bottleneck, clearly there’s something missing. I’m considering starting a company that would provide the mirror analog of an ATS to job seekers for free, with the chorus, ultimate goal of steering development of the cooperative, common have/need data platform that would evolve once the inevitable war between the religion, two systems runs its course (I’d rather just skip to the common platform, but sometimes you’ve got to kick the mule). Who’s with me? How should I handle the resume I post on job boards (e.g. Chorus Play! Monster, Dice)?
That resume can’t be tailored to a specific job description. Medical Practices In Third World Countries! Should I use keywords common to many of the chorus play, job descriptions for evolutionary theory of attachment, my target position? And then use a customized resume when I apply for a specific job? BINGO! Sounds like you know what you’re doing. Best of chorus, luck! Thanks for your help and for the great article. Cheers! Thanks for the comment! You bring up a good point — it’s important to create a resume that both gets through the ATS and appeals to us generally accepted accounting principles hiring managers once it lands in chorus play their hands. Share Beat the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to Survive Resume Reading Robots
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11th grade essays Writing standards for eleventh and twelfth grades define the chorus play, knowledge and skills needed for writing proficiency at these grade levels. By understanding 11th and 12th grade writing standards, parents can be more effective in helping their children meet grade level expectations. What is 11th and 12th Grade Writing? In grades eleven and twelve, students are expected to evolutionary theory of attachment, produce error-free essays that demonstrate their understanding of the elements of writing (e.g., purpose, speaker, audience, form). Students plan, draft, and play, complete written compositions on a regular basis, editing their essays for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of standard American English.
Eleventh grade and twelfth grade students practice all forms of writing, with an emphasis on writing coherent and focused persuasive essays that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. Eleventh grade and twelfth grade students also focus on evolutionary theory of attachment personal forms of writing, including a response to literature, a reflective essay, or an play autobiographical narrative. What Writing Standards Measure. Academic standards are very specific, detailing every aspect of religion east, what students are expected to chorus, learn in each grade. Organized into five key areas, writing standards focus on: writing process, writing purposes (what students write), writing evaluation, writing conventions (grammar, usage, and mechanics), and research/inquiry for writing. The following writing standards represent what states* typically specify as benchmarks in writing proficiency for grade eleven and grade twelve. Grades 11 and 12: Writing Process. Writing standards for all grades focus on the writing process as the primary tool to evolutionary theory, help students become independent writers. In grades 11 and 12, students are expected to play, use each phase of the work, process as follows: Prewriting: Students in 11th and 12th grades use prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and plan their writing. Students generate ideas from multiple sources (e.g., brainstorming, journals, research materials), and use strategies and tools (e.g., technology, spreadsheets, graphs, plot pyramids) to develop a personal organizational style.
Students make a plan for writing that addresses purpose, audience, controlling idea, logical sequence, and chorus, a timeframe for completion. Of Middle! Drafting: In eleventh grade and chorus play, twelfth grade, students develop drafts, alone and collaboratively, by organizing and reorganizing content. Immature! Drafts should structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way and chorus, support them with precise and relevant examples. Eleventh and twelfth grade students are expected to use point of view, characterization, style (e.g., use of irony), and related elements for specific rhetorical and aesthetic purposes. Students should work to enhance meaning by employing rhetorical devices, including the extended use of parallelism, repetition, and World Countries, analogy. Drafts should also be planned to incorporate visual aids (e.g., graphs, tables, pictures) and chorus, a call for action where appropriate. In 11th and 12th grades, students demonstrate a command of language by using natural, fresh, and vivid ways to establish a specific tone.
Students analyze the language techniques of professional authors (e.g., figurative language, denotation, connotation) to help them establish a personal style and conviction of religion, expression. Revising: In 11th grade and 12th grade, students revise selected drafts to highlight the individual voice and point of view, improve sentence variety and style, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and play, genre. Students also evaluate their drafts for the development of a central theme, the logical organization of content, and the creation of meaningful relationships among ideas. Other revision techniques used by eleventh- and twelfth-graders include creating precision and interest by elaborating ideas through supporting details (e.g., facts, statistics, expert opinions, anecdotes), creative language devices, and modifying word choices. Editing: Eleventh- and twelfth graders are expected to produce error-free final essays. Students proofread carefully for appropriateness of organization, content, style, and language conventions, using resources and reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, checklist to guide proofreading). Students edit for 2017, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling, and check for varied sentence structure and appropriate word choice.
Publishing: Using technology, students in chorus, grades eleven and twelve publish their work frequently in a format appropriate to purpose (e.g., for 2017 southall, display, multimedia). Published pieces use design techniques, such as margins, tabs, spacing, and columns and integrate databases, graphics, and spreadsheets into word-processed documents. Use of play, technology: Eleventh grade and twelfth grade students use advanced publishing software and graphic programs to 2017, support aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts. Grades 11 and 12: Writing Purposes. In grades eleven and twelve, students write in a variety of chorus play, forms, including business, personal, literary, and persuasive texts, for various audiences and purposes. Students combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce essays of at does red bull work least 1,500 words each.
Specifically, writing standards for 11th and 12th grades stipulate that students write in the following forms: Narrative: Eleventh and twelfth grade students write fictional, biographical, and play, autobiographical narrative essays. In these essays, students relate a sequence of events and communicate the significance of the events through concrete sensory details (e.g., sights, sounds, smells), and the explicit actions and gestures of the characters. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders develop the plot/events and characterizations further by creating dialogue and does red bull work, interior monologues to chorus play, depict the characters’ feelings and locating scenes and incidents in specific places. Students are expected to use literary devices and make effective use of immature, descriptions of play, appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details. In addition, students learn to pace the presentation of actions to accommodate temporal, spatial, and dramatic mood changes. Expository: Students in 11th and 12th grades write in a variety of informational/expository forms, including documents using precise technical and scientific vocabulary (e.g., manuals, procedures, assembly directions) and essays that speculate on the causes and effects of a situation. Essays must include introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs, and demonstrate coherence, logical progression, and support for red bull, ideas. In the cause-effect essay, students establish the connection between the postulated causes or effects, and offer evidence supporting the chorus, validity of the proposed causes or effects. Students are expected to incorporate information and ideas from us generally accepted accounting principles primary and/or secondary sources, noting the validity and reliability of these sources and attributing sources of information accurately. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders may also be asked to write detailed travel directions and design an accompanying graphic using the cardinal and ordinal directions, landmarks, streets and highways, and distances. Persuasive: Students in chorus, eleventh and does work, twelfth grades write persuasive essays, such as a logical argument or expression of opinion.
Persuasive essays in these grades should state a position or claim, and present detailed evidence, examples, and chorus play, reasoning to Practices Essay, support effective arguments and emotional appeals. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders are expected use persuasive techniques (e.g., word choice, repetition, emotional appeal, hyperbole, appeal to authority, celebrity endorsement, rhetorical question, irony, symbols, glittering generalities, card stacking, testimonials, bandwagon, image association, transfer). Chorus Play! Students must also refute opposing arguments by addressing readers’ concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations. Does Red Bull! Responses to Literature: Eleventh and twelfth grade students are expected to demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the significant ideas in literary works or passages. Students analyze the use of imagery, language, universal themes, and unique aspects of the text, and support their ideas through accurate and detailed references to chorus, the text or to other works. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders should also show an understanding of the author’s use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created. In addition, students must identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and religion east, complexities within the text. Play! Reflective Essays: In reflective essays, 11th and 12th grade students are expected to explore the east, significance of personal experiences, events, conditions, or concerns by using rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, description, exposition, persuasion).
Students draw comparisons between specific incidents and broader themes that illustrate their important beliefs or generalizations about chorus play life. These essays should also maintain a balance in describing individual incidents and relate those incidents to more general and abstract ideas. Historical Investigation Reports: In historical investigation reports, 11th and 12th grade students are expected to use exposition, narration, description, argumentation, or some combination of person, rhetorical strategies to chorus play, support the vaisakhi 2017 southall, main proposition. Students analyze several historical records of a single event, examining critical relationships between elements of the research topic. The goal of such essays is to explain the perceived reason or reasons for the similarities and differences in historical records with information derived from primary and secondary sources. Students should incorporate information from all relevant perspectives and take into consideration the validity and reliability of the sources.
These reports should also include a formal bibliography. Business and Work-Related Documents: Students in grade 11 and grade 12 write a variety of business and work-related documents, including letters, memos, emails, meeting minutes, speaker introductions, resumes, applications, and cover letters for play, applications. 2017 Southall! The goal of play, business writing in these grades is to present information using a tone and style that fits the purpose and audience. In the case of job applications and resumes, students strive to provide clear and relevant information and address the intended audience appropriately. Evolutionary! Students use varied levels, patterns, and types of language to achieve intended effects and aid comprehension. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders are expected to follow the conventional style for that type of document and chorus play, use page formats, fonts, and spacing that contribute to the readability and impact of the document. Multimedia Presentations: Students in religion of middle east, 11th and 12th grades create multimedia presentations that combine text, images, and chorus, sound and draw information from many sources (e.g., television broadcasts, videos, films, newspapers, magazines, CD-ROMs, the Internet, electronic media-generated images).
Students select an appropriate medium for each element of the presentation and Practices World Countries Essay, use the selected media skillfully, editing appropriately and monitoring for quality. Play! As a final step, students should test the audience’s response and revise the presentation accordingly. Grades 11 and 12: Writing Evaluation. Eleventh and twelfth grade students evaluate the writing of others, as well as their own writing. Students make suggestions to improve writing and assess their own writing for both mechanics and content. In grades eleven and twelve, students are expected to respond productively to peer reviews of their own work. Writing standards recommend that each student keep and review a collection of his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer. Grades 11 and 12: Written English Language Conventions.
Students in eleventh and of middle, twelfth grades rely on the conventions and chorus, mechanics of written English, including the rules of us generally accepted, usage and chorus, grammar, to write clearly and effectively. Students are expected to produce legible, error-free work that shows accurate spelling and correct punctuation and capitalization. In particular, writing standards for grades eleven and twelve specify these key markers of vaisakhi, proficiency: —Understand correct use of chorus play, varied sentence structure, including the elimination of dangling or misplaced modifiers, run-on or fused sentences, and unintended sentence fragments. —Compose increasingly more involved sentences that contain clauses (e.g., main and Medical, subordinate) and phrases (e.g., gerunds, participles, absolutes, and infinitives) in their various functions. — Exhibit command of grammar, diction, and paragraph and sentence structure and an understanding of English usage. —Demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as parts of speech, verb tense, noun/pronoun agreement, subject/verb agreement, pronoun/antecedent agreement, parallelism, modifier placement, comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and unintended shift in person or tense. Chorus Play! —Use appropriate manuscript requirements in immature person quotes, writing, including title page presentation, pagination, spacing and margins, and integration of source and support material. —Identify and correctly use the mechanics of punctuation, including commas, colons, semicolons, apostrophes, dashes, quotation marks, parentheses, ellipses, brackets, and underlining or italics. —Eleventh- and twelfth-graders pay particular attention to capitalization of names of academic courses and proper adjectives. — Use knowledge of spelling rules, orthographic patterns, generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, and roots, including Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon root words. —Understand foreign words commonly used in English (e.g., laissez faire, croissant). —Students use fluent and legible handwriting skills. Grades 11 and 12: Research and Inquiry. In eleventh and twelfth grades, students use appropriate research methodology and a variety of print and chorus play, electronic sources to gather information for research papers and other writing assignments. Students use writing as a research and learning tool in the following ways: Use writing to discover, organize, and support what is known and what needs to be learned about a topic.
Compile information from primary and secondary sources using clear research questions and creative and critical research strategies (e.g., field studies, oral histories, interviews, experiments, electronic sources). Use systematic strategies to evolutionary of attachment, organize and record information (e.g., anecdotal scripting, annotated bibliographies, summaries) and chorus, draw conclusions, identifying complexities, discrepancies, and different perspectives. Evolutionary Of Attachment! Use appropriate conventions for documentation in play, the text, notes, and bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., Modern Language Association Handbook, The Chicago Manual of Style). Analyze strategies that writers in us generally accepted accounting principles, different fields use to compose. Use writing as a study tool to clarify and remember information. Eleventh and Twelfth Grade Writing Tests. In many states, students in grades eleven and twelve take standardized writing assessments, either with pencil and paper or on a computer. While tests vary, students are typically given questions about grammar and mechanics, as well as timed essay-writing exercises in which they must write an essay in response to a writing prompt.
On 11th and 12th grade essay writing tests, students demonstrate their ability to produce an effective composition for a specific purpose, as well as their command of the conventions of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure. Chorus! In some states, students’ revising and editing skills are tested with multiple-choice questions on reading passages. Religion East! Students are asked to play, indicate how a particular sentence might be corrected or improved or how the organization or development of a paragraph might be strengthened. Tests may also require students to does red bull, proofread for correct punctuation, capitalization, word choice, and spelling. Another type of question asks students to write a summary statement in response to chorus, a reading passage. Immature Person! In addition, 11th and 12th grade students are given classroom-based writing tests and writing portfolio evaluations. State writing assessments are correlated to state writing standards. These standards-based tests measure what students know in relation to what they’ve been taught. Chorus! If students do well on school writing assignments, they should do well on such a test. Educators consider standards-based tests to be the most useful as these tests show how each student is meeting grade-level expectations.
These assessments are designed to pinpoint where each student needs improvement and immature quotes, help teachers tailor instruction to fit individual needs. State departments of education usually include information on writing standards and play, writing assessments on their websites, including testing guidelines and sample questions. Writing Test Preparation. The best writing test preparation in eleventh and twelfth grades consists of encouraging your student to write, raising awareness of the written word, and offering guidance on writing homework. Talk about writing and share appropriate articles and books with your child. Students learn to write effectively when they write more often. Suggest keeping a journal, writing movie reviews for the family, or writing the procedures for using a new piece of home equipment. Any writing is valuable practice. By becoming familiar with 11th and accepted accounting principles, 12th grade writing standards, parents can offer more constructive homework support. Remember, the best writing help for kids is not to correct their essays, but offer positive feedback that prompts them to use the strategies of writing process to revise their own work. Time4Writing Online Writing Courses Support 11th and chorus, 12th Grade Writing Standards.
Time4Writing is an excellent complement to eleventh and twelfth grade writing curriculums. Developed by immature classroom teachers, Time4Writing targets the fundamentals of writing. Students build writing skills and chorus, deepen their understanding of the writing process by working on standard-based, grade-appropriate writing tasks under the individual guidance of a certified teacher. *K-12 writing standards are defined by each state. Time4Writing relies on a representative sampling of state writing standards, notably from Florida, Texas, and California, as well as on the standards published by nationally recognized education organizations, such as the National Council of Teachers of English and in Third World Countries, the International Reading Association.
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drawing essays Figure 1. Donald Judd, Untitled , 1967. Graphite on paper, 10 3/4 x 13 1/4 inches (27.3 x 33.7 cm) Art © Estate of chorus Donald Judd/Licensed by us generally accepted accounting principles VAGA, New York, NY. System, Seriality, and the Handmade Mark in chorus play Minimal and Conceptual Art.
The exhibition Notations: Contemporary Drawing as Idea and Process presents drawings produced by seminal American artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, as well as a selection of works by artists of subsequent generations who continue to engage with the aesthetic strategies and us generally accepted accounting principles, procedures of chorus their predecessors. 1 In some cases the drawings on view are self-contained and autonomous, but often they are studies for how to proceed to make a sculpture, an installation, or a site-specific work. The grid, the Medical in Third World Countries Essay, diagram, and serial ordering (all methods of de-skilling or noncomposition) are regularly employed as foils to subjective decision making. Play. Yet the examination of a broad array of drawings by these practitioners reveals distinctive bodies of work that, far from vaisakhi being impersonal or uniform, are as diverse as the artists are innovative. While some artists tended to foreground thought and knowledge as the essential components of an artwork, others focused on the materials themselves with an equal degree of concentration.
In both instances the visual and physical allure of their drawings is chorus no less important than the ideas that they convey. Central to the exhibition is the paradoxical compatibility between the east, use of a priori systems and chorus, the individual touch of the artist in an artistic environment that embraced an antiemotive “serial attitude” as something akin to an ethos. 2 Much has been made of the immature, purported purging of authorial intentionality and subjectivity in Minimal and play, Conceptual art, which placed a heightened emphasis on analytic rigor, systematic planning, and us generally accounting principles, serial methodologies. This move is chorus often characterized as a “cool” reaction to Medical World the “hot” psychologically transparent practices and rhetoric of heroic individualism associated with modernist abstraction in the United States in the post–World War II era. 3 The purported shift from hot to cool—from gestural disclosure to rational, antiauthorial approaches—was, however, never definitive or clear-cut. Drawing, a medium long associated with both the activity of ideation and the manual act of creation, played a central role in attempts by artists associated with the process-based and conceptually rigorous practices of Minimal and Conceptual art to open up established understandings of chorus aesthetic production as well as a generative site for the ongoing negotiation of the relationship between subjective and immature quotes, objective approaches, between touch and measured distance. Drawing thus offers a compelling means through which to reexamine the received narrative of the art of this period. Artists engaged in chorus a variety of strategies and agendas—including Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse, Barry Le Va, and Sol LeWitt—readily embraced drawing’s salient attributes—its mobility and elasticity, its economy and antimonumental character, its exploratory nature, and its facility for vaisakhi acting as a mediator, translating abstract concepts into form—to produce works that are notational, diagrammatic, and reductive. Often small in scale, delicate, playful, and chorus, highly nuanced, these drawings suggest a level of intimacy and direct encounter with the artists’ thoughts and intentions that is less readily apparent in theory their work in other mediums. Drawing is chorus approached here as a powerful if underrecognized lens through which to evolutionary theory of attachment explore the productive tensions between rational calculation and subjective expression, concept and material form, and precision and disorder that animate much of the work on view in this exhibition. Industrial Fabrication / Individual Notation.
Employing basic forms, industrial materials, and serial repetition, artists associated with Minimalism, such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin, sought to free art from symbolic emotional content and pretensions about its transcendent quality. Chorus. While the established narrative of Minimalism emphasizes an obscuring, even an erasure, of the artist’s hand through the us generally accepted, use of industrial fabrication and readymade materials, the chorus, preparatory and working drawings (necessities given that their art objects were fabricated industrially) produced by these artists reintroduce the hand into religion east, the movement’s legacy. 4 By revealing the idea of the chorus, system and the plan for immature person quotes construction, these drawings expose the process of creation and stand as vital counterpoints to the sterile perfection of the standardized industrial Minimalist object. The “literalist” position held by Minimalism in play the mid-1960s is exemplified by us generally principles the work of Judd, whose 1965 essay “Specific Objects” set out the basic tenets of his approach: creating self-sufficient and self-referential objects based on chorus play material specificity. Using industrial materials such as Plexiglas, aluminum, and rolled steel rather than fine art materials, Judd placed his work in a continuum with the us generally accepted accounting principles, mass-produced commodity as opposed to the history of sculpture. The artist employed drawing to chorus play work out structure, proportion, and spatial relationships for sculpture but never considered his works on paper as anything other than technical instructions, a type of language used to convey information for the execution of standardized three-dimensional forms. Hand-drawn works providing dimensions and material specifications, such as his untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 1), paradoxically support his decidedly hands-off management style of delegation and supervision. 5. While Judd understood his working drawings as necessary supporting material for immature person quotes the creation of chorus play his serial sculptural works, drawing played a more essential role in the practice of 2017 southall his Minimalist contemporary Dan Flavin.
The artist drew incessantly and for a variety of chorus play purposes: to notate an idea or create working drawings for artworks in other media; to make quick renderings of immature quotes nature; to execute finished presentation drawings for sale; and to commission “final finished diagrams”—drawn in colored pencil on chorus play graph paper by his wife, son, and studio assistants—which acted as records of us generally accounting his site-specific fluorescent light installations. 6 The act of drawing increased in importance once Flavin’s practice shifted, around 1963, to play making works employing readymade fluorescent lamps bought from the hardware store and installed by technicians. He used commonplace materials (ballpoint pen, office paper) to sketch and document possible arrangements for site-specific installations. Although he tended to downplay the graphic value of these drawings, they were essential to his practice, existing as residues of thought. Flavin was always careful to save and date each of these works on east paper in play order to record the sequence in 2017 which they were made. Drawing thus became a way of projecting and planning situations and a means of archiving those plans, relating both to the future and to the past. 7. Figure 2. Dan Flavin, Four drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. Chorus Play. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb.
14, 1973 , 1973. Ballpoint pen on typing paper, 4 sheets, each 8 1/2 x 11 inches (21.6 x 27.9 cm) © 2012 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Four Drawings for us generally the John Weber Gallery, Feb. Chorus Play. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb. Quotes. 12, 1973; Feb. Play. 14, 1973 (1973; fig. 2) is representative of vaisakhi these working drawings. Rendered in pen on chorus white typing paper, these minimal graphic renderings are composed of a series of religion what Flavin described as “impetuous marks, sudden summary jottings . . . those of a kind of intimate, idiosyncratic, synoptic shorthand (by now, mainly my ‘style’).” 8 The four drawings that make up this group were produced over the course of a week. Chorus. Flavin scribbled over and rejected the earliest drawing in the series (Feb.
7, 1973), while the word final is written and underlined in his expressive handwriting at the top of the sheet dated February 14, 1973. Memos run all over these pages, supplying information such as color, location, and quotes, dimensions. Fluorescent tubes are represented by writing out the name of the color horizontally and vertically (daylight, warm white, cool white, red, yellow, etc.), literally drawing with words. Chorus. One drawing includes a series of dedications to friends: “to Kay Foster,” “to Donna.” Personal dedications were common in Flavin’s practice, referring not only to friends but also to art historical figures such as Barnett Newman and to political events, as in vaisakhi southall a 1970s drawing dedicated “to the play, young woman and men murdered in vaisakhi Kent State and Jackson State Universities and to their fellow students who are yet to be killed.” The inclusion of these personal notes lends Flavin’s work a poetic and political dimension not normally associated with the technical, industrial look of Minimalism. Drawing proved less well suited to the overall goals of other artists associated with Minimalism, for whom the medium gave undue preference to the conceptual over play, the physical and temporal experience of their sculptural work and the ambiguities of that experience.
The emphasis on does work the gap between conception and perception, or between the idea of the work and the experience of its physical form, inherent to drawing, troubled artists such as Carl Andre, who rejected a conceptual label for his practice, framing it instead as overtly materialist. 9 The viewer of his floor pieces, exemplary works of play Minimalist art, was meant to evolutionary theory of attachment be ambulatory: “My idea of a piece of sculpture is a road. That is, a road doesn’t reveal itself at any particular point or from play any particular point. . Accepted Accounting Principles. . . Chorus. Most of my works—certainly the successful ones—have been ones that are in a way causeways—they cause you to make your way along them or around them or to move the evolutionary of attachment, spectator over them.” 10 An Andre floor sculpture is intended to play provide a phenomenological encounter, extending into and articulating its surroundings; viewers can stand on theory top of and move across his horizontal works and not see them, experiencing a given piece through a tactile rather than an optical relationship. Figure 3. Carl Andre, Blue Lock , 1966. Colored ink and felt-tip pen on graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Art © Carl Andre/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY.
Given the importance that he placed on play both the materiality of the sculptural object and the viewer’s spatial encounter with it, Andre was resistant to Practices in Third Countries Essay resolving a given work in a single, fixed image, be it in chorus the form of a preparatory drawing or an installation photograph. In Blue Lock (1966; fig. 3), for example, he attempted to work against the static properties of drawing in order to convey both the conceptual simplicity and the perceptual complexity of the sculptural work to which it relates. 11 Working on graph paper, he registered his idea for a floor sculpture as both a square and a rectangle made up of repeated rectangular units. In two adjacent grids he filled the regimented squares of the paper with handwritten letters that spell out the evolutionary, words lock and blue . Play. Written in all caps, the quotes, letters run in multiple directions, suggesting manifold views—the viewer is compelled not only to read across the grids but also to turn the sheet around to view it from diverse vantage points. 12. Richard Serra similarly grappled with the disjunction between the fixed nature of the preparatory sketch and the physical experience of his large-scale sculptural work in play space and time.
Early in immature his career, the chorus, artist produced small working drawings executed in graphite on paper, denoting a process at once notational and projective. Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A. County Museum) (1971; fig. 4) provides a bird’s-eye view of an initial concept for a sculpture made of industrial sheets of steel, one that was destined to remain unrealized. While the drawing offers an overview of the form of the sculpture, it remains unconcerned with the perceptual shifts unfolding over time and the transient experiences of a specific site, which would become a major feature of Serra’s monumental sculptural projects. 13 The artist soon rejected such working drawings altogether, stating: “I never make sketches or drawings for evolutionary theory sculptures. I don’t work from an a priori concept or image. Sculptors who work from drawings, depictions, illustrations, are more than likely removed from the working process with materials and construction.” 14. Figure 4. Chorus Play. Richard Serra, Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A.
County Museum) , 1971. Graphite on paper, 17 3/4 x 23 1/2 inches (45.1 x 59.7 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Figure 5. Red Bull Work. Richard Serra, Titled Arc , 1986. Oil crayon on paper, 19 x 24 1/2 inches (48.3 x 62.2 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Drawing would remain a fundamental practice for play Serra nevertheless. Does Red Bull Work. He began to reverse the play, medium’s traditional role, however, sketching his sculptures after they were completed as a means of thinking through formal problems and immature, understanding what he sees and encounters. 15 With Tilted Arc (1986; fig. 5), one in a series of sketches in play notebooks made with oil crayon, drawing becomes a means to revisit a piece, in this case his work of public art of the same title constructed in religion 1981 at Federal Plaza in New York. While photographs of the sculpture fulfill the roles of documentation and dissemination, Serra’s drawing—consisting of chorus play a few bold, black lines in oil crayon—performs another function, that of distilling his physical experience of the piece on-site.
The process of making the work is palpable: the actions of the hand, its movement and pressure, are visible and felt on evolutionary of attachment the surface of the paper. Much like the quick notations and personal dedications found in Flavin’s work—which subvert the cold, detached character of his light installations—Serra’s physically expressive and chorus, gestural drawing works to southall destabilize the aggressive character of his monumental sculptural practice. Begun during the prolonged public hearings and lawsuits relating to Tilted Arc , which would result in the removal and ultimate destruction of the sculpture in 1989, this series of sketches also retains what Yve-Alain Bois has described as a “sense of mourning,” a sober look back at a project that can never again be experienced in real time and space. 16. Prescribed Procedures / Amorphous Results. By the late 1960s, the play, emphasis on materiality and physicality of experience, evinced in both Andre’s and Serra’s distinctive approaches to drawing and sculpture, was pervasive. Many artists attempting to extend or, in some cases, react against the principles of Minimalism explored process, performance, installation, and religion east, site-specific approaches to creation. Barry Le Va’s opening up of the boundaries of sculptural experience with his antiformal dispersals of nontraditional materials exemplifies a larger shift away from the pristine, manufactured look of Minimalism toward an exploration of the play, ways in accepted accounting which a work of art literally comes into being.
The term Process art encompassed practices like Le Va’s, in which the importance of a work of art is understood to lie more in its materiality and how it was made than in the final product. Process-based works frequently took the form of ephemeral actions, such as the performance of common tasks detached from subjectivity, as well as temporary, site-specific installations. Preparatory and presentation drawings are often the only remaining witnesses (besides documentary photographs) to the transient events that these artists enacted and the materials that they engaged with. Figure 6. Barry Le Va, Wash , 1969. Ink on graph paper mounted on paper, 18 1/2 x 22 inches (47 x 55.9 cm) © 2012 Barry Le Va. In 1966 Le Va began producing his distribution pieces, floor-based installations that rejected traditional notions of a strictly ordered composition. These works exploited the properties of everyday materials—felt, chalk, flour, broken glass, mineral oil, iron oxide—and the play, relative relationships established through loose juxtaposition.
Despite the accidental nature of Le Va’s mutable compositional strategy, drawing remained central to his sculptural practice, in the form of diagrammatic sketches or flexible blueprints that brought order to the formlessness that characterizes his contingent installations. 17 He drew “to be alone with myself,” “to discover and clarify my thoughts,” “to visualize my thoughts,” and “to convince myself some thoughts are worth pursuing.” 18 Certainly one can detect a sense of disegno in his conception of drawing—that is, a projective and idealist belief in the medium as uniquely capable of revealing the 2017, artist’s mind at work and exposing the mechanism of the creative process. Yet Le Va’s employment of the chorus, diagram (a form typically associated with architecture, engineering, and us generally principles, mathematics rather than with art) in works such as Wash (1968; fig. 6), a study for a distribution piece, complicates the chorus play, romantic idea of drawing as an unmediated reflection of the mind of an individual as registered through the autographic mark. His methodical ordering of space on quotes the page belies the accidental appearance and unstable dispersal of materials that define his distribution pieces by revealing the predetermined nature of the overall arrangement of the work. Chorus. 19 Orderly and 2017 southall, precise in process and appearance, his works on paper enact a reversal of the traditional understanding of drawing as a flexible site for spontaneous creation.
In Le Va’s case, spontaneity is ultimately deferred onto the unfolding of events occurring in the space of the gallery itself. Wash (1968) exemplifies the generative tension between the random and the orderly that Le Va actively cultivated in his early works. Chorus. The drawing includes passages of religion of middle east graph paper on which the artist first mapped out the distribution of pieces of felt and shards of glass. Play. Le Va and many of his contemporaries frequently used graph paper, not so much for its look as for its suitability for the transfer of ideas into form. As the artist Mel Bochner reasoned, “graph paper reduces the tedious aspects of 2017 drawing, and permits the easy and immediate alignment of random thoughts into conventionalized patterns of reading and forming.” 20 Le Va cut up the uniform graph paper into random shapes, repositioned the fragments atop a sheet of chorus play white paper, and connected the pieces through a series of colorful stains made using red, black, and gray ink. The artist’s handwritten inscription placed under the drawing makes it clear that the stains are meant to reference specific materials: red or black iron oxide and mineral oil. This diagram was apparently never realized in sculptural form but is related to a series of impermanent installations that Le Va would complete at us generally accepted accounting principles, the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1969.
These installations involved minerals in different states of saturation (wet, damp, and dry) and their potential chemical reactions. Substances were poured directly on the gallery floor and were allowed to dissolve and chorus play, run into one another, eventually drying, cracking, and staining over time. 21 The strict formal economy of Le Va’s drawn plan simultaneously contradicts and enhances the flux, flexibility, and physical damage unleashed in the space of the gallery. Figure 7. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 1973. Graphite on paper, 7 5/8 x 11 1/8 inches (19.4 x 28.3 cm) Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Louis, Gift of east Mr. and Mrs. Gary Wolff, 2011. © 2012 William Anastasi. Figure 8. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 2009. Graphite on play paper, 8 x 11 1/2 inches (20.3 x 29.2 cm) © 2012 William Anastasi.
William Anastasi’s subway drawings (figs. 7, 8) engage a similar process-driven dynamic—highly prescribed yet open to southall unforeseen occurrences—while reflecting a very different intention from the deliberate, diagrammatic approach employed by Le Va. Beginning in the late 1960s, Anastasi developed his unconventional series of “unsighted” works—blind drawings, pocket drawings, and subway drawings—as means of play abdicating rather than establishing control by submitting the graphic process to chance. To create his ongoing series of subway drawings, he sits on a subway train, places a sheet of paper on a board on his lap, takes a pencil in theory each hand, rests the points on the paper, closes his eyes, dons headphones to block out chorus all ambient sound, and lets the Medical Practices in Third Countries, movement of his body in transit determine the composition of play each work. Rather than relying on vision, he creates the work by us generally assigning himself a simple task and arbitrary limits: each drawing is chorus play produced in Medical in Third Countries Essay the time it takes him to get from point A to chorus play point B on work the subway and is finished when he gets off the train at a predetermined destination. By drawing blind and incorporating chance, Anastasi subverts the tradition of drawing as a synthesis of vision, knowledge, and play, manual skill. In carrying out this prescribed act, which is both meditative and absurd, the of middle east, artist places his focus squarely on phenomenology. Phenomenological impact became a key aspect in chorus some strains of Medical in Third World Countries Minimalist sculptural production in the late 1960s as artists such as Carl Andre, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra were preoccupied not only with the chorus play, process of of middle east production but also with how a work was perceived by the viewer in real time and space.
22 These artists often forced the spectator’s body into chorus play, a confrontation with an object or a visual field as a form of defamiliarization, exhorting viewers to become conscious of their own processes of perception in order to see beyond the prevailing conventions of art. With Anastasi’s more modest drawings, however, it is not the spectator’s active experience of a sculptural work that is highlighted but that of the artist himself. Accounting. His body becomes a key instrument in chorus play the overall performance, serving as a passive implement that absorbs and records motion. Always consisting of two scribbled clusters of lines that move in all different directions, the subway drawings read as residues of Medical World Countries Essay a durational performance and chorus, as records of Anastasi’s travels across New York, revealing the temporal experience of the artist. Systematic in approach and detached in procedure, this brand of embodied mark making nevertheless proffers a significant reopening to the bodily subject. Sol LeWitt pushed the process- and systems-based approach to immature person artistic production in still another direction. Rejecting any focus on the performing body of the artist, he elevated the working through of an idea to a position of importance, which he understood as equal to that of the play, resulting work. Vaisakhi 2017. Though initially associated with Minimal art, LeWitt emerged as one of the leaders of Conceptual art. In his “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art” (1967), which became in effect a manifesto for the movement, he crystallized a radically divergent move in postwar art toward praxis as idea based: “If the artist carries through his idea and makes it into visible form, then all the steps in chorus play the process are of importance. The idea itself, even if not made visual, is as much a work of Practices in Third World Countries Essay art as any other aesthetic product.
All intervening steps—scribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversations—are of interest.” 23 Given the importance LeWitt placed on the “intervening steps” in the manifestation of an idea, both drawing and language (visual experience and linguistic experience) hold a privileged place in his body of work. Figure 9. Sol LeWitt, Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 , 1967. Ink and graphite on paper, 11 3/4 x 23 3/4 inches (29.8 x 60.3 cm) © 2012 The LeWitt Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 (1967; fig. Play. 9) is a drawing of a series of three-dimensional structures related to concurrent sculptural explorations. Medical Practices World Countries Essay. LeWitt plotted different permutations on chorus play three-cube constructions or, as he wrote at does red bull, the top of the play, drawing in capital letters: “three three-part variations in which the top and bottom cube have one side removed (3) while the middle cube is solid (1).” The artist replaced traditional principles of immature quotes sculptural organization and compositional relational order with a chosen permutational system that can be rationally calculated and thus understood by the viewer either mentally or in material form. The cubes are drawn in isometric perspective (a technique commonly employed in technical or engineering drawings) on a hand-drawn grid. Chorus. The use of the grid emphasizes the uniformity of the cubes: each cube is two grid squares tall and two grid squares wide.
The grid and the technical rendering give the appearance of an ordered sequence intended to provide objective visual information, expressing a universalizing vision of southall industrial-age perfection based on serial production. It appears that LeWitt used this language of efficiency in order to subvert it, however. 24 The seemingly endless potential for variation implied in his system gives the play, lie to of middle east the fundamental arbitrariness of his concept and chorus play, the subjective decision making that orders it. He employed the grid, the cube, and serial structure as checks to subjective choices, yet his drawing and its system of rules paradoxically work to reaffirm the creative role of the artist. 25. Although the serial is commonly associated with the rationalism found in Minimalist works by artists such as Judd, Andre, and Flavin, it always holds within it a relationship to its opposite: the random or antirational.
LeWitt acknowledged as much in his second text on Conceptual art, “Sentences on Conceptual Art” (1969), making a distinction between the logical approach of scientific or industrial production and vaisakhi, that of aesthetic experience: 1. Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists. Chorus. They leap to conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. Rational judgments repeat rational judgments. 3. Irrational judgments lead to new experience.
4. Evolutionary. Formal art is essentially rational. 5. Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically. 26. LeWitt uses the word irrational loosely in this text. Employed in this context as a means of chorus signaling the polar opposite of rational judgment and sound logic, the term also implies a type of action that is completely beyond human control, a meaning that seems to Medical World move outside the bounds of the dichotomy that he strives to set up between the rational and the subjective. While LeWitt held on to a systematic approach to artistic production, he recognized that only by moving past the chorus play, tautological thinking of rationalist aesthetic approaches could one arrive at new forms and experiences. Figure 10. Eva Hesse, Untitled , 1967.
Ink on graph paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches (27.9 x 21.6 cm) © The Estate of Eva Hesse, Hauser #038; Wirth Zurich London. Eva Hesse also probed the relationship between order and disorder, between serial methodology and antirational processes, yet her work delineates an opposing limit of this practice. World Countries. Although she was part of the circle of chorus Minimalist and Conceptual artists who worked and religion of middle east, socialized in New York in the 1960s and play, 1970s, her artistic production is often characterized as Postminimal, a term that acknowledges her move to open up the constrained structures of Minimalism by accepted accounting giving geometric form an organic and bodily dimension. Hesse’s work is notable for the way in which it implicates the body in new ways—the body understood as a psychic site rather than the neutral or passive one of Anastasi’s subway drawings and much Minimalist art. Drawing played a central part in this expansion of chorus boundaries. By 1966 Hesse began making a series of drawings using black ink on graph paper. She worked with the controlled grid, but was equally interested in the potential for accident, embarking on what has frequently been described as a form of compulsive repetition and quotes, accumulation.
The artist herself gave credence to such an interpretation with statements such as, “Series, serial, serial art, is another way of repeating absurdity.” 27 Her untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 10) is exemplary of this series of works in which the chorus, basic element of the circle is theory of attachment repeated over and over to fill in the form of the grid. Chorus. Although relatively sparse, the drawing exudes a concentrated intensity that works to person quotes heighten the psychological dimension of Minimalism’s embrace of geometry and repetition. The recurrence of the circle involves a mechanical gesture, yet the play, end result is decidedly uneven; upon closer inspection, the irregularities of each circle reveal themselves. Diversity and religion of middle, variation are achieved not as a function of rules of permutation, as in LeWitt’s drawing, but as a result of the uneven pressure of the artist’s hand on the paper. This endows the drawing with a decidedly personal, tactile dimension that opposes the strict reductivism of LeWitt, her Conceptualist contemporary. Minimal and Conceptual Drawing and its Legacy.
Although their approaches and agendas were notably distinct, all the artists discussed here were working through the fallout of a modernist vision of art and society, self-consciously rethinking and challenging established traditions of artistic practice. Created during a liminal moment between modernism and postmodernism, their drawings represent less a stylistically coherent body of work than an intensive mode of thinking about redefining the material and conceptual conditions of art-making. While attempting to move away from the emotive claims of their Abstract Expressionist predecessors, artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual practices wanted to uphold the freedom of experimentation with form and chorus play, materials initiated by artists such as Jackson Pollock. The climate of analysis and material experimentation of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States not only addressed the artwork and standards of artistic production but also extended to the critique of red bull institutions, the chorus play, role of the does red bull work, artist and audience, the chorus, dissemination of artworks in the market, and the industrial conditions of modern society. 28 Drawing was certainly not the only medium to reflect these tendencies, but its diverse implementation, immediate character, and ability to convey process made it a particularly apt means of registering the generative tension between analytical strategy and individual creation that underpins much of the art produced at this time. Figure 11. Medical In Third World Essay. N. Dash, Commuter , 2011. Graphite on paper, 14 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (37.5 x 24.8 cm) In the four decades since the chorus play, 1970s, several significant paradigm shifts have reshaped the political and social world in which we live, including the rapid rise of the digital age and an increased global connectedness accompanied by greater mobility, standardization, and homogenization.
Art has continued to adapt to these new conditions. Many of the issues that motivated the artistic struggle to work through and against modernist endgames—the idea that art is accepted accounting predicated on a progressive model of invention or the essentialist notion that something like the absolute essence of painting or sculpture exists—are of little interest to subsequent generations of artists. 29 They no longer feel compelled to grapple with the rules of chorus play such a limited approach; nor are they constrained by postmodernism’s negative and nostalgic appraisal of the modernist past. Rather, artists working today openly reference and revise the Medical Practices in Third World, art historical past, including the history of modernism, exploiting the possibility afforded them of freely engaging with the creative process to arrive at new forms and ideas. Figure 12. Chorus. Jill O’Bryan, 40,000 Breaths Breathed Between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 , 2000-05. Graphite on paper, 60 x 60 inches (152.4 x 152.4 cm) The artists N. Dash and religion of middle east, Jill O’Bryan, for instance, adopt a range of modernist strategies, including repetitive and serial processes as well as body and chorus play, performance art, all of which emerged in the 1960s and early 1970s. They take these strategies down markedly different paths, however, placing overt emphasis on aesthetic gratification, material exploration, and individual gesture coupled with a strong engagement with the tasks and rhythms of person daily life. Rather than explicitly linking the practice of drawing to large-scale sculptural installations and other conceptual projects—as was the case in the work of Flavin, Serra, Le Va, and play, LeWitt—both artists embark on highly hermetic forms of creation through which the east, properties of drawing are probed and developed. They highlight labor-intensive methods of manual craft and the materiality of the specific medium being employed yet also implicate the artist’s body.
N. Dash’s Commuter Works (ongoing since 2010) move beyond the notebook, the play, preparatory sketch, and vaisakhi, the traditional form of pencil on play paper (fig. 11). Her works appear conceptually in line with Anastasi’s subway drawings in that they record the artist’s bodily movements while riding public transportation in New York, but they are created without the use of a drawing implement, revealing a desire for a more immediate connection between the maker’s hand and the materials. Dash produces these works by folding, rubbing, creasing, and does red bull, refolding sheets of chorus paper and then applying pigment (graphite or indigo powder) to them by hand in order to immature person highlight the chorus play, progressive accumulation of Countries wrinkles and marks. Her practice is based less on an exploration of automatic processes, chance occurrences, or a sublimation of the subjective self, as are Anastasi’s subway drawings, and more on play an examination of the means by which bodily expression can be embedded into the support materials associated with painting, sculpture, and drawing. Jill O’Bryan’s large-scale 40,000 Breaths Breathed between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 (2000–2005; fig. Religion. 12) also turns drawing into a recording device as the chorus play, artist meticulously tracked her individual breaths over the course of five years, using only pencil marks on paper. In a manner similar to the accumulative gestures seen in Hesse’s gridded drawing, the graphic patterns that emerge across O’Bryan’s large sheet are not rigid or precise but rather organic and irregular, undulating with a gradation of tones based on the amount of pressure the artist exerted on the paper. The final drawing appears as nothing less than a test of endurance, one that resonates with certain approaches to body art and feminist agendas. With its emphasis on time and repetition, the work emerges as a fragile, obsessive attempt to explore the conditions of selfhood and register something of the daily experience of art.
Figure 13. Countries Essay. Janet Cohen, San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4-0 , 2004. Graphite on paper, 9 1/4 x 13 inches (23.5 x 33 cm) © Janet Cohen, 2004. Janet Cohen’s ongoing practice of meticulously charting popular activities such as the seemingly random events of a baseball game offers yet another variation on this internal and indexical approach to mark making, one that appears to play speak simultaneously to the fragmentation of contemporary life and nostalgia for a sense of completeness. Her clustered diagrams of overlapping numbers and letters in black and accepted principles, white pencil are the result of her own idiosyncratic system for estimating locations where pitches cross the strike zone and chorus play, the results of the actual pitches during a given baseball game. Works such as San Francisco at Medical Practices World, New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4–0 (2004; fig. 13) exist as both abstract representations of chorus these events and as highly individual catalogs of time and thought whose underlying system is understood by the artist alone. What exactly is at stake today in this intertwined desire for an immediacy of touch within prescribed limits? Marking up a blank piece of paper—experiencing a concrete and immediate way of making art within an evolving digital landscape that often removes us from experiencing “the real” and ourselves—appears to does red bull work offer itself as an chorus, inherently human activity. The use of predetermined parameters complements such individual efforts, providing a means of organizing thought, tracking time, and perhaps bringing a sense of order and consistency to the disorder of daily events. Of Middle East. Drawing has always served as a vital means of chorus play making sense of the world around us and immature, the forces that animate it, mediating rather than mirroring our lived condition.
In the 1960s and 1970s artists grappled with industrial conditions then shaping their everyday lives by engaging systematic and programmatic procedures to guide their work. In many instances, the pronounced engagement with seriality and repetitive marking, charting, and chorus, diagramming offered a means not of adopting the rational logic of 2017 industry but of highlighting art’s potential escape from it. It seems apt in today’s contemporary climate of chorus ongoing upheaval and accepted principles, perpetual advancement of digital technologies that the desire to chorus draw, to accepted principles mark, to track is embraced by artists who, much like their historical predecessors, seek to expand the capacities for invention while working to regain a sense of human experience. 1. All the works in the exhibition are drawn from the collection of play Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, New York; several of them have been donated by the couple to The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Over the past few decades, the Kramarskys have amassed a collection that provides an impressive overview of canonical Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, while continuing to collect works by emerging artists whose work is in line with this core aesthetic. 2. The term comes from Mel Bochner, “The Serial Attitude,” Artforum 16 (December 1967): 28–33. 3. See Irving Sandler, “The New Cool-Art,” Art in America 53 (February 1965): 96-101, and Pepe Karmel, “An In-Between Era,” in New York Cool: Painting and Sculpture from the NYU Art Collection (New York: Grey Art Gallery, New York University, 2008), 21–35. In recent years, several scholars have begun to rewrite the received history of us generally accepted postwar American art. See, for example, Catherine Craft, An Audience of Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and chorus play, the Emergence of Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 4. The language of late capitalist efficiency and religion east, organization informed many of these projects as artists mimicked the play, division of labor into mental and manual realms by commissioning others to realize their ideas or, in principles some cases, sidestepping actual material production altogether.
For an in-depth analysis of the relationship between artistic production, labor, and the shifting socioeconomic context in 1960s America, see Helen Molesworth, Work Ethic (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of play Art, 2003), and Julia Bryan-Wilson, Art Workers: Radical Practice in accounting the Vietnam War Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009). 5. Judd’s drawings, and the significant revision of the role of the artist that they suggest, would meet with controversy later in chorus his career, when the Italian collector Giuseppe Panza authorized the religion east, fabrication of sculptures from the chorus play, artist’s working drawings without Judd’s permission. Judd declared these works forgeries, insisting that his oversight was required in the fabrication of his work. See Susan Hapgood, “Remaking Art History,” Art in America 78 (July 1990): 114–17. See also Molesworth, Work Ethic , 163. 6. Accounting Principles. Numerous publications since the 1970s have explored the chorus, role that drawing played in Flavin’s artistic practice.
See Emily S. Rauh, Dan Flavin: Drawings and Diagrams, 1963–1972 (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 1973); Dan Flavin: Drawings, Diagrams, and Prints, 1972–1975 (Fort Worth, TX: Fort Worth Art Museum, 1977); and Dan Flavin Drawing (New York: Morgan Library, 2012). 7. Southall. Briony Fer, “Nocturama: Flavin’s Light Diagrams,” in Dan Flavin: New Light , ed. Play. Jeffrey Weiss (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2006), 46. 8. Dan Flavin, statement on view at the Kunstmuseum Basel in the exhibition Zeichnungen, Diagramme, Duckgraphik, 1972 bis 1975, und Zwei Installationen in fluoreszierendem Licht von Dan Flavin (1975), reprinted in Dan Flavin (1976), 6. 9. In a 1970 interview with Phyllis Tuchman, Andre states, “I am certainly no kind of conceptual artist because the physical existence of my work cannot be separated from the idea of it….My art springs from my desire to have things in the world which would otherwise never be there.” See Phyllis Tuchman, “An Interview with Carl Andre,” Artforum 8 (June 1970): 60. 10. Andre, ibid., 57. 11. The drawing relates to Andre’s planar floor sculptures Blue Lock Trial (1966), Blue Lock (1967), and Black Lock (1967).
The latter two works have since been destroyed. 12. Christine Mehring provides a compelling reading of this drawing. See Mehring, “Carl Andre: Blue Lock, 1966,” in does red bull work Drawing Is Another Kind of Language: Recent American Drawings from a New York Private Collection , by Pamela M. Lee and Christine Mehring (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1997), 28–29. 13. Yve-Alain Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes: On Richard Serra’s Drawings,” in play Richard Serra: Drawings, Zeichnungen, 1969–1990 (Bern, Switzerland: Bentelli, 1990), 17. 14. Richard Serra, “Interview: Richard Serra and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel,” New York, May 1980, first published in Artistes (November 1980), reprinted in Richard Serra: Interviews, Etc., 1970–1980 (Yonkers, NY: Hudson River Museum, 1980), 146. 15. For an in-depth analysis of vaisakhi 2017 southall Serra’s approach to drawing across his career, see Bernice Rose, Michelle White, and Gary Garrels, eds., Richard Serra Drawing: A Retrospective (Houston: Menil Collection, 2011). 16.
Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes,” 28. 17. Klaus Kertess has aptly described Le Va’s drawings as having “the clarity and conviction of a topographic map or a computerized analysis of play atmospheric turbulence.” See Klaus Kertess, “Between the Lines: The Drawings of Barry Le Va,” in Barry Le Va, 1966–1988 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, 1988), 27. 18. Barry Le Va, “Notes” (undated), reprinted in Accumulated Vision: Barry Le Va (Philadelphia: Institute of does red bull Contemporary Art, 2005), 89. 19. Ingrid Schaffner has perceptively noted that while Le Va’s installation photographs might tell us “how Le Va sees his installations,” it is his drawings that “tell us how to read them.” See Ingrid Schaffner, “Accumulated Vision and Violence, Barry Le Va,” in Accumulated Vision , 61. 20. Mel Bochner, “Anyone Can Learn to Draw,” press release for Drawings , Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 1969, reprinted in Bochner, Solar System #038; Rest Rooms: Writings and Interviews, 1965–2007 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 61. 21.
Marcia Tucker describes the 1969 installations in Tucker, “Barry Le Va: Work from 1966–1978,” in chorus play Barry Le Va: Four Consecutive Installations and Drawings, 1967–1978 (New York: New Museum, 1978), 12. For photographs of the installation, see ibid., 24, 25. 22. See particularly Robert Morris’s series of essays, “Notes on Sculpture” (February 1966) and “Notes on Sculpture, Part II” (October 1966), reprinted in Continuous Project Altered Daily: The Writings of Robert Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993). 23. Sol LeWitt, “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art,” in Open Systems: Rethinking Art, c. 1970 , ed. Immature Quotes. Donna DeSalvo (London: Tate Modern, 2005), 180; originally published in Artforum 5 (Summer 1967). 24.
James Meyer, Minimalism: Art and Polemics in the Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 187. 25. In the 1960s LeWitt was attracted to the cube and the square as “grammatical devices from chorus play which the work may proceed.” He went on to elaborate: “They are standard and universally recognized, no initiation being required of the viewer. . . World Countries Essay. . The use of a square or cube obviates the necessity of inventing other forms and reserves their use for invention.” See Sol LeWitt, untitled statement in Lucy Lippard et al., “Homage to the Square,” Art in America 55 (July–August 1967): 54. 26. LeWitt, “Sentences on Conceptual Art,” in chorus play Sol LeWitt: Critical Texts , ed. Adachiara Zevi (Rome: I Libri di AEIOU, 1994), 88, originally published in 0–9 (New York, 1969). 27. Religion East. Eva Hesse, quoted in Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse (New York: De Capo, 1976), 96. 28. Chorus Play. Josef Helfenstein, “Concept, Process, Dematerialization: Reflections on the Role of Drawings in Recent Art,” in Drawings of of middle Choice from a New York Collection , ed.
Josef Helfenstein and chorus play, Jonathan Fineberg (Champaign, IL: Krannert Art Museum, 2002), 13. 29. Yve-Alain Bois examines the religion east, end of play modernist painting in terms of play and gaming, suggesting that painting is never an endgame but a game comprising different matches. See Yve-Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 241–42. Jordan Kantor also takes up Bois’s analogy in her essay “Drawing from the Modern: After the religion east, Endgames,” in Drawing from the Modern, 1975–2005 (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2005), 53–54. Error: Twitter did not respond. Please wait a few minutes and refresh this page.
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