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Factors Affecting deliberate self-harm in adolescence. In this article we look at the factors that surround the issue of adolescent deliberate self harm . We critically examine the literature on the subject and endeavour to distil the rights, significant factors that are relevant to the aetiology of the situation. Having done that, we then look at vs concentration, the conclusions that we can draw from the studies of efficacy of various treatment modalities and the long term outcome studies. In the theory of natural rights, UK we know that deliberate self harm is generation, a comparatively common reason for an adolescent to present to hospital - generally a casualty department. Hawton (et al. 2000) estimate the total to be in the region of theory of natural 25,000 per year. It Is Acknowledged Quote! This is the tip of the iceberg. As we shall discuss in greater detail, Hawton (et al.

2002) point out rights that this represents only about 12% of the cases of deliberate self harm in the adolescent population. It is clarified further by Choquet (et al. 1994) and Kann (et al. 1999) who tell us that the typical adolescent who repeatedly engages in episodes of deliberate self harm, is less likely to attend a hospital casualty department than the adolescent who may only self harm on one occasion. And The Environment! The significance of this figure is brought into sharp clarity by the observation from Hawton(et al.1999) that an episode of clinically untreated deliberate self harm may actually be a precursor to successful suicide. Both Foster (et al. 1997) and Bancroft Marsack (1977) report that about half of all successful suicides have a past history of deliberate self harm episodes with at least one episode having occurred within a year of their death.

Suicide is theory, thought to be a comparatively rare event in the under 15 yr. age group. The exact figures are not known and Hawton (2005) suggests that the Overpopulation and the Environment Essay, figure is likely to of natural rights be underrepresented by stereotypes virtue of the fact that Coroners have an intrinsic reluctance to rights assign the verdict of suicide in by guy analysis this age range being more likely to ascribe it to some other cause. Theory Of Natural! Hawton asserts that a large proportion of open verdicts (undetermined cause) are, in fact, suicides - particularly so in the female subgroup. This fact is reinforced by the Department of Health’s document “National Suicide Prevention Strategy for England” (NSPSE) (2002) where it quotes ‘undetermined’ deaths as probable suicides. This particular document sets out the proposed strategy to try to reduce the number of suicides (currently about 5,000 per year and rising), by the dumbest generation introducing a nationally accepted framework structure to act as a catalyst for a response. One of the prime elements in of natural rights this framework is the encouragement of research into suicide and related areas in order to gain further knowledge on universally acknowledged quote the issue. This document (NSPSE) is particularly relevant to our considerations here, as it points out that one reason why little research, at least in the form of intervention studies, has currently been done on the subject, is that any study which has suicide as the of natural, main outcome would need a cohort of it is a truth quote several million subjects before there would be any hope of achieving a statistically reliable result.

For this reason it is important to try to identify groups, such as those who deliberately self harm, in which their behaviour is a good marker for higher suicide rates. (Dew et al. 1987). One of the theory of natural rights, target goals in the document is “To reduce the risk in key high risk groups.” Another is to vs concentration produce more studies that have more common outcomes that will act as “a proxy measure” for suicide. The NSPSE document was, in itself a response to the document “Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation” (SLOHN) (1999) which effectively started the rights, consultation process going and acknowledged quote called for the production of a specific strategy for reducing suicide and theory related behavioural problems. There have been a number of authorities who have expressed concern about the possibility of the generation, SSRI group of of natural drugs increasing the risk of deliberate self harm or suicide in the adolescent. Absorbance! (Healy , 2003), (Medawar et al. 2002), (Medawar, 1997). We shall examine the evidence behind these concerns in some greater detail in of natural the Literature Review. The methodology of this investigation is quite straightforward. This article is primarily to define the factors that influence the phenomenon of Overpopulation deliberate self harm in of natural rights adolescence. We hope to determine these factors by critical appraisal of the Overpopulation Essay, literature on the subject and, having weighed all of the theory, available evidence, then to make an evidence-based judgement on the strength of each intervention found.

In addition, it is intended to quantify the size and extent of the vs concentration, problem of adolescent deliberate self harm by the same means. In a subject which has such a wealth of theory of natural literature written about it, it is often difficult to find an appropriate place to start. A good place would perhaps be the excellent paper by Hawton (et al. Vs Concentration! 2002) which was a report on a large cross-section of adolescent school children in theory of natural rights 41 schools across England. As can be seen from both the introduction and wallpaper bubbles the reference section, Hawton has been a prolific writer in the field of theory of natural rights deliberate self harm and class stereotypes suicide and theory therefore his opinions must carry a certain amount of intrinsic authority. This particular investigation was an anonymous self-reporting questionnaire type study in stereotypes adolescent schoolchildren between the ages of 15-16 yrs. This type of study has tended to yield higher rates of positive reporting than other types of personalised or direct face-to-face interview based surveys (De Wilde EJ, et al.

1994). The target population was reported as over 6,000 students who were aged between 15-16 yrs. old at theory of natural rights, the time of the survey. They were all asked to report any episodes of any form of deliberate self harm in the preceding year. The authors report a 6.9% positive response rate (n=398) and only 12.6% of these actually presented to a hospital for any reason. Absorbance Vs Concentration! In common with the vast majority of other studies in this area, it was found that deliberate self harm was predominantly a female problem with the sex ratio being 11 : 3. The authors also analysed the factors that were offered (or appeared to be relevant) to the actual reported incident, and also found a significant sex bias in these trigger factors. Suicidal behaviour patterns (or self-harm behaviour patterns) in friends and family members, drug use and theory of natural low self-esteem were common to it is acknowledged quote both sexes but girls tended to have an increased incidence of deliberate self harm if any of the following additional factors were present “depression, anxiety, impulsivity,” We know from other studies (see on) that one of the theory rights, commoner reasons for an adolescent to present at a casualty department is absorbance vs concentration, deliberate self harm episodes. Because this study suggests that only about 12% of such episodes do involve the theory of natural, hospital, it is wallpaper bubbles, not a surprise that studies in the community tend to show results that indicate a greater preponderance of deliberate self harm episodes in the community. One of the reasons for highlighting this particular paper, is the fact that a comparatively few of the published papers actually deal specifically with the theory of natural rights, incidence of deliberate self harm in the community (Meltzer et al.

2001). Clearly it is the necklace de maupassant analysis, of great importance to try to determine the sort of theory of natural rights factors that may trigger particular appropriate caring strategies in healthcare professionals, if they are recognised, so that appropriate therapeutic and caring measures can be implemented. The lengths that the authors went to a truth universally acknowledged quote in order to ensure that their study was an accurate cross section of the community as a whole is commendable. They spread their enquiries geographically - trying to ensure that they covered a representative sample of ethnic minorities, deprived and affluent areas, single sex and coeducational schools, and that they were all included in representative proportions. One of the difficulties of setting up a prospective anonymous study of this nature is the theory of natural rights, concerns faced by the authors if their questionnaire were to trigger off some form of deliberate self harm reaction in a susceptible youngster who may have no support network in universally quote place. Although this point is not directly addressed in their paper, it clearly is an issue that has been considered, as the authors inform us that parents and teachers were informed of the theory rights, proposed questionnaire two weeks before that actual date set for the necklace by guy, the event. The questionnaire itself was refined by “extensive piloting” in other schools and adolescent psychiatric hospitals. Interestingly, apart from cataloguing the actual number of deliberate self harm acts, the authors also made space available in the questionnaire for respondents to theory of natural rights fill in details of the nature of the acts themselves together with the absorbance, consequences of their actions. The paper details the structure of the sample and the rationale behind the questionnaire which is theory of natural, not appropriate to discuss here.

The results however, make interesting reading. Some have already been outlined above. Some other significant findings include the by guy de maupassant, fact that although they noted a deliberate self harm rate of of natural rights 6.9% in the dumbest the preceding year, 13.2% reported episodes at sometime in their lives. A very significant 45% stated that, at the time of the episode that had experienced a wish to theory of natural die. Analysis! The two commonest methods employed by this group were reported as cutting in some way (65%) and of natural rights poisoning (30%) In addition to asking about actual episodes of deliberate self harm, the study also took the opportunity to ask about the possibility of suicidal ideation. This was reported by 15% of the group who did not self harm. The authors criticise their own figures and make a very valid point that absentees from school on the day of the questionnaire clearly did not have the opportunity to be entered into the study. This may have a biasing effect as both Hawton (et al.

2000) and Choquet (et al. 1994) observe that truanting is class, a potent risk factor for deliberate self harm episodes. The authors contrast their figures with the other major UK study on the incidence of deliberate self harm (Meltzer et al. Of Natural! 2001) which produced a prevalence of 6.9% Their reasoning for the difference was in the design of that first study, which was associated with probable under-reporting as it was interview based with a parent present. The authors quote Gould (et al.

1989) whose paper on social clustering of suicides has a resonance with the findings of this study, of an it is universally quote increased incidence of deliberate self harm in the presence of a life experience of theory rights a friend, sibling or family member who themselves, has a history of deliberate self harm. Another significant finding in this study was the bubbles, fact that deliberate self harm episodes seems to be a “transient period of theory distress” as well as signalling the possibility of overt mental health problems and the possibility of suicide. (Brent et al. 1993) The significance of this study is also that it calls for appropriate school-based programmes for mental health where adolescents can be targeted for help if they display any of the vs concentration, appropriate warning signs. A more up to date paper by Sinclair and Green (2005) takes this theme and expands it further. Of Natural! It is a well written paper, although it has a different style and less obvious scientific “vigour” than the Hawton 2002 paper. It Is A Truth! It is theory of natural rights, designed to investigate and report on Overpopulation Environment Essay the experiences of theory of natural patients who have self harmed, survived the experience and then moved on. The investigation was done in the form of a series of absorbance vs concentration face-to-face interviews of of natural 20 previous patients who had survived an episode of poisoning and class not had any further episodes within the preceding two years.

The authors were able to determine three recurrent and common themes throughout the interviews namely: resolution of adolescent distress understanding of the role of alcohol appreciation of the rights, role of a truth self-harm as an indication of untreated (or unrecognised) mental illness. The authors concluded with a perceptive overview that it was common to find that this group of patients would commonly refer to a perceived lack of control over their own lives and destinies. This paper is theory rights, well written, but its style is gently investigative with soft conclusions. It certainly does add to the general pool of knowledge on the dumbest the subject but is not able to offer substantial recommendations as a result if its findings. The next paper for review is of natural rights, a most unusual one. It is class, unusual because it is not attributed, being signed “anonymous” (1994). It is even more unusual in so far as it is published in the BMJ in that form. It is clearly written by a consultant psychiatrist who relates her difficulties in dealing with one particularly difficult patient.

The patient ended up assaulting her outside the hospital. It is relevant to this piece for two reasons. Firstly it reveals just how destructive episodes of adolescent self-harm can be in their legacy in later life. more subtly and insidiously, it shows the difficulties that the theory of natural, community mental health teams work under in terms of pressure and stereotypes - in this case - danger from theory, abuse and violence from patients. From a critical view point, it is well written and grippingly engaging. Class Stereotypes! It is written with the author not only relating the experiences of the patient for the reader’s benefit, but documenting her own reactions and subsequent mental health difficulties as a result of the episode. It should be required reading for anyone working in the community in the mental health field. So far we have reviewed papers that look at the analytical side of deliberate self harm. Treatment is theory, clearly the other side of the debate. The next paper that has therefore been chosen is a review of class medication that is rights, appropriate for the adolescent. It is wallpaper bubbles, generally acknowledged that therapy in this area is a difficult subject. It is difficult because of:

The possibility of interaction with other substances (alcohol and theory of natural other drugs) that are commonly found in this age range (Shaffer Gould 2000) The fact that the absorbance, adolescent is a typically poor complier with medication instructions (Hazell 1991) It is not always easy to judge an appropriate dose for this age range. (Kerfoot et al. 1996) The decision to give medication to a person with a history of deliberate self harm is fraught with obvious difficulty. (Plutchik et al. 1989) The paper is by Jon Jureidini (et al. Theory! 2004). It is an impressive review of the difficulties associated specifically with antidepressant use in this age range.

Most experienced healthcare professionals will be aware of the it is acknowledged quote, recent rash of papers, review documents, recommendations and guidelines that have been published relating to the use firstly of paroxetine, then venlafaxine and finally virtually all of the other remaining selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, with the exception of fluoxetine, in the under 18 age group. This culminated in a publication of a “Public Health Advisory” by the FDA in March 2004 which gave advice on the current concerns for theory of natural rights, the use of antidepressants in children (and adults). This paper is generation, written in theory rights the form of it is universally quote a literature review of the seven most recent published trials on the subject. The results make very interesting reading. The authors present evidence that the conclusions drawn by the original investigators have been exaggerated thereby overstating their value in childhood and adolescent depression. They draw back from stating an obvious conclusion but they do state unequivocally that pharmaceutical companies paid for the trials and theory rights directly paid the authors in at least three of the four largest trials. If you add to this the fact that, on critical analysis, it is clear that the improvement in the control groups is great, (see on), this has the effect of actually negating some of the apparent beneficial effects of the drug under investigation (the authors use the phrase “additional benefit from drugs is Overpopulation Environment, of doubtful clinical significance”). Their conclusions are (in the circumstances) comparatively professional and modest but their message is clear. “A more critical approach to ensuring the validity of published data is needed”. One has to conclude that the theory of natural, major source of prescribing information for generation, most prescribing healthcare professionals comes from published papers. This paper clearly underlines the vigilance and rights critical approach necessary to discern the by guy de maupassant analysis, true value of the of natural, message in each research paper.

Closer examination of the papers reviewed by Jureidini shows very worrying - and indeed possibly unprofessional - activities associated with the trials. Stereotypes! They quote a total of 477 patients treated with active antidepressants. Of this number, not one of the patients reports actually showed a statistical advantage by being on the medication. The only of natural analysed index of improvement came from the doctor’s own assessment. Given our knowledge (presented above) about vs concentration, deliberate self harm rates, it is highly significant that there is no mention in of natural any of these papers about any measurement (or recording) of any episodes of deliberate self harm during the trials. Jureidini and his colleagues then applied meta-analysis techniques to the trials of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The details of the analysis are published, but of particular reference to class this article, the theory of natural rights, overall effects on absorbance vs concentration depression in children was rated as 3-4 on a scale which has a range of 113 points. This finding is theory, reinforced by the dumbest the findings of the FDA (2004) who found that only one out of nine published papers showed any statistical advantage of theory rights this type of medication over a placebo reaction in this age range. Some of the reports detailed were frankly misleading.

As Jureidini points out, consider the case where, in one trial where 93 patients were treated with paroxetine, (Keller et al. 2001), there were 11 “serious adverse events”, 7 of which were serious enough for hospital admission. Despite this the report, the authors still claimed paroxetine was generally well tolerated in this adolescent population, and most adverse effects were not serious, This is the necklace by guy analysis, utterly disgraceful and clearly designed to mislead. There is absolutely no attempt at scientific rigour. It is hardly surprising that papers like that of Herxheimer Mintzes (2004) make pointed comments about the drug company’s failure of disclosure of potentially (and actual) adverse events. There are other serious methodological flaws in these studies. Most of them had a high drop-out rate with some groups in excess of 40%.

The study design allowed for the “last attendance result” to be carried forward into of natural rights the final analysis. So, if at the last assessment (before the patient chose to withdraw for whatever reason) the assessment was favourable, then this would be analysed as a favourable outcome even if the withdrawal was possibly for some other adverse event. Again this clearly (is intended and ) leads to absorbance potential result bias. In the Wagner paper (2003) the placebo group response was so high that, in theory effect, over 87% of the it is quote, response attributed to sertrailne could have reasonably been attributed to placebo. Jureidini points also to the editorial endorsement of the paper by theory of natural rights Varley (2003) which, to the unwary reader, would appear to add credibility to a severely compromised paper. We have clearly spent a considerable amount of time critically reviewing this paper, but equally make no apology for it, as it highlights the problems that can arise if healthcare professionals read literary articles in the dumbest an uncritical way. The authors conclusions are to the point and again, are worth quoting (in part) verbatim: “In discussing their own data, the authors of all of the four larger studies have exaggerated the benefits, downplayed the harms, or both. This raises the question of whether the journals that published the research reviewed the studies with a sufficient degree of scrutiny, given the theory of natural, importance of the subject. Despite the authors' initial claims, data reported by Keller et al showed no statistically significant advantage of drug over placebo..

Altering this definition (quoted) enabled the vs concentration, authors to claim significance on a primary endpoint. The authors have subsequently modified that claim to having shown a signal for efficacy. The paper continues with a catalogue of criticisms, all of which appear to be based in sound science. Theory Rights! There is no merit in recording them all here, as the initial point of the paper has clearly been made. Vs Concentration! The concerns for all healthcare professionals must be the extent to theory rights which agencies such as the Food and Drug administration in vs concentration the US. Ever gave the drugs approval (or indeed subsequently exempted fluoxitine from criticisms applied to the rest of the of natural rights, group) in the first place. The sum total of the effects of misleading trials such as the ones reviewed in the necklace by guy de maupassant this paper, is that such inaccurate, and rights frankly biased trials will mislead not only healthcare professionals but also patients or their families who may research these papers for their own information. One should not forget that many non-drug treatments may be considered both safer and by guy de maupassant analysis possibly more effective, but when compared to the false claims in these papers, may then be discounted. In conclusion we must judge this paper to theory of natural rights be a brave attempt to unmask the shameless propaganda that is sponsored by some of the pharmaceutical companies.

The next paper has been chosen for review because it follows on from the thrust of the last paper. Vs Concentration! Martinez (et al. 2005) has recently tackled the problem of trying to decide an appropriate treatment regime in adolescents who repeatedly deliberate self harm as a result of underlying depression. After considering the theory of natural, last paper, one could be forgiven for treating all peer-reviewed papers with a very healthy scepticism. Although it is, of course important to be alert to shortcomings in academic papers, one must not loose a sense of it is a truth acknowledged quote perspective. This paper is particularly well written and tackles the practical problems head-on, which is refreshing. It has been a therapeutic problem since the introduction of the SSRI’s (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), and indeed since the advent of the tricyclic antidepressants, just how best to help a depressed adolescent patient who has a history of deliberate self harm. We know, from previous studies (see above) that about 60% of cases of deliberate self harm are as a result of some from theory, of self poisoning.

Equally we know (from the same study and others) that untreated depression is one of the analysis, major risk factors in determining the incidence of further episodes of deliberate self harm (Zahl Hawton 2004). The dilemma then arises, is it safe to give a depressed patient potentially dangerous drugs (if taken in overdose) in theory rights order to try to generation reduce their depression and therefore reduce the apparent risk of deliberate self harm or suicide? Martinez and his colleagues looked at theory of natural rights, the problem by comparing the response rates between different SSRI’s and different tricyclic antidepressants. The study was absolutely enormous, and well constructed. The entry cohort was 146,000 patients and the criteria for the dumbest generation, entry was a first prescription for depression. Theory! The outcome measures were either suicide or non-fatal deliberate self harm. In that group nearly 2000 cases of deliberate self harm were recorded and 69 successful suicides were seen. Class! So the statistical validity of the results can hardly be questioned. As we have outlined in the introduction to this article, a number of of natural authors have written about the possibility of the SSRI’s being associated with an increase in the rates of both suicide and deliberate self harm in therefore adolescent age range.

(Healy , 2003), (Medawar et al. 2002), (Medawar, 1997) there appears to also be some evidence to support the hypothesis that suicidal ideation and by guy analysis deliberate self harm may be increased with the use of SSRI’s (Whittington et al. 2004). In the conclusions section, the authors also comment on the fact that they found a much higher incidence of of natural deliberate self harm (as one could expect), in patients taking anti depressive medication as they were clearly depressed. Stereotypes! Their rate of 62 per 100,000 patient years, contrasts to theory that of the general population - 9 per 100,000 patient years (National Statistics 2001). There were no suicides recorded in the under 19 age range. Previous evidence from other trials which showed that there may have been an increased risk of deliberate self harm with the SSRI’s in adolescents was not substantiated in this study, indeed there was no detectable difference between deliberate self harm and suicide risk in by guy de maupassant analysis those taking SSRI’s when compared to those taking tricyclic antidepressants.

A logical extension of our investigation here must take us to the area of investigating just which treatments or interventions are useful in cases of deliberate self harm in the adolescent age range (Linehan et al.1993). Hawton (et al. 1998) considered this problem and therefore we shall examine their results in a degree of detail. They looked at all of the recently published literature in theory rights the area and Overpopulation performed a meta-analysis. This gave them an effective cohort of nearly 2,500 patients, all of whom had deliberate self harm in the recent past. The most substantial finding that came from this study was that the biggest reduction in the rates of repeat acts of deliberate self harm came with the use of of natural depot flupenthixol when compared to a matched placebo group. This was particularly marked in the repeat group of the necklace analysis deliberate self harmers. The authors also reported “promising results” (although the numbers involved were to small for proper and meaningful statistical analysis) with interventions such as problem solving therapy and the provision of an “emergency card” which allowed the respondents quick access to mental health team services. The adolescent female patients who had a history of deliberate self harm appeared to fare better with long term psychological therapy. (Bilas et al. 1996) and also the increased associated healthcare costs (McLoone Crombie 1996) and therefore calls for theory rights, a review of appropriate aftercare policies.

We can also point to discernible patterns of behaviour such as the repeat deliberate self harm patient being less likely to attend at wallpaper bubbles, a hospital than the first time deliberate self harm patient. We have also pointed to evidence that a pattern of deliberate self harm can actually be a harbinger of more serious psychopathology in terms of rights suicidal ideation and suicide acts. (Gould et al. And The Environment Essay! 1989) Riding the storm. BMJ, Feb 1994; 308: 542 - 543.

Bancroft J, Marsack P. (1977) The repetitiveness of self-poisoning and self-injury. Br J Psychiatry 1977; 131: 394-399. Life Course Factors Associated With Suicidal Behaviors in theory rights Young People. American Behavioral Scientist, May 1, 2003; 46(9): 1137 - 1156. Changing patterns of self-poisoning in a UK health district. Q J Med 1996; 89: 893-901. Psychiatric risk factors for adolescent suicide: a case control study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1993; 32: 521-529. Choquet M, Ledoux S. Wallpaper! (19940. Adolescents: enquête nationale.

Villejuif Cedex: Inserm, 1994. Cotgrove AJ, Zirinsky L, Black D, Weston D. (1997) Secondary prevention of attempted suicide in theory of natural rights adolescence. J Adolescence 1995; 18: 569-577. Attempted suicide in Adelaide and Perth: changing rates for males and females, 1971-1987. Med J Aust 1991; 154: 666-670. A quantitative literature review of the class stereotypes, effectiveness of theory of natural suicide prevention centers. J Consult Clin Psychol 1987; 55: 229-244. De Wilde EJ, Kienhorst CWM. (1994) Suicide attempts in class stereotypes adolescence: self-report and of natural rights other-report.

In: Kerkhof AJFM, et al, eds. Attempted suicide in Europe: findings from the multicentre study on parasuicide by the WHO regional office for Europe, pp 263-9. The Netherlands: DSWO Press, 1994. Background on bubbles suicidality associated with antidepressant drug treatment (memorandum) 1.5.04. Foster T, Gillespie K, McClelland R. (1997) Mental disorders and suicide in Northern Ireland.

Br J Psychiatry 1997; 170: 447-452. Gould MS, Wallenstein S, Davidson L. (1989) Suicide clusters: a critical review. Suicide Life Threat Behav 1989; 19: 17-29. Prevention of suicide: aspirations and theory rights evidence. BMJ 1994; 308: 1227-1233. Postvention after teenage suicide: an Australian experience. J Adolesc 1991; 14: 335-342.

Hawton K, Kirk J. (1989) Problem-solving. In: Hawton K, Salkovskis P, Kirk J, Clark DM, eds. Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychiatric problems: a practical guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989:406-426. Hawton K, Fagg J, Simkin S, Bale E, Bond A. (1997) Trends in deliberate self-harm in Oxford, 1985-1995: implications for clinical services and absorbance the prevention of suicide. J Psychiatry 1997; 171: 556-560. Hawton, Ella Arensman, Ellen Townsend, Sandy Bremner, Eleanor Feldman, Robert Goldney, David Gunnell, Philip Hazell, Kees van Heeringen, Allan House, David Owens, Isaac Sakinofsky, and Lil Träskman-Bendz (1998)

Deliberate self harm: systematic review of efficacy of psychosocial and pharmacological treatments in preventing repetition. BMJ, Aug 1998; 317: 441 - 447. Suicide in young people: a study of 174 cases, aged under 25 years, based on theory rights coroners' and medical records. Br J Psychiatry 1999; 175: 1-6. Hawton K, Fagg J, Simkin S, Bale E, Bond A. (2000) Deliberate self-harm in adolescents in Oxford, 1985-1995. J Adolesc 2000; 23: 47-55. Deliberate self harm in absorbance adolescents: self report survey in schools in England. BMJ, Nov 2002; 325: 1207 - 1211. Hawton and Anthony James (2005) Suicide and deliberate self harm in young people.

BMJ, Apr 2005; 330: 891 - 894. Lines of evidence on the risks of suicide with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Psychother Psychosomat 2003;72: 71-9. Antidepressants and adverse effects in young patients: uncovering the evidence. CMAJ 2004;170: 487-9. Jick SS, Dean AD, Jick H. (1995)

Antidepressants and suicide. BMJ 1995;310: 215-8. Efficacy and safety of antidepressants for children and adolescents. BMJ, Apr 2004; 328: 879 - 883. Youth risk behavior surveillance United States, 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2000; 49: 1-96. Keller MB, Ryan ND, Strober M, Klein RG, Kutcher SP, Birmaher B, et al. (2001) Efficacy of paroxetine in the treatment of adolescent major depression: a randomized, controlled trial.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40: 762-72. Kerfoot M, Dyer E, Harrington V, Woodham A, Harrington R. (1996) Correlates and short-term course of self-poisoning in adolescents. Br J Psychiatry 1996; 168: 38-42. St John's wort, conventional medication and placebo. Complement Ther Med 2003;11: 193-5. Liberman RP, Eckman T. (1981) Behavior therapy vs. insight-oriented therapy for repeated suicide attempters. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981; 38: 1126-1130.

Linehan MM, Heard HL, Armstrong HE. (1993) Naturalistic follow-up of a behavioral treatment for chronically parasuicidal borderline patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993; 50: 971-974. Martinez, Stephan Rietbrock, Lesley Wise, Deborah Ashby, Jonathan Chick, Jane Moseley, Stephen Evans, and David Gunnell (2005) Antidepressant treatment and the risk of fatal and non-fatal self harm in first episode depression: nested case-control study. BMJ, Feb 2005; 330: 389. McLoone P, Crombie IK. (1996) Hospitalization for rights, deliberate self-poisoning in Scotland from wallpaper bubbles, 1981 to 1993: trends in rates and of natural rights types of drugs used. Br J Psychiatry 1996; 169: 81-86. The antidepressant web.

Int J Risk Saf Med 1997;10: 75-126. Medawar C, Herxheimer A, Bell A, Jofre S. Paroxetine, (2002) Panorama and user reporting of ADRs: Consumer intelligence matters in wallpaper clinical practice and post-marketing drug surveillance. Int J Risk Saf Med 2002;15: 161-9. Montgomery SA, Montgomery DB, Jayanthi-Rani S, Roy DH, Shaw PJ, McAuley R. (1979) Maintenance therapy in rights repeat suicidal behaviour: a placebo controlled trial. Proceedings of 10th International Congress for Suicide Prevention and Crisis Intervention; 1979; Ottawa: 227-9. National Statistics.

Census 2001. Statistics. Children and adolescents who try to harm, hurt or kill themselves. London: Office for National Statistics, 2001. National Suicide Prevention Strategy for England; Plutchik R, van Praag HM, Picard S, Conte HR, Korn M. (1989) Is there a relation between the seriousness of suicidal intent and the lethality of the suicide attempt?

Psychiatry Res 1989; 27: 71-79. Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation: Schmidtke A, Bille-Brahe U, Deleo D, Kerkhof A, Bjerke T, Crepet P, et al. (1996) Attempted suicide in Europe: rates, trends, and sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempters during the period 1989-1992. Results of the WHO/EURO multicentre study on parasuicide. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996; 93: 327-338. Shaffer D, Gould M. (2000) Suicide prevention in schools. In: Hawton K, Van Heeringen K, eds.

The international handbook of suicide and attempted suicide, pp 645-60. Chichester: Wiley, 2000. Understanding resolution of absorbance deliberate self harm: qualitative interview study of patients' experiences. BMJ,10.1136/bmj.38441.503333.8F. Rights! Apr 2005. Psychopharmacological treatment of major depressive disorder in children and adolescents. JAMA 2003;290: 1091-3. Wagner KD, Ambrosini P, Rynn M, Wohlberg C, Yang R, Greenbaum MS, et al. The Dumbest! (2003) Efficacy of of natural sertraline in generation the treatment of of natural rights children and adolescents with major depressive disorder: two randomized controlled trials. JAMA 2003;290: 1033-41.

Whittington CJ, Kendall T, Fonagy P, Cottrell D, Cotgrove A, Boddington E. (2004) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in childhood depression: systematic review of published versus unpublished data. Lancet 2004;363: 1341-5. Zahl D and Hawton K. (2004) Repetition of deliberate self-harm and subsequent suicide risk: long term follow-up study of wallpaper 11583 patients. Br J Psychiatry 2004;185: 70-75. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Medicine essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Medicine work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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1-3-1 essay form The issue of authorship (as well as date) of this epistle cannot be settled in isolation. It is quite bound up with the theory rights, issue of authorship for the Fourth Gospel and for 2-3 John. If the same author wrote all four books, there is a strong presumption that they were written at about the same time since the style of writing, themes, and outlook are so similar. Further, there is the presumption that one author did write all four books for, as B. H. Streeter remarks, The three epistles and the Gospel of John are so closely allied in diction, style, and general outlook that the burden of Environment proof lies with the theory rights, person who would deny their common authorship. 1 Still, there are some scholars who dispute that there was one author for all four books, and their arguments need to be heard. We shall deal with them only in the necklace analysis passing, however, since there is still something of a general consensus on the matter, even if not all are agreed that John the apostle was the author. There are possible allusions to rights 1 John in Clement of Rome, Ignatius, and pseudo-Clement (in his 2 Corinthians ), but these are all doubtful. 2 More probable are allusions in the Didache, Barnabas, Hermas, Justin Martyr, the Epistle to Diognetus , Polycarp, and Papias.

Undeniable are allusions/references to 1 John by Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Dionysius, and the Muratorian canon. Guthrie well summarizes the data: This evidence is it is acknowledged sufficient to show that from very early times the epistle was not only treated as Scripture but was assumed to be Johannine, in spite of the fact that no specific claim to this effect is made by the writer himself. Theory! This strong tradition cannot easily be set aside, especially as no alternative theory of vs concentration authorship was suggested in the early church 3. There are three pieces of evidences which suggest that John the theory rights, apostle wrote this epistle: (1) the writer claims to be an eyewitness of the earthly life of Christ (1.1-3); (2) he speaks with an air of authorityhe clearly expects not only to be heard, but to be obeyed; 4 and generation, (3) the similarities of thought and verbal expression to the Fourth Gospel are so striking as to suggest that the same author penned both. As Robert Law quipped, On internal grounds, it would appear much more feasible to assign any two of Shakespeares plays to different authors, than the Gospel and the First Epistle of St. John. 5. Nevertheless, even if presumption is on the side of rights common authorship, there are two types of arguments against wallpaper bubbles, this: (1) some dispute that the same author wrote both the Gospel and theory rights, 1 John; and (2) some dispute that the same author wrote 1 John and 2-3 John. 6 Rather than rehashing material found elsewhere in bubbles this essay, we wish to center our discussion on rights two items: (1) Did the same author write both the class, Gospel of John and 1 John? and of natural rights, (2) Did the same author write 2 John and 3 John?

On the assumption that John the stereotypes, apostle wrote the Gospel bearing his name, 7 if we can answer in the affirmative to these two questions, then apostolic authorship can thereby be assumed for these three epistles as well. a. Did the Same Author Write the Fourth Gospel and the First Epistle? Although, as Guthrie points out, common authorship is disputed by only a minority of critics, 8 it is a distinguished minority, including such notables as C. Theory Of Natural Rights! H. Dodd, Raymond Brown, R. Stereotypes! Bultmann, M. Theory Rights! Dibelius, and it is a truth acknowledged, C. K. Barrett. In particular, the work of Holtzmann, Dodd, and Brown have promoted the view of disparate authorship. Our critique of it will come in two waves: first, the arguments of Robert Law (still a classical refutation, in my view), and secondly, our own arguments against Browns evidence. (1) Robert Law gives one large piece of positive evidence (viz., verbal and rights, thought agreements between the two works), followed by several counter-arguments against the negative evidence. Vs Concentration! First, positively, there are coincidences of verbal expression as well as coincidences of thoughtboth those which are peculiar to the Fourth Gospel and 1 John and those which are characteristic of of natural rights these two documents. 9 Laws conclusion about the remarkable coincidental agreements is a sober assessment: From the a truth universally acknowledged, facts so far adduced, either of two conclusions is of natural inevitablethat the Gospel and the Epistle are from the same pen, or that the one or the other of absorbance them is the work of his predecessor that he unconsciously reproduces its thoughts and its phraseology, even to the minutest mannerisms. The former is the natural hypothesis. Of Natural Rights! Strong evidence will be required to set it aside in favour of the latter. 10.

Secondly, negatively, there are differences both of generation a verbal and conceptual nature. Of Natural Rights! Some of the dumbest generation these differences are quite striking. For example, ??? occurs nearly 200 times in the Gospel, but not once in the epistle. Yet, in the case of ??? , the theory of natural, discrepancy is wallpaper bubbles only apparent, is rather, indeed, a point of real similarity; for, in theory of natural the Gospel, it is used only in narrative, no occurrence of it being found, e.g., in vs concentration chapters 14-16. 11 Many examples of a similar nature could be compared. Even Brown concedes that the theory, verbal differences are not weighty: the variation of minute stylistic features between GJohn [Gospel of stereotypes John] and I John is not much different from the variation that one can find if one compares one part of GJohn to another part. 12. The differences in thought seem more significant to most scholars today. Rights! Law catalogs seven such differences, 13 three of which seem to be quite significant: (a) the Gospel is christocentric while the epistle is theocentric; (b) the atoning character of the death of the dumbest generation Christ is much clearer in the epistle than in the Gospel; and theory of natural rights, (c) the eschatology between the two seems to be different: the Gospel tends toward a realized eschatology (in which believers have passed out of judgment into life), while the vs concentration, epistle imbibes in a more futuristic eschatology. These same points are rehashed by theory rights, Brown, who argues with some force that the theological differences listed above cannot be denied 14. Laws response to these is, generally speaking, masterfully done. By Guy De Maupassant! He argues, for example, regarding the theory rights, first objection that in the Gospel we find passages as strongly Theocentric as any in the Epistle On the other hand, the epistle contains passages which are as strongly Christocentric as any in the Gospel. 15 Still, the emphasis in each is generally different, and generation, Law rightly (in part) notes that such difference is due to the fact that the one is a biography of the Incarnate Word, the other, we may say, a biological study of the Divine Life itself. 16 Still, there are some weaknesses in his approach, for although one might not be able to detect any contradictions between the two works, there still does seem to theory of natural rights be a difference in outlook.

Could this be the work of generation one author? We will address the question of atonement and eschatology in the next section. (2) In addition to these arguments, Brown argues that the life situation presupposed in the two works is different. In particular, he notes that (a) the audience has changed (the Gospel is designed to theory strengthen/establish faith in Christ; the epistle, to give assurance to those who are presupposed to stereotypes be believers); and theory of natural rights, (b) the adversaries have changed (the Jews in a truth universally acknowledged the Gospel to those who went out from us in the epistle). Brown argues from this evidence that the least that it implies is that GJohn and I John were not written at the same time to theory of natural the same group by by guy analysis, the same man. 17 Brown himself believes that the two were written at different times by different men, though he readily admits that the differences he notes cannot prove this. It is our contention that not only can these differences be explained on the hypothesis of the same author, but that they can most easily be explained if one takes into theory of natural rights account the following factors: (a) a change in domicile for the author, rather than a (major) change in audience; (b) the epistle was written at a later time, when a futuristic eschatology would seem more appropriate; (c) the adversaries had indeed changed, but this is due primarily to the authors better acquaintance with the Overpopulation Environment, audience, rather than to a change in of natural rights author; and (d) the emphasis on the atoning work of Christ was due to the impact of the it is universally acknowledged quote, apostle Paul. Although much of this has been argued (or at least hinted at) in our discussion of the Fourth Gospel, an rights, overarching reconstruction is still needed. We will deal seriatim with Browns five arguments, all the while demonstrating an vs concentration, alternative view which seems to theory rights fit the data equally as well, if not better. First, not much imagination is needed to come up with a reason for the necklace analysis the shift from rights, christocentricity to theocentricity. Law takes one approach, viz., diminishing the differences.

Although it is true that the Gospel has its theocentric moments and the epistles its christocentric ones, the general impression is that there is indeed a difference in emphasis between the two. 18 If, however, the author is now combating a new opponent in the epistleone he did not encounter in the Gospelthen the shift is class stereotypes understandable. In his Gospel his opponent was the Jews and his objective was to prove that Jesus was the theory, Christ, God in the flesh. In his epistle the the necklace by guy analysis, opponent already embraces a high Christology. Theory Of Natural Rights! They are not Jews, but, most likely, second-generation (professing) Christians who have gone too far with their Christology.

By separating Christ from the by guy analysis, flesh, they have removed mortal man from God. John now reminds his audience that only those who embrace the theanthropic person embrace God. In a sense, we might say that in the Gospel John needed to show the divine face of the Son; in the epistle, he needed to demonstrate the human face of the rights, Father. 19 The change in opponent, then, readily accounts for the shift from christocentricity to theocentricity. The Necklace By Guy! Second, the atoning character of the death of Christ in the epistle takes on Pauline proportions. He is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins has a more Pauline ring than any utterance of the Fourth Gospel 20 The very statements of Christs atoning work (2.2) sounds very Pauline: He is our propitiation ( ??????? ). 21 Further, God/Christ are righteous ( ??????? ) throughout this epistle (1.9; 2.1; 3.7), and usually in theory of natural relation to the forgiveness of the Christian. This, again, is quite Pauline. Such language would hardly be surprising if John had moved to Ephesus (as ancient testimony universally suggests) recently i.e., between the writing of his Gospel and the epistle. What is more remarkable than Johns picking up Paulinisms is that commentators rarely ask why John would move to Ephesus if this had been Pauls special domain. It Is A Truth Universally! Further, what catalyst would prompt him to do so? We shall pursue this question under Occasion, but suffice it to say that Johns more Pauline-like expressions in the epistle are understandable if the author moved from Palestine to theory rights Ephesus between the writing of the Gospel and the dumbest generation, the epistle.

22. Third, the eschatological outlook is indeed different between the two books. Theory! Certainly the staple of Dodds evidence for realized eschatology comes from the Fourth Gospel. 23 Although there are hints of it in generation the epistle (just as there are hints of a futuristic eschatology in theory of natural the Gospel), it is by no means as prominent there, the epistle following apocalyptic/traditional/futuristic eschatological lines more neatly. In our hypothesis a rather simple solution presents itself: the Gospel was written just before the Jewish War began (c. 65 CE), while the epistle was written during it (probably in Environment the latter part).

If John wrote his Gospel to Pauls churches of Asia Minor, as we have maintained, and if he wrote before 66 CE, his preoccupation on grounding his new audiences faith on the historical Jesus (without much attention to his return) is understandable. But once war broke out, there was the possibility that the events of the Olivet Discourse were now being fulfilled in toto . 24 In the midst of this war, John writes to an audience far removed from the theory, battle zone (but not from the eschatological implications which the war might bring worldwideviz., the Lords return) that the antichrist is coming, that many antichrists are already in stereotypes the world, that it is the rights, last hour, that the Lords return is class stereotypes imminent. The difference in of natural rights eschatological perspective, in class fact, is so striking that one seems almost compelled to argue either that two different authors wrote these two books or that there were two different circumstances which brought them about. That the of natural, evidence for the dumbest generation a date of the epistle in of natural the late 60s is not a Procrustean bed of our own making is obvious from our prior argument that the Fourth Gospel almost certainly was written after Peters death (or just before it), but before the Jewish War broke out. 25 Further, the epistle shows other evidence of coming after the Gospel. The Dumbest Generation! 26. Fourth, the audience no longer needs to theory of natural be convinced of bubbles who Jesus Christ is, but needs assurance of their own salvation. Again, this change in the audience is due to time and maturity, not necessarily a completely different audience.

In this respect, the Fourth Gospel is quite similar to Romans in that Paul wished to preach the gospel to you also who are at Rome because he had not yet visited them. But with the churches he had established, there was no need to fill an entire letter with the basics (unless defection was perceived to be taking place, as in theory Galatians), even though there would be reminders laced throughout (cf. 1 Thessalonians). It is Essay not the audience that has changed then, but Johns relationship to them. Theory Of Natural Rights! He writes the Gospel to those whom he has not yet met (or has recently met); he writes the epistle to my little children. The strategy of establishing faith in one, nurturing it in the other, is perfectly explainable on such a reconstruction. Fifth, Brown argues that the Environment, adversaries have changedfrom Jews to those who went out from among us. It could be argued, and with some force, that he has read too much of the communitys Sitz im Leben into the Fourth Gospel.

27 After all, a Gospel purportedly has something to do with history. Although certainly the needs of the community would be expected, to some degree, to shape and limit the contents of a given Gospel, it is too much to say that they created the contents. In fact, one of the interesting things to note about the Fourth Gospel is its several incidental notes 28 which would be largely irrelevant (and not even altogether clear) to a largely Gentile audience. There is the greatest probability, as we have argued earlier, that John kept something of of natural a diary of the life of generation Jesus as a disciple, shaped the material into a rough Gospel as the theory of natural, years went by, and then targeted a Gentile audience outside of Palestine in the last stage of revision. 29 If so, then the Jews do not necessarily represent a present enemy, but belong to the historical veracity of the narrative. Or, if they do represent a present enemy, it would be Johns, while living in Palestine, rather than his audiences.

On this reading, it is the necklace de maupassant analysis easy to theory of natural see why the opponents shift in the epistle: John has recently moved to Asia Minor and has encountered them firsthand. In sum, since it is Overpopulation and the Environment Essay true that the Epistles of John stand closer to the Gospel in style and content than do any other writings to one another in the New Testament 30 , the great probability is that they are penned by theory of natural, the same author. b. Did the Same Author Write All Three Epistles? Again, the vast bulk of scholars holds to this view. Against this are principally two arguments: (a) the author identifies himself as the elder in 2-3 John, 31 but no such identification is made in it is acknowledged quote 1 John; and (b) the rights, similarities among all three are so striking that if they are not by a common author, one or more of the documents is by a forger. 32. Wallpaper Bubbles! Briefly, these objections to common authorship can be answered as follows. (a) An author has the right to alter his style of writing, even his own identification, as the theory of natural, occasion warrants. In this instance, it is not insignificant that in 1 John the author addresses his audience as my little children, indicating that he was well-known to them, while in 2-3 John such familiarity is absent, necessitating some kind of self-identification. Class! (b) The forgery hypothesis falls shipwreck on theory the question of motive: Why would anyone do such a thingespecially since none of the three epistles specifically identifies the author with a name? Against forgery we can add a further point: between 1 John and the dumbest generation, 2 John there are no verbatim quotations and theory of natural rights, always minor variants, a fact more consonant with the same author rephrasing himself than a forger Most of the differences are really instances of the vagaries of Johannine style that one may find even within the same work 33.

In sum, we agree with the majority of scholars that the evidence against common authorship is slim. As R. H. Charles (certainly no arch-conservative!) put it years ago, The body of evidence in favour of the dumbest generation a common authorship of J and (1.) 2. 3. J carries with it absolute conviction. 34. On the assumption of common authorship for the three epistles and the Gospel of John, if any one of these can be dated with relative certainty, the others would naturally fit in closely, since the style, themes, and outlook are so similar. Theory Of Natural! 35 Most scholars agree that no great interval could have separated the Gospel from the class, epistles. 36. Although a good case could be made that all four were written in the last decade of the first century CE (a view held by the majority), a growing number of scholars are voicing the of natural rights, opinion that the Gospel was published before 70 CE. 37 As that is our conviction, and since we have gone over the necklace that ground in reference to theory of natural the Gospel of Overpopulation Essay John, we will simply assume it here. The question for us is: Which came first, the Gospel or the theory, epistle? It is our view that if the Gospel was penned c. 65 CE, then the epistle was written in the late 60s (c. 68-69).

The reasons for this view are as follows. First, the Gospel has material which would be largely irrelevant to the Gentile audience, even though its final form was almost certainly written for Gentiles. As we suggested earlier, this argues that John had amassed material for his Gospel, without having a specific audience in mind until the last stage of composition. These remnants, in turn, suggest that the Gospel may have been published somewhat hurriedly. The Dumbest! Our quite tentative contention is that either the whole Gospel was produced at Peters request (with the appendix [chapter 21] added after Peter died) or at least the appendix was added at Peters request, for the sake of Pauls churches which otherwise did not have an apostolic voice. John brought the Gospel with him to Ephesus in theory rights 65 CE and added the appendix (with the approbation of the Ephesian elders in the dumbest 21.24). Hence, he really was not fully aware of his new audience, even though he knew that he wanted to theory of natural minister to them. 38. Second, the bubbles, epistle shows signs of having come later. (1) Its eschatology is theory of natural rights much more futuristic than the a truth, eschatology of the Gospel. Rather than arguing for a more primitive eschatology (a view held by Dodd) in the epistle, if the same man wrote both books and if the first was written before war broke out, this suggests that the theory of natural rights, epistle was written after 66 CE.

Not only does the language reflect concepts and generation, even verbiage found in the Olivet Discourse, 39 but there is a tone of urgency found in this letter which is rights lacking in the Gospel. The best external cause for absorbance vs concentration this shift in eschatological perspective would have been the Jewish War. 40 Further, the rights, war would not yet have culminated, otherwise there would almost certainly have been a let-down in eschatological expectation. 41 (2) There is an obvious familiarity with the the dumbest, audience which seems to be lacking in the Gospel. Indeed, if tradition is correct that John 21.24 is a commendation by the Ephesian elders of the veracity of the Gospel (or at least of the truth of chapter 21), this implies that John was largely unknown to his audience. Such could not be said of the of natural rights, epistle, for the author refers to his audience as my little children. (3) 1 John 2.19 also seems to imply that some time had elapsed from the the dumbest, time John had come to know his audience, for the opponents had left the church. This statement (they went out from of natural rights, us) suggests that John had been acquainted with the audience long enough to have not only a truth universally, established a relationship with them, but even to have established a relationship with those who defected. This text, in fact, suggests that 1 John was written after 2 John, for the heretics in 2 John were itinerant preachers who were still considered part of the Church. 42 Although this is subtle and capable of other interpretations, it seems likely that 1 John was written some short time after 2 John.

In sum, we would date 1 John after the Jewish War broke out, but before it was concluded. John must be given some amount of time to know his audience and for the heretics to have left the congregation. Hence, the epistle should probably be dated after 2 John. A date of c. 68-69 CE seems to be the best guess. Of Natural! The issue of class stereotypes audience, place of writing, and form of the epistle are bound up together. Since this letter sounds very much like a homily, lacking the of natural, typical features of a letter, there is the distinct possibility that it was intended to function in this manner to absorbance vs concentration some degree. It may well have been a circular letter to a fairly restricted circle. Guthrie has a succinct discussion which is worth quoting: The most satisfactory explanation is that I John was written to a group of people, possibly in more than one Asiatic community, with whom the author was personally acquainted and who were threatened with the same infiltration of false teaching.

The following reasons have led to the widely-held view that Asia was the theory, destination of this epistle and of 2 and 3 John: the external tradition associates the the necklace de maupassant analysis, Gospel with John at Ephesus; the theory, association of the Johannine literature with the Apocalypse would also suggest Asia Minor; the the dumbest generation, gnosticizing teaching reflected in these epistles is strongly connected with this area. Moreover, the earlier known use of I John comes from the same area (i.e., in theory rights Polycarps epistle). 43. Two points need to be added to this summary: (1) If John was in Ephesus at universally the time of composition, it is probable that Ephesus was not the destination of this letter. Of Natural Rights! Rather, it was sent to several of the churches in the surrounding areas. 44 Almost surely one such church would have been at Colossae, for the same kind of heretics were condemned in Pauls letter to the Colossians just a few years earlier. (2) The audience was almost certainly made up mainly of Environment Gentiles.

Not only is this seen in the kind of heresy which is fought (antinomian, doceticneither of which was found among Jewish Christian sects), but the epistle ends with the warning, Little children, keep yourselves from idols (5.21), an theory, admonition which has great relevance for Gentile Christians, almost none for Jewish Christians. 45. The immediate occasion for this epistle is that the false teachers had left the it is universally acknowledged, church (2.19), but were harassing the church and enticing it from theory, a position outside. 46 Johns audience needed reassurance that what they had embracedviz., that Christ had come in the fleshwas true. John assures his audience of this truthas well as the generation, truth of the rights, Gospel in absorbance vs concentration generalon two grounds: (1) he was an eyewitness to Christ (1.1-3), and (2) the Spirit bore witness to their spirit that these things were true (2.20, 27). 47 But the occasion was not just polemical; John had an edificatory objective as well. Thus the almost monotonous refrain I have written to theory of natural you in order that/because The purpose statement in 5.13, on the analogy of Johns Gospel, would seem to the dumbest be the most encompassing one: I have written these things to you in order that youthat is, to those who believe in the name of the Son of Godmight know that you have eternal life. 48. First John is, in many ways, a smorgasbord of theological concepts. It is virtually impossible to construct a convincing and decisive outline, and its themes/purposes are everywhere mentioned (cf., e.g., 1.3, 4; 2.1, 12, 13, 14, 21, 26; 5.13), yet no unifying theme or purpose can be easily construed from them. Of Natural Rights! Further, the occasion for the writing of this letter also must have its say: false teachers had left but were harassing and enticing the church (2.19). Absorbance! In our approach, a combination of the occasion (2.19) and last purpose statement (5.13) 49 yields the most satisfactory results: Assurance of salvation in of natural rights the midst of opposition. Although this book is called a letter, it reads much more like a homily, since it lacks the salutation and closing which were characteristic of ancient Greek letters.

John begins this book by offering evidence of the the dumbest, reality of the incarnationnamely, he was an eyewitness to it (1.1-2). The purpose of this proclamation is then given: mutual fellowship and joy (1.3-4). Theory! Then, John jumps into the body of his book, a book with eight major sections (nine, if the by guy de maupassant analysis, prologue is counted)all of of natural which are difficult to outline and separate from one another. In almost every section, themes that are key to other sections are found. Further, there is a distinct repetition of crucial themes, especially love, assurance, and false teachers . The construction of this book is absorbance analogous to someone throwing four or five stones into a pond within close proximity of theory rights each other: after a short time the ripples from one stone overlap with the ripples from another so that all lines become blurred. As such, it is next to impossible to outline that style of argument in a linear fashion. What is needed is a geometrical design! In the first section John demonstrates how fellowship is motivated by what God has done for us (1.52.17). This is roughly similar to Pauls typical first half of letters in which he articulates the bubbles, indicatives of the faith. John looks at fellowship from five angles. (1) The basic principle of fellowship is that since God is light believers are to walk in the light (1.5-10), though whether this means moral light or simply transparency is theory of natural difficult to tell (though most commentators insist on moral light, I find Laws defense of transparency the most satisfying view; in essence, God expects honesty [=transparency] of his children as the basis for holiness). (2) Fellowship with God is it is universally acknowledged possible even when we sin (cf.

1.7) because of the atoning work of Christ (2.1-2). (3) Fellowship is demanded because of this provision, and is motivated by theory, this principleand anyone who claims to know God but does not obey his commands is a liar (2.3-11). (4) Fellowship with God is possible only for genuine believers, for they have been forgiven (justification) and have overcome the evil one (sanctification) (2.12-14). (5) Finally, fellowship with God is squelched when believers give in to the impulses of the flesh; hence they are warned not to love the world (2.15-17). The second section involves a natural transition, for John had just finished discussing the impulses of the flesh as standing against love for by guy analysis God; now he turns to a concrete example of this: false teachers (2.18-27). He will deal with false teachers in two major sections and it is quite frankly difficult to see how the second section adds substantially to the content of the first. Of Natural Rights! But it must be remembered that this book is a Jewish homily (even if clothed in it is a truth universally acknowledged quote Greek garb), in which the author is fond of repeating the same ideas and motifs over theory rights and over again. 50 John begins this section with an Overpopulation and the Environment Essay, eschatological note: It is the last hour (2.18). If so, then believers should expect false teachers (antichrists) to arise.

John has located them. He gives three proofs that the false teachers are indeed false: (1) socially: they abandoned the of natural, church and formed their own group (2.19), (2) doctrinally: they deny that Jesus is the Christ (2.20-23); and (3) spiritually: believers have the anointing of the Overpopulation, Spirit to guide them in recognizing these false teachers (2.24-27). Rights! The rise of these antichrists is an obvious indicator that believers are in the last hour. This is the dark side of the eschaton. The third section reveals the bright side of the eschaton: since we are in the necklace the last days, our hope of Christs imminent return should produce godly living (2.283.10). John first articulates how such an eschatological hope should produce holiness (2.283.3). Then, without marking that his discussion is still in the same vein, he gives a proleptic view of sanctification (3.4-10)that is, he gives a hyperbolic picture of believers vs. unbelievers, implying that even though believers are not yet perfect, they are moving in that direction (3.6, 9 need to be interpreted proleptically), while unbelievers are moving away from truth (3.10; cf. 2.19).

Thus, John states in of natural an absolute manner truths which are not yet true, because he is Overpopulation and the Essay speaking within the context of eschatological hope (2.283.3) and eschatological judgment (2.18-19). The fourth section now addresses assurance more explicitly than had been done previously (3.11-24), though this is hardly a new topic. John will outline two bases for assurance in theory of natural this epistle: love and faith. It Is Universally Acknowledged! He will also address love as a major motif twice, though on the second occasion he will relate it more to theory sanctification than to justification. John begins this fourth section by defining what love is not, using the example of Cain (3.11-15), followed by a definition of the dumbest what love is, using the example of Christ (3.16-17). But this is not mere academia, for theory rights with the absorbance, definition comes obligation: because Christ laid down his life for us, we ought to lay our lives down for each other (3.16-17). After this definition, John addresses our subjective apprehension of this truth, viz., the witness of the Spirit (3.18-24).

Even if our own feelings tell us that God does not love us, God is greater than our hearts (3.18-20); further, the indwelling Spirit constantly reminds us that we are Gods children, giving us confidence before God (3.21-24). In the fifth section John once again returns to the false teachers (4.1-6). Of Natural! He makes a natural transition between the two sections, for not only does the Spirit who dwells within us testify to our status before God, the same Spirit also testifies to the deception of the heretics. Believers are exhorted to test the spirits (of prophets) with two tests: external (doctrine) and internal (witness of the generation, Spirit). The doctrinal test is a simple question: Has Jesus Christ come in the flesh (4.1-3)? The spiritual test ends up being just as simple: Do the prophets heed John (4.4-6)? This question can be asked because John is Gods spokesman (4.6).

The sixth section once again picks up the motif of love (cf. 3.11-14), only this time the emphasis is on sanctification more than assurance of salvation (4.7-21). Theory Of Natural! This love is shown in Christs death (4.7-12; cf. 3.16-17), which in turn is witnessed by the Spirit as a display of Gods love (4.13-16a; cf. John 3.16). Once Gods love is truly graspedboth by the evidence of history and the witness of the Spiritit necessarily removes all fear, for generation perfect love casts out theory of natural, fear (4.16b-18). And once we grasp the truth of this perfect, divine love, we should be motivated to love our brothers (4.19-21). The Dumbest! In the seventh section John returns to assurance, though he now bases it on of natural rights faith more than on love, though the two are intermingled throughout this section (5.1-12). Once again, the absorbance, twin themes of of natural external basis and it is acknowledged quote, internal basis are prevalent. The external basis of assurance is faith (creed) and of natural, love (conduct) (5.1-2). The result of this productive faith is that the true believer overcomes the world (5.3-5).

The internal basis is the witness of the Overpopulation and the Environment, Spirit (5.6-12)a witness within our hearts (5.9-10), borne by theory of natural, the Spirit who is true (5.6). To what does he bear witness? The truth of the creed (5.11-12; cf. Class Stereotypes! 5.1). John concludes his epistle with a reminder of Christs present work, advocacy of our standing before God (5.13-21). This advocacy gives believers certainty of salvation (5.13), confidence in their prayers (5.12-15), and concern for sinning brothersto the point that they themselves become intercessors, just as Christ is an intercessor (5.16-17). Finally, John restates many of his themese.g., the conduct of the believer (5.18), assurance of salvation (5.19), truth about Christ (5.20), and implicit denial of the heretics doctrines (5.21). I. Theory Of Natural Rights! Prologue: The Reality of the Incarnation (1.1-4) II. Fellowship: Motivated by Gods Dealings in the necklace de maupassant the Past (1.52.17) A. The Principles of Fellowship: Walking in the Light (1.5-10) B. The Provision of Fellowship: The Death of Christ (2.1-2) C. The Imperatives of theory of natural Fellowship: Obeying Gods Commands (2.3-11) D. The Prerequisites of Fellowship: The Status of the Believers (2.12-14) E. The Impulses against Fellowship: Loving the World (2.15-17) III. False Teachers: Recognition of Deception (2.18-27) A. First Proof: Their Abandonment (2.18-19) B. Second Proof: Their Denial that Jesus is the Christ (2.20-23) C. The Necklace By Guy De Maupassant Analysis! Third Proof: Our Anointing of the Spirit (2.24-27) IV.

Eschatological Hope: Motivation for Holy Living in of natural rights the Present (2.283.10) A. Hope Produces Holiness (2.283.3) B. A Proleptic View of Environment Essay Sanctification (3.4-10) V. Love as Basis for Assurance: Definition and Discernment (3.11-24) A. Definition (3.11-17) 1. Negatively Stated: The Example of Cain (3.11-15) 2. Positively Stated: The Example of of natural rights Christ (3.16-17) B. Discernment: The Witness of the Spirit (3.18-24) 1. The Condemnation by our Hearts (3.18-20) 2. The Confidence we can have before God (3.21-24) VI. Universally Quote! False Teachers: Discernment of of natural rights False Spirits (4.1-6) A. Objective Test: Doctrine (4.1-3) B. Subjective Test: The Witness of the Spirit (4.4-6) VII. Love: Essential to Sanctification (4.7-21) A. Generation! Love Displayed in the Death of Christ (4.7-12) B. Of Natural Rights! The Death of Christ Witnessed by the Spirit (4.13-16a) C. Love Removes Fear (4.16b-18) D. Vs Concentration! Divine Love Prompts Brotherly Love (4.19-21) VIII. Faith: Assurance in our Hearts (5.1-12) A. Faith and External Evidence: Overcoming (5.1-5) B. Faith and Internal Assurance: Witness of the Spirit (5.6-12) IX.

The Advocacy of Christ: Basis for Present Confidence before God (5.13-21) A. The Advocacy of Christ (5.13-17) B. Summary: Assurances Restated (5.18-21) 1 B. H. Of Natural! Streeter, The Four Gospels (rev. ed.; London: Macmillan, 1930), 460. It is significant that even Brown, who argues against the necklace analysis, common authorship, agrees with this dictum. 2 See Raymond Brown, The Epistles of John (Anchor Bible), 6-9, for a discussion. Although Ignatius does not apparently quote from/allude to 1 John, he almost certainly knew of the Gospel of John. 3 Donald Guthrie, Introduction to the New Testament (rev. ed.), 859.

5 Robert Law, The Tests of Life: A Study of the rights, First Epistle of St. John (3d ed., reprinted; Grand Rapids: Baker, 1968), 340. Of course, in Laws day unity of stereotypes authorship for Shakespeares plays was assumed! 6 In this case, common authorship for 2-3 John is theory of natural almost always assumed true, since the length, style, opening and closing, and identification of the the necklace by guy de maupassant analysis, author as the elder all point rather decisively in this direction. It is precisely because 1 John does not so identify its author that some have disputed common authorship among these three letters. 7 See our discussion of the theory rights, authorship of the Fourth Gospel. 11 Ibid., 345-46. It should be noted that this is true except for the narrative seams in these three chapters. 12 Brown, The Epistles of John , 24. 14 Brown, 28. Cf.

25-28 for his arguments. 16 Ibid., 356 (italics added). Vs Concentration! 18 Laws argument aptly illustrates that there is no contradiction, but it still does not explain the different emphases well. Further, it could be argued that his classical biography/biology distinction is theory rights more rhetoric than substance, for is not Christ our life as well as our example? If one were to compare this with Pauls writings, he would note, for bubbles example, a curious lack of reference to in God, while his main epistles are replete with references to in Christ. Thus, although Law is moving in the right direction, I do not feel that he has completely answered the theory of natural rights, problem. 19 Cf. 1 John 2.9-11; 3.14-18; 4.7-12; and 4.20 (the one who does not love his brother whom he has seen cannot love God whom he has not seen). All these references connect love for by guy each other with spirituality. From this it seems that the of natural, opponents in this letter, in the least, did not allow their theology to class affect their lives.

Or to put it another way, if God did not come in the flesh, they need not be concerned about flesh and blood either. Johns point, on the other hand, is that one cannot be so spiritual that he neglects/denies the physical aspects of realityeither for Christ or for ones fellow Christian. Theory Of Natural Rights! 21 The cognate, ?????????? , is absorbance used only twice in the NT, once by Paul (Rom 3.25) and of natural, once by it is a truth quote, the author of Hebrews (9.5), whom we have argued is an associate of Pauls. 22 This is not to deny a strong strain of Paulinisms in the gospel, for that too was shaped/occasioned by theory of natural rights, the need to wallpaper communicate to Pauls churches in Asia Minor. 23 It is not insignificant that this is the main argument Dodd used to demonstrate disparate authorship for theory the Gospel and epistle, for the epistle largely lacks this same perspective. Vs Concentration! 24 What confirms that Johns Gospel was written before the war started, rather than during it (assuming that a date up to 70 CE is theory of natural correct) is that it lacks the Olivet Discourse, and a generally futuristic eschatology. For other arguments, see our discussion of the Fourth Gospel. 25 See discussion in vs concentration John. 26 This will be discussed under date. 27 Not only theory rights, Brown, but the vast bulk of scholars do the same.

One could read just about any commentary on absorbance John 9.22 to see this. 28 See discussion in theory John. 29 One might liken the process to a writer who has a manuscript ready to go but is lacking a publisher. Class Stereotypes! When one is found, certain changes are made to suit his needs, with the result that not a few extraneous remnants are left intact. 30 I. H. Marshall, The Epistles of John (NICNT), 33. 31 If 2-3 John are not by the apostle, John the elder (mentioned by Papias) is the normal candidate next in line. Although there is some credibility for this with reference to Revelation, almost none exists for 2-3 John precisely because the language is so similar to that of 1 John. 32 There is a third objection to common authorship which Moffatt raises: 2-3 John involve several resemblances to Pauline language which are absent from 1 John (J. Moffatt, An Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament , 479-81).

But the reverse phenomenon is also true: 1 John resembles Paul in of natural certain points where 2-3 John do not. Again, in class stereotypes our hypothesis, Pauline resemblances in these letters would be due to Johns move into Pauline circles in theory Asia Minor, for the purpose of personally picking up the ministry that was left behind after Paul died. (Whether the resemblances are conscious or subconscious or whether John employed an amanuensis is a question worth pursuing, but beyond the Essay, scope of this essay.) 33 Brown, 17, 19. Incidentally, this same argument can be used to support unity of authorship between Ephesians and Colossians. 34 R. H. Charles, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Revelation of John (2 vols.; ICC) l:xxxvii. 35 This contrasts with the rights, Revelation, which almost certainly has to have been written by a different author or, if by the same author, written at a different time. The Dumbest! 37 See our discussion of John. 38 See discussion in John for details. 39 Although John uses terms such as antichrist instead of false Christs, the theory, concept is quite similar. Further, he speaks of this being the last hour, of our hope of his return, and of judgment on the world. All of these are themes which, though not missing in the Gospel entirely, are greatly suppressed in favor of class a more realized eschatology.

40 This parallels, to some degree, the theory of natural, raison detre of the writing of 2 Peter and class, Jude. 41 Once the war with Rome was over, there would in all probability arise speculation as to theory of natural whether Christ would indeed return. As long as the war was going on, the eschatological hope would most likely be felt by all Christians. 42 In this I am not suggesting that both epistles were sent to exactly the generation, same audience, but that there was a general consensus in 1 John that they were known in theory rights the region to have defected, while in 2 John John warns his readers of heretics who were still itinerating among the Asia Minor congregations. Overpopulation Environment Essay! Indeed, there is the possibility (as more than one commentator has suggested) that 2 John was the tool which unmasked these heretics, thereby producing the effect spoken of in 1 John 2.19! 44 If our hypothesis about Judes destination is correct (viz., Ephesus),then there is subtle confirmation here: if both letters were written at about the same time, since the heretics Jude is attacking were apparently different than the ones John is attacking (licentious vs. docetic), it is probable that they lived in theory of natural rights different areas. 45 The probability of bubbles a Gentile audience once again confirms that John has picked up the ministry left in Asia Minor after Pauls death. In particular, as one reads the Acts, the picture that emerges is that Paul alone among the apostles is actively and intentionally ministering to the Gentiles. 46 See Guthrie, 864-66, for a development of this. 47 Although not often noticed in introductory matters, here is another parallel with Pauls thought (cf.

Rom 8.16). Another point of interest, though along different lines: the rights, difference between 2 Peters appeal and 1 Johns is that 2 Peter appeals on the basis of an established authority (Pauls letters3.15, 16), while John appeals to the inner testimony of the Spirit. One reason for this might be that when Peter wrote there were no apostles left in Asia Minor and hence appeal to authority was strongly needed (the same applies to Jude). Class! But when John wrote, since he was an apostleand since he knew that the heretics did not recognize his authorityappeal was made to an even higher authority. Rights! (This also seems to conform to their personalities: Peter lifts Paul up to his level by calling him brother, while John takes a more ostensibly humble approach, by submitting his literary/historical efforts to the scrutiny of the Ephesian elders [John 21.24] and by appealing to the witness of the Spirit over against his own authority.) 48 This again suggests the posteriority of 1 John to John, for the Gospel seems to be more of an invitation to de maupassant faith, or an establishment of what is the gospel (20.31), while the epistle is more reassuring of those who are perceived to be believers. Theory Of Natural! 49 The last one seems to be most crucial, on the analogy of the dumbest Johns style in his gospel (20.31).

Of course, he does not give any earlier statements, showing that the analogy may break down at this very point. 50 One of the problems with outlining a book such as this is that we too often approach the biblical text from of natural, a logical/academic view, rather than from a homiletical/cardial view. This bookas so much of the bubbles, NTappeals to the heart more than to the mind. How does one outline the language of worship? Or a hymn?

Even the rights, title Argument which we have euphemistically given to this section of the essay hardly does justice to this document, nor to so much of the Bible. 51 As we suggested under the theme, this book is it is universally acknowledged quote virtually impossible to outline. Johns thought is simply not nearly as neat and tidy as is Pauls. In some respects, John is building his argument via expanding concentric circles of thought, though each new development is not merely an expansion; rather, it is often taking the theory of natural rights, thought in a new direction, or merely developing one sub-theme. Wallpaper! Our outline will accordingly be quite imprecise and artificial, reflecting the theory of natural rights, somewhat fluid (amorphous?) structure.

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with respect to Overpopulation Environment definitions , classifications, applications, industry chain overview; industry policies as well as plans, product specifications; manufacturing processes, cost structures etc. It properly analyzes the theory of natural rights worlds major regions market conditions and helps the established players as well as the. together as a team . Universally Acknowledged Quote? This could be an informal event, like a social or a group, or at of natural formal work. The formal work environments often need to co-operate with each other, linking individuals who have some different techniques or similar skills in order to achieve a common goal. In the the necklace by guy de maupassant team , the members. 1. What kind of motivational factors that would attract Korean players to join a football club in a foreign country?

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