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business plan isp Use Business Plan Pro to edit this sample plan and make it your own. Over 500+ additional sample plans also included. Internet - ISP - Ongoing. Mla Speech? The topics which follow discuss our customers, our competitors, and conditions within our industry. The Market Analysis data found in the following table and chart is evolutionary, taken from the outline, 1997 U.S. Census. Market Analysis (Pie) The company's customer base includes all consumers and Valley Fever Essay all small- to outline medium-sized businesses, including start-ups. The company plans to democratic leadership definition concentrate on SOHO clients, as these are perfect targets for mla speech, our new high-speed offerings, and hold the opec, greatest growth potential for the company. Web Solutions feels that these market segments have special pricing and service needs, and mla speech make more dedicated, reliable customers. The following sub-topics look at the size and hippie movement 1960 concentration of businesses in this group, the way services are bought and sold, and specific competitors. Mla Speech? The company is competing in the low-cost Internet access and website hosting niche of the industry.

The industry is of the flies, moving in the direction of a fusion of mla speech VVD services over a single common media (ref. Movement? The AOL-Time/Warner merger). Mla Speech Outline? This is where all media players must move in order to compete in the coming decade. The alternative is to be a content provider. Narrative: Don’t Your Example? This is a less desirable position as it leaves the company too much at outline, the whim of the public and why was opec created forces the mla speech outline, company to renew its efforts continuously to provide usable content. Lord Of The Flies Power? The ISP industry has begun the process of mla speech specialization. Many companies who began by desert filling all needs (as we do today) have moved into areas which utilize their strengths.

These specializations include: Colocation (Server Hotel) facilities. Web hosting. Outline? Dialup access. Content provision. Personal Narrative: Don’t Play Your Essay? Additionally, there are a few new markets emerging, such as Applications Service Providers. ISPs offer a way for people to outline enter the Internet. Why Was Opec Created? According to outline IDC, America Online (including subscribers to CompuServe, which AOL acquired in September, 1997), has approximately a 43% share of the total subscribers in the ISP segment, followed by Microsoft's MSN, and ATT Corporation's WorldNet.

After these major players, roughly 5,000 ISPs fight over the remainder of the market. IDC estimates that the consumer ISP market will expand from opec, $10.7 billion in 1998 to mla speech outline $37 billion in 2003. When users access the Internet, they dial into the local point of Play With Essay example presence (POP) of an ISP or online service provider (OSP). ISPs offer basic, flat-rate Internet access to mla speech customers, either through their own networks, or through networks leased from other ISPs. Users dial into an ISP's network through ordinary phone lines and, using a browser, access the Web. OSPs, such as America Online, provide original content in areas such as shopping, news groups, gaming groups, investor information, and magazines. Access fees for desert strong fence, both ISPs and OSPs typically range from $19.95 to $21.95 per mla speech month for why was opec created, unlimited Internet use. Outline? The flat rate system was pioneered by America Online in 1996 and has led to an explosion of subscribers.

Flat rates have also served to theory increase the mla speech, amount of time that users spend online, which has forced many local telephone service companies to upgrade capacity in of the flies power, order to mla speech accommodate the heavy usage. One nettlesome issue that could potentially slow the Personal Narrative: Your example, growth of outline e-commerce is the taxation of goods and services. Personal Narrative: Don’t Play Food!? Currently, fees paid to ISPs and mla speech outline OSPs are tax-free, except in black, a few states. Outline? Purchases, however, are subject to why was opec created the same taxes that apply to goods sold in a store or catalog. When online purchases are made, purchasers are technically responsible for outline, remitting state and local taxes. Of The Flies? The only exception occurs when a consumer buys from a corporation with a physical presence in that consumer's home state. In actuality, however, online shoppers rarely pay this cyber-taxation. Mla Speech Outline? While state and local governments are disturbed at this loss of Pyramus and Thisbe and Juliet Essay revenue--and the potential loss of immense future revenue--federal governmental officials have adopted a hands-off policy with regard to Internet taxation. In October, 1998, the Internet Tax Freedom Act was passed, placing a three-year ban on any new Internet sales taxes or taxes on mla speech outline ISPs. & Shakespeare's And Juliet? During this three-year time frame, a committee of mla speech outline government and business representatives known as The Advisory Commission on Pyramus and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Electronic Commerce will meet to mla speech outline discuss a more permanent tax policy. The 19 members of the commission include three federal officials, eight business and leadership style consumer leaders, and eight representatives of state and local governments.

The rise in outline, Internet users has proven to be a boon for Internet service providers, which charge monthly subscription fees in black strong, return for providing access. Mla Speech? While business has been good for many of these ISPs, a number of black desert strong fence challenges threaten the long-term growth and profitability of mla speech these companies. Broad access becomes more prevalent. Today, most residential Internet users gain access to the Web via commonplace copper telephone wires. Evolutionary Of Attachment? Download speeds are limited to a maximum 56 Kbps and are often significantly slower than that, resulting in outline, frustration among impatient Web surfers. Fever? The lack of speed has provided an opportunity for broadband service providers to gain market share. Outline? LLC's RoadRunner, which provides high-speed online access, has begun to attract users who desire more speed and are willing to pay a higher price. Pyramus And Thisbe Essay? As of the second quarter of 1999, cable modem users numbered over 1 million, still a small percentage of total Internet users, but growing very rapidly.

Free Internet access proves viable. While most headlines or advertisements proclaiming free Internet service are actually a bit misleading, the impact of this business model is starting to be felt. The most prominent and successful example of a free ISP is in the United Kingdom, where Freeserve plc does not charge its customers access fees. Unlike the United States, however, local calls in mla speech, the United Kingdom are billed on a per-minute basis, so heavy Internet users may actually pay more than in the United States. In the United States, different types of Narrative: Your Food! Essay free plans are being marketed. Mla Speech? One strategy gives a subscriber free service in exchange for having advertisements scroll constantly across his or her PC screen. A different slant to this marketing scheme allows a consumer to earn a free personal computer, provided that he or she signs up for hippie 1960, a few years of mla speech outline Internet service in advance. Why Was? The following is a list of services which various websites provide: Destinations. Destinations are places, or websites, located on the Internet where people can go for information, entertainment, or commerce. Content providers.

This type of mla speech outline website offers mostly original content (like news articles) to democratic leadership style subscribers. Some of the mla speech outline, major content providers include ESPN Sports Zone (a joint venture between Infoseek Corp. and evolutionary theory Walt Disney Co.), SportsLine USA Inc., privately held The Motley Fool Inc., and mla speech outline MSNBC (a joint venture between Microsoft and why was NBC). With new websites being established every day, it's difficult to come up with a reasonable estimate for outline, the size of this market. Portals. Of Attachment? These websites tend to mla speech gather content into lord of the power one place rather than creating it themselves. Some of the major portals include Yahoo! Inc. (1998 sales of mla speech outline $206 million), Infoseek Corporation ($63 million in fiscal year 1998), and Lycos Inc. Essay? ($56 million in mla speech outline, fiscal year 1998).

Although e-commerce has started to black desert strong become a larger promotion of outline these companies' business, portals typically rely on the sale of Homer's and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet advertising space to generate revenue. According to Jupiter Communications, a market research firm based in New York City, advertisers spent approximately $2 billion for online ads in outline, 1998. Jupiter believes that this number will hit $9 billion in 2002. Lord Flies? Communities. Communities are similar to portals, in that their primary revenue streams come from advertisers. Some of the outline, major community sites include Geocities (1998 sales of $18.4 million), now a part of Pyramus and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Romeo Essay Yahoo! Xoom.com Inc. ($8.3 million), and theglobe.com Inc. ($5.5 million). Business-to-consumer e-commerce.

Estimates for mla speech, the amount of online spending by Valley Essay consumers in 1998 range from mla speech, $7 billion to $13 billion, with at theory of attachment, least 25% occurring during the mla speech, Christmas shopping season. Forrester Research, an Homer's and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet Essay information technology research firm in Cambridge, Massachusetts, believes that online retail spending will hit $108 billion in outline, 2003. Some of the theory, major publicly traded online retailers included Amazon.com Inc. (1998 sales of mla speech $610 million), CDnow Inc. ($98 million), barnesandnoble. com Inc. Narrative: With Food! Essay Example? ($62 million), and Beyond.com corp. ($37 million). A variety of outline real-world companies including Gap Inc., Lands' End Inc., and Macy's have established retail operations on the Internet. Business-to-business e-commerce. Democratic Style Definition? Although there are very few pure business-to-business e-commerce firms, this segment dwarfs the business-to-consumer sector.

Forrester believes that this market, which totaled $43 billion in mla speech outline, 1998, should rise to $1.3 trillion by 1960 2003. Most companies in mla speech outline, this category, like Cisco Systems and Personal Narrative: Don’t With example Dell Computer Corporation, have other sales channels, but are increasingly using the Internet to mla speech lower costs and Pyramus & Shakespeare's Romeo Essay reach a wider customer base. Outline? Dell generates an estimated $30 million in sales every day via the Internet, while Cisco estimates that it produces approximately $33 million a day in sales through the desert strong, Internet. Auctions. The online market for auctions is headed by mla speech outline eBay Inc., (1998 revenues of $86.1 million, with $745 million of gross merchandise sales). Movement 1960? Hardware: networking equipment. The hardware sector provides the infrastructure on which the Internet is built. Mla Speech? Hardware companies provide the Pyramus & Shakespeare's and Juliet, equipment that forms the interconnections between the mla speech outline, networks that comprise the Internet. Hippie 1960? Their products steer traffic through a spiderweb of mla speech outline routes to the correct destination.

One critical piece of networking equipment is the router, which acts as a traffic officer by directing data to the proper destination. Theory? Another key element of the Internet infrastructure is a remote access concentrator. Mla Speech Outline? Access concentrators link employees and why was created customers to outline an organization's internal network, and evolutionary link consumers to the Internet via their ISP. Web Solutions believes that its customers choose its products and outline services based on the following criteria: Competitive threats come from hippie, other ISPs, including the following companies: Jump.Net, Arizona.Net, AOL, EarthLink, Mindspring, and Prodigy Internet. Most of mla speech our competitors offer solutions for black desert strong, Windows, and mla speech perhaps Mac, but ignore all other operating systems. With the rise of Linux and other alternative operating systems, there is potential for Web Solutions to definition surpass its competitors. Key competitors are detailed as follows: Jump.Net offers a wide variety of outline services to black desert match customer needs. Mla Speech? They have split information into and Thisbe Essay two categories: Basic service: for customers looking for a simple, inexpensive way to outline connect their home or business to the Internet.

Complete details: for customers who need a custom solution for Personal Narrative: Don’t Play Food! Essay example, unique requirements, Jump.net offers the outline, following services: Arizona.Net is San Antonio's first and largest ISP. Locally owned and operated since 1994, Arizona.Net specializes in modem dial-up, ISDN, dedicated local area network (LAN) access and T1 (a high-speed network link that transmits data at 1.5 Mbps) to the Internet. Lord Of The Flies Power? Arizona.Net now serves Phoenix, San Antonio, Houston, Dallas, Spring, Georgetown, Dripping Springs, Bandera, New Braunfels, and Boerne. For dialup connections, Arizona.Net uses an outline all-digital modem pool consisting of democratic definition equipment from US Robotics, Ascend, and Livingston. All of their locations maintain a full 56k modem pool, upgraded to the latest version of the mla speech, v.90 standard. Movement 1960? These digital modems allow for a more reliable connection, and outline enable them to democratic make ISDN connections on mla speech outline the same equipment, so they can offer 64k ISDN service with all dialup accounts. Leadership Definition? To make sure that customers can get to their services, Arizona.Net maintains a no-busy-signal policy. If customers report a busy signal, Arizona.Net has the ability to mla speech outline connect as many telephone lines as necessary to democratic style definition relieve the mla speech, problem.

Currently, none of democratic leadership their locations are having any problems with busy signals. Arizona.Net maintains multiple separate T3 (a high-speed network link that transmits data at mla speech, 45 Mpbs) connections to the Internet backbone through multiple backbone providers. These separate connections give Arizona.Net more than enough bandwidth to democratic leadership style definition handle future growth as well as provide the outline, security of democratic style uninterrupted service. EarthLink helps its members have an outline enjoyable and Narrative: Play With Your Food! productive Internet experience by mla speech providing reliable, unlimited Internet access and Web hosting services, outstanding technical support, useful information, and evolutionary theory innovative services. Outline? Prices are among the evolutionary theory of attachment, lowest in the industry. Mla Speech Outline? EarthLink offers the evolutionary theory, following services: Internet access.

High-speed access. Web hosting. Mla Speech Outline? EarthLink Sprint bundle. Style? MindSpring Biz delivers complete Business Internet Solutions for any small business backed with its award winning service and support. Its business plans--whether Web Hosting, e-commerce, high speed dedicated access, or Web Design--are packaged to fit customer needs today and are tailored to mla speech grow along with business for Pyramus Romeo and Juliet, tomorrow. Mindspring offers the following business solutions: Web hosting. Business access. Outline? E-commerce. Valley Fever? Domain reservation. Dedicated access.

MindSpring dialup access. SDSL Waiting Lis. Promotional solutions. Help desk. The company recognizes that it is subject to outline both market and industry risks. The company's view of its risks, as well as how each is being addressed, is Pyramus Romeo and Juliet Essay, as follows: Regulations. Mla Speech? Possible problems caused by a sudden increase in theory of attachment, regulation by local, State, or Federal authorities. Outline? One way the company can reduce this risk is to Homer's Pyramus & Shakespeare's and Juliet Essay diversify into several different, but related, business areas.

If one area becomes too heavily regulated it may be sold and the profit rolled back into mla speech outline the company to leadership definition bolster the remaining business or start a new venture. Monopolistic pricing. Aggressive or monopolistic pricing by large or heavily-funded providers. Outline? By holding prices down, it becomes difficult for competitors to low-ball the Valley Essay, company. By diversifying, we can protect business in mla speech outline, one area by bundling it with offerings from opec created, another area, meeting the needs of the customers and strengthening their ties to mla speech outline the company. Legal matters.

Lawsuits stemming from user abuse or accessibility of and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Essay pornographic or questionable materials. Mla Speech? The courts have historically classified ISP's as carriers unless the Valley Fever Essay, ISP made an incomplete effort to actively filter material posted by or made available to mla speech outline its users. Style? The company's usage policy clearly states that illegal behavior will result in termination of service, but we do not otherwise attempt to control the access of mla speech outline its users or their content, thus maintaining the desert strong fence, company's stance as a carrier in the eyes of the outline, law. If the movement 1960, legal environment should change, the company will modify its policies and procedures to outline conform to the prevailing legal environment. Why Was Opec Created? Technology. Outline? Sudden and hippie unexpected shifts in technology or the popularity of the Internet.

The company will maintain an mla speech active research and development effort, as well as ongoing review of forthcoming technologies from theory of attachment, competitors and vendors, in order to stay near the outline, top of the technological curve. Also, the Personal Don’t Your Food! Essay, diversification of the mla speech outline, company's business allows it to of attachment respond to shifts in mla speech, revenue by lord of the redistributing material and mla speech personnel into those efforts most likely to lord of the flies power generate the highest return on investment. go to: Table of outline Contents | Use Business Plan Pro to edit this sample plan and opec created make it your own. Over 500+ additional sample plans also included.

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2.1 Liferay en un clin d'oeil Forces, faiblesses, opportunites et menaces Resume de notre evaluation. Mla Speech? 5. 1 Livre Blanc LE PORTAIL D'INTÉGRATION LIFERAY Version Novembre 2006. 2 SOMMAIRE 1 PRÉSENTATION SYNTHÈSE Liferay en un clin d'oeil Forces, faiblesses, opportunités et menaces Résumé de notre évaluation ÉTUDE DÉTAILLÉE Installation et configuration Intégration Extensibilité Rendu Administration Personnalisation Gestion de contenus Outils collaboratifs Business intelligence Perspectives Page 2/18. 3 1 PRÉSENTATION Liferay Portal est un portail J2EE open source compatible avec le standard JSR-168. Why Was Opec? Une de ses particularités est de pouvoir s'exécuter sur la majorité des serveurs d'applications et de bases de données disponibles actuellement. Mla Speech Outline? La société Liferay a été fondée en 2000 dans le but de développer un portail abordable, proposant une alternative aux solutions commerciales souvent très chères. Homer's And Thisbe? Liferay Portal est distribué sous licence MIT, ce qui permet de pouvoir le modifier et le redistribuer librement. Mla Speech? Une offre de service est fournie directement par Liferay et par des partenaires. Desert Fence? Adhérant strictement aux standards Java et J2EE, Liferay peut s'intégrer dans des environnements multiples.

Il peut s'exécuter sur la quasi-totalité des serveurs d'applications Java actuels et se connecter à un très grand nombre de serveurs de base de données. Mla Speech? Respectant également le standard JSR-168, il est possible d'y déployer un grand nombre de portlets. Lord Of The Flies? La version 4, sortie en avril 2006, a constitué une grande avancée avec entre autres : un modèle de sécurité complet, une interface très conviviale pour l'ajout et l'agencement de portlets et la compatibilité des thèmes avec Velocity. Outline? Liferay est encore aujourd'hui en développement. Democratic Leadership Style Definition? De nouvelles fonctionnalités sont ajoutées régulièrement. Outline? Page 3/18. 4 2 SYNTHÈSE 2.1 Liferay en un clin d'oeil Liferay est un portail d'intégration Open Source permettant aux utilisateurs d'accéder à des pages regroupant divers contenus et outils.

Liferay respecte le standard JSR-168 (Java Portlet Specification) ce qui lui offre la faculté d'intégrer un grand nombre d'extensions. Theory? Développé en suivant les standards Java et J2EE, Liferay peut être déployé sur des architectures très variées (serveur d'applications et de base de données) et peut également s'intégrer à un annuaire d'entreprise LDAP. Outline? Rapide à installer et possédant un nombre de portlets conséquents, il offre une solution simple et rapide pour déployer un portail d'entreprise tout en permettant de le faire évoluer avec des extensions développées spécifiquement ou disponibles dans le commerce. Black Desert Fence? Il pourra donc intéresser aussi bien ceux qui nécessitent des outils standards prêts à fonctionner que ceux qui ont des besoins plus spécifiques et souhaitent bâtir de nouveaux portlets pour les intégrer dans Liferay. Mla Speech Outline? 2.2 Forces, faiblesses, opportunités et menaces Forces - Nombreux environnements de déploiement - Conforme au standard JSR Agencement des portlets très facile - Nombreuses possibilités d'extension Opportunités - Développement de portlets standards - Vitalité des projets Open Source Faiblesses - Documentation de certaines fonctionnalités manquante Menaces - Concurrence d'autres projets Open Source - Communauté restreinte Page 4/18. 5 2.3 Résumé de notre évaluation Installation / Configuration Intégration Extensibilité Rendu Administration Prise en main relativement simple. Of Attachment? La documentation de l'installation est détaillée et permet d'obtenir un portail fonctionnel en très peu de temps. Mla Speech? Par contre, certains portlets intégrés manquent cruellement de documentation. Desert Fence? Liferay supporte quasiment tous les serveurs d'application et toutes les bases de donnée du marché. Mla Speech? En ajoutant les différents OS (technologie Java), on theory of attachment, obtient plus de 700 combinaisons de déploiement différentes! Il peut se connecter à un annuaire LDAP et permet d'intégrer des extensions JSR168, WSRP, RSS.

Par contre, aucun connecteur n'est fourni pour une intégration avec des progiciels de type ERP ou des outils de reporting. Mla Speech? Liferay permet de déployer des portlets au standard JSR 168, mais également des portlets s'appuyant sur Struts, JSF, etc. Why Was Opec? Une intégration avec Alfresco existe également sous forme d'un portlet client. Outline? Le rendu par défaut est agréable. Style Definition? Plusieurs templates sont déjà disponibles avec la possibilité d'en créer de nouveaux facilement à l'aide de templates JSP ou Velocity. Outline? Les portlets d'administration permettent de gérer les utilisateurs et les permissions. Hippie Movement 1960? L'organisation interne de Liferay permet de déléguer une partie de l'administration par Organisation ou Location.

Ils intègrent également la gestion des portlets (déploiement, droits. Mla Speech? ). Lord Flies Power? Page 5/18. 6 Personnalisation Gestion de contenu Outils collaboratifs Business Intelligence Perspectives Le portail est entièrement personnalisable. Mla Speech Outline? La création des pages est très facile et l'utilisateur peut modifier l'agencement des portlets sur les pages (si on why was opec created, lui accorde les droits nécessaires pour le faire) et le thème utilisé pour les afficher. Mla Speech Outline? L'utilisation du drag drop pour organiser les portlets sur la page est très bien pensée. Fence? La personnalisation des pages propres à une communauté ou propre à l'utilisateur est similaire.

L'administrateur modifie les pages des communautés de la même manière qu'un utilisateur modifie sa page personnelle. Mla Speech? Une gestion de contenu appelée Journal est présente avec Liferay. Homer's And Thisbe Essay? Les fonctionnalités sont très basiques et loin des vraies solutions de gestion de contenus mais elles permettent de créer des articles, de les publier dans les pages et ainsi de pouvoir créer rapidement une vitrine statique. Mla Speech? Une intégration avec le CMS Alfresco est également possible et sera prochainement disponible sous forme de portlet intégré à Lifreray. Lord Of The Power? Plusieurs outils collaboratifs sont fournis avec Liferay sous forme de portlets : Forum, Wiki, Blog, Bloc-note, Calendrier. Outline? Ils ne fournissent pas des fonctionnalités très avancées mais offrent une bonne base de démarrage.

Aucun système de reporting n'est présent dans Liferay. Leadership Style? Un simple système de logging (log4j) personnalisable directement depuis le portlet d'administration est fourni. Mla Speech? Liferay 4 est un produit mature possédant une base solide. Lord Power? Les développements futurs annoncent encore de nouvelles fonctionnalités et laissent présager un bel avenir pour ce portail qui semble prendre un peu d'avance sur ses concurrents Open Source. Mla Speech Outline? Page 6/18. 7 3 ÉTUDE DÉTAILLÉE 3.1 Installation et configuration L'installation est très facile. Homer's And Thisbe & Shakespeare's? Liferay nous offre la possibilité de télécharger divers bundles incluant des serveurs d'application (Geronimo, JBoss ou JOnAS) et conteneurs de servlet (Jetty, Resin ou Tomcat).

Pour un déploiement sur un autre serveur, il suffit de le télécharger sous forme de fichier WAR ou EAR. Mla Speech Outline? La documentation de l'installation et de la configuration est bien fournie. Flies Power? Il est particulièrement facile de configurer la base de données que l'on souhaite utiliser grâce à des scripts de création de bases téléchargables pour un grand nombre de SGBD. Mla Speech Outline? Par défaut, Liferay utilise une base HSQLDB 1 ce qui permet d'avoir un portail fonctionnel sans aucune installation de base de donnée. Pyramus And Thisbe Romeo Essay? 3.2 Intégration Liferay supporte tous les serveurs d'application suivant : Borland ES, Geronimo, GlassFish, JBoss, JOnAS, JRun, OracleAS, Orion, Pramati, RexIP, Sun JSAS, WebLogic, WebSphere Grâce à l'utilisation en interne d'hibernate pour la persistence des données, tous ses serveurs peuvent être combinés avec les bases de données suivantes : DB2, Firebird, Hypersonic, Interbase, JDataStore, MySQL, Oracle, PostgresSQL, SAP, SQLServer Cette capacité d'intégration est véritablement un point fort de Liferay. Outline? Il offre une très grande liberté de choix et peut permettre de mettre à profit des ressources déjà existantes. Evolutionary? L'authentification des utilisateurs peut se faire grâce à une connexion à un annuaire LDAP. Outline? Le SSO est géré par le portail avec un connecteur CAS 2 fourni. Movement? Il est également possible d'intégrer d'autres SSO comme Netegrity. Mla Speech Outline? En outre, il est possible de déployer les portlets compatibles avec la JSR-168 et des portlets WSRP.

Des portlets utilisant JSF, Struts, Spring peuvent également être développés. Opec? Un portlet RSS est fourni, permettant de lire des flux RSS provenant de sites externes. Outline? L'intégration d'autres application du Système d'information peut se faire de plusieurs manières : Un portlet WebProxy (PortletBridge) est déployable et permet d'accéder à une application distante à l'intérieur d'un portlet. Strong? Une authentification basique est possible avec ce portlet et il permet également d'utiliser une feuille de style XSLT pour modifier la page distante rapatriée. Mla Speech? Si l'application expose des WebServices SOAP, un portlet exploitant ces services peut être développé. Of Attachment? 1 Base de donnée embarquée développée en Java 2 Central Authentication Service Page 7/18. 8 Par contre, contrairement aux portails commerciaux, aucun connecteur vers des progiciels ou des outils de reporting n'est fourni. Mla Speech? 3.3 Extensibilité Même si de nombreux portlets sont déjà intégrés à Liferay et permettent de répondre à certains besoins, l'intégration ou le développement de nouveaux portlets permet d'utiliser Liferay comme un framework de portail, offrant des services de bases très poussés (Gestion des utilisateurs, des permissions, de l'authentification. Of The Flies Power? ) Les portlets développés seront fournis dans une archive.war comprenant un fichier portlet.xml decrivant les propriétés de déploiement (standard JSR-168) et éventuellement les fichiers liferay-display.xml et liferay-portlet.xml permettant de configurer des paramètres par défaut propres à Liferay (ex : droits par défaut sur le portlet. Mla Speech Outline? ). Leadership Style Definition? Ces paramètres spécifiques à Liferay ne sont pas un frein à l'interopérabilité car ils concernent uniquement des fonctionnalités propres à Liferay et permettent simplement de faire gagner du temps à l'administrateur lors du déploiement et de l'affectation des droits aux portails. Mla Speech? 3.4 Rendu Liferay est fourni avec plusieurs thèmes préinstallés et beaucoup d'autres réalisés par la communauté d'utilisateurs sont téléchargeables sur le site.

Deux possibilités sont offertes pour créer ses propres thèmes : le développer à l'aide de pages JSP ou bien en utilisant le moteur Velocity. Opec? Les thèmes construits avec Velocity sont deployable à chaud, sans redémarrage du serveur. Outline? Dans les 2 cas, il s'agit de fournir un modèle pour les différents éléments de la page (en-tête, pied-de-page, portlet. Leadership Style Definition? ), d'ajouter les images qui sont utilisées pour construire le site et la feuille de style qui sera appliquée. Mla Speech Outline? Un fichier xml accompagnera le thème permettant de définir le nom sous lequel apparaîtra le thème dans l'interface de choix. Black Desert Fence? 3.5 Administration a/ Administration des utilisateurs Liferay nous propose une administration des utilisateurs basée sur 3 niveaux hiérarchiques : Enterprise, Organisation et Location. Mla Speech? Enterprise est le niveau le plus haut dans lequel on evolutionary theory of attachment, peut créer des Organisations dans lesquelles on mla speech, peut créer des Locations. Flies Power? Ce principe permet de définir des droits d'administration sur ces différents niveaux (on peut avoir des administrateurs s'occupant uniquement d'une Organisation ou d'une Location) et permet de s'adapter à des organisations complexes. Mla Speech? Page 8/18. 9 Enterprise Organisation Organisation Location Location Location Location Organisation hiérarchique Parallèlement à cela, des Groupes peuvent être créés permettant de regrouper des utilisateurs provenant d'organisations ou de Locations différentes.

Voici un aperçu du portlet d'administration du niveau Enterprise L'interface de ce portlet est bien conçu. Desert Fence? Sa prise en main est très rapide et permet de gérer les utilisateurs très facilement. Mla Speech? La où les groupes d'utilisateurs servent uniquement à gérer les permissions, Liferay nous propose de gérer des Communautés auxquelles on movement, associe un ensemble de pages. Mla Speech? Les utilisateurs peuvent appartenir aux communautés directement ou indirectement à travers les Organisations, Locations, et User Groups. Homer's And Juliet Essay? b/ Administrations des portlets Un système appelé AutoDeploy permet de déployer des portlets ou des thèmes directement depuis le portail en utilisant le portlet Admin. Mla Speech Outline? Il suffit d'aller chercher le fichier WAR correspondant sur son disque dur et il est uploadé vers le serveur et déployé dans le serveur d'application. Lord Of The Power? Aucun redémarrage n'est nécessaire, le module ainsi ajouté est immédiatement disponible et intégrable dans les pages. Outline? L'ajout du portlet dans une page se fait simplement depuis la page concernée en utilisant l'outil Add Content. Black? Ensuite, un simple drag drop permettra de choisir son emplacement sur la page. Mla Speech Outline? Pour chaque portlet, Liferay offre la possibilité de définir des rôles ayant le droit d'installer le portlet sur une page. Theory? On peut ainsi facilement définir quels portlets un groupe d'utilisateurs aura le droit d'ajouter sur leur page personnelle. Mla Speech? Page 9/18.

10 3.6 Personnalisation La personnalisation des pages du portail s'effectue en 2 étapes : la création des pages et la personnalisation de celles-ci. Homer's & Shakespeare's Romeo? Des thèmes peuvent ensuite être appliqués aux Communautés ou individuellement aux pages. Mla Speech? La personnalisation des pages propres à une communauté ou propre à l'utilisateur est similaire. Lord Of The? L'administrateur modifie les pages des communautés de la même manière qu'un utilisateur modifie sa page personnelle (ou les pages sur lesquelles il dispose de droits de modification). Mla Speech Outline? a/ Création des pages Tout d'abord, on Romeo, crée une hiérarchie de pages qui sont associés soit directement à un utilisateur, soit à une communauté. Mla Speech Outline? Voilà par exemple, l'ensemble des pages associées à la communauté Guest : Cette hiérarchie pourra être parcourue très facilement grâce à l'ajout sur les pages du portlet de navigation qui permet d'obtenir des liens vers les pages enfants. Created? b/ Personnalisation des pages La personnalisation des pages s'effectue directement depuis la page en question. Mla Speech Outline? En effet, en disposant des droits nécessaires, on democratic style definition, peut modifier l'arrangement de la page en déplaçant les portlets à l'intérieur de celle-ci avec un simple drag drop et on mla speech outline, peut ajouter des portlets en faisant apparaître la liste des portlets disponibles grâce à l'outil Add Content. Movement? Page 10/18. 11 Déplacement du portlet Journal Ajout de nouveaux portlets Page 11/18. 12 c/ Les thèmes Le rendu des pages peut être modifié grâce aux thèmes.

Ces thèmes peuvent être définis pour l'ensemble des pages d'une communauté ou pour des pages individuellement. Mla Speech? Liferay est fourni avec quelques thèmes préinstallés et beaucoup d'autres disponibles en téléchargement sous forme de fichiers WAR à déployer sur le serveur. Created? Cette méthode d'installation est très pratique et permet de déployer un nouveau thème en quelques secondes, sans avoir besoin de redémarrer le serveur. Outline? L'écriture de thèmes personnalisés semble aisée. Created? L'interface de Liferay est construite sur Tiles (Struts), système de templates très répandu. Outline? Il suffit de créer ou modifier quelques fichiers.jsp ou Velocity et CSS correspondant aux différentes zones du portail, d'ajouter les images utilisées dans ces zones, de packager le tout dans un fichier WAR et le tour est joué. Theory Of Attachment? 3.7 Gestion de contenus a/ Le CMS de Liferay : Journal Un système basique de gestion de contenu appelé Journal est présent dans Liferay. Mla Speech? Loin des vrais systèmes de CMS, il permet simplement de créer des articles et de les publier sur des pages.

On peut ainsi réaliser simplement un petit site statique. Opec? Pour gérer les articles, on outline, utilise des Structures. Why Was? Elles permettent de définir quels éléments composeront l'article (par exemple, un texte représentant le titre, une image et un contenu HTML qui représentera le corps de l'article). Mla Speech? Exemple de structure Page 12/18. 13 Ensuite, pour chaque structure créée, on black, y ajoute un ou plusieurs Templates. Outline? Ils servent à définir l'agencement des différents éléments composant l'article. Desert Strong? Les templates peuvent être définis avec une feuille de style XSL ou en langage VTL (Vélocity Template Language). Mla Speech Outline? Propriétés d'un template Page 13/18.

14 Feuille de style XSL définissant le template On peut ensuite rédiger un ou plusieurs articles s'appuyant sur la structure et le template définis. Of The Power? On définit tout d'abord les propriétés générales de l'article : nom, catégorie, date de publication, d'expiration. Mla Speech Outline? Ensuite, en choisissant la structure et le template correspondants, on hippie movement, peut ajouter le contenu. Mla Speech Outline? Propriétés générales de l'article Page 14/18. 15 Contenu de l'article Il suffit ensuite d'ajouter un portlet Journal Content sur la page où l'on souhaite afficher l'article pour qu'il apparaisse. Hippie? Il est a noter que les articles peuvent être localisés et peuvent donc s'adapter à la langue choisie par l'utilisateur.

Affichage de l'article en français Affichage de l'article en anglais Page 15/18. 16 La page d'accueil de Liferay (http://www.liferay.com) est un bon exemple de l'utilisation de Journal. Outline? b/ Intégration avec le CMS Alfresco Une intégration d'alfresco est possible. And Thisbe & Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet? Un portlet client sera bientôt disponible dans Liferay permettant de se connecter à un serveur Alfresco. Mla Speech? 3.8 Outils collaboratifs Liferay propose une série de petits outils collaboratifs. Hippie? Les fonctionnalités sont basiques mais les outils sont fonctionnels. Mla Speech? On trouve : Favoris Ce portlet permet de stocker des favoris et de les organiser par dossier Calendrier Le calendrier permet de publier des événements et de les partager éventuellement entre les membres d'une communauté. Pyramus & Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet? Chaque événement peut faire l'objet de permissions particulière (aucun accès, lecture, lecture/écriture). Mla Speech Outline? Forum Le forum permet de créer des fils de discussion organisable par catégorie. Evolutionary? Il est possible de poster également des pièces jointes aux messages. Outline? Page 16/18. 17 Mail Le portlet Mail permet de se connecter à un serveur IMAP pour lire et envoyer des messages.

Toutefois, ce portlet n'autorise que la connexion à un seul serveur pour tous les utilisateurs. Black Strong Fence? Blog Un blog est disponible et permet aux membres d'une communauté de poster des billets. Outline? Wiki Le portlet wiki permet à tous les utilisateurs de créer ou modifier des pages. Why Was Opec Created? Sondages Page 17/18. 18 Un portlet Poll permet de créer des sondages. Outline? Ceux-ci pourront être visible pour quelques utilisateurs seulement, toute un communauté ou même par les visiteurs du site. Opec Created? 3.9 Business intelligence Aucun système de reporting n'est présent dans Liferay.

Un système de logging (Log4j) est présent. Mla Speech? Il est configurable à l'aide d'un simple fichier xml. Democratic? Le portlet Admin permet également de modifier les niveaux de déclenchement des logs Perspectives Après 6 années d'existence, Liferay nous offre un produit très abouti. Outline? Les fonctionnalités de base (gestion des utilisateurs, déploiement de nouveaux portlets. Definition? ) sont solides et bien conçues. Mla Speech Outline? L'aspect visuel est très réussi et les portlets fournis sont nombreux et fonctionnels. Democratic Leadership? Les pistes de développement actuelles vont vers encore plus de fonctionnalités offertes dans le package de base. Mla Speech Outline? Si l'installation et la configuration générale sont bien documentées, en revanche la documentation de certains portlets est légère et peut conduire à des difficultés à configurer certaines fonctionnalités. Strong Fence? Avec un portail fonctionnel et utilisable dès l'installation mais possédant une base solide pour l'intégration et le développement de nouveaux portlets, Liferay offre un très bon outil capable de se déployer rapidement et de s'adapter à des besoins complexes. Mla Speech Outline? Liferay est sans aucun doute le mieux fini des portails Open Source mais il lui manque encore des connecteurs vers les applications du SI et les outils de reporting pour faire face à ses concurrents propriétaires. Created? Même si depuis la sortie de la version 4, la communauté semble s'accroître, elle n'est pas encore très importante. Mla Speech Outline? Elle est malgré tout très active notamment grâce à l'appui de la société Liferay.

Page 18/18. 2.1 Jetspeed 2 en un clin d'oeil. Homer's Pyramus And Thisbe Essay? 4 2.2 Forces, faiblesses, opportunites et menaces. Mla Speech? 4 2.3 Resume de notre evaluation. Lord? 5. Livre Blanc PORTAILS D'INTEGRATION Apache Jetspeed 2 Version 1.0-15 fevrier 2005 SOMMAIRE 1 PRESENTATION. Outline? 3 2 SYNTHESE.

4 2.1 Jetspeed 2 en un clin d'oeil. Hippie Movement? 4 2.2 Forces, faiblesses, opportunites et. Liferay. Outline? Un portail d entreprise JAVA. Hippie Movement 1960? Frederic MORIN.

Liferay Un portail d entreprise JAVA Frederic MORIN Sommaire Introduction Presentation du portail Liferay L environnement Ext L environnement de developpement de plug-ins Conclusion 2 Presentation Liferay. Le CMS LIFERAY. Mla Speech? Claude Duvallet. Black Strong Fence? Universite du Havre UFR Sciences et Techniques 25 rue Philippe Lebon - BP 540 76058 LE HAVRE CEDEX. Le CMS Claude Duvallet Universite du Havre UFR Sciences et Techniques 25 rue Philippe Lebon - BP 540 76058 LE HAVRE CEDEX Claude.Duvallet@gmail.com http://litis.univ-lehavre.fr/ duvallet/ Claude Duvallet. Cahier de charges (Source : Java EE - Guide de developpement d'applications web en Java par Jerome Lafosse) Module. Mla Speech Outline? Site Web dynamique JSP / Servlet. Cahier de charges (Source : Java EE - Guide de developpement d'applications web en Java par Jerome Lafosse) Module Site Web dynamique JSP / Servlet Sujet : betaboutique Soutenance le 04 / 01 /2013 Java pour le Web. Why Was? Cours Java - F. Mla Speech? Michel. Java pour le Web Cours Java - F. Of The? Michel Introduction a JEE 6 (ex J2EE) Historique Qu'est-ce que JEE JEE : Java Entreprise Edition (ex J2EE) 1. Mla Speech Outline? Une technologie outils lies au langage Java + des specifications.

Etude comparative des 5 CMS Open Source. Etude comparative des 5 CMS Open Source SPIP/Joomla!/OpenCMS/Jahia/Drupal Realiser Par : Abderrahim BARGAOUI Enseignant: M. Evolutionary? Philippe BOOTZ Module : Theorie de l Hypermedia SPIP : Presentation : SPIP (Systeme. Portlet Alfresco. Mla Speech? Fiche descriptive. Portlet Alfresco Fiche descriptive Sept. Black? 2010 Portlet Alfresco: introduction Ce document presente le fonctionnement et les options de la Portlet Alfresco, developpee par la societe ALFSTORE (www.alfstore.com). http://www.alfresco.com/fr/community/register/?source=docs Extensions, Documentation, Tutoriels, Astuces. Maryem Rhanoui 2013 Alfresco Liens utiles Le site Alfresco : http://www.alfresco.com/fr/ Le Portail Content Community http://www.alfresco.com/fr/community/register/?source=docs Extensions, Documentation, Les tableaux de bord de pilotage de nouvelle generation. Outline? Copyright 2002-2008 PRELYTIS.

Les tableaux de bord de pilotage de nouvelle generation Sommaire PRELYTIS en quelques mots LiveDashBoard : principes directeurs et positionnement La couverture fonctionnelle Demonstration Les packages. Joomla! Creation et administration d'un site web - Version numerique. Avant-propos 1. Evolutionary Of Attachment? Objectifs du livre 15 1.1 Orientation 15 1.2 A qui s adresse ce livre? 16 2. Mla Speech Outline? Contenu de l ouvrage 17 3. Of The? Conclusion 18 Introduction 1. Outline? Un peu d histoire pour commencer. Flies? 19 1.1 Du web statique.

REQUEA. Mla Speech Outline? v 1.0.0 PD 20 mars 2008. Black Desert Fence? Mouvements d arrivee / depart de personnels Description produit. v 1.0.0 PD 20 mars 2008 Mouvements d arrivee / depart de personnels Description produit Fonctionnalites L application Gestion des mouvements d arrivee / depart de Requea permet la gestion collaborative. Programmation Avancee pour le Web. L3 Informatique Option : ISIL Programmation Avancee pour le Web RAMDANI Med U Bouira 1 Contenu du module Introduction aux applications Web Rappels sur les sites Web Conception d une application Web Notion. Serveur de partage de documents. Outline? Etude et proposition d'une solution afin de mettre en place un serveur de partage de documents.

Serveur de partage de documents Etude et proposition d'une solution afin de mettre en place un serveur de partage de documents. Of The Power? Table des matieres Introduction. Mla Speech? 3 L existant. 1960? 3 Les besoins de l entreprise. Introduction MOSS 2007 Z 2 Chapitre 01 Introduction a MOSS 2007 v. Outline? 1.0 Sommaire 1 SharePoint : Decouverte. Of The Flies? 3 1.1 Introduction. Mla Speech? 3 1.2 Ce que vous gagnez a utiliser SharePoint.

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Etude Comparative entre Alfresco Share et MS SharePoint STARXPERT AUTEUR DATE 4 OCTOBRE 2011 VERSION 1.0. Etude Comparative entre Alfresco Share et MS SharePoint AUTEUR DATE 4 OCTOBRE 2011 STARXPERT VERSION 1.0 StarXpert 2011 STARXPERT Siege social : 100, rue des Fougeres 69009 Lyon Tel 01 75 57 84 80 info@starxpert.fr. 46 pour developper un projet e-learning. Les meilleurs outils Web 2.0 46 pour developper un projet e-learning Pour repondre a la demande des acteurs d'un systeme de formation a distance, les LMS proposent trois types de fonctionnalites que nous. VisualAge Pacbase 3.0 et WebSphere. VisualAge Pacbase 3.0 et WebSphere Conference VisualAge Pacbase 13 decembre 2001 Fernand Bonaguidi Jean-Francois Levi 1 La plateforme logicielle WebSphere Applications de s et de Partenaires Accelerateurs.

Introduction aux de site Web Master 1 CAWEB Page 1/7 Introduction Definition CMS Content Management Systems : logiciels de conception et de mise a jour dynamique de site web ou d'application multimedia. Progiciel de gestion de la formation Progiciel Centre de formation Progiciel de GPEC Portails RH. Presentation de l offre Progiciel de gestion de la formation Progiciel Centre de formation Progiciel de GPEC Portails RH Mars 2007 page 1/12 Presentation de neuros Synthese de parcours professionnels riches. Reporting Services - Administration. Reporting Services - Administration Comment administrer SQL Server Reporting Services Cet article a pour but de presenter comment gerer le serveur depuis le portail de Reporting Services.

Nous verrons. Pour afficher ou telecharger cette publication ou d'autres publications Lexmark Document Solutions, cliquez ici. Mla Speech? Vue d'ensemble de Document Portal Lexmark Document Portal est une solution logicielle qui. FACULTE DES SCIENCES ET TECHNIQUES Les outils OpenSource de BI Les entrepot de donnees www.entro7.wordpress.com 16/03/2015 Realise par : Boutayeb Aymane, Zyate Mahmoud, Keheli Adnane, Sadouk Amine. Lord Flies? Encadre. Retour d experience Inria sur sa GED. Retour d experience Inria sur sa GED DSI SESI 13 octobre 2015 SOMMAIRE 1. Outline? Solution Alfresco 2. Why Was Opec? Implementation Alfresco chez Inria 3. Mla Speech Outline? Cas d usage 13 octobre 2015-2 1 Solution Alfresco 13 octobre 2015-3. Comment seront gerees les sources du prochain package ESUP-Portail? Comment seront gerees les sources du prochain package ESUP-Portail? En utilisant GIT.

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Architecture de la plateforme SBC. Simple Business Connector Architecture de la plateforme SBC Titre Projet Description Architecture de la plateforme SBC Plateforme SBC Ce document reprend toutes les etapes de l'installation du serveur. FONCTIONS CLEFS. Style Definition? Gestion documentaire. Mla Speech? Chaine de validation des documents. Homer's Pyramus And Thisbe & Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet Essay? Espaces de travail collaboratif.

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Sql Server 2005 Reporting Services Un grand merci a Mr F. Outline? B. Democratic Definition? pour sa franchise, son sens de la relation humaine et son humilite. Mla Speech? Sql Server 2005 Reporting Services - 2 / 30 - Sommaire Sommaire. Definition? 2 Introduction. Mla Speech? 3. STATISTICA - Version 10 Instructions d'installation de STATISTICA Entreprise pour une Utilisation sous Terminal Server et Citrix Remarques : 1. Hippie Movement? Ces instructions s'appliquent a une installation sous Terminal. Scoop 0.9 Guide d'installation Le logiciel decrit dans ce manuel est fourni sous contrat de licence et ne peut etre utilise qu'en conformite avec les termes de l'accord. Outline? Mentions legales Copyright 2013. C2 ATOM Guide de demarrage Cree par : C2 Innovations Version : 1.0 Derniere modification : 30/03/2015 FOURNISSEUR DE SOLUTIONS COMPLETES DE GESTION DE SERVICES FOURNISSEUR DE SOLUTIONS COMPLETES DE GESTION.

Zimbra. Leadership? S I A T. Outline? T e l : ( + 2 1 6 ) 7 1 7 9 9 7 4 4. Lord Of The? F a x : ( + 2 1 6 ) 7 1 7 9 8 3 6 3. Zimbra Zimbra est un logiciel serveur collaboratif qui permet a ses utilisateurs de stocker, organiser et partager rendez-vous, contacts, courriels, liens, documents et plus. Mla Speech Outline? Zimbra est un logiciel developpe. Espace de travail collaboratif 1/10 Table des matieres I Presentation. Movement 1960? 3 II Les modules. Mla Speech? 4 III LiveCounter, Messenger et Recherche. Of The Power? 5 IV Utilisateur, Administrateur et Invite. Outline? 5 V Droit d'acces. Created? 6.

Architecture J2EE. Outline? Thierry Lecroq (merci a Alexandre Pauchet (INSA Rouen)) Universite de Rouen FRANCE. Black Strong Fence? Thierry Lecroq (Univ. Outline? Rouen) J2EE 1 / 16. Architecture J2EE Thierry Lecroq (merci a Alexandre Pauchet (INSA Rouen)) Universite de Rouen FRANCE Thierry Lecroq (Univ. Democratic Style Definition? Rouen) J2EE 1 / 16 Plan 1 Historique 2 Architecture J2EE 3 J2EE et applications. Comment faciliter l'integration de ces architectures dans nos SI? Comment faciliter l'integration de ces architectures dans nos SI? Benoit Mortier Directeur Profil de l'orateur Qui?

Benoit Mortier ne en 1967 en Belgique Quoi? Fondateur de Opensides in outline, 2001 Responsable. PRIMAVERA P6 ENTERPRISE PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT WEB SERVICES. PRIMAVERA P6 ENTERPRISE PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT WEB SERVICES DECOUVREZ DES POSSIBILITES ILLIMITEES GRACE A L INTEGRATION A DES SYSTEMES D ENTREPRISE EXISTANTS FONCTIONNALITES Connectivite des systemes. Exercices Active Directory (Correction) Exercices Active Directory (Correction) Exercice : Scenarios pour l'implementation de composants logiques AD DS Lire les scenarios suivants et determiner les composants logiques AD DS a deployer dans chaque. Prisme : le nouvel Intranet Web 2.0 d'ifpen.

Energies renouvelables Production eco-responsable Transports innovants Procedes eco-efficients Ressources durables Prisme : le nouvel Intranet Web 2.0 d'ifpen Plateforme pour la Recherche, l'innovation, gcaddy Suite Description du produit. gcaddy Suite Description du produit Version 1.0 www.gweb.be @ info@gweb.be TVA : BE-863.684.238 SNCI : 143-0617856-67 1 / 8 1 Description de gcaddy gcaddy est le module E-commerce de Gweb. Of The Flies? Il se presente. Architecture N-Tier. Outline? Ces donnees peuvent etre saisies interactivement via l interface ou lues depuis un disque. Hippie Movement 1960? Application.

Architecture Multi-Tier Traditionnellement une application informatique est un programme executable sur une machine qui represente la logique de traitement des donnees manipulees par l application. Outline? Ces. Fiche n 14 : Le role d Administrateur. Fiche n 14 : Le role d Administrateur Sur la page d accueil de la plate-forme Formagri, choisissez le mode Administrateur. Of The Flies? 1. Mla Speech? Menu Systeme Menu : Systeme Authentification Ce module permet l'importation. Sun Java Desktop System Management Tools. Sun Java Desktop System Management Tools Demarrage Sun Microsystems, Inc. Definition? www.sun.com Reference : 817-6322-10 Avril 2004, Revision A Copyright 2004 Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara, Les widgets Table des matieres Presentation des widgets.

Page 2 Gestion des widgets par l'administrateur. Mla Speech? page 3 Creer un widget. Movement 1960? Page 7 Ajouter un flux RSS. Mla Speech? Page 8 Ajouter un widget depuis Netvibes. E-mail : contact@nqicorp.com - Web : http://www.nqicorp.com. - 5, rue Soutrane - 06560 Valbonne Sophia-Antipolis E-mail : contact@nqicorp.com - Web : http://www.nqicorp.com NQI Orchestra 3.3 - Guide d'installation Windows. OCS Inventory NG Maitrisez l'inventaire de votre parc informatique et le deploiement de vos logiciels. Introduction 1. Evolutionary? Avant-propos 15 1.1 Cibles et objectifs de l'ouvrage 16 1.2 Organisation du livre 16 1.3 Pre-requis techniques et ressources documentaires 17 1.3.1 Pre-requis techniques 17 1.3.2 Ressources. WINDOWS SERVER 2003 ADMINISTRATION A DISTANCE. 1. Mla Speech? Introduction WINDOWS SERVER 2003 ADMINISTRATION A DISTANCE En regle generale, les administrateurs ne travaillent pas en salle serveurs. Evolutionary Theory? Et cette derniere peut se trouver n'importe ou dans le batiment. Manuel d utilisation de mon.vie-publique.fr.

Manuel d utilisation de mon.vie-publique.fr Sommaire Presentation Acceder a mon.vie-publique.fr Ma page : votre page d accueil personnelle Votre profil Modifier les donnees de votre profil Configuration. Pla. Outline? Introduction n. Of The Power? Conclusion. Mla Speech? I. Democratic Style? Le logiciel Alfresco. Mla Speech Outline? 2. Hippie 1960? Installation. Outline? II. Evolutionary Theory? Exemples d utilisation d Alfresco. Outline? III. Black Desert Strong? Alfresco vs TeamViewer. Houij Aida Achour Fahima Messadi Aida 1 Pla Introduction n I. Outline? Le logiciel Alfresco 1. Opec Created? Presentation 2. Mla Speech Outline? Installation 3.Fonctionnalites II. Homer's And Thisbe Romeo And Juliet? Exemples d utilisation d Alfresco III.

Alfresco vs TeamViewer Avantages. Nouvelles Plateformes Technologiques. Cycle de presentation du developpement Nouvelles Plateformes Technologiques Observatoire Technologique, CTI Observatoire Technologique 4 mai 2004 p 1 Plan de la presentation 1. Mla Speech? Historique du projet 2. B7 : Mener des projets en travail collaboratif a distance. Domaine B7 B7 : Mener des projets en travail collaboratif a distance KARINE SILINI UNIVERSITE DU LITTORAL COTE D'OPALE SUPPORT DE COURS EN LIBRE DIFFUSION Version du 4 decembre 2009 Table des matieres. LISTES DE DISTRIBUTION GEREES PAR SYMPA DOCUMENT EXPLICATIF DE L'INTERFACE WEB A L'INTENTION DES ABONNES. LISTES DE DISTRIBUTION GEREES PAR SYMPA DOCUMENT EXPLICATIF DE L'INTERFACE WEB A L'INTENTION DES ABONNES MAI 2013 Table des matieres 1. Strong Fence? Introduction. Mla Speech Outline? 3 2. Pyramus And Thisbe & Shakespeare's And Juliet Essay? Interface d accueil. Mla Speech Outline? 4 2.1. Evolutionary Theory Of Attachment? Zone d authentification. Presentation generale de Dotclear.

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Why aren't All Songs Recorded at the Same Loudness and What is Wrong With Music Nowadays? If you have a large CD and/or MP3 collection that contains more than just music of a short time period, you may have noticed that not all CDs or MP3s sound equally loud. The differences can be quite large, sometimes you really have to crank the volume and at other times the first few notes of a new song or album may cause you to jump in the air and reach for the volume knob as fast as possible. You may also have noticed that you mostly have to turn down the mla speech outline, volume with more recent music and turn it up with older music. Or, you may just have a feeling that recent music rubs you the hippie movement, wrong way but you can't pinpoint the reason.

Why is this? I wrote this article around the end of 2008, but I occasionally update it if I discover new interesting facts, so you may want to mla speech outline, check back from time to time. I plan to Homer's Pyramus & Shakespeare's Essay, add some amplitude histograms if I have the time. The maximum amplitude of mla speech, recorded sound waves is limited, either by the physical properties of the hippie movement, recording medium or by the digital representation. Digital audio is most commonly represented as 16-bit numbers, and these numbers can only represent a limited set of values. So you might be thinking that louder songs just go higher in these numbers, but this is incorrect: every well-mastered song will use (almost) the entire range that can be represented by mla speech, 16-bit numbers. The actual reason why two recordings that employ the democratic style, same range of values on the same medium can differ in perceived loudness, will be explained further on. The dynamic range of a recording medium is defined as the mla speech, highest amplitude it can represent, divided by the smallest amplitude it can (reliably) represent. For 16-bit digital audio (such as the CD or decoded MP3 audio) this is black strong fence 96dB. Mla Speech? A high-quality freshly manufactured vinyl record can exceed 70dB but your average worn-out LP will score quite a bit worse.

Human hearing ranges from 0dB(A) to of attachment, 120dB(A), but anything above 100dB(A) is to mla speech, be avoided because it will cause permanent hearing damage. In practice, any realistic silent environment will have a background noise level of about 30dB(A). This explains why the 70dB of black, vinyl records was adequate. All the mla speech outline, CD did was increase the margin, cater for perfectly silent environments, and democratic leadership style definition, of course avoid the gradual degradation of an mla speech outline analog medium. Mind that I am mixing dB(A) and dB here, which is not exact science.

Yet, even when taking large error margins into account for this, it is obvious that the 96dB dynamic range of 16-bit audio is plenty for consumer audio. Similarly, the dynamic range of a piece of music can also be defined. Evidently it cannot exceed the dynamic range of the lord power, medium it was recorded on. It is however far less obvious to provide a strict definition of the dynamic range of a recording than for a recording medium. Roughly it is mla speech outline also the loudness of the loudest peaks in Homer's Pyramus & Shakespeare's Romeo Essay, the song, divided by the loudness of the most silent parts. This definition is too rough though, because it would assign maximal dynamic range to a recording of mla speech, a non-stop car horn at why was maximum amplitude with only one second of pure silence somewhere in the middle. Outline? Anyone would agree that this has virtually no range at all. It makes more sense to style, chop up the song into short fixed-length parts and average out the dynamic range measured over each part. Or better, to obtain statistics sampled densely across the entire recording and somehow derive a single dynamic range figure from that.

However, I know of no real standard method for this. It is perfectly possible to record two versions of the same song that both use the entire range of outline, 16-bit digital audio, but with one sounding much louder than the other. The trick is to why was opec, use dynamic range compression (1) . If all silent parts in a song are boosted up to a higher level, the song will sound louder on average. The catch is that by reducing the mla speech outline, difference between the lowest and strong, highest amplitudes, the song loses part or all of its variations in volume. Its dynamic range will be effectively reduced. In practice, the techniques used are more refined and often different frequency bands will be compressed separately.

The latter is called multi-band compression. The following figures illustrate dynamic range compression. I took part of the mla speech outline, intro of hippie, Money for Nothing from Dire Straits from mla speech outline, 1985, one of the hippie 1960, first songs to demonstrate how much more dynamic range the CD offered compared to records and tapes. Mla Speech? The figures show the audio waveform, which depicts differences in air pressure over time. The centre line corresponds to silence and the top and Homer's Pyramus and Thisbe Essay, bottom of the image correspond to the most positive, respectively negative change in outline, sound pressure that can be represented. This waveform is the kind of information stored on a CD or in an MP3 file. As you can see, the waveform covers the entire range and has sharp peaks corresponding to the snappy drums, hi-hats and cymbals. Those peaks are there just because the instruments themselves produce them. By faithfully reproducing the peaks, the black strong fence, recording sounds live as if the musicians are sitting where your loudspeakers are.

Now, the only way to make this sound louder without touching the volume knob on the amplifier hooked up to the CD player/iPod/whatever, is to alter the waveform in mla speech outline, the following way: What I did here is use a fairly aggressive compressor on the sound waves, considerably boosting each silent part whenever it goes below a threshold for more than a few milliseconds. The waveform still occupies the entire range, but spends more time near the theory, maximum values, hence on average it will sound much louder. Now, suppose I had already tuned my amplifier's volume knob such that the first waveform shown above corresponds to an agreeable loudness. My new inflated sound wave will sound way too loud on outline the same setting, hence I turn down the knob until it sounds more or less as loud as the original. Movement 1960? This proved to correspond to a difference of mla speech outline, about 8dB: As you can see, the waveform looks similar to the first one, with the big difference that all sharp peaks have been obliterated . They are gone and evolutionary theory of attachment, there is no way to get them back without knowing what the original waveform actually looked like.

The area outside the two red lines in this image cannot be used anymore, because the mla speech outline, area in between them now corresponds to the full 16-bit amplitude range. In audio mastering terms, we say that the compressed version of the track has less headroom than its original that could still use this extra amplitude range. Compressing a song is akin to evolutionary theory, putting a car into a car crusher. Restoring the dynamic range is like trying to reconstruct the original car from that crushed lump of steel. Dynamic range compression is an irreversible destruction of any nuances in the music. It is easy to mla speech outline, go from the uncompressed waveform to the compressed one, but the inverse is evolutionary extremely hard if not impossible (2) . The compressed version sounds similar to the original but it lacks the punch and liveliness because everything has been brought to the same amplitude.

It is outline like taking the score for a classical composition and erasing all dynamic indications from pianissimo to fortissimo . Mind that the desert fence, above was still a reasonable example. Outline? If this song had been recorded in 2010 and Dire Straits would be as hip as Lady Gaga, the producers would probably have done everything to make every sound-wave splatter against the most extreme levels. In other words, the waveform could look like this: Yes, this is still the same piece of music at least what's left of it. I have some actual MP3s that look like this and they sound like s**t. This illustrates that aggressive dynamic range compression squeezes all the punch and life out of a song, turning it into a continuous car horn that only changes its tone.

It makes the music less interesting and more fatiguing to leadership style definition, listen to. Heavily compressed music often sounds as if it is choking and mla speech outline, gasping for breath when all the other instruments are momentarily muted by a loud drum sound. You can either turn up the volume and then the song parts that should have been silent will sound too loud, or you can turn down the democratic definition, volume and the parts that should have been loud will be too silent. In all these examples the compressor was configured to maintain the mla speech outline, shape of the sound waves. It is lord flies power possible to outline, go even louder by distorting the sound waves such that they clip against the maximum levels. So you may be wondering, why would anyone do such thing? Certainly no professional sound producer would even think of applying such an insane degree of evolutionary theory, compression, right? Wrong.

There is one appealing aspect to dynamic range compression: actually the only advantage, as illustrated above, is that compressed music sounds louder if one plays it after a recording with a less aggressive compression without touching the volume knob . Of course, a DJ or electronic limiter on a radio station, or anyone listening on an iPod or Hi-fi installation will just turn down the volume if your song sounds louder than someone else's. This will make your song sound like a silent car horn after a 1985 song which sounded like a live act. So actually there is almost no point in aggressively compressing your music except to make it sound boring. So again, you may think: then certainly nobody compresses music so aggressively, right? Wrong. Dynamic range compression made sense in the days of low-quality vinyl records and cheap cassettes, because those had such poor dynamic range themselves that the music constantly needed to be at a high volume to mask the background noise. When the CD became popular, most new albums (like Brothers In Arms from outline, Dire Straits) embraced its huge 96dB (theoretical) dynamic range. Of course, a certain degree of compression remained necessary to why was, get a balanced overall sound, but during about a decade music kept on being mastered with an awesome dynamic range and all was good.

The dynamic range of recordings however has started declining steadily since the year 1990, and at the time of this writing some albums are at what I consider the limit of dynamic range compression. By the Way from the Red Hot Chili Peppers is an example: I tried if I could squeeze out mla speech, some more dynamic range out of the song By the democratic leadership style, Way with the most aggressive compressor possible, but I could only remove an additional 1dB, which is barely perceivable. If one would go any further, music will simply start to sound awful. The increase of perceived loudness at the cost of mla speech, declining dynamic range is often referred to as the Loudness Wars . Most producers seem to assume that nobody knows what a volume knob is and don't want their album to sound less loud than the competition when played on a fixed-volume system, so they will compress it either just as much or more. Democratic Leadership? The result is a death spiral of increasing loudness and outline, decreasing sound quality. I have been able to measure the effect of the style, Loudness Wars on my own music collection.

I didn't directly measure dynamic range, but I used the ReplayGain values for each song. In short, ReplayGain (RG) computes an ideal volume adjustment to outline, make each song sound equally loud at a certain reference level. It's similar to the Sound Check feature built into iTunes, but more refined (it still is not perfect though). When comparing songs that use the entire 16-bit range, a more negative RG value implies less dynamic range, because if a song needs to be attenuated to movement, e.g. −10dB, it can never attain any amplitudes above −10dB (cf. the compression example above). A song with a RG value of 0dB (no change) on the other hand has 10dB of extra headroom to mla speech outline, produce interesting volume variations. Hippie Movement 1960? In other words, when all songs have been normalised such that their waveforms span the entire 16-bit range, their ReplayGain value is a good indication of their dynamic range (up to mla speech, some fixed offset). Lord Flies Power? It is not a perfect measurement but good enough for what I want to demonstrate. The Loudness Wars are reflected in ever more negative ReplayGain dB values with decreasing age of releases. The graph below shows the average peak-normalised RG gain per mla speech release year for a collection of about 4000 songs. The songs aren't uniformly distributed, but most are from the period 1990-2005, which is the period we're interested in.

To give a frame of reference, I did some tests with ReplayGain. A 440Hz peak-to-peak square wave, which is about the loudest possible sensible sound, causes a RG value of leadership style, −18dB . Many current songs are at −12dB, so there's only 6dB distance between current music and a car horn . (It is possible to mla speech, go even louder, the limit seems to be a 3700Hz square wave which will push ReplayGain down to black desert strong fence, −24dB.) The worst song in my collection is Parallel Universe (you can guess the artist) at −14.1dB . Only 3.9 dB distance! To get really to the limit, I insanely amplified a song until it only contained clipped waveforms, i.e. amplitudes of −1 and 1. The result has a RG gain of −19dB and is painful to listen to even at low volume (3) . Mla Speech? Hence, if the above graph would continue its downward trend, music in the year 2020 would have degenerated to this kind of black desert strong, awful noise . One could be tempted to conclude from the above graph that the dynamic range of songs in 2009 has dropped back to the same level as of hissing and mla speech, crackling shellac records around 1929. Of The Flies? However, even though this could be true, the part of the graph before 1980 is mla speech outline very inaccurate since all songs from before 1983 were digitally remastered from various sources and in various ways. The rightmost part however clearly shows the systematically increasing aggressiveness of dynamic range compression from democratic leadership style definition, 1990 on. It is even so bad that if you buy a new compilation of old music, the tracks on that compilation are likely to have been compressed too and stripped of their original dynamic range. My advice is not to buy new compilations unless you know they contain unmodified tracks. Buy the original albums instead, if you can still get hold of them. The following image shows an example of this: the upper half is the waveform for the original Michael Woods Ambient Mix of Cafe del Mar by Energy 52 from 2002. The lower part shows a copy taken from a compilation from 2006.

According to ReplayGain, the mla speech outline, latter is 5.5dB louder. It is obvious that the waveform had to be distorted to achieve this (4) . It does not end there: often, remasterings of popular albums are released. The goal of a remaster should be to Homer's and Juliet Essay, make a better quality version of the exact same album by using more modern equipment than was available at outline the time when the original album was released. Hippie 1960? It may seem contradictory but a good remaster should be hard to distinguish from the original on anything but high-end audio systems. It should be the exact same recording with perhaps less noise and glitches, and maybe some soundstage tweaking and/or equalising if really necessary. Mla Speech? In other words, less distortion . However, nowadays there is black desert strong a considerable risk that the mla speech outline, person responsible for the remaster will succumb to the trendy temptation of making it sound louder.

This will make the remaster actually contain more distortion than the evolutionary theory, original and it will be more suited for outline pressing on democratic leadership style definition a vinyl record or recording on a cassette. I guess records and cassettes are the next big thing in mla speech outline, consumer audio equipment, and will soon replace the outdated CD and black desert strong fence, MP3 players. Mla Speech Outline? Why else would these brilliant sound engineers, who obviously know what they're doing, be remastering albums this way? Of course I am being sarcastic here. It is probably with pain in their hearts that most sound engineers turn the knobs way beyond what they find acceptable, because their superiors demand it. They have spent a lot of hippie, creativity and sweet time on making that greatly improved master and mla speech, then someone says OK, now run it over black strong fence with a steamroller or you're fired . This makes buying recently remastered albums so frustrating: I know they will indeed sound noticeably better in mla speech, many aspects but they will also be noticeably worse in other aspects. You can see an example below: it is a fragment from the album Industrial Silence by 1960, Madrugada.

The stereo waveform from the mla speech outline, original 1999 album is shown in red, with the waveform of the 2010 remaster overlaid in black, after adjusting the volume for equal loudness. In this case the difference is not very large because the loudness wars were already in full effect in democratic leadership style, 1999. What happens when the original album was older? Well, if you buy a remaster of an eighties album nowadays, you can be pretty certain that it too has been trimmed with the dynamic range lawnmower in an attempt to make it more competitive with current hit chart drivel on the unadjusted volume front. The following image shows the same kind of overlay for a 25 millisecond fragment out of Michael Jackson's Off the outline, Wall album. The black waveform is from the 2009 remaster, which is about 5dB louder. Black Desert Strong Fence? As you can see they did not even bother to try anything advanced to prevent clipping. The waveform is simply amplified and brick-wall clipped. I have seen this on other albums as well. My guess is that they take the old master and amplify it such that say 1% of all samples are crushed against the brick wall of the digital extremes. Outline? I have also seen cases where they tried to be smart by first smashing the waveforms this way and then slightly reducing the amplitude again, to make the album stay under the radar of simple clipping detectors.

Of course in practice this makes no difference. If you're lucky, those 1% of samples will all be very sharp peaks and the distortion caused by clipping them will not be audible. Created? If you are less lucky, those samples will be grouped and mla speech, their clipping will result in created, an audible crackle that cannot be removed by any tweaking of your sound system. Unlike analog media which have a kind of graceful degradation at their extreme levels, digital clipping is instant and mla speech outline, hard, and the resulting distortion is therefore maximally unpleasant. Really, I do not understand why people believe old albums can be improved by and Juliet, destroying their original dynamic range. Mla Speech? It baffles me how producers can still believe in democratic leadership, the flawed ideas behind the whole loudness wars but this butchering of classic albums puzzles me the most. Why would they need to sound louder? The young target group for loud albums does not care about those old albums anyway, they want to hear the mla speech outline, latest new stuff. Really the only advantage in terms of remastering quality is that if overall amplitude can be boosted by 6dB which is about the maximum if the music is not to be maimed too obviously one bit of digital resolution can be gained.

Which is utterly pointless because nobody except perhaps hardcore audiophiles will notice that one measly extra bit. There is leadership style definition no doubt that aggressive dynamic range compression (DRC) is useful in certain situations. The main question of this whole article is: why don't we just put the outline, DRC in each playback device and make it optional, such that consumers can choose to sacrifice dynamics for signal-to-noise ratio whenever they are in those certain situations? Put otherwise, is there any benefit from remastering albums and leadership style definition, steamrollering all dynamics for the sake of ensuring 16-bit resolution at any moment in time? Let's start with those specific situations where DRC is desired.

I can only think of three: The consumer wants to listen to outline, music in an environment that has so much background noise that the silent parts are drowned out. Leadership Definition? The consumer has busted their own ears and has constant tinnitus that is equivalent to constant background noise that drowns out mla speech, silent parts. The consumer wants to turn down the volume such as not to black fence, disturb other people nearby, but still wants to mla speech outline, hear all parts of the music. Now let's consider what happens when we simply boost existing material having less than 16 bit resolution in those cases. The first two cases are equivalent. Essential about them is that there is a lot of background noise , the whole reason why the listener wants to boost the silent parts. Assume the background noise is at 60dB(A) and a part that only stretches a 13-bit range is being boosted to 16-bit range by a compressor in why was opec, the playback device. This would amplify the quantisation noise as well, by outline, 18dB.

Will this matter? No! If the quantisation noise was unnoticeable at hippie movement a normal background level of 30dB(A), then even after amplification it will still be completely masked by 60dB(A) of noise. In the third case of turning down the mla speech, volume, the DRC will in fact only affect the loud parts there, and leave the silent parts untouched. Adding more resolution to the silent parts is futile. In other words, the argument of squeezing more bits of resolution out of the limited 16-bit range is bogus. The DRC belongs in the playback device, not on the album itself. The majority of people listen to their music through an MP3 player nowadays. Opec? As soon as music is encoded to a lossy format like MP3 or AAC, those few bits of extra resolution get totally drowned in mla speech outline, quantisation noise. Power? The whole point of these formats is to mla speech, throw away most of the resolution in a way that has minimal audible impact. And Thisbe Romeo And Juliet? The fact that music can apparently be represented adequately with on average as little as three bits per sample , is mla speech outline another indication that nobody will notice a boost of a few bits.

Only in evolutionary, very silent parts the outline, reduction in noise floor level may be noticeable, but there will be no silent parts because destroying them is the whole point of the loudness wars anyway! The loss of dynamics and added distortion will remain noticeable though. Worse, because lossy compression like MP3 has a tendency to opec, cause overshoots (i.e. it makes sound waves extend further in amplitude than the unencoded waveform), there is a risk of additional clipping and therefore distortion. This is also why I am somewhat wary of services like iTunes Match. It will likely use recent remasters for the matched songs, so don't be surprised if songs sound differently between your mobile device and your main computer. In the first decade after the CD became mainstream it was heavily frowned upon if an album contained more than just a tiny fraction of samples near the most extreme digital values. Even a single sample at those extremes (i.e. Mla Speech Outline? zero or 65535 for 16-bit samples) was considered a recording flaw. There were even electronic devices that one could hook up to a CD player, which alerted when significant clipping was detected. On most current releases those detectors would light up like a christmas tree.

The image below shows three waveform fragments from the song Dani California by Pyramus and Thisbe Romeo and Juliet Essay, the Red Hot Chili Peppers, and outline, I really didn't need to theory of attachment, search long to find them, the track is mla speech outline full of clipping sound-waves. Such extreme degree of clipping becomes clearly audible as a kind of crackling noise. Buying an album like that, is movement 1960 like buying cookies and noticing that someone in the factory already bit parts off every cookie. Or like buying a vinyl record in 1980 and outline, noticing that it has been pre-scratched with a knife in the factory. Or in my car example, buying a new car that has already been crushed. Why Was Opec? All good recording practices have been thrown out of the window just to get those few extra deciBels on the audio systems of people too lazy to adjust their volume knob. Of course, there must be some reason why music is systematically being destroyed nowadays, and there is. I believe the whole drive behind the Loudness Wars is the flawed idea that louder is better . When you're going to buy a sound system in a store and mla speech outline, the salespersons helping you out know what they are doing, they will play music slightly louder on the system they want to sell you (i.e. probably the most expensive one). Even if a system produces a slightly poorer sound, it will still sound better to an untrained listener if it plays louder and Homer's Pyramus and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Romeo, the listener is mla speech outline not given enough time to detect any shortcomings.

The music industry has picked up on evolutionary this and has applied it to outline, albums, assuming that people will do a cursory comparison on an identical sound system when deciding which album to buy. In the absence of theory of attachment, loudness compensation the mla speech, hot music, as it is often called in the industry, does appear to evolutionary of attachment, sound better the outline, first few seconds you hear it. If a quick and black, very superficial comparison has to be made between sounds, the outline, loudest will win. By the time you notice that each song sounds drab and boring after its blaring intro, you have probably already bought it. Theory Of Attachment? Moreover, if an album is mastered louder, it is possible to get more loudness out of the same audio system, if distortion is ignored. Mla Speech? Hence teenagers who mostly don't care if stuff starts clipping and crackling, can get more racket out of their cheap audio systems, iPods and hippie 1960, tinny cell phone speakers and destroy their hearing more effectively.

In this respect, the mla speech, loudness restrictions for MP3 players imposed by the European Union and strong, other instances are not helpful, in fact they only contribute to the loudness wars. Although those restrictions specify a maximum deciBel value, manufacturers won't do the effort to outline, build an accurate loudness meter into their devices. They just use a conservative estimate of how loud the worst case signal is and limit the unit's amplifier such that with the volume at maximum, this worst case signal will produce a loudness just below the limit. Of course, properly mastered music is much more silent than this worst case signal for the simple reason that the worst case signal is awful noise . The only way to make the music louder is to make it more like the worst case signal . Why Was Opec? The whole concept of these restrictions is mla speech outline completely flawed anyway even if the opec created, MP3 player would accurately measure the mla speech outline, loudness of the output signal. The loudness depends heavily on the kind of democratic style definition, head- or earphones that are plugged in, and one can always go louder with an mla speech extra headphone amplifier. Of course, the trend towards boring music which constantly has the same volume fits within our disposable society: it may seem great that people will get bored of a song after a few listens so they will want to Homer's & Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, find new songs. A nasty side effect the record companies do not want to understand is that people do not want to pay much if anything at all for music anymore because they know that the mla speech, new songs will be just as boring and annoying after a few listens. I had no problem shelving the regular CD price for Brothers in Arms even 20 years after its release, but I am very hesitant to buy a modern album even from the bargain bin because I might hate it after listening to it only twice. I have long given up on most mainstream music anyway because it all sounds the same, and that's not just because it all has zero dynamic range. Everyone is trying to throw all the democratic leadership, same success formulas of the outline, past few decades together, with often an overdose of the horrible AutoTune sauce on top to mask the incompetence of the singer or just to and Thisbe Essay, be trendy. Mla Speech? All songs go through exactly the same mastering pipeline, meticulously constructed by people who believe it is the & Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, ultimate way to produce music.

What comes out of that pipeline is mla speech a constipated slurry of non-stop perfection. It is all so clean, polished, and evolutionary theory of attachment, similar that it becomes utterly boring very fast, because there is outline no offset to make that perfection stand out. Maybe Michael Jackson, the King of Pop, didn't die because of why was created, wrong medication but because of the death of Pop itself. The RIAA and friends often distribute preposterous reports in which massive losses due to piracy are claimed. The way in which those losses are calculated is mla speech outline naive and simplistic: an estimate for the total number of strong, pirated songs is multiplied by the profits that an mla speech outline average song produces when sold through an RIAA-approved channel.

That's not how it works, folks. Of all copied songs, only definition, a very tiny fraction would have actually been sold legally if it were impossible to mla speech outline, copy music, because an awful lot of strong fence, people just copy the song because they can, not because they really want it. Moreover, many people learn to know good music through pirated copies. At some point they either want a better-quality copy and/or decide that the artists deserve to be paid and they buy the album anyway. Chances are that for the next albums of their newfound favourite band they'll skip the effort of pirating and buy them right away. Those are all profits that would not exist without piracy. By making music more disposable however, the risk increases that people will hate the music before coming to the stage of wanting to buy a legal copy. So the mla speech, ever increasing destruction of dynamic range is yet another typical back-firing Music Industry practice, like the movement 1960, ridiculous copy protection ideas that almost killed the CD. When I said skip the effort of pirating I assumed that it is easier to outline, obtain and Homer's Romeo, use a legal copy than a pirated one, which is mla speech outline another important fact that the music and why was opec created, movie industries often overlook. For instance, a legally bought movie on DVD or BluRay often forces the consumer to sit through trailers and commercials and insulting copyright warnings that cannot be skipped. Mla Speech? The consumer is already considered a criminal before even having watched their legally bought movie!

That's one heck of a way to lower the evolutionary theory, threshold towards actual criminality. A big fat self-fulfilling prophecy waiting to happen. Likewise, DRM on music downloads is transparent at outline best, but in reality it is theory of attachment often an added hassle. By polluting music with DRM, one increases the mla speech outline, inclination for people to obtain a DRM-free pirated copy. Is there any way to encourage record companies to power, go back to making enjoyable music? Maybe. Mla Speech Outline? If it would become mandatory to why was, apply something like ReplayGain or Sound Check to each recording as a final mastering step or if each and every audio playback device would be equipped with a similar automatic loudness adjustment, there will be no point at outline all to democratic leadership definition, over-compress the music. It would only make it more obvious that aggressively compressed music sounds boring. Outline? Another enormous advantage would of course be that nobody will have to fiddle with the volume knob anymore between albums or songs. Please stop destroying music and start investing in research for black desert such systems.

I conclude this text with another poignant example of the Loudness Wars. Mla Speech? I'm kind of a fan of the band Mogwai . They pioneered a unique style of music in which silent parts alternate with or gradually build up to a wall of sound of democratic leadership style definition, roaring electric guitars. Mla Speech? Here are the average ReplayGain values for each of desert, their albums I have: As you can see, in nine years Mogwai lost a whopping 8.7dB of dynamic range. That is worse than I could pull off in my little experiment I started this article with. For a band whose style basically is mla speech dynamic range , that's just terrible. Hippie 1960? If any of outline, you Mogwai guys read this, please punch your producer in the face. Unsurprisingly, Mr. Beast is my least favourite album of theirs.

Luckily, as their latest album shows which I liked almost as much as Young Team they seem to have seen the error of their ways and went back in the right direction, somewhat. Apparently in 2008 they also re-mastered Young Team and made it sound louder , and we all know what that means. I'm not interested in why was opec, that re-master: if I want my original copy to sound louder I'll just crank the volume (as always). Dynamic range compression is not all evil. A certain reasonable degree of mla speech outline, compression will always be necessary to produce a properly mastered album.

And even the exaggerated kind of compression that is so fashionable nowadays can be useful in certain situations . For instance when listening to your iPod in a noisy environment, or in a car where the constant rumble of the tyres and engine drowns out silent sounds. Next to of attachment, the silly louder is better idea, the fact that many people now consume music in such poorly conditioned situations has probably also motivated the guys behind the mla speech outline, knobs in the recording studio to hippie movement 1960, constantly max out the amplitude. Music devoid of any dynamic range is mla speech also more suited as background music, for which being uninteresting is actually a quality . Heavily multi-band compressed music does sound better on the low-quality earbuds and typical worthless bass-deprived tiny portable speakers that many people connect to their iPods. This does not mean however that people with a perfect Hi-Fi system at home or noise-cancelling headphones should be denied the dynamic range when they want to enjoy a good album. Dynamic range compression can improve the Pyramus and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Romeo Essay, listening experience on less-than-ideal devices, but it will limit the outline, experience on high-end devices to something lower than the system could theoretically render. The overproduced music that roams the charts today is annoying to listen to on democratic leadership a good system or with good headphones. Instead of putting silly things like 20 useless equaliser presets with nonsensical names like Jazz in car radios and MP3 players, a dynamic range compressor should be included that can be enabled when desired. Mla Speech Outline? Any processing to make tiny speakers sound better should happen inside those speaker sets themselves , not while mastering the album. I once had a cassette Walkman with a kind of compressor built-in, it is not really cutting-edge technology. Remember, it is lord of the flies power easy to go from outline, uncompressed to compressed music but the movement, inverse is near impossible.

Therefore it makes much more sense to master albums with the minimum required amount of compression, and allow the outline, consumer to hippie movement 1960, apply additional compression in their playback devices when desired. This also opens up a market for compression algorithms that can be licensed on mla speech outline a per-device-sold basis, which will be much more profitable than charging outrageous prices for those few units that can be sold to recording studios. Likewise, I am not claiming that everyone should go back to producing their albums like in 1990. There are songs for which insanely over-compressed distorted mastering actually works, like Fresh Blood by Eels. Hippie Movement 1960? That song scores a whopping −12.2dB ReplayGain value and its amplitude histogram is almost the mla speech, same as of pure noise. Desert Strong? It just fits the style of that song, it would not be the same with clean mastering. However, it does not make any sense to apply this same style to all but the hardest rocking Red Hot Chili Peppers tracks or music like Mogwai's, and outline, certainly not to ambient music.

From visitor statistics I can see that many people who reach this page search for democratic leadership definition things in internet search engines like why some music sounds better on cheap speakers, nowadays music is just noise, music sounds louder now, overproduced music sounds the same, how to find pre loudness war cds, over compressed music sounds worse as mp3 , and outline, one of my favourites: why do the red hot chili peppers songs crackle . It is funny to see this, and encouraging. To those people who arrived on this page looking for software that can undo dynamic range compression: I am sorry to say that you should now understand that it does not exist. Even if anyone would try to make it, it will not work well no matter what. And for the albums that were mastered so poorly that they clip and crackle, there is no hope at all. Any method that would attempt to repair the clipping samples will also degrade other parts of the evolutionary theory of attachment, music. It is nonsense anyway to first mutilate something intentionally and then try to repair it. The only proper solution is to correctly master the album, period. The article What Happened to Dynamic Range explains all of outline, this in style, greater detail, this is a highly recommended read. There's an mla speech outline excellent YouTube movie that illustrates how music is destroyed by dynamic range compression. Also, take a look at the Turn Me Up! website. If you're still convinced that over-amplifying your albums to the point that the waveforms start clipping will give you an advantage over properly mastered albums on radio broadcasts, you may want to read this.

(1): Dynamic range compression is not to be confused with lossy compression as is flies power used by digital audio codecs like MP3, AAC, and OGG, which is outline a completely different thing. Dynamic range compression works on strong the amplitude of sound waves and mla speech, alters the evolutionary theory of attachment, sound considerably. Lossy compression works on the digital data that represents the music, and only slightly alters the sound waves to allow a digital representation that requires less storage space. Mla Speech Outline? Ideally those small alterations are not noticeable to the listener. (2): I actually tried undoing compression on opec created the Doves song The Outsiders. My strategy was to do the inverse of a multi-band compressor, by mla speech outline, splitting up the song into multiple frequency bands and trying to Homer's Pyramus Romeo and Juliet Essay, reconstruct realistic dynamics in each band. The latter is pure manual and wet-finger work.

To keep it tractable I only used three bands but even that did not save me from mla speech outline, many, many hours sculpting amplitude envelopes. Parts of the song did improve a lot, but the inevitable result was still that it sounds like someone is Homer's fiddling with the volume knob because three frequency bands is not enough. I would need to use more bands to get a better result, and spend even more time on outline it. No matter what I would try, the result will always be much worse than if the song would have been properly produced from the opec, start. Nevertheless, the original version now sounds even more flaccid to me because I got used to the extra dynamics.

(3): If you want to know what this sounds like, you can download a ZIP file with part of this sound. I reduced the volume to a normal level to avoid that you would blow up your speakers and ears. If you do believe this sounds awesome, put it on repeat and play it for five minutes. Then play some normal music and see what sounds better. (4): You can download a sound fragment to hear how the music was massacred. It contains a fragment of the original version, followed by the same fragment from the outline, 2006 compilation. Of course I normalised the volumes such that they sound equally loud.

Even on black desert strong fence tinny laptop speakers you will notice that the 2006 version sounds jittery and distorted, especially around the beat.

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4 Is the opposition no better off? I have argued that physicalists, if they offer arguments for their position regarding mental events at outline all, do not have better arguments on offer than the of the power two arguments discussed. But perhaps the dualistic opposition is no better off? Perhaps the arguments of outline dualists against physicalism regarding mental events are just as bad as the arguments of physicalists for physicalism regarding mental events? If one does not want to install dualism instead of physicalism on the throne of and Thisbe & Shakespeare's and Juliet Essay metaphysics, this objection is strictly irrelevant. But let me make it relevant: Descartes , for one, would have liked to see dualism instead of physicalism on the throne of metaphysics. In fact, he thought dualism is the only position that has any right to be there.

So what did he have to offer in support of his claim? Here is a variant of the Cartesian argument, trimmed to outline its bare essentials: P 3 1: There is a mental event for which it is possible that it exist without anything physical existing. P 3 2: There is hippie movement 1960 no physical event for which it is mla speech outline possible that it exist without anything physical existing. Movement? C 3 : Some mental event is not physical. Most people believe that the notion of possibility that is operative in this argument is outline crucial for assessing it. Homer's & Shakespeare's And Juliet Essay? Pick, therefore, the outline sense of evolutionary theory of attachment possibility according to which almost everybody agrees that P 3 1 is true: interpret possible to mean as much as epistemico-logically possible, that is: possible in the broadest sense, given the mla speech outline conceptual framework that fits our current knowledg e. Employing this sense of possible, P 3 1 seems incontrovertibly true, and not only to dualists (in sharp contrast to lord power the situation obtaining when one interprets possible to mean as much as metaphysically possible). Mla Speech Outline? But in interpreting P 3 2 the same interpretation of evolutionary theory of attachment possible must be used as in interpreting P 3 1 (or else one commits the fallacy of equivocation). The intriguing thing is that P 3 2, with the epistemico-logical interpretation of possible in place, certainly does not seem to be less true than P 3 1, with that same interpretation of possible in place. Mla Speech? This looks like a desperate situation for physicalists. For the of attachment conclusion that is unacceptable for them if it is not unacceptable for mla speech them, how can they still call themselves physicalists? follows logically from the premises, since the logical structure of the argument is an uncontroversially valid inference pattern: P 3 1 $ x[ Y (x) K(x) (E(x) $ y( F (y) E(y)))] P 3 2 $ x[ F (x) K(x) (E(x) $ y( F (y) E(y)))] What is to be done now?

For physicalists, if they want to hold on to the negation of the conclusion, there is no choice but to deny the premises. Perhaps they will try to avoid this move by tacitly redefining themselves as physicalists in such a way that, qua physicalists, they are not committed to believing that all mental events are physical events. Democratic Leadership Style? But I have argued that redefining physicalism in this way amounts to giving up physicalism. Outline? We must, therefore, ask: how can physicalists deny the premises P 3 1 and P 3 2 ( as interpreted )? Suppose physicalists single out leadership definition P 3 1 for being denied. But is it at all plausible that, for every mental event, it is epistemico-logically impossible that it exist without anything physical existing? It is widely accepted that conceivability is sufficient for outline epistemico-logical possibility. I (and I am certainly not alone in this) can conceive of my present mental state existing without anything physical existing; hence it is epistemico-logically possible that it exist without anything physical existing.

The prospects of denying P 3 2 appear to evolutionary theory of attachment be even dimmer. The idea of a physical event for mla speech which it is epistemico-logically possible that it exist without anything physical existing seems preposterous just as preposterous as the movement idea of a human being (a number, etc.) for which it is epistemico-logically possible that it exist without any human being (number, etc.) existing. However, it is important to realize that not all statements of the form $ x[ F (x) K(x) (E(x) $ y( F (y) E(y)))] are true: There is outline a first man on the moon who is American and for Homer's Pyramus and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet Essay whom it is epistemico-logically possible that he exist without any first man on the moon existing is certainly a true statement, and therefore its negation which is a statement of the form $ x[ F (x) K(x) (E(x) $ y( F (y) E(y)))] is mla speech false . Nevertheless, a statement of the form $ x[ F (x) K(x) (E(x) $ y( F (y) E(y)))] will turn out evolutionary theory true provably so, no matter how the outline possibility operator is interpreted, as long as the following utterly elementary inference-pattern of modal logic stays applicable: A, B (A B) for every predicate F (x) for which one has: x( F (x) F (x)). Whatever relevant interpretation of is & Shakespeare's chosen, predicates F (x) for which x( F (x) F (x)) is true are, for example, x is a human being, x is a number, and it seems undeniable x is physical. Is it in mla speech, fact undeniable that for desert everything physical it is not epistemico-logically possible that it be not physical? This table is physical, and it is certainly not, in any sense, possible that it be not physical. This brain is mla speech physical, and it is why was opec created not, in mla speech, any sense, possible that it be not physical. This hydrogen atom is physical, and it is certainly not, in democratic definition, any sense, possible that it be not physical. Mla Speech Outline? And so on.

Whatever room is left for denying x( F (x) F (x)), with F (x) being x is of the power physical and designating epistemico-logical possibility (it doesnt seem much room to mla speech me), it is all the room physicalists have for escaping the Cartesian argument without appearing utterly unreasonable about the democratic style matter. It is important to fully appreciate this. Otherwise P 3 2 can seem very easily deniable at least for physicalists. For take some mental event, say, an experience of pain. Many physicalists will blithely acknowledge that it is epistemico-logically possible that this pain-experience exist without anything physical existing (thereby accepting P 3 1). But, of course, they will also hold that the pain-experience is physical . Mla Speech Outline? Hence, they conclude that for opec created some physical event the pain-experience it is epistemico-logically possible that it exist without anything physical existing contradicting P 3 2. Well, nothing easier than to use the negation of the mla speech outline conclusion of a logically valid argument to refute one of its premises! In fact, the use of this dialectical procedure would be impeccable in the present case if the refuted premise had no other support than that it serves to establish the desired conclusion; if this were so, one would have to black strong fence judge the argument question-begging . However, as we have just seen, P 3 2 does have support that is independent of the conclusion it serves to establish: it is grounded in modal logic and the highly plausible principle that for everything that is physical it is epistemico-logically impossible that it be not physical . Mla Speech Outline? The sophisticated physicalist philosopher I need not provide any names, for the sophisticated physicalist philosopher is black desert strong fence very common, and becoming more common every day will be utterly unimpressed by all of this: both by my criticism of the best arguments for event-physicalism, and by my presentation of mla speech a strong argument for the negation of event-physicalism. For the sophisticated physicalist believes that arguments dont matter; what matters are empirical facts . Moreover, the why was sophisticated physicalist believes that the empirical facts are all in favour of physicalism, and that there are none in favour of dualism.

However, one can make a case for the position that physicalism is mla speech outline refuted by opec, empirical fact. As follows. There are illusory experiences : experiences real enough as experiences, but with illusory contents (an example has been given in Section 3). The existence of illusory experiences is an outline, empirical fact, and it seems that they just cannot be fitted into Pyramus & Shakespeare's and Juliet Essay a purely physical world, neither from the start: without prior reduction, nor after any conceivable reductive process. Illusory experiences seem to be irreducibly non-physical . [13] Dennett, for one, is much exercised by mla speech, this difficulty for physicalism and is led to an implausible eliminativist position regarding what he calls real seemings. [14] Moving on to an democratic definition, objection against mla speech outline, sophisticated physicalism that specifically addresses its rejection of black desert fence philosophical argument, one may well ask: how could empirical facts all by themselves without argument, and outline, hence without theory demonstrate anything? Is it that empirical facts, all by themselves, somehow create a certain atmosphere in which only one Weltanschauung is possible? But this question, I fear, is lost on the sophisticated physicalists. Perhaps the following considerations will be more effective (although I doubt it). What is revealed by empirical research in ever greater detail and accuracy (but there is why was opec created no saying whether we will ever reach completeness regarding detail and accuracy; there is mla speech some indication that one has been far too optimistic in this regard) is the manner in desert strong fence, which neurophysiological conditions are necessary, respectively sufficient, conditions for mla speech outline the occurrence of mental events. But in no way does empirical research imply that mental events are nothing else than the neurophysiological events that condition them.

On the contrary, that mental events are, at least provisionally, something else than physical events is a methodological premise of brain-consciousness research. 1960? [15] Suppose, then, that brain-consciousness research develops in the best possible way. Would that mean that one reaches, purely as a result of empirical research, the insight that all mental events are certain physical events? No, all one would reach, purely as the result of empirical research, is this: for mla speech outline each mental event, one is able to provide the necessary and sufficient physical condition. This is the best possible outcome of Homer's Pyramus and Thisbe Essay empirical brain-consciousness research. Mla Speech? Everything that goes beyond this is leadership definition metaphysics . I have no objection to metaphysics. On the contrary, I believe that it is an absolutely indispensable part of philosophy. Mla Speech Outline? But what might be expected of philosophers is to be able to black strong distinguish when they are doing metaphysics, and when not, and when they are doing metaphysics in a philosophically responsible way, and when not. In summing up, I repeat my appeal: it is time to return to intellectual honesty in the philosophy of mind. The honest position is to admit that dualism is mla speech rationally at least on a par with physicalism. This position is compatible with being an agnostic regarding these basic metaphysical positions. It is also compatible with being a believer in physicalism, respectively dualism.

What the 1960 materialist believers, as a rule, have not realized (or refuse to realize) is outline that they have a certain metaphysical faith : a belief that they accept on other than rational or scientific grounds which situation, it should be noted, does not by itself entail that they are not rationally permitted to have this belief. But, speaking of Homer's Pyramus and Thisbe & Shakespeare's and Juliet scientism instead of outline materialism ( de facto , the difference is and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet Essay immaterial), Bas van Fraassen has put very well what would be rationally right also for the materialist believer : Commitment to the scientific enterprise does not require [scientism]. If anyone adopts such a belief, he or she does it as a leap of faith. To make such a leap does not make us ipso facto irrational; but we should be able to live in the light of day, where our decisions are acknowledged and avowed as our own, and not disguised as the mla speech outline compulsion of reason. (Van Fraassen (1991), p. 17.) Institute of Philosophy, University of the Saarland, P.O. Democratic Definition? Box 151150 , D-66041 Saarbrcken, Germany. Armstrong, David (1968), A Materialist Theory of Mind (London: Routledge). Bieri, Peter (ed.) (1981), Analytische Philosophie des Geistes (Knigstein/Ts.: Hain). Beckermann, Ansgar (1999), Analytische Einfhrung in die Philosophie des Geistes (Berlin/New York: De Gruyter).

Davidson, Donald (1980), The Individuation of Events, Essays on Action and Events (Oxford: Clarendon Press), pp. 163-180. Dennett, Daniel C. (1991), Consciousness Explained (Boston/New York/London: Little, Brown and Company). Kim, Jaegwon (1989), Mechanism, Purpose, and Explanatory Exclusion, Philosophical Perspectives 3, Philosophy of Mind and Action Theory , edited by James E. Tomberlin (Atascadero, CA: Ridgeview), pp. 77-108. Kim, Jaegwon (1993), Supervenience and Mind (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Kim, Jaegwon (2001), Mind in a Physical World , fifth printing (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press). Mla Speech? Lewis, David (1966), An Argument for the Identity Theory, The Journal of black desert strong Philosophy 63, pp. Outline? 17-25. Lewis, David (1972), Psychophysical and Homer's Pyramus & Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet Essay, Theoretical Identifications, Australasian Journal of Philosophy 50, pp. 249-258. Lewis, David (1994), Reduction of Mind, A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind , edited by Samuel Guttenplan (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. Mla Speech? 412-431. Meixner, Uwe (2004), The Two Sides of Being (Paderborn: mentis). van Fraassen, Bas (1991), Quantum Mechanics. An Empiricist View (Oxford: Clarendon Press). Opec Created? [1] Presumably the idea is this: something might be something else than the physical without being separable from the mla speech physical, i.e., without being something over and above the physical. Yet, being different does seem to hippie entail being separable (and vice versa), where -able expresses the mla speech appropriate notion of possibility: possible in the widest (objective) sense. [2] The supervenience materialism of David Lewis, in desert, contrast, is intended to mla speech outline be reductive ; see Lewis (1994).

Lewis notes (ibid., p. Black Desert Fence? 414): Yet thousands say that whats good about stating materialism in outline, terms of supervenience is that this avoids reductionism! [3] According to predicate logic, every M is j is trivially true if there are no Ms. [4] At the end of this paper I hope to have shown them to be even dimmer; see Sections 4 and 5. [5] For some documentation of this murkily ideological side of some physicalistically oriented thinkers, see Meixner (2004). [6] There are stronger forms of dualism, of course. For example, the doctrine that not only some but all mental events are not physical, or the doctrine that subjects of experience are non-physical and leadership style definition, can exist without a body, or even without anything physical existing. But there is no good reason to reserve the word dualism only for these logically stronger doctrines. Already minimal dualism the doctrine that some mental entities are not physical is dualism in the proper sense of the word, since already minimal dualism (if taken together with the obviously true claim that there are physical entities) maintains that there are two (nonempty) sides of (non-abstract) being: the physical and outline, the non-physical, and that the black desert strong mental is at least partly belonging to the latter. [7] If motivated by ontological considerations only, then the exclusion of causal over-determination seems arbitrary: there is no good purely ontological reason against causal over-determination. If, on the other hand, the exclusion is mla speech motivated by epistemic interests (as it generally is) mainly, by the interest in leadership definition, obtaining parsimonious explanations , then one may well ask what epistemic interests can do for ontology. There may be a connection between the two, but it is certainly not obvious or unproblematic. [8] Here, and also for excluding apparent counterexamples to P 2 2 (see below in the main text), the temptation for physicalists to go eliminativist is great: if there are no mental events, then P 2 1 is trivially true and so is C 2 . Some physicalists (for example, the Churchlands and Daniel Dennett) have succumbed to this temptation.

But this move closing ones eyes to reality can hardly be considered rational. [9] See Davidson (1980), p. 179. Mla Speech Outline? Significantly, it is movement 1960 pointed out by Davidson that his criterion is mla speech outline useful for establishing the identity between a pain and evolutionary theory of attachment, a complex physiological event. [10] Do I merely think so because I am already a dualist and see the world in the light of my metaphysical bias, not realizing that I do so? While I might certainly be moved by motives hidden to outline me, merely uttering a suspicion in this regard does not justify that suspicion a point not generally appreciated by physicalists. [11] Unfortunately, it is movement 1960 not entirely unnecessary to make this parenthetical remark. [12] Kim writes: [A] certain instability exists in a situation in which two distinct events are claimed to be nomologically equivalent causes or explanations of the same phenomenon; stability is mla speech restored when equivalence is replaced by identity or some asymmetric relation of dependence. (Kim (1989), p. 246.) I fail to discern the certain instability Kim is talking about. Created? And even if it existed, it would be an instability in our theorizing . Can we draw ontological conclusions from that? I should think, we cannot. [13] For details, see Chapter 4 of Meixner (2004).

See also the considerations surrounding the mla speech example given in Section 3. [14] See Dennett (1991). Hippie? [15] On methodological dualism, see Chapter 7 of Meixner (2004).

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essay on diglossia Psichari (1928) - In what is mla speech outline, perhaps the Homer's Pyramus and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet Essay earliest use of diglossia, this writer refers to the situation of Greek at the end of the 19th century, describing Greece as a country that doesn#146;t want its language. This observation refers to the fact that while Dimotiki (popular language, people#146;s language) is used as the everyday medium of communication, Katharévusa (pure language) is mla speech outline, used for and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Essay, writing, and reflects Classical Greek more than the popular form. Marçais (1930) - This writer described the situation in the Arabic world in the thirties, when the gulf between spoken Arabic dialects and the classical standard was particularly large. Since then, a third version of outline, Arabic has arisen to serve as the standard for use in public discourse.

Ferguson (1959) - This linguist was responsible for publicizing the black strong fence term in a famous 1959 Word article. Swiss German, Haitian Creole. Fishman (1967) - The widespread nature of Paraguayan bilingualism caused Fishman to hypothesize that diglossia could occur in outline any situation where two language varieties, even unrelated ones, are used in functionally distinct ways. Ferguson's definition - the side-by-side existence of two structurally and opec created, historically related language varieties (a High variety and a Low variety, referred to as H and L) throughout a community, each of which has a distinct role to play (examples found in Greece, Egypt, Haiti, and Switzerland) Function - H is the more elegant, formal variety. Mla Speech? L is used for less politically important functions. Prestige - Attitudes toward H are more positive than towards L. H is the leadership style prestigious variety and L is the stigmatized variety. Literary Heritage - H is associated with a long literary tradition.

H is always used in writing. L fulfills few written functions. Outline? It may be found in cartoons or in the speech of characters in novels. Acquisition - L is always acquired as a first language. H is always learned in a formal, educational setting. Standardization - Dictionaries and grammars document the form of H. L usually has no such support. Stability - Diglossia is a long-lived phenomenon.

Latin-Spanish diglossia survived from approximately 700 to the end of the first millenium. Evolutionary Of Attachment? H and L borrow from one another, although L forms are shunned when using H. Grammar - The morphology of mla speech, L is often simpler than that of H. Cases and verb inflections are reduced; from strong fence, African-American vernacular, fifty cent instead of fifty cents. Lexicon - A striking feature of outline, diglossia is the existence of paired lexical items, where L and H have different terms for the same object; from Paraguayan Guaraní, silla instead of apyka (chair) Phonology - H preserves the underlying phonological system, and L diverges from it, typically having evolved away from the classical form over many hundreds of lord flies, years; from Vulgar Latin, specla instead of specula (mirror) Everyone in a community knows both H and L, which are functionally differentiated. Mla Speech? (Haiti)

An unstable, transitional situation in which everyone in a community knows both H and L, but are shifting to H. (German-speaking Belgium) Speakers of H rule over speakers of theory of attachment, L (colonial Paraguay. A completely egalitarian speech community, where there is no language variation. (Humanity before the Tower of Babel) Hudson (1990) has pointed out that Fishman#146;s reformulation of the concept of diglossia is problematic, because the direction of language evolution in a classic diglossic situation is opposite to that in the case of widespread bilingualism. Ferguson#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ L. The Low variety takes over the outdated High variety; in Greece for outline, example, Katharévusa has been modified over of attachment the years to mla speech, reflect much more closely the vernacular currently in why was use. The same phenomenon has occurred in the Arabic world. Fishman#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ H. The Low variety loses ground to the superposed High variety; in almost all situations of societal bilingualism, the L language loses ground to the H language. The H language is mla speech outline, usually spoken by those in economic and political power.

In the United States, some Spanish-speakers reserve their languages for different functions, Spanish in the home and hippie, English in public. This is similar to classic diglossia, but over time, Spanish gives way to English. Children end up learning the H variety and mla speech outline, leaving the L variety behind. Why Was Opec Created? By the fourth generation following immigration, the traditional language is present only in small ways: phrases and a few cultural features are all that remain. Individual Bilingualism - The existence in the mind of an individual of two (native) languages; as Fishman conceives of it, a psycholinguistic phenomenon. Societal Bilingualism - The use in a society of two languages; conceivably, there could be a society in which two languages are used but where relatively few individuals are actually bilingual; as Fishman conceives of it, a sociolinguistic phenomenon. Stable Bilingualism - The persistence of bilingualism in a society over a period of several generations. Although no situation of bilingualism is outline, perfectly stable, Paraguay constitutes one of the Pyramus and Juliet most interesting examples of this phenomenon. Over the last nearly 50 years, the relative proportions of monolingualism in Spanish and Guaraní and of Spanish-Guaraní bilingualism have remained essentially unchanged; however, the census figures mask a highly dynamic situation. Intergenerational Language Shift - The successive loss of the traditional language by mla speech, younger generations.

Typical Pattern of Intergenerational Language Shift in Immigrant Communities: first generation - Immigrants dominant in home language and know host language of host country to varying degrees. second generation - Children of immigrants born in of the or who move to outline, host country before age 16 often fluent bilinguals. third generation - Children of bilinguals may learn traditional language, aspassive bilinguals, understanding only and dominant in the host language. fourth generation - Children of passive bilinguals have no competence in traditional language, except phrases and isolated words. code-switching - changing from one language to another: Sometimes I start a sentence in English, y luego termino en espanol. situational switching - a change in topic, person, or place could lead to a switch from one variety to the other. metaphorical switching - a switch from Ranamål to Bokmål in Homer's Pyramus Romeo and Juliet a public setting could have the effect of outline, signalling solidarity between the interlocutors.

code-mixing - speaking in one language, but using pieces from another. Shopper - ?Dónde está el thin-sliced bread? Clerk - Está en aisle three, sobre el second shelf, en el wrapper rojo. style-shifting - variation within a language (changing between Standard English and African-American Vernacular) language borrowing - permanent incorporation of words from one language into evolutionary of attachment the lexicon of another language. Many English words come from mla speech, other languages: domain analysis - Domains of theory, verbal interaction may be defined in part by person, place, social context (situation or level of formality) and topic. Sociologists of language analyze language choice by domains. Varieties in a diglossic or bilingual situation are functionally differentiated by domain. place - location of conversation (topic); this is outline, probably the most significant defining element of a given domain.

Language choice in bilingual situations (and diglossic situations) changes according to lord, place of discourse. Which of the places below would be more likely a setting for mla speech, use of hippie 1960, Spanish in the US? person - roles of interlocutors in a conversation; these roles tend to be played in mla speech outline certain settings, which in turn are associated with a given language; in a situation of Spanish-English bilingualism in the US, where would the following roles be played, and in what languages would communication occur? context, or level of formality (also referred to as situation) - language choice depends on evolutionary theory the social context. Looking at the examples below, you might speculate as to which language, Spanish or English, would be used in a given context in the US.

evening meal (formal, at home) lunchtime chat (informal, in government cafeteria) pillow talk (intimate, at home) introduction (formal, in outline neighborhood) arraignment (formal, in court) topic, or subject of conversation - topics tend to be discussed in given circumstances, and in bilingual situations, a given language will be used to discuss a given topic. cost of vegetables. reason for tardiness. whether evidence proves guilt. documentation of deductions. speech accommodation theory - All people have at least a few styles in desert strong their linguistic repertoire.

Then they must make choices about mla speech which variety to use with a given person in a given situation to realize a certain goal. linguistic repertoire - the linguistic varieties that an opec created, individual has at her or his disposal. speech accommodation - adjustments that one makes to speech in response to the speech of mla speech, another. convergence - the choice of hippie 1960, a language variety to make communication easier, to show solidarity. foreigner talk - use of mla speech outline, circumlocutions, paraphrase, concrete words, simplified syntax and morphology, more standard pronunciation, raising one's voice. motherese or baby talk - simplified language designed to hippie movement 1960, be comprehensible to a child.

divergence - the mla speech outline choice of a language variety meant to make communication more difficult, to show sociocultural distance; a native speaker may speed up, use abstract words or words that are known to be difficult to understand to nonnatives, or lower the volume of speech. An example of societal bilingualism (or Fishman-like diglossia) Frisian (summarized in Fasold 1984) Friesland, a province in northeastern Holland, is bilingual: Dutch-Frisian. Frisian is notable for being the closest linguistic cousin of the English language. Population - 550,000 (4% of the Netherlands) Religion - First church service in Frisian held in 1915; first Frisian Bible published in 1943. Frisian 83% speak; 97% understand; 69% read; 11% write. Dutch and Frisian not mutually intelligible. Dutch and Frisian in a situation of hippie movement, Fishman-type diglossia, but with functional leakage . The following data (from Pietersen 1978, reproduced in Fasold 1984)) are from mla speech, a survey by the Frisian Academy in 1969.

At that time, as shown below, 28% of the leaders surveyed used Frisian at hippie, home with the outline family. Hippie 1960? Nearly all farmers used Frisian at home. All of the groups surveyed reported using more Dutch with notables (ministers and mla speech, doctors, for example), but even in the more formal context, Frisian is Homer's and Thisbe and Juliet, used. The situation is mla speech outline, certainly not perfectly diglossic, even in Fishman#146;s sense, but the pattern is hippie movement, clearly one that relegates Frisian to more informal situations and mla speech, Dutch to more formal situations. A hallmark of diglossia, according to Hudson#146;s interpretation of Ferguson#146;s conceptualization of the phenomenon, is that variation in language use depends not on who you are but instead on the social situation in which you find yourself. In the bilingual situation in Friesland, who you are certainly does have an impact on language use. People of higher social class tend to use Dutch, even in the home, whereas people of lower social class tend to use Frisian, even in formal situations. functional leakage - partial overlap of language uses in hippie a diglossic or bilingual situation: in Friesland, leaders use Dutch in informal situations and farmers use Frisian in formal situations. History of Frisian Language Policy. 1907, study of Frisian allowed outside of outline, school. 1937, Frisian allowed as school subject.

1938, Frisian Academy established. 1955, Frisian allowed in the courts (spoken only) 1972, Frisian obligatory in lord schools, beginning in 1980. Determination - Determination refers to the decision-making process that is used to mla speech outline, decide what languages will be promoted in evolutionary theory a country or province. Dutch is used for most public purposes, and has been historically. Standardization, Orthography and Vocabulary - Frisian is basically a spoken but it also written and used to publish books. Government - Government is in Dutch, Frisian allowed in courts. Education - Frisian required in mla speech outline primary schools; Dutch predominates. Frisian-medium education does no harm, although progress in Dutch is slower for first three years. Frisian is a well developed small-group standard language. Educational language planning follows social and political rather than educational criteria.

Criteria - Fasold (1984) states that if educational benefit were the criterion, the Frisian language program would be an unnecessary expense, because all children know Dutch; the lord of the benefit is mla speech, political. Attitudes - Frisian rated more highly than Dutch; there is an active Frisian preservation movement. Nevertheless, it is evolutionary, important to recognize that the language is associated with rural values and the farming life. Mla Speech? In Friesland cities such as Leeuwarden, Dutch is heavily predominant. The most significant example of Pyramus and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, societal bilingualism in the US involves Spanish and English. Think of attitudes in the US towards Spanish. Are they the same as in Friesland?

Why do you suppose bilingualism provokes such an uproar in the US when in Friesland the situation is apparently much more positive? (Hint: Consider the historical relationship and linguistic relationship between the two languages involved.) Some Data on US Spanish-English Bilingualism. The claims published by outline, proponents of official US English that US Hispanics are refusing to learn English are examined here in light of data produced in academic research and by the US Bureau of the Census. The purpose of this analysis is to use little-understood sociolinguistic aspects of national US English-Spanish bilingualism to refute incontrovertibly the claims of many official English boosters, but at the same time to reveal the dynamic effect of change in language use on ethnolinguistic identity. In 1990, of the 230,445,777 persons in the U.S. who were age five or. Mother tongue of U.S. Pyramus & Shakespeare's Essay? citizens 5 years and over who speak a language other than English. Number of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who speak a language other than English. Number of U.S. citizens 5 years and over mla speech outline who do not speak English #145;very well#146; Percent who do not speak English #145;very well#146; Table 1. US Language Use, 1990 (Persons 5 years and over: 230,445,777) over, 31,844,979 spoke a language other than English at home (see Table 1).

Of these, 13,982,502, or approximately 6% of the U.S. population reported not speaking the English at the level #145;very well.#146; The census bureau reports that over 75% of nonnative English speakers claim to speak English at least #145;well#146;. This means that of the 32 million non-native speakers of English, slightly fewer than eight million, or 3.5% reported speaking English less than #145;well.#146; Even someone who reports that his or her English is only #145;fair#146; can hardly considered to be a non-English-speaker, so this method of desert, determining acceptable English proficiency is conservative. Mla Speech? Nonetheless, even using this conservative estimate, 96.5% of the country speaks English #145;well#146; or #145;very well.#146; Within this national context, the figures in Table 1 show that while the proportion of US Hispanics who report speaking English #145;very well#146; is somewhat higher than that of the total population of non-English-mother-tongue Americans, a higher proportion of the US population of black strong, Asian/Pacific origin is of limited English proficiency (as defined by this overly conservative method). The figures in mla speech Table 1 also reveal that although speakers of many other languages were also living in and immigrating to the United States, speakers of Spanish constituted the overwhelming majority of individuals claiming a language other than English as their mother tongue. Bills, Hernández-Chávez and Hudson have refined a number of relevant measures which simplify the democratic definition job of understanding language shift.

The most basic and mla speech outline, easily understood is count , which is simply the total number of individuals in a given group . In Table 2 the U.S. and U.S. Hispanic counts are presented. The figures are indeed striking. The historic increase in the numbers of United States Hispanics that occurred during the last decade was actually eclipsed in some respects by the increase in Hispanics during the seventies, which alerted the supporters of official English to the challenge that their language faced. In 1970, the total U.S. population count was 203,302,031, and Hispanic density , defined by Bills, Hernández-Chávez and of the flies power, Hudson as the proportion of the population that is of Hispanic origin , stood at only 3.9% (see Table 2). Just over 12% of those Hispanics had immigrated to outline, theUnited States during the previous decade. By 1980, of the evolutionary total U.S. population of 226,545,580, 6.4% was Hispanic. The Hispanic population had increased by 5,536,017 to 14,608,673.

United States Count (USC) Hispanic Density (HC/USC) Hispanic Immigrant Count (HIC) Hispanic Immigrant Density (HIC/USC) Table 2. U.S. Mla Speech Outline? Hispanic Count and black desert strong, Density, 1970-1990. The data on the increase in the U.S. Hispanic count may be analyzed in mla speech outline greater detail in order to allow for a more complete understanding of this important demographic shift of the seventies (see Table 3). By comparing the 1970 and Homer's Pyramus and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Essay, 1980 figures on mla speech density and democratic leadership, count, we can derive two rates of increase . The first is an increase in Hispanic count, calculated by mla speech outline, expressing the difference between the 1980 and 1970 figures as a proportion of the 1970 count: 14,608,673-9,072,602)/9,072,602 = .61.

Multiplying this figure by 100 allows one to express the increase as a percentage of the 1970 figure: 61%. The rate of of the power, increase in Hispanic count dropped to 50% in the next decade. A second rate of increase is in what Bills, Hernández-Chávez, Hudson, refer to as 'density,' that is, the percentage of the entire population that is Hispanic (see density figures in Table 2). The rate of mla speech, increase in Hispanic density from 1970 to 1980 was 64%. During the next decade the rate of increase was much less at desert strong fence, 38%. Another factor that has contributed to the perception in the early eighties that the population of U.S.

Hispanics, especially Spanish-speaking Hispanics, was increasing rapidly, was the tremendous influx of immigrants to the United States. In 1970, only mla speech 0.5% of the U.S. population had migrated from Hispanic countries during the previous decade (this is labeled Hispanic Immigrant Density in Table 2). In 1980, 0.6% of the U.S. population had migrated from Hispanic countries. Table 3 shows the increase from 1970 to 1980 in Hispanic immigrant density to be 20%. Certainly this increase was even more noticeable in border states. Hispanic Immigrant Count. Hispanic Immigrant Density.

Table 3. Rates of Increase in U.S. Hispanic and Hispanic Immigrant Count and Density, 1970-1990 . These figures are also important in explaining the nascent fear in the early eighties that English was under siege, since recent immigrants typically do not speak English as well as those who have lived here ten or more years. During the eighties, the increase in Hispanic immigrant count and density was even more dramatic, and lends further support to the idea that the increased linguistic evidence of Hispanic presence fueled the anti-immigrant and English-only movements of the eighties. What is especially remarkable about the Romeo Essay data in Table 3 is the large difference between Hispanic and Hispanic immigrant rates of increase. Mla Speech? Whereas the rate of increase in total Hispanic count and density dropped, the rate of increase in Hispanic immigrant count and density rose. To the casual observer, the effect was a notable increase in the use of leadership, Spanish in mla speech outline the United States during the seventies and especially during the eighties. The above analysis of the effect of rising Hispanic and Hispanic immigrant count and density shows the basis of opec created, some of the fears of those associated with U.S. ENGLISH, but an outline, important question has been left unanswered. Are U.S. Hispanics clinging to their mother tongue?

Hispanic count and density are not direct measures of language behavior and therefore cannot be used to answer this question. Bills, Hernández-Chávez, and Hudson identify two useful measures of language maintenance and shift by hippie movement, Hispanics. Mla Speech? They include Spanish loyalty , the proportion of a group that is Spanish speaking ; and Spanish retention , the ratio of youth loyalty to adult loyalty . Data on loyalty and retention based on U. S. census data are presented in Table 4. These measures can be used to of the, present a more accurate picture of maintenance of Spanish in the United States. A glance a Table 4 will reveal that among young and old Hispanics alike, the vast majority report using Spanish. During the 1980 census, approximately 11,117,000 Spanish speakers were counted.

This figure was later revised upward to 11,549,000. Of these individuals, a total of mla speech outline, 2,952,000 aged 5-17 spoke Spanish. The total population of leadership style definition, Hispanic youth between ages 5 and 17 was 3,965,000, so their level of mla speech outline, language loyalty was 74%. Movement? In 1990, 4,142,000 youths between the ages of 5 and mla speech, 17 were reported to speak Spanish. Since there were 5,370,000 Hispanic youths, that represents a loyalty coefficient of 77%, an interesting increase in youth language loyalty of 3.6%, but hardly the massive shift fears about which were expressed repeatedly in U . S . ENGLISH Update . The data from the adult population directly contradicts claims that Hispanics are turning away from English. In 1980, out of a total of created, 8,981,000 U.S. Hispanic adults (18 and older), 8,164,000 spoke Spanish, a language loyalty rate of mla speech, 91%. In 1990, out of a total adult Hispanic population of 14,956,000, 12,770,000 spoke Spanish, so the adult loyalty rate dropped to 85%.

The figures in Table 4 show that the rate of desert fence, retention (referred to on the chart as #145;youth/adult loyalty#146;) of Spanish has actually increased by just over 10%. Since retention is the mla speech outline ratio of movement, youth loyalty to adult loyalty, the increase to a large extent is due to the decrease in mla speech outline adult loyalty, which makes retention by the younger generation appear all the more striking. Democratic Leadership? This calls for caution in comparative use of the retention ratio when adult loyalty is not constant. Data on Hispanic and Spanish-speaking count, density, and loyalty probably serve only to confirm the fears of U.S. ENGLISH boosters, and indeed they have embraced the new figures as evidence to bolster their cause. 16 The statistics welcomed by U.S. English were merely increases in non-native count and density, which are not good measures of language maintenance. Even measures of language maintenance do not provide an adequate response to what is perhaps the outline most ardent claim by supporters of why was created, official English, that Spanish speakers have stopped learning English. In order to answer the question of mla speech, U.S. limited English proficiency (LEP), 1980 data are analyzed first. A section follows to clarify the problem of movement 1960, comparability of 1980 and 1990 census summary data.

Finally, Total Hispanic Count 5 years old and over. Total Spanish Speaker Count 5 years old and over. Total Language Loyalty. Hispanic Count 5-17 years. Spanish Speaker Count 5-17 years. Youth Language Loyalty. Hispanic Count 18 years old and over. Spanish Speaker Count 18 years old and over. Adult Language Loyalty.

Youth/Adult Loyalty Ratio. Table 4 - Changes in U.S. Hispanic and Spanish Speaker Count, Loyalty, and Retention, 1980-1990. 1990 data are analyzed and compared with those of 1980. Data on the issue of mla speech, Hispanic ability in English are displayed in Table 5. The bureau of the census provided summary data on those Spanish speakers who reported no difficulty with English in 1980. Of the 14,609,000 Hispanics, approximately 11,117,000 age five and older reported speaking Spanish, and why was created, 2,708,000 (24% of mla speech outline, Spanish speakers, 18% of all Hispanics, and democratic, 1% of the U.S. population) reported difficulty with English. During the previous decade, approximately 1,408,000 Hispanics had immigrated to US. Assuming that recently immigrated Hispanics have difficulty with English, by subtracting the outline number of Pyramus and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Essay, recent immigrants from the total number of LEP Hispanics, a core of 1,300,000 long-term LEP (LTLEP) speakers of Spanish can be identified.

To the extent that the assumption concerning the English ability of immigrants is wrong, the number of mla speech outline, enduring monolingual Spanish speakers could be even greater. The procedure establishes a minimum limit to democratic style, the count of LTLEP, the occurrence of which may be due to linguistic isolation, economic marginalization, lack of mla speech, motivation, or lack of educational opportunity. Just as other counts are not useful indicators of language maintenance or shift, the LTLEP alone is not adequate. Three indices of Pyramus and Thisbe & Shakespeare's Romeo, LTLEP density need to mla speech outline, be derived. The number of flies power, non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics is derived simply by subtracting the number of mla speech, immigrants from the Spanish-speaking Hispanic total. Dividing the LTLEP count by this figure, we obtain an index of LTLEP density among non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics of 13%. This is an important figure, for it responds to the fear that supporters of official English had in the early eighties that those who had lived for an extended period of time in the U.S. and persisted in using Spanish were rejecting English. That fear is hippie movement 1960, simply unfounded.

87% of long-term U.S. Hispanic residents have no problem whatsoever with English. Outline? It is certainly not accurate to assert that because 13% of resident Hispanics have trouble with English that the entire minority is turning its back on English. Critics of the US Hispanic presence almost unfailingly refers to all Hispanics without distinguishing on Pyramus & Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet the basis of mla speech, ability in Spanish, so it is appropriate that an index of LTLEP density among all Hispanics should be calculated. As can be seen in Table 5, the black fence result is .09 or 9%. This figure takes into account the fact that many Hispanics do not speak any Spanish at all, a fact that is certainly not emphasized by those who whip up fear against Spanish-speakers and their descendents. Finally, since critics of bilingualism publicize the putative threat that the Hispanic refusal to outline, learn English represents to why was, national unity, it is important to calculate the proportion of U.S. citizens who are Spanish-speaking LTLEP.

The 1.3 million LTLEP Spanish speakers in 1980 represented just under 6/10ths of one percent of the American population. This, plus the newly arrived immigrants, in concrete, demographic terms, was the size of the threat that was faced in the US in the early nineties. Census statistics are found in mla speech outline widely disseminated publications such as the World Almanac or the Statistical Abstract of the United States . Since the 1980 summary described Hispanic ability in English in terms of reporting no difficulty with English, and the 1990 summary described Hispanic ability in English in terms of not speaking English #145;very well,#146; the impression caused is that Hispanic ability in English has declined over the last decade. Rate of Increase. Total Hispanic Count. Total Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count. Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count. Total Immigrant Count.

Total Hispanic LEP Count. LEP Density among All Hispanic Spanish-Speakers. LEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LEP Density in U.S. Population. Total Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Count. LTLEP Density among Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanics. LTLEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Density among All U.S. Population.

Table 5. Hispanic Limited English Proficiency and Long-Term Limited English Proficiency, 1980-1990. It is now easy to confuse two different statements about language ability. U.S. citizens in 1990 were asked to locate their language ability along a dimension ranging from why was created, #145;very poor#146; to #145;very well.#146; The 38% of Hispanics who did not choose the category #145;very well#146; did not necessarily rate themselves as #145;very poor,#146; #145;poor#146; or even #145;fair#146; (refer again to Table 1). In fact, as noted above, according to Barringer the bureau of the census reports that when the category #145;well#146; is added, the mla speech outline number of English speakers among non-native Americans jumps to 75%. It is this figure which will be used below to calculate 1990 Hispanic LEP.

The problems of comparability notwithstanding, a reasonable procedure can be formulated to determine in opec a future study the extent to mla speech outline, which Hispanics and others who have been in the United States for a decade or more continue to be limited in English proficiency (LEP). Using the census estimate that 75% of nonnative speakers of English speak the black strong fence language #145;well#146; or #145;very well,#146; we can assume conservatively that 4,228,000 of the 16,912,000 Spanish-speaking Hispanics were LEP in 1990. Note that this figure is only roughly comparable with the 1980 census summary statistics, which reported ability in terms of mla speech outline, having no difficulty. Until more detailed summaries are available from the census, indices of LEP and style definition, LTLEP density will have to mla speech, be based on these more conservative figures. The data on LEP and LTLEP density from 1980 are even more revealing in comparison with those of the subsequent census. In 1990, as shown in Table 5, 21,900,000 of the total U.S. population of and Thisbe and Juliet Essay, 248,710,000 was Hispanic. The 4,228,000 Hispanics who in 1990 reported speaking English less than #145;very well#146; or #145;well,#146; represented only mla speech outline a slight increase in LEP among Hispanics (6%); however, in the United States the increase in LEP Hispanics jumped 100%.

The huge increase in Spanish LEP as a percentage of the U.S. population was due largely to the 2,799,000 Hispanics who had immigrated during the previous decade. When this figure is subtracted from the LEP count, only 1,537,000 Hispanics are LTLEP, an 18% increase over the LTLEP count from the previous decade. Homer's Pyramus And Juliet Essay? Reiterating the limited usefulness of count for determining language maintenance and outline, shift, we turn to the figures on hippie 1960 LTLEP density. LTLEP density among non-immigrant Hispanics actually dropped , as did LTLEP density among all Hispanics. Whereas LEP increased 100% in the U.S. as a whole, LTLEP increased only 9%. Many Americans worried about the outline imagined Hispanic refusal to learn English when in fact the percentage of LTLEP Hispanics dropped by 15%. The statistical analysis of the desert census above reveals two facts germane to outline, the issue of U.S. Why Was Created? ENGLISH perceptions of mla speech outline, sociolinguistic reality. The first fact is the difference between adult and youth language loyalty evident from Table 4. This interesting attitudinal change was reported in the New York Times to be documented in a study of 5000 eighth and ninth grade children of immigrants, by Johns Hopkins sociologist Alejandro Portes, who discovered high ratings of self-proficiency in English among Mexican-Americans and Cuban-Americans (85% and 99%, respectively).

These figures for Mexican-American children, in fact, correspond nearly exactly to the 1980 census data that indicated that 85% of Hispanic youth reported no difficulty with English. These figures indicate that there has been no shift from English. Portes makes the discovery in his study that 56% of the Mexican-American children prefer Spanish over evolutionary English, despite their high level of mla speech, English proficiency. The census analysis also reveals a striking difference between LTLEP density among Hispanics and in the U.S. as a whole. Opec Created? The impressive progress in English by mla speech, Hispanics resident in opec created the U.S. for ten years or longer has been completely overshadowed by the historic increase in Hispanic immigrants. Table 6 presents data which shows that the rate of immigration remained relatively steady during the sixties and seventies. During the last decade the rate of immigration doubled. A series of mla speech outline, events conspired to drive Hispanics to the U.S. in search of economic and political refuge. Fully two-thirds of the increase, one million immigrants, came from Mexico, which during the eighties endured a prolonged economic crisis.

Political upheavals in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and fence, Columbia added another 330,000. The real culprits responsible for the historic increase in mla speech outline the number of Spanish speakers are poverty and war. Table 6. Hispanic Immigration to the United States, 1960-1990 (not included: Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay)