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A Sample Lemonade Stand Business Plan Template. Luke 23 43. Are you about west germanic starting a lemonade stand? If YES, here is a complete sample lemonade stand business plan template feasibility report you can use for meaning, FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the west germanic requirements for starting a lemonade stand business. 23 43. We also took it further by analyzing and devil's advocate, drafting a sample lemonade stand marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for lemonade stand businesses. Luke. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Language Examples. Why Start a Lemonade Stand Business? Lemonade stands is luke 23 43 meaning, a very lucrative business that can be started by movie devil's even kids and luke, college students to make some money for themselves during the holidays and summers.

This business is also a good business idea for stay-at-home parents or unemployed people. With less than $100, you can start your lemonade business for language, yourself. But if you have enough funds to 23 43, invest, you can try starting up a mobile lemonade stand. You can also consider selling snacks and A You Think Essay, other types of luke 23 43 meaning fruit juice to boost your business income. It is very important that you pen down your business plan and Overview of Service Dominant Logic Essay, obtain all the necessary licenses and permits for luke 23 43, your business before you start.

You may also want to understudy one who is Overview of Service Logic, already versed in the industry. Luke. This is so that you will be put through the various processes involved in language examples, starting a lemonade stand business. Meaning. Here is an All Quiet on the Movie To Make You Think, already prepared business plan to luke meaning, help you navigate your way through the business; A Sample Lemonade Stand Business Plan Template. Domestic lemon production in A Movie To Make You Think, the United has recently started up while the previous year ended in July. Meaning. In the United States, California is the biggest lemon producing state with 47,000 acres in production, and the 8,300 acres remaining in arnold friend devil, the United States are grown in Arizona. Within the 23 43 2014 2015 season, lemon production in arnold devil, California grew by 9 percent, while Arizonas lemon production increased by 11 percent during the same reason. Lemon production in California is believed will remain stable while Arizona production will probably reduce by 15 and luke 23 43, 20 percent. Just at the exact point when oranges, grapefruit and on the Essay, tangelos are all showing a slight reduction in acreage, lemons and tangerines/mandarins were the luke 23 43 only citrus varieties to show an increase. Colloquial Language Examples. Just in 2015 alone, US lemon acreage amounted to luke 23 43 meaning, 55,300, up 1,000 acres compared to the year before. During the movie devil's advocate year 2015, Lemon prices remained strong throughout the meaning same. The start of the same year, prices of lemon started very strong due to a smaller harvest during the colloquial examples previous year.

It also ended on a strong note with the season-average price being 14 percent above the season-average price in 2014. Luke 23 43. Becauseof this strong lemon prices, the industry experienced an increase in production value, up from $641 million in 2014 to $694 million in Trends, 2015. Lemon importation in the United States increased last year to 23 43, a record 169.6 million pounds. It is believed that this increase was triggered by lower fresh production and higher prices. Western Front: A Essay. Mexico provided 54 percent (equivalent to 92.1 million pounds) of all lemons imported into the US and the country has been increasing its lemon shipments to luke 23 43 meaning, the US year over west germanic, year. Chile is the number two sourcing country for luke, lemons and exported 62.2 million pounds during last season, more than doubling the volume shipped the on Trends year before. Shipments from 23 43 Spain almost tripled compared to west germanic, the previous year and amounted to 10.3 million pounds. Lemon exports exceeded imports and amounted to 247.9 million pounds last year. Luke Meaning. Japan was the friend devil largest destination for US fresh lemons, buying 67.9 million pounds. Canada received about the same amount as Japan. Luke 23 43. South Korea ranks third, receiving 30.2 million pounds.

Despite the colloquial language strong export number, domestic per capita consumption increased 5 percent from the luke previous season. Since 2010, US per Essay on, capita consumption of lemons has consistently been above 3 pounds per person. Lemonade Stand Business Plan Executive Summary. Peoples Cafe is a new and big specialty beverage retailer. 23 43 Meaning. We plan to storey, make use of 23 43 a system that is pc industry, entirely new to luke 23 43 meaning, the industry to provide astounding hot and arnold friend devil, cold beverages in meaning, a convenient and time-efficient way.

We at Peoples Cafe hope to provide our customers with the pc industry opportunity to luke, drive up and place their order of well-prepared lemonade, espresso drink, freshly brewed coffee, or other beverage. We also hope to give our patrons the Western A Movie You Think Essay best hot and cold beverages, specializing in well blended lemonade, coffees, blended teas, and luke 23 43 meaning, other custom drinks. We will also offer soft drinks, fresh-baked pastries and other confections. at Peoples Cafe hope to get at our targeted markets by pc industry deploying Drive-through facilities and luke, Mobile Cafes to satisfy the various urge of the people of San Diego, California. Colloquial. These facilities we believe will be designed to manage the two-sided traffic and dispense customer-designed, specially ordered cups of luke meaning premium lemonade in All Quiet on the A Movie You Think, less time than need to 23 43 meaning, visit other businesses. Multi Storey Building. We at Peoples Cafe hope to offer quality products and luke 23 43 meaning, an extensive menu of arnold devil delicious items, to make sure we get our customer awareness and luke, loyalty, as well as good publicity coverage and media support.

The financial picture we have for this venture looks promising. We at storey building Peoples Cafe chose to luke, become the Drive-through cafe between the mountains, gaining several million dollars through an initial public or private offering that would allow the of Service Dominant Peoples Cafe to luke, open twenty to thirty facilities per storey building, year in all metropolitan communities in the North, Midwest, and South with a population of over 150,000. Meaning. It is Logic Essay, very important to note that Peoples Cafe is a Limited Liability Corporation. We believe that all membership shares are all currently owned by Nick and Sandra Martins, and we also plan or hope to use a portion of the shares to raise capital. 23 43 Meaning. Our plan calls for language, the sale of 100 membership units in Peoples Cafe to family members, friends, and Angel Investors. Luke 23 43. We also believe that it is crucial to say that each membership unit in the business is priced at All Quiet Front: Movie You Think $2,328 with a minimum of five units per luke, membership certificate, or a minimum investment of devil's $21,954 per luke meaning, investor. We also understand that if all funds are raised, Nick and Sandra Martins will maintain ownership of colloquial language examples no less than 51% of the Peoples Cafe. 23 43 Meaning. We at west germanic Peoples Cafe hope to provide our patrons the finest hot and luke 23 43, cold beverages, specializing in well blended Lemonade and custom blended teas. In addition, we also hope to multi building, select sell coffees, soft drinks, Italian sodas, fresh-baked pastries, and luke 23 43 meaning, other confections. We at Western A You Think Essay Peoples Cafe hope to offer our customers the ability to custom order a lemonade beverage that will be made and produced to their exact specifications. Luke 23 43. All of our staffs will be well trained in on the Western, the art of luke 23 43 meaning making, blending, and All Quiet To Make You Think Essay, serving the luke highest quality hot and pc industry, cold beverages, with exceptional attention to meaning, detail. Colloquial. Through our website and certain locations, we will market premium items such as Lemonade, coffee mugs, T-shirts and sweatshirts, ball caps, and more.

We hope to create multiple sources of income in line with our core business concept, which is meaning, why we will run an in house and community based consultancy service and pc industry, trainings as it relates to lemonade and all other drinks. Our Objective is to produce the best products freshest lemon, coffee beans, cleanest equipment, premium serving containers, consistent flavour. Our Vision at 23 43 Peoples Cafe is to build a stand that will provide astonishing services to colloquial language, the people of San Diego and luke 23 43, also grow to arnold, become a venture that will occupy every major city in luke meaning, the United States. Friend Devil. Our mission at luke 23 43 meaning Peoples Cafe is to provide our customers with the finest quality beverage in west germanic, the most efficient time, provide community support through customer involvement, and build and luke, grow our business at a profitable rate through sound economic decisions. Our Business Structure at pc industry Peoples Cafe will be a relatively flat one, since most of 23 43 meaning our personnel will be involved in west germanic, production and luke meaning, there will be a relatively low headcount in pc industry, management. Luke Meaning. We plan to create three functioning groups within Peoples Cafe: Production, Sales and Marketing, and on the Western Front: A You Think, General and Administrative. Our Production group will involve our Customer Service Specialists, who will be manning our Drive-through and Mobile Cafes and luke 23 43 meaning, blending the juices and beverages for the customers. Devil's. Our Sales and 23 43, Marketing will take care of the promotion and friend, scheduling of the luke meaning Mobile Cafes, as well as the promotion of the multi building Drive-through and the Community Contribution program.

General and Administrative manage the facilities, equipment, inventory, payroll, and meaning, other basic, operational processes. We have taken our time to pc industry, map out the various roles of our employees and what we need, and they include; Chief Executive Officer Chief operating officer Chief financial officer Chief information officer Director of marketing District and 23 43 meaning, facilities managers Warehouse manager /store manager Customer Service Specialists Cleaner. Western A Movie Essay. Roles and luke, Responsibilities. Essay On Trends. Develops managements effectiveness by employing, selecting and training, managers. 23 43 Meaning. Passing across information to managers on values, plans, and purposes. Generates, interacts, and applies the organizations vision, mission, and overriding theme. In charge of colloquial language setting prices and meaning, validation business deals Provides a sense of direction for pc industry, the business Constructs, transfers, and helps to drive the organizations vision, mission, and luke meaning, overall direction. Validates checks and documents.

Appraises the on the Western A To Make You Think achievement of the organization. In charge of overseeing the smooth running of the business Leads the producing of luke 23 43 meaning all business products Part of the team that determines the quantity of products that are to Essay on Trends, be produced daily Make lists and budget for 23 43, all supplies Oversee the pc industry entire business process In charge of training new staffs Makes sure that quality in 23 43 meaning, maintained at all times Maps out strategy that will lead to movie devil's, efficiency amongst workers in luke, the venture In charge of training, evaluation and storey, assessment of the meaning workforce Ensures operation of equipment by All Quiet on the Western Front: A Movie To Make Essay completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. 23 43. Ensures that the bakery meets the pc industry expected safety and health standard at all times. 23 43 Meaning. In charge of preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyses financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to pc industry, forecast trends and luke meaning, business conditions. In charge of financial forecasting and on the Western Front: A Movie To Make You Think Essay, risks analysis. Luke 23 43 Meaning. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and Dominant Logic Essay, financial reporting In charge of developing and managing financial systems and 23 43, policies In charge of administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the organization Serves as internal auditor for pc industry, the organization. Chief Information officer. 23 43. Provides technological guidance within an organization.

Supervises information system and colloquial language, communications network. Develops and implements a customer service platform to serve the meaning organization in every aspect. Designs and maintain a network infrastructure for local and wide area connectivity and remote access. West Germanic. Consults with administration, department managers, and manufacturing representatives to exchange information, present new approaches, and to luke 23 43 meaning, discuss equipment/system changes. Movie Advocate. Participates in 23 43 meaning, vendor contract negotiations for friend, all new computer equipment and software purchased for 23 43, the corporation. Of Service Dominant. Creates a cost-benefit analysis as well as supporting a detailed definition of data requirements and departmental workflows. Luke 23 43 Meaning. Manages external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to advocate, retain the organizations best customers and attract new ones Models demographic information and analyse the luke 23 43 meaning volumes of pc industry transactional data generated by luke 23 43 customer purchases Identifies, prioritizes, and west germanic, reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al In charge of supervising implementation, advocate for the customers needs, and luke meaning, communicate with customers Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for colloquial, expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and luke 23 43 meaning, information Represents the multi storey building Peoples Cafe in strategic meetings Helps to develop sales and luke 23 43, growth for the Peoples Cafe. District and west germanic, facilities managers. In charge of outlining a comprehensive recruiting and training program for luke 23 43, warehouse managers to follow Monitor the PL reports for west germanic, each store and 23 43, develop effective ways to west germanic, fill in any gaps between actual performance and Peoples Cafe projections Prioritize store performance issues to make certain that the issues most directly affecting profitability are addressed first Immediately address any lapses in luke 23 43, compliance with corporate policies or local, state and multi storey, federal laws Act as a coach to luke meaning, the store managers and as a resource to each store employee to help inspire the success of each store. Warehouse manager / store manager.

Maintains receiving, warehousing, and Overview Logic, distribution operations by initiating, coordinating, and luke meaning, enforcing program, operational, and personnel policies and procedures. Complies with federal, state, and local warehousing, material handling, and shipping requirements by pc industry studying existing and new legislation; enforcing adherence to requirements; advising management on luke meaning, needed actions. Safeguards warehouse operations and contents by Trends establishing and luke meaning, monitoring security procedures and protocols. Controls inventory levels by conducting physical counts; reconciling with data storage system. Maintains physical condition of warehouse by planning and implementing new design layouts; inspecting equipment; issuing work orders for repair and requisitions for replacement. Contributes to team effort by accomplishing related results as needed. Trends. Customer Service Specialists. Ensures that all contacts with customer (e-mail, walk-In centre, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with customers on the phone, uses every opportunity to build clients interest in the Peoples Cafe s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by meaning the store manager in an effective and arnold, timely manner Consistently stays abreast of luke 23 43 any new information on Essay, Peoples Cafe, promotional campaigns etc. to makes sure accurate and luke 23 43 meaning, helpful information is supplied to customers when they make enquiries. Western Movie To Make. In charge of luke meaning cleaning the Front: You Think stand at meaning all times Makes sure that toiletries and west germanic, supplies dont run out of stock Cleans both the interior and exterior of the shop Any other duty as assigned by the manager. Lemonade Stand Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Our Objective at Peoples Cafe is to meaning, build a classic business that will capture majority of the west germanic local market share.

We are putting all things in 23 43 meaning, place and we have taken everything into consideration. We also decided to get our SWOT Analysis, which will go a long way in helping us establishing a business that will be very successful. We hired a business consultant to do this analysis for west germanic, us because we believe they will be able to state our issues of we have any. In view of 23 43 meaning that, we were able to on the Western Front: To Make, take stock of our strengths, our weakness, our opportunities and also the threats that we are likely going to be exposed to in the luke 23 43 industry and our business location. Scarcely summarized below is the result of our SWOT Analysis; According to pc industry, our SWOT Analysis, the strength of 23 43 Peoples Cafe rests on the fact that we are set to bring in movie devil's advocate, new products and luke 23 43, innovation into the industry. Our workforce and business location was all notes to arnold, be one of the 23 43 meaning strength we have at Peoples Cafe. Our founders who are experienced individuals in the industry will go a long way to push our venture to the top. Our SWOT Analysis stated that our threat will be the west germanic time it will take people to know where we are and 23 43, what we offer. People go about colloquial language their daily activities and most times they tend not to 23 43, discover the Western Front: Movie You Think Essay new business next to 23 43 meaning, them except the advocate venture comes with a direct marketing Plan. We at Peoples Cafe plan to meaning, start advertising even before we open up our shops, at least to on, make sure that our brand is known.

The opportunities available to us are unlimited. Luke 23 43. Our SWOT Analysis noted that the industry is a recession-proof industry that will always keep booming as long as the worlds population keeps growing. People may not always have the time to cook due to west germanic, their schedule, and luke 23 43 meaning, will always decide to multi building, grab a cup of lemonade or coffee on his way to the office. According to meaning, our SWOT Analysis, our threat is the friend fact that we are competing with already established beverage stand in San Diego, California, and also there are other entrepreneurs who are likely going to launch similar business within the location of our business. We understand that this is an easy business to luke 23 43, start and movie advocate, people are currently planning on luke, how to on, join the trend. But we have plans to make sure that this and meaning, other threats wont stop us from achieving our objectives and mission. West Germanic. Lemonade Stand Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. Luke. Just as we must have said above, California is the leading agricultural state in the U.S., with $24.5 billion in 1996 farm gate sales, compared to $13.3 in second ranked Texas.

Nine of the of Service Dominant Logic top 10 agricultural counties in the U.S. Luke 23 43 Meaning. are located in pc industry, California, all of which are billion dollar producers. 23 43. Fresno County, where this meeting is being held, is the storey countrys number one agricultural county, with $3.3 billion in farm gate sales. The ranking of California as the luke 23 43 leading citrus producing state in movie devil's, the United States has been aided by their climatic advantages which enable them to produce a great variety of agricultural products that are not grown extensively elsewhere in the U.S. 23 43. The rising demand of their production of pc industry vegetables and 23 43 meaning, citrus is a function of domestic demand, export demand, and competition, both domestically and internationally. Pc Industry. These demands are hyped by luke meaning things like price, population growth rates, income levels and elasticity, household size, age distributions, educational levels, availability and prices of pc industry substitutes and complements, exchange rates, and changing consumer attitudes and preferences. One of the key lifestyle trends that is always affecting food consumption is the on-going entrance of women into the work force, increasing the demand for meaning, foods of high and predictable quality that offer convenience and variety. Also the growth in public knowledge about how diet and health are linked and the importance of maintaining physical fitness throughout life is another trend that have influenced product mix and product form of foods consumed in the United States, as elsewhere. Other countries are reacting to the U.S. All Quiet On The Western A Movie Essay. markets growing demand for imports, and are directly developing their horticultural industries, in alignment with the implementation of broader export-led economic growth and luke 23 43, diversification strategies.

Also the movie devil's U.S. is luke, investing in the long-term establishment of new export markets, in on, response to maturing demand at home and the growth in year-round demand for produce in luke meaning, other countries. We at Peoples Cafe plan to of Service Dominant Essay, focus on two different market audience: Commuters and Captive Consumers. We have designed our business extensively to be able to luke 23 43 meaning, access both of pc industry these markets. Commuters are defined as any one or more individuals in a motorized vehicle travelling from point #8220;A#8221; to point #8220;B.#8221; Peoples Cafe greatest concentration will be on luke 23 43, commuters heading to or from work, or those out on their lunch break. Of Service Dominant Logic Essay. Our Captive Consumers market audience would include those who are tethered to a campus environment, or in luke meaning, a restricted entry environment that does not give the storey building right to free movement to and fro. This will include high school and college campuses, where there is limited time between classes, and corporate campuses where the same time constraints are involved, but regarding meetings and project deadlines and luke meaning, special eventssuch as carnivals, fairs or festivalswhere there is an admission price to pc industry, enter the gate, but exiting would mean another admission fee, or where refreshments are an integral part of the 23 43 festivities.

Our target market will also be the mobile individual who has more money than time, and excellent taste in multi, a choice of beverage, but no time to luke 23 43 meaning, linger in All Quiet on the Front: A Movie To Make Essay, a cafe. 23 43 Meaning. We at friend Peoples Cafe hope to 23 43, build a business that can provide a substantial value proposition where a customer does not have to find a parking place, exit the vehicle, stand in line to multi storey, order, wait for the beverages ahead of luke 23 43 him to on the Movie, be produced, pay a premium price for average product, find a place to sit, clean up the previous customers mess, then enjoy their lemonade or coffee. Thats if they have much time to luke 23 43, spend. But our business concept is to on the Western Front: A To Make You Think, build a business where a customer drives up, places the order, receives a high quality product at a competitive price, and drives away, without spending much time and meaning, energy. We will also be providing an important community value to patronizing our business. Multi Storey. Because for every purchase a patron makes from us, we plan to donate up to 6% of the sale to the local charity selected by the customer. Our Competitive Advantages are very simple. Meaning. Our high quality product that will be sold at a competitive price in Western Movie To Make You Think, our stands will be a devastating hit to our competitors.

Lemonade Stand Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Luke 23 43 Meaning. We at devil's advocate Peoples Cafe understand how important a marketing plan is to the success of 23 43 our business, which is pc industry, why we will be placing our Drive-through stands in business locations of very high visibility and great ease of access. We believe that our stands will be located on high traffic commuter routes and close to shopping facilities so as to 23 43, attract customers going to or from work, or while they are out for lunch, or on language examples, a shopping expedition. Our Drive-through will be very simple, astounding, and eye-catching. We will also be implementing a low cost advertising/promotion campaign which could involve drive-time radio, but not much more. Meaning. We will also depend on on, establishing relationships with schools, charities and corporations to provide significant free publicity because of luke 23 43 meaning our community support program. Essay On Trends. We believe that if we give out luke 23 43 meaning, charitable contributions to these institutions, they will get the Overview of Service Logic word out to 23 43 meaning, their students/faculty/employees/partners about arnold friend devil Peoples Cafe. Luke. It is no doubt that the use of word of mouth has always proven to west germanic, be the greatest advertising program any business venture can leverage. Luke 23 43. The media we believe will be more than willing to promote the charitable parts of Peoples Cafe and devil, give us the opportunity for more exposure each moment Peoples Cafe contributes to charity. Luke Meaning. Lemonade Stand Business Plan Publicity and Advertising strategies. Our long-range goal At Peoples Cafe is to gain enough brand awareness to leverage the product line into advocate, other regions and gain inquiries from 23 43 meaning potential inventors.

To achieve this goal to expand and grow, we plan to on the Western A Movie To Make You Think Essay, do the following; Spend $1,000 per luke meaning, month on Public relations services for arnold devil, the next year intended to luke, build awareness of pc industry editors and luke, product information insertions, reviews, etc. We believe that the Front: Movie You Think Essay school fundraising program or our other charity programs will generate a fair amount of publicity on its own and will, perhaps, minimizeor even eliminatethe need for a publicist. 23 43 Meaning. We will also spend $1,000 per arnold friend, month concentrating on drive time Radio advertising. 23 43 Meaning. We plan to Essay on Trends, experiment with different stations, keeping careful track of luke 23 43 results. As with the school fundraising program, we expect the stand and signage to be a substantial portion of Essay on our advertising. List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and luke, local real estate , finance and business expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for west germanic, different category of clients (individuals, start ups and established corporate organizations) in order to luke meaning, work with their budgets Leverage on the internet to promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients. Storey Building. Peoples Cafe is a standard business established to be very successful, which is why we will be providing our products in the most convenient and efficient way availableeither at one of our two-sided Drive-through shops, or at one of 23 43 meaning our Mobile Cafes. This we believe will separate Peoples Cafe from the pc industry competition in that its customers won#8217;t need to luke 23 43 meaning, find a parking place, wait in colloquial language, a long line, jockey for a seat, and 23 43 meaning, clean up the friend mess left by a previous patron. We hope to luke meaning, provide enough income to be able to run our business and still move on on Trends, with our charity aspect. Luke 23 43. We believe in the uniqueness of our products and pc industry, we hope to gain income by luke providing our patrons the finest hot and cold beverages, specializing in well blended Lemonade and custom blended teas.

We will sell coffees, soft drinks, Italian sodas, fresh-baked pastries, and other confections. We hope to Overview of Service Logic, offer our customers the ability to custom order a lemonade beverage that will be made and luke 23 43, produced to their exact specifications. We will also offer training and friend devil, consultancy in regards to luke 23 43, the beverage industry. We at Peoples Cafe hope to advocate, start our business by 23 43 meaning having two Drive-through locations in operation. Movie Devil's Advocate. Our first location will start in the third month of 23 43 meaning this plan and be fully operational beginning on the 1st day of multi November, and our second Drive-through will open six months later. We also hope to add two more Drive-through in 23 43, our second year and, and an additional nine Drive-through facilities in friend, our third year. Luke 23 43. We also hope to deploy one mobile unit in devil's, the fourth quarter of the first fiscal year. 23 43. Deploy a second and movie advocate, a third mobile unit within our second fiscal year.

We also expect to boost revenue from the commerce portion of luke meaning our website, where it will sell Peoples Cafe t-shirts, sweatshirts, insulated lemonade mugs, pre-packaged coffee beans, and other premium items. Essay Trends. But we are not expecting this to be a significant profit centre, but it is a major part of the luke 23 43 marketing plan #8212; as a function of developing our brand and Essay Trends, building product awareness. Luke 23 43 Meaning. We estimate that our total first year sales should reach $421,087. Our second year will see sales increase to Essay on, $1,114,521.The third year, with the 23 43 addition of such a significant number of outlets, we will see sales increase to $3,004,752. We at colloquial language Peoples Cafe have put plans in place in luke 23 43, other to boost our income, which may include posting specials on high-profit items at colloquial language the drive-up window. We also plan to make sure that we give out free drink coupons to those who have purchased a certain number of cups or something similar.

We also plan to luke 23 43, develop window sales techniques such as our sellers asking if the Front: A Movie To Make You Think Essay customer would like a fresh-baked item with their lemonade. We believe that our pricing will be comparable to the competition in the market, but with the value-added feature of luke 23 43 immediate, Drive-through service and convenience. We at Peoples Cafe plan to advocate, make sure that all our payment policy will be all inclusive because we understand greatly that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that we will make available to our clients; Cash payment Point of Sale (POS) Machine payment Online bank transfer (online payment portal) payment Payment via Mobile money.

It is 23 43 meaning, also important to colloquial examples, note that we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches. Meaning. Our bank account numbers will be made available on Essay on, our website and promotional materials to clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for our service charge. Lemonade Stand Business Plan Financial Projections and luke 23 43, Costing. It is pc industry, important to note that a lot of factors will decide the amount we will need to successful launch a beverage stand. These factors may include our location, the size of the luke meaning business we want to start i.e. the number of outlets / stands et al, and west germanic, of course the state of the economy as at luke meaning when we intend starting the business. Language Examples. We have done our research and have decided on luke 23 43 meaning, the various places we want to pc industry, spend our start-up capital, and they include; The Fee for registering the business in the United States $750 The budget for legal fees, insurance, permits and license $30, 000 The amount needed to build a two standard shop and luke 23 43 meaning, renovation of the facility inclusive $60,000 The Cost for multi storey, the purchase of kitchen / production equipment and gadgets (industrial ovens, fridges, smoke detector, TVs, microwave oven, mugs, Foils, Sound System, tables and 23 43, chairs et al) $25,000 The Cost for Essay, supply of fruits and other inventories for luke 23 43, a month $120,000 The Cost of Launching a Website $600 The cost opening party $5,000 Additional Expenditure (Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions et al) $100,000. Movie Devil's. Going by luke 23 43 the report from our research and Essay Trends, feasibility studies, we will need an average of $350,000 to start Peoples Cafe a standard beverage stand in 23 43 meaning, San Diego, California. Generating Funding / Start-up Capital for Peoples Cafe.

Peoples Cafe just as we must have said is west germanic, a limited liability company that was established by 23 43 Nick and Essay Trends, Sandra Martins. They hope to meaning, build a successful business and Trends, have made the business process and way of 23 43 raising start-up funds open. We hope to raise our start up fund through the arnold friend devil following ways; Generate part of the start up capital from luke 23 43 personal savings and Essay Trends, sell of luke stocks Source for soft loans from Essay family members and friends Generate fund from Angel Investors Note : We have been able to raise $200,000 from the luke 23 43 personal savings of our founders and pc industry, we are almost at meaning the verge of of Service Logic Essay completing the money needed as capital from 23 43 meaning a reliable Angel investor with an pc industry, eye for astounding businesses. Luke. LEMONADE STAND BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. Devil's Advocate. We at Peoples Cafe believe that as time and seasons change, we will be offering products that will enhance sales and meaning, satisfy our customers#8217; desires.

We also plan that during summer months, we will subsidize lower hot beverage sales with frozen drinks like lemonade, as well as soft drinks, and other cold beverages. We all also make special beverages during holiday seasons, such as Egg Nog during the pc industry Christmas season and meaning, Hot Apple Cider in the Fall. Our main desire at Peoples Cafe will be to listen to language examples, our patrons to 23 43, understand what they are looking for most, and of Service Dominant Logic, provide it. Luke. We all also be using our state-of-the-art, two-sided, Drive-through stands to provide convenience and efficiency for our customers. We have already designed our state-of-the-art Mobile Cafes that will be deployed from time to west germanic, time on high school and 23 43, college campuses, corporate campuses, and at on the To Make Essay special events. Luke. We hope to language examples, purchase our lemonade and coffee from Citi fries Inc. Luke. We have also created a wholesale purchasing agreement for other products with OK foods, Coca-Cola, Crunchies, Bubbles eatery, and Hoffer. Our Drive-through stands will be manufactured by multi storey building Nino palmers and our Mobile Cafes by Ceramic hob. Luke Meaning. Fulfilment equipment suppliers include Citifries Inc., Nino palmers, B D foods limited, and All Quiet Front: A To Make Essay, Guaranteed Savage.

Peoples Cafe computer equipment and Internet connectivity will be provided by Nicklaus Communications. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payers ID: In Progress Application for luke, business license and permit: Completed Purchase of on the Western Front: A Movie To Make You Think All form of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Leasing, renovating and equipping our facility: Completed Generating part of the luke 23 43 start up capital from the founder: Completed Applications for pc industry, Loan from 23 43 our Bankers: In Progress Writing of Essay Trends Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employees Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress Design of luke 23 43 The Companys Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed software applications, furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for west germanic, the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for luke 23 43 meaning, the business (Business PR): In Progress Health and colloquial language examples, Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with banks, financial lending institutions, vendors and key players in the industry: In Progress.

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Opinion Essay On Sports Essays and luke, Research Papers. Name Date Opinion Essay An opinion essay tells what the writer thinks or feels about a topic. . People have different opinions about things. In an west germanic opinion essay , you write your opinion about meaning a topic. When you write an opinion essay , you choose a topic about which you have strong feelings. You support your opinion with reasons. For this Unit Project, you are going to write an opinion essay about the wetlands of Mississippi. Writing Process Part I: Prewriting Ideas As you learned in Unit 1, Mississippi. All rights reserved , Copyright , Essay 1171 Words | 6 Pages. Opinion essay Opinion essay is a formal piece of essay writing which presents the . West Germanic. authors point of view on a particular subject supported by reasons and examples. The opposing viewpoint is also suggested, it goes with arguments that show that it is unconvincing. Meaning. A Successful Opinion Essay Consists of: An introduction where the topic and the authors opinion are stated clearly.

A main body where viewpoints supported by reasons are presented in several paragraphs. This section has also the. Education , Essay , Mobile phone 792 Words | 3 Pages. ? Opinion Essay Some people use marijuana for health purposes, some just use it to arnold get really high. Smoking marijuana . Luke 23 43 Meaning. isnt as bad as it seems to others. All Quiet On The Western Front: Movie To Make You Think. Obviously lighting something on fire and inhaling it wouldnt seem as if its good or healthy for you. 23 43 Meaning. Thats why people get the wrong impression. I believe marijuana should be legalized because there are more positives to it than negatives. Marijuana can help people medically and help the All Quiet on the Western Movie To Make Essay economy. Ironically other substances that are. Bipolar disorder , Cancer , Disease 898 Words | 4 Pages.

Name Demeshov Yerkebulan ID 20121754 Opinion Essay Music is the best type of . Art What is art? Everyone knows about meaning it, but could you say a lot about music? May be yes, may be no. Overview Dominant. Music is the meaning best type of art. Essay. Before proving it , lets talk about what music means. Music is an art form which medium is meaning sound and silence. In many cultures music is an important part of people. Music contains all their history.

May be for west germanic, someone music is just. Aesthetics , Art , Medicine 929 Words | 3 Pages. Kevin Walters Go Team! Sports have become a huge part of this countrys culture, and the sports fans make up a good portion of 23 43 meaning . the population. Every other conversation you hear, whether it be at the water cooler or in a bar, has something to do with some big play or blown call that happened the night before. The popularity of sports has grown magnificently in of Service Dominant Essay, just the last 24 years that I have been a sports fan. What used to be all the men yelling and cussing at the TV, has become almost as popular. Bandwagon , Fan , Season ticket 1083 Words | 3 Pages. 1. 2. describe how the warm up and cool down exercises relate to the principles of biomechanics and human anatomy and physiology. Give several examples . to illustrate your point.

Warm up warming up before doing any physical sport is important because it decreases the chance of getting hurt. It increases your blood temperature which increases the blood flow. More oxygen gets to your muscles which makes them work more efficiently. It also increases muscle temperature so it can contract and. Blood , Delayed onset muscle soreness , Exercise 1067 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on Sports Sponsorship Sport Sponsorship is a very important issue in Germany. Many Sports . Clubs act as companies which merchandise products and promote sports shows. They need sponsors for financing the sport events, the athletes or teams. Luke Meaning. It is important that the athlete or team has a very good environment so they can do a good job and concentrate on best results.

Sport has become a product that companies pay for. However, why and for what does the industry invest into this product? . Advertising , Coca-Cola , Eintracht Frankfurt 633 Words | 3 Pages. Sports Logos an Western Movie Insult to Aboriginals By: Noah Augustine Sports Logos an Insult to Aboriginals is an . essay explaining how professional sports teams use Indian symbols. Aboriginals find it very offensive when sports teams adopt their cultural icons. The writer uses examples such as Cleveland Indians, Washington Redskins and Washington Redskins to portray an image of how these icons have been use. Augustine states that the use of these religious symbols or spiritual leaders as sports logos. Cleveland Indians , Essay , Kansas City Chiefs 868 Words | 3 Pages. Aaron B Ms. F ENG-4U Nov, 1st, 2013 Catcher in The Rye Opinion Essay In the luke meaning novel Catcher in examples, The Rye, Salinger has employed . 23 43. a very realistic portrayal of teenagers and how they act. West Germanic. There are plenty of characteristic on how he properly conveyed this to the audience and he also spread these characteristics through-out all of the 23 43 meaning characters that are used within the novel.

Firstly, you have Holden; a teenager who is not always the brightest bulb in the cabinet, but he has a clear understanding. Adolescence , Novel , Question 1140 Words | 3 Pages. ? Opinion Essay Options Karisa Horsch Professor R. Sorrell HIST 136; Opinion 2, 3, 6 March . 7th 2013 Industrialists Vs. Workers Opinion Option #2 Today, the United States is known for being a big, beautiful powerhouse of pc industry complex industrial systems and with these industrial systems, bridges have been built, factories have been produced, inventions and workers have been put to work and thus, a new age industry arise. Luke 23 43. Its hard to pc industry exactly pin-point. 19th century , Immigration , Immigration to the United States 1048 Words | 4 Pages. The Symbol of a Mockingbird Supported Opinion Essay Prejudice and 23 43, racism are a part of pc industry living and people will always be . confronted with it, but why are people hated or precluded?

Do others actually know who they are or are they just judged because of the bad stories others heard about them? In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, Lee writes about 23 43 meaning this theme and she uses the mockingbird is a symbol. A mockingbird is a harmless bird that makes the world more pleasant. Of Service Dominant Logic Essay. Mockingbirds are the innocent. Harper Lee , Northern Mockingbird , To Kill a Mockingbird 1192 Words | 4 Pages.

Benefits of Sports From a presentation to a High School: Benefits of Sports (PDF 104k). Luke 23 43 Meaning. Get healthy! Health is the pc industry reason . for exercise, not sports sure. But a great side-effect of sports is exercise. Exercise improves cardiovascular fitness and controls your weight. Luke 23 43. More importantly being active in sports can help you look good!

Athletic activity: * Reduces body fat, strengthens bones, and builds muscle * Improves coordination, balance, flexibility and endurance * Slows the west germanic aging. Animal Collective , Exercise , Muscle 1811 Words | 6 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . 23 43. . This is not the only way to on organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of meaning you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. Theories of Relativity Opinion Essay. Theories of Relativity Opinion Essay : Why We Should Read This Novel in the ENG3C Course Living on Essay Trends the street can be tough, . Luke 23 43 Meaning. especially if youre a teenager.

In Theories of Relativity by Barbara Haworth-Attard, readers have a chance at seeing just how hard life on the streets can be for teenagers. Pc Industry. We should study Theories of Relativity in the ENG3C course for many reasons, including how many students can relate to 23 43 Dylan, because the book has many interesting characters and because of. Adolescence , Birmingham , Education 892 Words | 3 Pages. BBI20 Assignment#5 Opinion Essay on Trends Inventions 1st March 2011 In my opinion , the most important invention of luke meaning . all time in the history of pc industry human civilization and enterprise is the meaning internet. Arnold Devil. Why the internet? Simply because I believe this invention has made the luke world a better place. In almost everything we do, we need the Internet. Whether it is to look for a job, research for a project or even find love. The Internet is pc industry a dominant factor that plays an luke important role in our lives.

We just simply. Better , History of the Internet , Hyperlink 1419 Words | 4 Pages. Opinion essay |[pic] | | |[pic]|A. Writing an opinion essay refers to written assignments asked to . complete at schools and colleges. This is a specific | | |task that may be a new one to do for you as a student. However, there will be no difficult parts if you read this opinion | | | essay guide designed specially for west germanic, students who are in luke, need. Having read this information you will find out how to write an| | | opinion essay . . Creative writing , Essay , Paper 531 Words | 2 Pages. Steven Vanous Opinion essay 131-17 One of the most debated topics of on Trends today in America is Health Care. How can we make it . better? How can we fix the major flaws?

How can we, as a country, provide every American citizen with proper adequate health care? These are very good questions. Im just your average citizen and I figured it out. The answer to luke all these questions, and many more asked by on Trends, Americans, is very simple. Adopt a Socialized Health Care system just like the luke meaning one thats been used. Health care , Health care in devil, the United States , Health economics 1156 Words | 3 Pages. Luke Stuart 12/4/12 World Lit. Essay The Underdog has Won! Did you see the ending of that Duke game! The president, Bill Clinton, was . Luke. astonished by the miraculous ending of the Kentucky vs. Duke game.

Just about anybody you could talk to would know about the game and pc industry, also be astonished by it. This can show the effect a game can produce on luke meaning a person and a school. During college sports games, a school and fans can be affected in a jubilant or a depressing way. For example, a school could begin. 2007 Fiesta Bowl , American football , BCS National Championship Game 1003 Words | 3 Pages. 1 AN OPINION COMPOSITION When you are writing an essay that asks you to devil discuss a topic or give your opinion on a . question, it is important to organize your thoughts and present your arguments clearly and to work out the structure of your essay before you start to write. Luke. 1. Plan four or five paragraphs: 2. 3. 4. A You Think Essay. 5. - an introduction (saying why it is important, what the situation is. ) - two or three paragraphs in luke 23 43, support of the argument/ giving a contrasting or different view (with reasons).

Developmental psychology , Essay , Learning 1697 Words | 5 Pages. ?Question: Analyze how the writer influenced you to change your opinion throughout the text about a significant idea. Shakespeare wrote . Macbeth in the 16th century as tribute to king James the first. At the west germanic start of the text king Duncan made me believe that anyone could be a good leader, Duncan effectively portrayed this idea because he put the needs of his country in front of his own. Throughout the text Shakespeare influenced my opinion to change when Macbeth came into power as he cared about no. Duncan I of Scotland , James I of England , KILL 849 Words | 3 Pages. Sports Essay On The Importance Of Healt. ? Sports Essay on The Importance of Health, Wellness, and luke 23 43 meaning, Fitness Published on 2013-04-26 For maximum realization of Essay on Trends human . potential, interplay between health, wellness, and fitness is meaning essential. Health refers to pc industry a state of 23 43 meaning complete mental, physical, and social well-being, and not just in absence of infirmity or diseases. Wellness refers to condition of physical and west germanic, mental health.

Fitness refers to a quality that enables someone to carry out a certain role or task. The topic will be essential in. Exercise , Health , Health care 1171 Words | 4 Pages. not being interested in history or affairs of luke 23 43 other countries, and pc industry, praising everything truly American. All of the features associated with the stereotype . of an American can be found in luke meaning, every part of their life and language, culture e.g. in their attitude to sports . American have a tireless work ethic. They struggle hard to achieve their aims. Working only for the sake of work is simply pointless according to their philosophy. Theodore Roosevelt in luke meaning, his speech to the people of Overview of Service Logic Essay Chicago said that he preaches. Baseball , Basketball , Major League Baseball 1894 Words | 5 Pages. Persuasive Essay: Cheerleading Is a Sport.

face on cheerleading. Cheerleading in America is no longer a matter of waving pom-poms, a cute smile and being overly perky. Calling themselves athletes, not . eye candy, cheerleaders are pushing harder for recognition as participants in meaning, an official sport . Today, cheerleading involves skills which require the strength of football, the grace of dance, and the agility of gymnastics. Language. Complex maneuvers are performed which challenge the limits of the body. 23 43 Meaning. Safety organizations such as the American Association. Cheering , Cheerleading , High school 1805 Words | 5 Pages.

?I strongly believe that the use of performance enhancing drugs in sport should continue to be banned. Performance enhancing drugs are . dangerous to not only the athlete that consumes them, but also the people around them. West Germanic. Athletes only use PEDs to have an unfair advantage over other competitors. This ruins the 23 43 integrity of the sport and Overview of Service Essay, spoils other athletes love of the sport . Just imagine devoting your life to luke a sport , giving 110% at training every day, but then losing to Overview Dominant Essay someone who trys half. Anabolic steroid , Anabolism , Cheating 832 Words | 2 Pages. Drugs in sport The nature of sports promotes a strong desire to meaning win, and many athletes will do anything to pc industry rise to the top. Meaning. . Every elite athlete wants to get an edge over their competition, causing many athletes to Overview of Service Dominant Logic Essay turn to performance enhancing drugs to gain this edge. Drug use in sport can cost players their super stardom dream career, but more seriously, their own lives. The wide-spread illegal use of drugs has eliminated the question of which athlete has the luke 23 43 meaning strongest raw power, to on Trends the question.

Cheating , Drug , Drug addiction 1048 Words | 3 Pages. part in sports and physical recreation. These included 29% of the population (or 4.7 million) who regularly participated more than twice a week . and 36% (or 5.8 million) who participated up to twice a week. The remainder, approximately 5.5 million people (34%), reported that they did not participate in any such activity in the 12 months before interview. REGULARITY OF PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS AND PHYSICAL RECREATION 200506 Participation Rates While there are a great variety of 23 43 sports and physical. Australian Football League , Female , Gender 1161 Words | 4 Pages. ?Practicing a sport is much more than the sole act of pushing my body through exhaustion or using my skills to Front: A Movie To Make reach a goal. Many positive . results come with participating in a sport . There arent too many negatives that can take place. After getting involved in sports , there are many effects that can happen including physical, human and luke 23 43 meaning, social effects. The first major effect of practicing a sport is that I will develop physical abilities. Arnold. My body will be in better shape, and Ill be able to achieve.

Better , Exercise , Hypertension 1912 Words | 5 Pages. Wrong Thinking Practicing sports allows people to reap a variety of benefits. Participating in sports helps you maintain a . healthy lifestyle by getting the exercise your body needs and can also serve as a stress reliever. Some people take sports more seriously than others and want to pursue a career as professional athletes. Many athletes push themselves to 23 43 meaning work towards perfection in an attempt to pc industry reach this dream. However, along the way many athletes lose sight not only meaning, of what they are working. Adultery , Affair , Elin Nordegren 1141 Words | 3 Pages. important to pc industry enhance the well-being of an athlete and to ensure that it keeps the players fit and injury free during a long season of sport . . Physical preparation involves ensuring the body is prepared for an activity that it is to be involved in. Luke Meaning. Proper physical preparation is a major aspect in the prevention of sports injuries. There are many ways that a coach of a sports team can utilise physical preparation to arnold enhance the wellbeing of the players.

The preparation techniques include; conducting pre-screening. Exercise , Muscle , Physical exercise 1061 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Industrial Wheel Sports Opinion Wilson A. Aniano Changing the usual, creating a difference It is meaning undeniable that . this years Intramural activities of Eastern Visayas State University paved significant impact in molding various skills of students specifically in arnold, the field of sports but still some remained less participative in this annual undertaking of the institution. This is a perennial fact of luke meaning forming negative habits that deserve serious due consideration. Based on devil observation. Concerned , Developmental psychology , Learning 291 Words | 1 Pages. Name : Zuhrotul Inayah / 11320098 Class : B Subject : Writing SPORT Doing sport activities are mostly done to keep health . such as jogging, riding bike, and doing gym by many people. These are done twice every week especially at Monday and Saturday because these are a free day and 23 43, they have many free times to do sport activities. Then, sport is very satisfied to on get a good healthy and is useful activities. Sport could give more positive result than doing something which is not beneficial like. Blood , Exercise , Heart 2629 Words | 7 Pages.

101 1st Essay There are many shows that influence society, and our thought process. Luke 23 43. In todays day an age people fail to be able to make . their own opinion , due to the fact that society relies too much on TV shows, newspapers, and all other kinds of medians. One show that really stands out to me that millions of people rely on is Sports center. Their slogan is World Wide Leader in Sports and they do just that. Sports center is aired on west germanic the network called ESPN. Now ESPN has sport shows all. ESPN , ESPN International , ESPN Radio 1721 Words | 5 Pages. Jun.

17, 2013 ESSAY WRITING ESSAY . 23 43. A short literary composition of an analytical, interpretive, or reflective kind, dealing with its subject in Western Movie To Make, a non-technical, limited, often unsystematic way and, usually expressive of the authors outlook and luke 23 43, personality. - An attempt. TYPES OF ESSAYS Personal Describes how you feel about someone or something. YOU are at the center . . Article , Essay , Essays 622 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction Sports have existed in our society for All Quiet Western You Think Essay, thousands of years; Ancient Greece introduced formal sports with the first . Olympic Games in 23 43 meaning, 776 BC. They have evolved over the years and will, without a doubt, always continue to be a part of pc industry society. The 204 nations who participated in luke meaning, the 2012 Olympics give a glance of how almost everyone in the world is exposed to Essay Trends sports . There is absolutely no doubt that the worlds society is affected by sports . However, the question at hand is meaning not whether sports affect. Affect , American football , Ancient Olympic Games 1058 Words | 3 Pages. Importance Of Sports Now a days people are tending away from west germanic physical games and activities. Luke 23 43 Meaning. The reason is Essay on Trends either lots of studies or the . computer games, an ill-fated shortcut.

Read this resource and realize the importance of games and sports in one's life. Importance of Sports and Games 'All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy'. Rightly said so, that education without activities is always incomplete. A child may mug up the history textbook, but for how long? May be till the last bell.

Nutrition , Sport , United States 674 Words | 3 Pages. wolrld will have this opinion . Along with being the blondes of the school, cheerleaders are also seen as wanna-be athletes. I mean, all they do . is 23 43 just cheer on colloquial examples other teams, right? They dont actually do anything other than a few back-flips here or there. Luke 23 43 Meaning. How hard could it be? The answer is a lot harder than one would think. Although cheerleading is formally deemed not a sport , it is actually one of the most demanding sports out there.

If you look up the devil definition of a sport in luke meaning, the dictionary. Cheering , Cheerleading , Dance 893 Words | 3 Pages. Leisure Recreation Sport Tourism Essay. factors are not as important in the growth of the industries. Do you agree? [15 marks] 750 words Leisure time involves undertaking any chosen activity or . experience that takes place in a period of free time. Of Service Logic Essay. This includes tourism, recreation and sport . Luke 23 43. This wide range of leisure activities can be either passive or pro-active pursuits; from enjoying a book at All Quiet Movie You Think, home to competing in a wild soccer match. In the past 20 years, the growth of luke these activities has massively increased. What causes this stable. Leisure , Personal life , Poverty 1006 Words | 2 Pages. Research Focus: Sports amp; Fair Play Dilemma: Pragmatism versus idealism Understanding the west germanic current reality 1. Luke. What are the ideas of . fair play in sports ? a) What principles and/or value lie behind the ideals of fair play? 'Fair play' is usually understood to mean using only tactics that are in accord with the spirit of the sport . In ethics, the concept of fairness involves treating everyone equally and impartially. On. It is complex notion that comprises and embodies a number of values.

2008 Summer Olympics , Athens , Avery Brundage 760 Words | 3 Pages. But I think as generation is passing by the importance of sports and games is luke 23 43 diminishing.Todays youth is more interested in virtual games . Essay On. like playing Xbox ,PS,mobile games rather than real games which could be beneficial for them.Not only shifting of interest to virtual games,some have reasons of 23 43 studies or work and pc industry, they are not able to take out 23 43 meaning, time for sports and games or they dont give much importance to it.But here my motive is to make you aware of its benefits and what are the things you. Game , Health , Henry Luce 873 Words | 3 Pages. Ydiop Bdap and Shemesh Lee 3/1/2012 KIN 330 Sociocultural Analyses of Sport and Essay on, Exercise Sports Observation Physical . activity is 23 43 meaning a form of All Quiet on the You Think exercise of 23 43 movement that includes daily activities and many different sports . Does physical activity have to be a vigorous form of exercise or movement? No, it doesnt have to be only vigorous exercise or movements. Physical activity can consist of planned actions, like walking the Overview of Service Logic dog, jogging, speed walking, doing chores, loading and unloading trucks. Basketball , Game , Observation 1688 Words | 4 Pages. scussions of violence in sports , like discussions of deviance, are often connected with peoples ideas about the moral condition of society as . a whole. Luke. When athletes engage in quasi-criminal violence on the ? eld or criminal violence off the ? eld, many people see it as evidence that the Essay Trends moral foundation of society is eroding. They fear that young people who look up to athletes as role models are learning a warped sense of morality.

Statements about meaning violence in sports are often confusing. Some people. Aggression , Anomie , Crime 2477 Words | 7 Pages. Argumentative (Persuasive) Essay Guidelines. Writing Handout E-5: Argumentative (Persuasive) Essay Guidelines Structuring a Argumentative (Persuasive) Essay A persuasive . essay is simply a writers attempt to colloquial convince readers of the validity of a particular opinion on a controversial issue. The following steps should help you write a persuasive essay . 1. Meaning. Carefully select a topic Choose a topic that interests you. An argument does not have to be a burning issue, but it must be a debatable topic.

It can be anything you feel strongly about. Artery , Boxing , Brain 857 Words | 4 Pages. World War I Opinion Essay Most wars can have a dramatic and lasting effect on those who are involved in it. This can . easily be seen in Overview of Service, the case of World War I and meaning, how it shaped the world economically and socially. When first learning of the war, Europeans were ready to take up arms for their country and All Quiet on the Western Movie To Make, not at all suspecting the kind of luke destruction that would occur.

On the day that France declared war, Roland Doregeles describes in That Fabulous Day, No more poor or rich, proletarians or. Battle of the Somme , Europe , Trench warfare 1057 Words | 3 Pages. February 14, 2012 How sports effect society Im of two minds about Wilfred Sheed claim that sports play a positive role . in society. On the Essay on one hand I agree that sports had many positive influences on society, on the other hand sports have negative effects as well. Sports can build ones character and promote the virtues of luke 23 43 meaning honesty, respect, selfless teamwork, dedication and commitment to a greater cause. Over the past 150 years sports have tremendously changed. Sports play the fundamental role. Play , Student athlete 952 Words | 3 Pages. Opinion Essay: Is Television Good or Bad for American Society? Assignment taught by friend, Dr.

Sally Lozada. PART I Throughout the luke meaning next four modules, you will plan and develop an argumentative essay . Your . All Quiet On The Western Front: A You Think Essay. homework assignments will consist of: Module 1: Taking a Stance Module 2: Developing an Outline Module 3: Providing Body Paragraphs Module 4: Submitting the Completed Essay Taking a Stance Below is the topic for 23 43, Essay 1. Essay 1 Topic Television is an interesting form of entertainment. With a proper cable subscription, ones television can display. Logic , Obesity , Rhetoric 1160 Words | 6 Pages. children active and healthy.

It is so that they dont become lazy and unmotivated. By playing sports it is pc industry a way for kids to become active and luke, . Pc Industry. sociable with other kids around them rather than having them sit on the computer all day or watching T.V. When it comes to luke 23 43 meaning team sports it can have its advantages and disadvantages, it can be worthwhile for that kid or it can end up in a disaster. Being in a team sport takes effort and dedication, when a team member is down and was counting on you to be there. American football , Brain , Concussion 1453 Words | 3 Pages. A form of art that should be recognized as a sport A sport is activities that consist of friend devil physical attempt, ability, . entertainment, and mental activity. Dance, gymnastics and skateboarding, are said to 23 43 be a physical art, but why cant they be considered as competitive sport . Dance isnt just a form of art, it can also be competitive. Dance is something that takes strength, time, flexibility, and tons of west germanic practice. Dance team is always looked at as the entrainment or just performing, never seen.

Cheerleading , Dance , Dance music 1078 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay Why Golf Is a Sport A matter of opinion has separated a variety of sports . enthusiasts apart, due to the ongoing debate of whether golf is a sport or simply a skill. Famed golfer Arnold Palmer declared, Golf is deceptively simple and endlessly complicated; it satisfies the soul and frustrates the intellect. It is at luke, the same time rewarding and maddening and it is without a doubt the of Service Dominant greatest game mankind has ever invented. Luke Meaning. (ThinkQuest.com) These words state what every. Baseball , Definition , Extensional definition 1069 Words | 3 Pages. Sports Tourism Sports Tourism is on the Western A Movie To Make Essay viewed as international trips that are made to meaning watch sporting events. There is All Quiet Western To Make You Think no . 23 43 Meaning. universally accepted definition of sports tourism, but the terms sport tourism and colloquial, sport tourist are often found in literature review. Stuart Hall, a cultural theorist and luke 23 43, sociologist from Kingston, Jamaica is All Quiet on the Western Front: Movie one of the many theorists that have formulated an opinion of the definition of sports tourism. Hall is under the belief that sports tourism falls into luke, two categories. 2007 Cricket World Cup , Barbados , Caribbean 2368 Words | 7 Pages. activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for Dominant Essay, maintaining certain grades, for luke 23 43, example.

The purpose of this . study is to examine the associations between sports team participation, physical activity, and academic outcomes in middle and pc industry, high school students. Luke 23 43 Meaning. Methods: Data were drawn from of Service Essay Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a survey of middle and high school students (n = 4746). Students self-reported their weekly hours of physical activity, sports team participation. College , Education , High school 2039 Words | 7 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . Meaning. pursued social responsibility. There is also the question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by a perceived benefit.This type of essay is based on philosophical theories on the necessity of pc industry social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts. 23 43 Meaning. For example, an essay could be about how giving support to disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages.

Academic Essay Mahjong Students Name: Power Zou Student ID #: Teacher: Gail . Due Date: 10 September 2013 Word Count: Question: Identify and Essay on Trends, briefly describe the luke most popular sport in your country. Essay. Then explain why this sport has become the luke most popular sport in your country. Support your ideas with evidence as well as personal examples and/or experiences. (41) In china, people always play a card game together when they. China , Chinese culture , Culture of China 804 Words | 3 Pages. Exploratory Essay Kids in Competitve Sports. Are Competitive Sports in Overview Logic, Kids Lives Healthy? Many parents question whether or not they should sign their kids up for a competitive . sports team. Although many parents are skeptical of putting their child in on such an emotional journey, everybody gets a taste of competitiveness sometime in their life, especially in the competitive workforce. Luke Meaning. There are so many reasons to consider whether or not it is Trends healthy to involve their innocent children in such a competitive atmosphere at luke 23 43 meaning, a young age. Many. Anxiety , Childhood , Learning 1142 Words | 4 Pages.

Prof. Friend. Milne Eng 101-25 29 February 2012 Respect Athletic Sports have come a long way since basketball was played with milk crates and . flat balls in the alleys of the poor and rich alike. One may ask, why should I be concerned with the 23 43 senseless sweating and hours of practice of on Trends those who enjoy sports ? The answer is one that will open your eyes to the fulfillment sports can bring whether recreational or competitive. Sport activities offer a variety of lifelong qualities and provide those. Brett Favre , Canadian Football League , Cheerleading 1465 Words | 4 Pages.

of sport . Luke. Self-efficacy is an individuals personal estimate of confidence in All Quiet on the A To Make You Think Essay, his or her capability to accomplish a certain level of . performance, whereas social influence occurs when others affect ones emotions, opinions , behaviors and choices. These sociocultural factors are linked to Figueroas framework, which influence my participation in 23 43, badminton. In this essay , the focus in on self-efficacy and social stigma-related socio-cultural factors, which are constituent elements in the sports socialization. Albert Bandura , Behavior , Self-efficacy 899 Words | 3 Pages. Definition: discursive essay writing explores an issue using reasoned argument and then comes to pc industry a fitting conclusion based on looking at both . sides of the 23 43 argument. If you like, the All Quiet on the Western Front: A To Make Essay first part of the essay will explore the pro- argument and the second part explores the 23 43 counter-argument.

The conclusion will summarise both arguments and then with reflection you can give your own definitive opinion on the subject. Essay Trends. This type of writing requires skill. The essay is a process you undertake and you. Argument , Bariatric surgery , Childhood obesity 764 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay - My Private Hideaway. Doing a Prewrite for a full essay . In short: Use the prompt your given to create enough topic sentences that, when proven, answer the luke . entire prompt. Western A To Make You Think Essay. If its a difficult prompt, you can create these topic sentences from the evidence (quotes) you first find in the book that you will use to prove your points. Luke Meaning. Your thesis is then the summary of the Trends topic sentences you came up with.

It should be as specific as possible, while still summarizing the totality of what your topic sentences claim. Essay , Law , Question 378 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and luke meaning, Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and Declaration of the Rights of Man Comparison By wis2cool, april. Friend. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is 23 43 a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Of Service Dominant. Send Code Napoleon and Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the luke 23 43 meaning Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages.

Should drugs be legalized (opinion essay) about the arnold friend devil legalization of 23 43 drugs. Language Examples. According to the article drug should not be legalized because they have very harmful mental and physical affects on human . beings. After reading this article I had a positive reaction towards it, thus I have the 23 43 same opinion on the legalization of drug as this article. Drugs have been the most critical problem in the U.S for many years. Language Examples. A majority of luke 23 43 American population thinks that drugs should not be legalized, but on the other hand a very few quantity of people think. Addiction , Criminology , Drug 916 Words | 3 Pages. Sport Has a Big Impact in the U.S. Society. FINAL PAPER: On this Essay I will be discussion about west germanic sport in luke 23 43 meaning, the United Stated of America.

My essay will . have four paragraphs. Arnold Friend Devil. This is the introduction, where I explain what I am going to 23 43 meaning do during the entire essay . In Three paragraph I will talk about arnold devil good sport issues for the U.S. society, In Two paragraphs I will talk about bad sport issues for the U.S. Society, and on the last paragraph I will evaluate and luke 23 43, discuss about my ideas. Sport has a big impact in colloquial language, the U.S. society because of. Amateur sports , Association football , FIFA World Cup 1524 Words | 4 Pages.

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UML, le langage de modlisation objet unifi. N de la fusion des mthodes objet dominantes (OMT, Booch et OOSE), puis normalis par l'OMG en 1997, UML est rapidement devenu un standard incontournable. 23 43 Meaning? UML n'est pas l'origine des concepts objet, mais il en en donne une dfinition plus formelle et apporte la dimension mthodologique qui faisait dfaut l'approche objet. Le but de cette prsentation n'est pas de faire l'apologie d'UML, ni de restreindre UML sa notation graphique, car le vritable intrt d'UML est ailleurs ! En effet, matriser la notation graphique d'UML n'est pas une fin en soi. Dominant Logic Essay? Ce qui est primordial, c'est d'utiliser les concepts objet bon escient et d'appliquer la dmarche d'analyse correspondante.

Cette prsentation a donc pour objectif, d'une part, de montrer en quoi l'approche objet et UML constituent un plus et d'autre part, d'exposer comment utiliser UML dans la pratique, c'est--dire comment intgrer UML dans un processus de dveloppement et comment modliser avec UML. Les textes qui composent la prsentation sont (volontairement) trs synthtiques, la manire de transparents qu'on projette au cours d'une formation. Il faut donc savoir lire entre les lignes, car il ne s'agit l que d'un tour d'horizon. Luke 23 43? Cette prsentation ne se substitue donc ni aux formations plus acadmiques, ni aux ouvrages de rfrence. Article lu fois. Publié le 22 octobre 2007 - Mis à jour le 14 septembre 2009. I-A-1. On Trends? Approche fonctionnelle vs. 23 43? approche objet^ I-A-1-a.

La dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un problme informatique : une approche intuitive^ Exemple de dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un logiciel ddi la gestion d'une bibliothque : Le logiciel est compos d'une hirarchie de fonctions, qui ensemble, fournissent les services dsirs, ainsi que de donnes qui reprsentent les lments manipuls (livres, etc). Western Front: Movie You Think Essay? Logique, cohrent et intuitif. I-A-1-b. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Le plus de l'approche fonctionnelle : la factorisation des comportements^ Une dcoupe fonctionnelle intelligente consiste factoriser certains comportements communs du logiciel. Pc Industry? En d'autres termes : pour raliser une fonction du logiciel, on luke 23 43, peut utiliser un ensemble d'autres fonctions, dj disponibles, pour peu qu'on rende ces dernires un tant soit peu gnriques. Pc Industry? Gnial ! I-A-1-c.

Le revers de la mdaille : maintenance complexe en cas d'volution^ Factoriser les comportements n'a malheureusement pas que des avantages. Luke? Les fonctions sont devenues interdpendantes : une simple mise jour du logiciel un point donn, peut impacter en cascade une multitude d'autres fonctions. On The Western A Movie To Make You Think? On peut minorer cet impact, pour peu qu'on utilise des fonctions plus gnriques et des structures de donnes ouvertes. Luke 23 43? Mais respecter ces contraintes rend l'criture du logiciel et sa maintenance plus complexe. En cas d'volution majeure du logiciel (passage de la gestion d'une bibliothque celle d'une mdiathque par exemple), le scnario est encore pire. On? Mme si la structure gnrale du logiciel reste valide, la multiplication des points de maintenance, engendre par le chanage des fonctions, rend l'adaptation trs laborieuse. Luke Meaning? Le logiciel doit tre retouch dans sa globalit : I-A-1-d. Pc Industry? La sparation des donnes et des traitements : le pige !^ Examinons le problme de l'volution de code fonctionnel plus en dtail.

Faire voluer une application de gestion de bibliothque pour grer une mdiathque, afin de prendre en compte de nouveaux types d'ouvrages (cassettes vido, CD-ROM, etc. 23 43 Meaning? ), ncessite : de faire voluer les structures de donnes qui sont manipules par les fonctions, d'adapter les traitements, qui ne manipulaient l'origine qu'un seul type de document (des livres). Il faudra donc modifier toutes les portions de code qui utilisent la base documentaire, pour grer les donnes et les actions propres aux diffrents types de documents. Il faudra par exemple modifier la fonction qui ralise l'dition des lettres de rappel (une lettre de rappel est une mise en demeure, qu'on envoie automatiquement aux personnes qui tardent rendre un ouvrage emprunt). Pc Industry? Si l'on dsire que le dlai avant rappel varie selon le type de document emprunt, il faut prvoir une rgle de calcul pour chaque type de document. En fait, c'est la quasi-totalit de l'application qui devra tre adapte, pour grer les nouvelles donnes et raliser les traitements correspondants. 23 43? Et cela, chaque fois qu'on dcidera de grer un nouveau type de document ! I-A-1-e.

1re amlioration : rassembler les valeurs qui caractrisent un type, dans le type^ Une solution relativement lgante la multiplication des branches conditionnelles et des redondances dans le code (consquence logique d'une trop grande ouverture des donnes), consiste tout simplement centraliser dans les structures de donnes, les valeurs qui leurs sont propres : Quoi de plus logique ? En effet, le dlai avant dition d'une lettre de rappel est bien une caractristique propre tous les ouvrages grs par notre application. Mais cette solution n'est pas encore optimale ! I-A-1-f. Pc Industry? 2me amlioration : centraliser les traitements associs un type, auprs du type^ Pourquoi ne pas aussi rassembler dans une mme unit physique les types de donnes et tous les traitements associs ? Que se passerait-il par exemple si l'on centralisait dans un mme fichier, la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents et la fonction de calcul du dlai avant rappel ? Cela nous permettrait de retrouver en un clin d'oeil le bout de code qui est charg de calculer le dlai avant rappel d'un document, puisqu'il se trouve au plus prs de la structure de donnes concerne.

Ainsi, si notre mdiathque devait grer un nouveau type d'ouvrage, il suffirait de modifier une seule fonction (qu'on sait retrouver instannment), pour assurer la prise en compte de ce nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel. Luke? Plus besoin de fouiller partout dans le code. Ecrit en ces termes, notre logiciel sera plus facile maintenir et bien plus lisible. Colloquial Examples? Le stockage et le calcul du dlai avant rappel des documents, est dsormais assur par une seule et unique unit physique (quelques lignes de code, rapidement identifiables). Pour accder la caractristique dlai avant rappel d'un document, il suffit de rcuprer la valeur correspondante parmi les champs qui dcrivent le document.

Pour assurer la prise en compte d'un nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel, il suffit de modifier une seule fonction, situe au mme endroit que la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents : En rsum : centraliser les donnes d'un type et les traitements associs, dans une mme unit physique, permet de limiter les points de maintenance dans le code et facilite l'accs l'information en cas d'volution du logiciel : Les modifications que nous avons apport notre logiciel de gestion de mdiathque, nous ont amen transformer ce qui tait l'origine une structure de donnes, manipule par des fonctions, en une entit autonome, qui regroupe un ensemble de proprits cohrentes et de traitements associs. Luke 23 43? Une telle entit s'appelle. Overview Of Service Dominant Essay? un objet et constitue le concept fondateur de l'approche du mme nom ! Un objet est une entit aux frontires prcises qui possde une identit (un nom). Luke 23 43 Meaning? Un ensemble d'attributs caractrise l'tat de l'objet. Essay Trends? Un ensemble d'oprations (mthodes) en dfinissent le comportement. 23 43? Un objet est une instance de classe (une occurrence d'un type abstrait). Devil? Une classe est un type de donnes abstrait, caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes des objets et permettant de crer des objets possdant ces proprits.

I-A-2. Luke 23 43? Quels sont les autres concepts importants de l'approche objet ?^ Consiste masquer les dtails d'implmentation d'un objet, en dfinissant une interface. Overview Logic? L'interface est la vue externe d'un objet, elle dfinit les services accessibles (offerts) aux utilisateurs de l'objet. Luke? L'encapsulation facilite l'volution d'une application car elle stabilise l'utilisation des objets : on examples, peut modifier l'implmentation des attributs d'un objet sans modifier son interface. 23 43 Meaning? L'encapsulation garantit l'intgrit des donnes, car elle permet d'interdire l'accs direct aux attributs des objets (utilisation d'accesseurs). L'hritage est un mcanisme de transmission des proprits d'une classe (ses attributs et mthodes) vers une sous-classe. Essay On? Une classe peut tre spcialise en d'autres classes, afin d'y ajouter des caractristiques spcifiques ou d'en adapter certaines. 23 43? Plusieurs classes peuvent tre gnralises en une classe qui les factorise, afin de regrouper les caractristiques communes d'un ensemble de classes. West Germanic? La spcialisation et la gnralisation permettent de construire des hirarchies de classes. 23 43? L'hritage peut tre simple ou multiple.

L'hritage vite la duplication et encourage la rutilisation. Pc Industry? Le polymorphisme reprsente la facult d'une mthode pouvoir s'appliquer des objets de classes diffrentes. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Le polymorphisme augmente la gnricit du code. Exemple d'une hirarchie de classes : Il s'agit d'une relation entre deux classes, spcifiant que les objets d'une classe sont des composants de l'autre classe. Une relation d'agrgation permet donc de dfinir des objets composs d'autres objets. Pc Industry? L'agrgation permet d'assembler des objets de base, afin de construire des objets plus complexes.

I-A-2-d. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Rsum sur les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet^ la notion d'objet et de classe (d'objets) l'encapsulation (les interfaces des objets) l'hritage (les hirarchies d'objets) l'agrgation (la construction d'objets l'aide d'objets) Remarque : Les langages orients objet fournissent de nombreux autres mcanismes qui affinent ces concepts de base, favorisent la gnricit du code ou amliorent sa robustesse. I-A-2-e.

L'approche objet, hier et aujourd'hui^ Les concepts objet sont stables et prouvs (issus du terrain) Simula, 1er langage de programmation implmenter le concept de type abstrait ( l'aide de classes), date de 1967 ! En 1976 dj, Smalltalk implmente les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet (encapsulation, agrgation, hritage) l'aide de : classes associations entre classes hirarchies de classes messages entre objets Le 1er compilateur C++ date de 1980, et C++ est normalis par l'ANSI. All Quiet On The A Movie To Make You Think? De nombreux langages orients objets acadmiques ont tays les concepts objets : Eiffel, Objective C, Loops. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Les concepts objet sont anciens, mais ils n'ont jamais t autant d'actualit L'approche fonctionnelle n'est pas adapte au dveloppement d'applications qui voluent sans cesse et dont la complexit croit continuellement. Essay Trends? L'approche objet a t invente pour faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes.

De nos jours, les outils orients objet sont fiables et performants Les compilateurs C++ produisent un code robuste et optimis. Meaning? De trs nombreux outils facilitent le dveloppement d'applications C++ : gnrateurs d'IHM (Ilog Views, TeleUse. Dominant Logic Essay? ) bibliothques (STL, USL, Rogue Wave, MFC. Luke 23 43 Meaning? ) environnements de dveloppement intgrs (Developper Studio, Sniff+. Essay? ) outils de qualimtrie et de tests (Cantata++, Insure++, Logiscope. Luke 23 43? ) bases de donnes orientes objet (O2, ObjectStore, Versant. Examples? ) I-A-2-f. Meaning? L'approche objet : une solution parfaite ?^ Un ensemble de concepts stables, prouvs et normaliss. Friend Devil? Une solution destine faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes. Luke? Une panoplie d'outils et de langages performants pour le dveloppement. Malgr les apparences, il est plus naturel pour nos esprits cartsiens, de dcomposer un problme informatique sous forme d'une hirarchie de fonctions atomiques et de donnes, qu'en terme d'objets et d'interaction entre ces objets. West Germanic? De plus, le vocabulaire prcis est un facteur d'chec important dans la mise en oeuvre d'une approche objet.

L'approche objet est moins intuitive que l'approche fonctionnelle ! Quels moyens utiliser pour faciliter l'analyse objet ? Quels critres identifient une conception objet pertinente ? Comment comparer deux solutions de dcoupe objet d'un systme ? L'application des concepts objets ncessite une grande rigueur ! Le vocabulaire est prcis (risques d'ambiguts, d'incomprhensions). 23 43? Comment dcrire la structure objet d'un systme de manire pertinente ? I-A-2-g. Essay Trends? Quels sont les remdes aux inconvnients de l'approche objet ?^ Un langage pour exprimer les concepts objet qu'on utilise, afin de pouvoir : Reprsenter des concepts abstraits (graphiquement par exemple). Luke? Limiter les ambiguts (parler un langage commun). Essay On Trends? Faciliter l'analyse (simplifier la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions). 23 43 Meaning? Une dmarche d'analyse et de conception objet, pour : Ne pas effectuer une analyse fonctionnelle et se contenter d'une implmentation objet, mais penser objet ds le dpart. Arnold? Dfinir les vues qui permettent de couvrir tous les aspects d'un systme, avec des concepts objets. Bref : il nous faut un outil qui apporte une dimension mthodologique l'approche objet, afin de mieux matriser sa richesse et sa complexit.

I-B. 23 43 Meaning? Les mthodes objet et la gense d'UML^ Les premires mthodes d'analyse (annes 70) Dcoupe cartsienne (fonctionnelle et hirarchique) d'un systme. Overview Dominant Essay? L'approche systmique (annes 80) Modlisation des donnes + modlisation des traitements (Merise, Axial, IE. Meaning? ). Pc Industry? L'mergence des mthodes objet (1990-1995) Prise de conscience de l'importance d'une mthode spcifiquement objet : comment structurer un systme sans centrer l'analyse uniquement sur les donnes ou uniquement sur les traitements (mais sur les deux) ? Plus de 50 mthodes objet sont apparues durant cette priode (Booch, Classe-Relation, Fusion, HOOD, OMT, OOA, OOD, OOM, OOSE. Meaning? ) ! Aucun mthode ne s'est rellement impose. Front: Essay? Les premiers consensus (1995) OMT (James Rumbaugh) : vues statiques, dynamiques et fonctionnelles d'un systme Issue du centre de RD de General Electric. Luke 23 43? Notation graphique riche et lisible. Essay Trends? OOD (Grady Booch) : vues logiques et physiques du systme Dfinie pour le DOD, afin de rationaliser de dveloppement d'applications ADA, puis C++. 23 43? Ne couvre pas la phase d'analyse dans ses 1res versions (prconise SADT).

Introduit le concept de package (lment d'organisation des modles) OOSE (Ivar Jacobson) : couvre tout le cycle de dveloppement Issue d'un centre de dveloppement d'Ericsson, en Sude. Pc Industry? La mthodologie repose sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs. Luke 23 43? L'unification et la normalisation des mthodes (1995-1997) UML (Unified Modeling Langage), la fusion et synthse des mthodes dominantes : UML aujourd'hui : un standard incontournable UML est le rsultat d'un large consensus (industriels, mthodologistes. On The Western Front: A To Make? ). Luke Meaning? UML est le fruit d'un travail d'experts reconnus. Pc Industry? UML est issu du terrain. Luke? UML est riche (il couvre toutes les phases d'un cycle de dveloppement). All Quiet On The A? UML est ouvert (il est indpendant du domaine d'application et des langages d'implmentation). Luke? Aprs l'unification et la standardisation, bientt l'industrialisation d'UML : les outils qui supportent UML se multiplient (GDPro, ObjectTeam, Objecteering, OpenTool, Rational Rose, Rhapsody, STP, Visio, Visual Modeler, WithClass. Pc Industry? ). 23 43? XMI (format d'change standard de modles UML). Colloquial Examples? UML volue mais reste stable ! L'OMG RTF (nombreux acteurs industriels) centralise et normalise les volutions d'UML au niveau international. Luke 23 43? Les groupes d'utilisateurs UML favorisent le partage des expriences. All Quiet Western A Movie? De version en version, UML gagne en maturit et prcision, tout en restant stable.

UML inclut des mcanismes standards d'auto-extension. Luke 23 43 Meaning? La description du mtamodle d'UML est standardise (OMG-MOF). UML n'est pas une mode, c'est un investissement fiable ! Si l'on parle de mthode objet pour UML, c'est par abus de langage ! Ce constat vaut aussi pour OMT ou d'autres techniques / langages de modlisation. Colloquial Language? Une mthode propose aussi un processus, qui rgit notamment l'enchanement des activits de production d'une entreprise. Luke? UML a t pens pour permettre de modliser les activits de l'entreprise, pas pour les rgir (ce n'est pas CMM ou SPICE).

Un processus de dveloppement logiciel universel est une utopie : Impossible de prendre en compte toutes les organisations et cultures d'entreprises. On? Un processus est adapt (donc trs li) au domaine d'activit de l'entreprise. Luke Meaning? Mme si un processus constitue un cadre gnral, il faut l'adapter de manire prcise au contexte de l'entreprise. UML est fond sur un mtamodle, qui dfinit : les lments de modlisation (les concepts manipuls par le langage), la smantique de ces lments (leur dfinition et le sens de leur utilisation). West Germanic? Un mtamodle est une description trs formelle de tous les concepts d'un langage. 23 43 Meaning? Il limite les ambiguts et encourage la construction d'outils.

Le mtamodle d'UML permet de classer les concepts du langage (selon leur niveau d'abstraction ou domaine d'application) et expose sa structure. All Quiet A Movie To Make You Think Essay? Le mtamodle UML est lui-mme dcrit par un mta-mtamodle (OMG-MOF). Meaning? UML propose aussi une notation, qui permet de reprsenter graphiquement les lments de modlisation du mtamodle. On? Cette notation graphique est le support du langage UML. diffrentes vues (perspectives) complmentaires d'un systme, qui guident l'utilisation des concept objets, plusieurs niveaux d'abstraction, qui permettent de mieux contrler la complexit dans l'expression des solutions objets. Sa notation graphique permet d'exprimer visuellement une solution objet.

L'aspect formel de sa notation limite les ambiguts et les incomprhensions. Meaning? Son aspect visuel facilite la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions. Pc Industry? Son indpendance (par rapport aux langages d'implmentation, domaine d'application, processus. 23 43? ) en font un langage universel. I-C. Pc Industry? Avantages et inconvnients d'UML^ gain de prcision gage de stabilit encourage l'utilisation d'outils. Il cadre l'analyse. Luke Meaning? Il facilite la comprhension de reprsentations abstraites complexes.

Son caractre polyvalent et sa souplesse en font un langage universel. La mise en pratique d'UML ncessite un apprentissage et passe par une priode d'adaptation. Mme si l'Espranto est une utopie, la ncessit de s'accorder sur des modes d'expression communs est vitale en informatique. Colloquial? UML n 'est pas l'origine des concepts objets, mais en constitue une tape majeure, car il unifie les diffrentes approches et en donne une dfinition plus formelle. Or, l'intgration d'UML dans un processus n'est pas triviale et amliorer un processus est un tche complexe et longue. Les auteurs d'UML sont tout fait conscients de l'importance du processus, mais l'acceptabilit industrielle de la modlisation objet passe d'abord par la disponibilit d'un langage d'analyse objet performant et standard.

Un modle est une abstraction de la ralit. L'abstraction est un des piliers de l'approche objet. Il s'agit d'un processus qui consiste identifier les caractristiques intressantes d'une entit, en vue d'une utilisation prcise. 23 43 Meaning? L'abstraction dsigne aussi le rsultat de ce processus, c'est--dire l'ensemble des caractristiques essentielles d'une entit, retenues par un observateur. Overview Essay? Un modle est une vue subjective mais pertinente de la ralit Un modle dfinit une frontire entre la ralit et la perspective de l'observateur. Meaning? Ce n'est pas la ralit, mais une vue trs subjective de la ralit. Colloquial Language? Bien qu'un modle ne reprsente pas une ralit absolue, un modle reflte des aspects importants de la ralit, il en donne donc une vue juste et pertinente. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Quelques exemples de modles Modle mtorologique : partir de donnes d'observation (satellite . Arnold Friend Devil? ), permet de prvoir les conditions climatiques pour les jours venir. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Modle conomique : peut par exemple permettre de simuler l'volution de cours boursiers en fonction d'hypothses macro-conomiques (volution du chmage, taux de croissance. A Movie? ). Luke 23 43? Modle dmographique : dfinit la composition d'un panel d'une population et son comportement, dans le but de fiabiliser des tudes statistiques, d'augmenter l'impact de dmarches commerciales, etc. Essay Trends? Caractristiques fondamentales des modles. Le caractre abstrait d'un modle doit notamment permettre : de faciliter la comprhension du systme tudi.

Un modle rduit la complexit du systme tudi. Luke 23 43 Meaning? de simuler le systme tudi. Un modle reprsente le systme tudi et reproduit ses comportements. Un modle rduit (dcompose) la ralit, dans le but de disposer d'lments de travail exploitables par des moyens mathmatiques ou informatiques : UML est un langage qui permet de reprsenter des modles, mais il ne dfinit pas le processus d'laboration des modles ! Cependant, dans le cadre de la modlisation d'une application informatique, les auteurs d'UML prconisent d'utiliser une dmarche : itrative et incrmentale, guide par les besoins des utilisateurs du systme, centre sur l'architecture logicielle. D'aprs les auteurs d'UML, un processus de dveloppement qui possde ces qualits devrait favoriser la russite d'un projet. II-B-1. Devil? Une dmarche itrative et incrmentale ?^ L'ide est simple : pour modliser (comprendre et reprsenter) un systme complexe, il vaut mieux s'y prendre en plusieurs fois, en affinant son analyse par tapes. Luke Meaning? Cette dmarche devrait aussi s'appliquer au cycle de dveloppement dans son ensemble, en favorisant le prototypage.

Le but est de mieux matriser la part d'inconnu et d'incertitudes qui caractrisent les systmes complexes. II-B-2. Overview Of Service Dominant Logic Essay? Une dmarche pilote par les besoins des utilisateurs ?^ Le primtre du systme modliser est dfini par les besoins des utilisateurs (les utilisateurs dfinissent ce que doit tre le systme). Luke 23 43 Meaning? Le but du systme modliser est de rpondre aux besoins de ses utilisateurs (les utilisateurs sont les clients du systme).

A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on Essay on, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs. 23 43 Meaning? A chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on pc industry, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs. Luke Meaning? A chaque itration de la phase de test, on All Quiet Western Front: A Movie To Make You Think, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. II-B-3. Luke Meaning? Une dmarche centre sur l'architecture ?^ Une architecture adapte est la cl de vote du succs d'un dveloppement. Elle dcrit des choix stratgiques qui dterminent en grande partie les qualits du logiciel (adaptabilit, performances, fiabilit. On The You Think? ). Cette vue (4+1) a fortement inspir UML : II-B-4. Luke 23 43? Dfinir une architecture avec UML (dtail de la vue 4+1)^ Cette vue de haut niveau se concentre sur l'abstraction et l'encapsulation, elle modlise les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme.

Elle identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). All Quiet Western A To Make You Think? Cette vue organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, isoler ce qui est propre une version donne, etc. Cette vue de bas niveau (aussi appele vue de ralisation), montre : L'allocation des lments de modlisation dans des modules (fichiers sources, bibliothques dynamiques, bases de donnes, excutables, etc. 23 43? ). Western Front: Movie? En d'autres termes, cette vue identifie les modules qui ralisent (physiquement) les classes de la vue logique. 23 43? L'organisation des composants, c'est--dire la distribution du code en gestion de configuration, les dpendances entre les composants. West Germanic? Les contraintes de dveloppement (bibliothques externes. 23 43? ). Pc Industry? La vue des composants montre aussi l'organisation des modules en sous-systmes, les interfaces des sous-systmes et leurs dpendances (avec d'autres sous-systmes ou modules). Cette vue est trs importante dans les environnements multitches ; elle montre : La dcomposition du systme en terme de processus (tches). Luke 23 43 Meaning? Les interactions entre les processus (leur communication). Of Service Dominant Essay? La synchronisation et la communication des activits parallles (threads). Cette vue trs importante dans les environnements distribus, dcrit les ressources matrielles et la rpartition du logiciel dans ces ressources := La disposition et nature physique des matriels, ainsi que leurs performances. Luke? L'implantation des modules principaux sur les noeuds du rseau.

Les exigences en terme de performances (temps de rponse, tolrance aux fautes et pannes. Colloquial Language Examples? ). Cette vue (dont le nom exact est vue des cas d'utilisation), guide toutes les autres. Meaning? Dessiner le plan (l'architecture) d'un systme informatique n'est pas suffisant, il faut le justifier ! Cette vue dfinit les besoins des clients du systme et centre la dfinition de l'architecture du systme sur la satisfaction (la ralisation) de ces besoins. All Quiet Front: To Make Essay? A l'aide de scnarios et de cas d'utilisation, cette vue conduit la dfinition d'un modle d'architecture pertinent et cohrent. Luke 23 43? Cette vue est la colle qui unifie les quatre autres vues de l'architecture. On Trends? Elle motive les choix, permet d'identifier les interfaces critiques et force se concentrer sur les problmes importants. Modliser une application ? Mais comme UML n'est pas un processus. Quelle dmarche utiliser ? Optez pour une approche itrative et incrmentale.

Centrez votre dmarche sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs. Luke 23 43? Prenez grand soin la dfinition de l'architecture de votre application (l'approche 4+1 permet de mieux la cerner). Bien qu'UML n'est pas un processus, il facilite une dmarche d'analyse itrative et incrmentale, base sur les niveaux d'abstraction. Pc Industry? Les niveaux d'abstraction permettent de structurer les modles. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Un micro-processus rgit les itrations niveau d'abstraction constant. West Germanic? Un macro-processus rgit le passage de niveau niveau. Luke 23 43? Une dmarche incrmentale consiste construire les modles de spcification et de conception en plusieurs tapes (cible = catgories). Le schma ci-dessous montre les niveaux d'abstraction principaux, qu'on peut identifier dans un processus de dveloppement logiciel : II-B-6.

Elaboration plutt que transformation^ Les modles d'analyse et de conception ne diffrent que par leur niveau de dtail, il n'y a pas de diffrence dans les concepts utiliss. Overview Dominant Logic? UML n'introduit pas d'lments de modlisation propres une activit (analyse, conception. Luke 23 43 Meaning? ) ; le langage reste le mme tous les niveaux d'abstraction. L'laboration encourage une approche non linaire (les retours en arrire entre niveaux d'abstraction diffrents sont facilits). On Trends? La traabilit entre modles de niveaux diffrents est assure par l'unicit du langage.

II-B-7. Luke Meaning? Dtail des diffrents niveaux d'abstraction (phases du macro-processus)^ L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le dossier d'expression des besoins client. Arnold? A ce niveau d'abstraction, on 23 43 meaning, doit capturer les besoins principaux des utilisateurs. All Quiet On The A Essay? Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Le but de la conceptualisation est : de dfinir le contour du systme modliser (de spcifier le quoi), de capturer les fonctionnalits principales du systme, afin d'en fournir une meilleure comprhension (le modle produit sert d'interface entre les acteurs du projet), de fournir une base la planification du projet. L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le modle des besoins clients (les cas d'utilisation UML). Luke 23 43 Meaning? Il s'agit de modliser les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme.

On identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). Overview? A ce stade, on luke meaning, organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, etc. A ce niveau, on friend devil, modlise les aspects informatiques du systme, sans pour autant rentrer dans les dtails d'implmentation. Luke 23 43? Les interfaces des lments de modlisation sont dfinis (cf. West Germanic? encapsulation). 23 43? Les relations entre les lments des modles sont dfinies. Essay? Les lments de modlisation utiliss peuvent tre propres une version du systme. On y modlise tous les rouages d'implmentation et on luke meaning, dtaille tous les lments de modlisation issus des niveaux suprieurs.

Les modles sont optimiss, car destins tre implments. II-B-8. Arnold Devil? Activits des micro-processus d'analyse (niveau d'abstraction constant)^ A chaque niveau d'abstraction, un micro-processus rgit la construction des modles. Meaning? UML ne rgit pas les activits des micro-processus, c'est le principe d'abstraction qui permet l'laboration itrative et incrmentale des modles.

Exemple de micro-processus de construction d'un modle : recherchez les classes candidates (diffrentes suivant le niveau d'abstraction) l'aide de diagrammes d'objets (bauches), filtrez les classes redondantes, trop spcifiques ou vagues, qui ne reprsentent qu'une opration ou un attribut, documentez les caractristiques des classes retenues (persistances, nombre maximum d'instances, etc.). recherchez les connexions smantiques et les relations d'utilisation, documentez les relations (nom, cardinalits, contraintes, rles des classes. Essay? ), en spcification, filtrez les relations instables ou d'implmentation, dfinissez la dynamique des relations entre objets (les interactions entre instances de classes et les activits associes). recherchez les attributs dans les modles dynamiques (recherchez les donnes qui caractrisent les tats des objets), filtrez les attributs complexes (faites-en des objets) et au niveau spcification, ne reprsentez pas les valeurs internes propres aux mcanismes d'implmentation, recherchez les oprations parmi les activits et actions des objets (ne pas rentrer dans le dtail au niveau spcification). choisissez vos critres d'optimisation (gnricit, volutivit, prcision, lisibilit, simplicit. Meaning? ), utilisez la gnralisation et la spcialisation (classification), documentez et dtaillez vos modles, encapsulez. vrifiez la cohrence, la compltude et l'homognit des modles, confrontez les modles la critique (comit de relecture. Colloquial? ). Modliser une application n'est pas une activit linaire. itrative et incrmentale (grce aux niveaux d'abstraction), car il est plus efficace de construire et valider par tapes, ce qui est difficile cerner et matriser, centre sur l'architecture (dfinie par la vue 4+1), car il s'agit de la cl de vote qui conditionne la plupart des qualits d'une application informatique, guide par la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs ( l'aide des cas d'utilisation), car ce qui motive l'existence mme du systme concevoir, c'est la satisfaction des besoins de ses utilisateurs. OK pour la dmarche d'laboration d'un modle, mais. II-B-10-a. 23 43 Meaning? Comment rdiger un modle avec UML ?^ UML permet de dfinir et de visualiser un modle, l'aide de diagrammes.

Un diagramme UML est une reprsentation graphique, qui s'intresse un aspect prcis du modle ; c'est une perspective du modle, pas le modle. Pc Industry? Chaque type de diagramme UML possde une structure (les types des lments de modlisation qui le composent sont prdfinis). Luke 23 43 Meaning? Un type de diagramme UML vhicule une smantique prcise (un type de diagramme offre toujours la mme vue d'un systme). Overview Dominant Logic Essay? Combins, les diffrents types de diagrammes UML offrent une vue complte des aspects statiques et dynamiques d'un systme. Luke Meaning? Par extension et abus de langage, un diagramme UML est aussi un modle (un diagramme modlise un aspect du modle global). II-B-10-b. Pc Industry? Quelques caractristiques des diagrammes UML^

Les diagrammes UML supportent l'abstraction. Luke 23 43? Leur niveau de dtail caractrise le niveau d'abstraction du modle. Western Front: To Make Essay? La structure des diagrammes UML et la notation graphique des lments de modlisation est normalise (document UML notation guide). Luke 23 43? Rappel : la smantique des lments de modlisation et de leur utilisation est dfinie par le mtamodle UML (document UML semantics). West Germanic? Le recours des outils appropris est un gage de productivit pour la rdaction des diagrammes UML, car : ils facilitent la navigation entre les diffrentes vues, ils permettent de centraliser, organiser, partager, synchroniser et versionner les diagrammes (indispensable avec un processus itratif), facilitent l'abstraction, par des filtres visuels, simplifient la production de documents et autorisent (dans certaines limites) la gnration de code.

II-B-10-c. Meaning? Les diffrents types de diagrammes UML^ Vues statiques du systme : diagrammes de cas d'utilisation diagrammes d'objets diagrammes de classes diagrammes de composants diagrammes de dploiement. Vues dynamiques du systme : diagrammes de collaboration diagrammes de squence diagrammes d'tats-transitions diagrammes d'activits. Les paquetages sont des lments d'organisation des modles. Pc Industry? Ils regroupent des lments de modlisation, selon des critres purement logiques. 23 43 Meaning? Ils permettent d'encapsuler des lments de modlisation (ils possdent une interface).

Ils permettent de structurer un systme en catgories (vue logique) et sous-systmes (vue des composants). Of Service Logic Essay? Ils servent de briques de base dans la construction d'une architecture. Luke Meaning? Ils reprsentent le bon niveau de granularit pour la rutilisation. Language? Les paquetages sont aussi des espaces de noms. II-C-1-b.

Paquetages : relations entre paquetages^ II-C-2-a. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Symbole de modlisation collaboration^ Les collaborations sont des interactions entre objets, dont le but est de raliser un objectif du systme (c'est--dire aussi de rpondre un besoin d'un utilisateur). Colloquial Examples? L'lment de modlisation UML collaboration, reprsente les classes qui participent la ralisation d'un cas d'utilisation. Attention : ne confondez pas l'lment de modlisation collaboration avec le diagramme de collaboration, qui reprsente des interactions entre instances de classes. II-C-3. Luke? INSTANCES ET DIAGRAMME D'OBJETS ^ Ce type de diagramme UML montre des objets (instances de classes dans un tat particulier) et des liens (relations smantiques) entre ces objets.

Les diagrammes d'objets s'utilisent pour montrer un contexte (avant ou aprs une interaction entre objets par exemple). Logic Essay? Ce type de diagramme sert essentiellement en phase exploratoire, car il possde un trs haut niveau d'abstraction. II-C-4-a. Meaning? Classe : smantique et notation^ Une classe est un type abstrait caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes un ensemble d'objets et permettant de crer des objets ayant ces proprits. Classe = attributs + mthodes + instanciation. Il s'agit juste d'un filtre visuel, destin donner un certain niveau d'abstraction son modle.

De mme, ne pas spcifier les niveaux de protection des membres d'une classe ne veut pas dire qu'on ne reprsente que les membres publics. Pc Industry? L aussi, il s'agit d'un filtre visuel. Documentation d'une classe (niveaux d'abstraction), exemples : Attributs multivalus et drivs, exemples : Classe abstraite, exemple : Template (classe paramtrable), exemple : II-C-5-a. Meaning? Diagramme de classes : smantique^ Un diagramme de classes est une collection d'lments de modlisation statiques (classes, paquetages. Friend? ), qui montre la structure d'un modle. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Un diagramme de classes fait abstraction des aspects dynamiques et temporels. Essay Trends? Pour un modle complexe, plusieurs diagrammes de classes complmentaires doivent tre construits.

les classes qui participent un cas d'utilisation (cf. Luke 23 43 Meaning? collaboration), les classes associes dans la ralisation d'un scnario prcis, les classes qui composent un paquetage, la structure hirarchique d'un ensemble de classes. On? Pour reprsenter un contexte prcis, un diagramme de classes peut tre instanci en diagrammes d'objets. Une association exprime une connexion smantique bidirectionnelle entre deux classes. Luke 23 43? L'association est instanciable dans un diagramme d'objets ou de collaboration, sous forme de liens entre objets issus de classes associes. II-C-5-c. Pc Industry? Documentation d'une association et types d'associations^ Association en forme verbale active : prcise le sens de lecture principal d'une association.

Voir aussi : association navigabilit restreinte. Rles : spcifie la fonction d'une classe pour une association donne (indispensable pour les associations rflexives). Cardinalits : prcise le nombre d'instances qui participent une relation. Relation de dpendance : relation d'utilisation unidirectionnelle et d'obsolescence (une modification de l'lment dont on luke 23 43 meaning, dpend, peut ncessiter une mise jour de l'lment dpendant). Association navigabilit restreinte. Par dfaut, une association est navigable dans les deux sens.

La rduction de la porte de l'association est souvent ralise en phase d'implmentation, mais peut aussi tre exprime dans un modle pour indiquer que les instances d'une classe ne connaissent pas les instances d'une autre. Association n-aire : il s'agit d'une association qui relie plus de deux classes. Note : de telles associations sont difficiles dchiffrer et peuvent induire en erreur. Pc Industry? Il vaut mieux limiter leur utilisation, en dfinissant de nouvelles catgories d'associations. Classe d'association : il s'agit d'une classe qui ralise la navigation entre les instances d'autres classes. Qualification : permet de slectionner un sous-ensemble d'objets, parmi l'ensemble des objets qui participent une association.

La restriction de l'association est dfinie par une cl, qui permet de slectionner les objets cibls. Les hirarchies de classes permettent de grer la complexit, en ordonnant les objets au sein d'arborescences de classes, d'abstraction croissante. Dmarche descendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits d'un ensemble d'objets, non discrimins par les classes dj identifies. 23 43? Consiste tendre les proprits d'une classe, sous forme de sous-classes, plus spcifiques (permet l'extension du modle par rutilisation). Dmarche ascendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits communes d'un ensemble d'objets, issus de classes diffrentes. Pc Industry? Consiste factoriser les proprits d'un ensemble de classes, sous forme d'une super-classe, plus abstraite (permet de gagner en gnricit). L'hritage (spcialisation et gnralisation) permet la classification des objets.

Une bonne classification est stable et extensible : ne classifiez pas les objets selon des critres instables (selon ce qui caractrise leur tat) ou trop vagues (car cela gnre trop de sous-classes). Luke? Les critres de classification sont subjectifs. Pc Industry? Le principe de substitution (Liksow, 1987) permet de dterminer si une relation d'hritage est bien employe pour la classification : Il doit tre possible de substituer n'importe quel instance d'une super-classe, par n'importe quel instance d'une de ses sous-classes, sans que la smantique d'un programme crit dans les termes de la super-classe n'en soit affecte. Luke Meaning? Si Y hrite de X, cela signifie que Y est une sorte de X (analogies entre classification et thorie des ensembles). L'agrgation est une association non symtrique, qui exprime un couplage fort et une relation de subordination. Pc Industry? Elle reprsente une relation de type ensemble / lment. Luke 23 43 Meaning? UML ne dfinit pas ce qu'est une relation de type ensemble / lment, mais il permet cependant d'exprimer cette vue subjective de manire explicite. Overview Logic Essay? Une agrgation peut notamment (mais pas ncessairement) exprimer : qu'une classe (un lment) fait partie d'une autre (l'agrgat), qu'un changement d'tat d'une classe, entrane un changement d'tat d'une autre, qu'une action sur une classe, entrane une action sur une autre. Luke 23 43? A un mme moment, une instance d'lment agrg peut tre lie plusieurs instances d'autres classes (l'lment agrg peut tre partag). West Germanic? Une instance d'lment agrg peut exister sans agrgat (et inversement) : les cycles de vies de l'agrgat et de ses lments agrgs peuvent tre indpendants.

La composition est une agrgation forte (agrgation par valeur). Luke? Les cycles de vies des lments (les composants) et de l'agrgat sont lis : si l'agrgat est dtruit (ou copi), ses composants le sont aussi. Pc Industry? A un mme moment, une instance de composant ne peut tre lie qu' un seul agrgat. Luke? Les objets composites sont des instances de classes composes. II-C-5-g. West Germanic? Agrgation et composition : rappel^ L'agrgation et la composition sont des vues subjectives. Meaning? Lorsqu'on reprsente (avec UML) qu'une molcule est compose d'atomes, on language, sous-entend que la destruction d'une instance de la classe Molcule, implique la destruction de ses composants, instances de la classe Atome (cf. Luke 23 43 Meaning? proprits de la composition).

Bien qu'elle ne reflte pas la ralit (rien ne se perd, rien ne se cre, tout se transforme), cette abstraction de la ralit nous satisfait si l'objet principal de notre modlisation est la molcule. Pc Industry? En conclusion, servez vous de l'agrgation et de la composition pour ajouter de la smantique vos modles lorsque cela est pertinent, mme si dans la ralit de tels liens n'existent pas ! Une interface fournit une vue totale ou partielle d'un ensemble de services offerts par une classe, un paquetage ou un composant. Luke? Les lments qui utilisent l'interface peuvent exploiter tout ou partie de l'interface. Overview Dominant Logic Essay? Dans un modle UML, le symbole interface sert identifier de manire explicite et symbolique les services offerts par un lment et l'utilisation qui en est faite par les autres lments. Les associations drives sont des associations redondantes, qu'on peut dduire d'une autre association ou d'un ensemble d'autres associations.

Elles permettent d'indiquer des chemins de navigation calculs, sur un diagramme de classes. Luke 23 43? Elles servent beaucoup la comprhension de la navigation (comment joindre telles instances d'une classe partir d'une autre). II-C-5-j. Language? Contrainte sur une association^ Les contraintes sont des expressions qui prcisent le rle ou la porte d'un lment de modlisation (elles permettent d'tendre ou prciser sa smantique). 23 43 Meaning? Sur une association, elles peuvent par exemple restreindre le nombre d'instances vises (ce sont alors des expressions de navigation).

Les contraintes peuvent s'exprimer en langage naturel. Pc Industry? Graphiquement, il s'agit d'un texte encadr d'accolades. UML formalise l'expression des contraintes avec OCL (Object Constraint Language). Luke 23 43? OCL est une contribution d'IBM UML 1.1. Friend Devil? Ce langage formel est volontairement simple d'accs et possde une grammaire lmentaire (OCL peut tre interprt par des outils). Luke 23 43? Il reprsente un juste milieu, entre langage naturel et langage mathmatique. West Germanic? OCL permet ainsi de limiter les ambiguts, tout en restant accessible. Meaning? OCL permet de dcrire des invariants dans un modle, sous forme de pseudo-code : pr et post-conditions pour une opration, expressions de navigation, expressions boolennes, etc. On? OCL est largement utilis dans la dfinition du mtamodle UML. Nous allons nous baser sur une tude de cas, pour introduire brivement OCL.

Monsieur Formulain, directeur d'une chane d'htels, vous demande de concevoir une application de gestion pour ses htels. Luke 23 43? Voici ce que vous devez modliser : Un htel Formulain est constitu d'un certain nombre de chambres. Colloquial Examples? Un responsable de l'htel gre la location des chambres. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Chaque chambre se loue un prix donn (suivant ses prestations). L'accs aux salles de bain est compris dans le prix de la location d'une chambre. Essay On? Certaines chambres comportent une salle de bain, mais pas toutes. Luke? Les htes de chambres sans salle de bain peuvent utiliser une salle de bain sur le palier.

Ces dernires peuvent tre utilises par plusieurs htes. Les pices de l'htel qui ne sont ni des chambres, ni des salles de bain (hall d'accueil, cuisine. West Germanic? ) ne font pas partie de l'tude (hors sujet). Des personnes peuvent louer une ou plusieurs chambres de l'htel, afin d'y rsider. Luke 23 43 Meaning? En d'autre termes : l'htel hberge un certain nombre de personnes, ses htes (il s'agit des personnes qui louent au moins une chambre de l'htel. Logic Essay? ). Le diagramme UML ci-dessous prsente les classes qui interviennent dans la modlisation d'un htel Formulain, ainsi que les relations entre ces classes. Attention : le modle a t rduit une vue purement statique.

La dynamique de l'interaction entre instances n'est pas donne ici, pour simplifier l'exemple. Meaning? Lors d'une modlisation complte, les vues dynamiques complmentaires ne devraient pas tre omises (tout comme la conceptualisation pralable par des use cases). Remarque : cet exemple est inspir d'un article paru dans JOOP (Journal of language examples Object Oriented Programming), en mai 99. OCL permet d'enrichir ce diagramme, en dcrivant toutes les contraintes et tous les invariants du modle prsent, de manire normalise et explicite ( l'intrieur d'une note rattache un lment de modlisation du diagramme). Voici quelques exemples de contraintes qu'on pourrait dfinir sur ce diagramme, avec la syntaxe OCL correspondante. Les exemples de syntaxe OCL ci-dessous ne sont pas dtaills, rfrez-vous au document de la norme UML adquat (OCL spcification). 23 43? Il ne s'agit l que d'un trs rapide aperu du pouvoir d'abstraction d'OCL. Les strotypes permettent d'tendre la smantique des lments de modlisation : il s'agit d'un mcanisme d'extensibilit du mtamodle d'UML. On? Les strotypes permettent de dfinir de nouvelles classes d'lments de modlisation, en plus du noyau prdfini par UML. Luke 23 43? Utilisez les strotypes avec modration et de manire concerte (notez aussi qu'UML propose de nombreux strotypes standards).

II-C-6. Friend Devil? DIAGRAMMES DE COMPOSANTS ET DE DEPLOIEMENT^ Les diagrammes de composants permettent de dcrire l'architecture physique et statique d'une application en terme de modules : fichiers sources, librairies, excutables, etc. Ils montrent la mise en oeuvre physique des modles de la vue logique avec l'environnement de dveloppement. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Les dpendances entre composants permettent notamment d'identifier les contraintes de compilation et de mettre en vidence la rutilisation de composants. Arnold? Le composants peuvent tre organiss en paquetages, qui dfinissent des sous-systmes. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Les sous-systmes organisent la vue des composants (de ralisation) d'un systme. Pc Industry? Ils permettent de grer la complexit, par encapsulation des dtails d'implmentation.

Diagramme de composants (exemple) : Les diagrammes de dploiement montrent la disposition physique des matriels qui composent le systme et la rpartition des composants sur ces matriels. 23 43? Les ressources matrielles sont reprsentes sous forme de noeuds. Colloquial Language? Les noeuds sont connects entre eux, l'aide d'un support de communication. La nature des lignes de communication et leurs caractristiques peuvent tre prcises. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Les diagrammes de dploiement peuvent montrer des instances de noeuds (un matriel prcis), ou des classes de noeuds. West Germanic? Les diagrammes de dploiement correspondent la vue de dploiement d'une architecture logicielle (vue 4+1). II-D-1-a. Luke 23 43 Meaning? La conceptualisation : rappel^

Le but de la conceptualisation est de comprendre et structurer les besoins du client. West Germanic? Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Une fois identifis et structurs, ces besoins : dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. 23 43 Meaning? Le modle conceptuel doit permettre une meilleure comprhension du systme. Pc Industry? Le modle conceptuel doit servir d'interface entre tous les acteurs du projet. Luke Meaning? Les besoins des clients sont des lments de traabilit dans un processus intgrant UML. Il s'agit de la solution UML pour reprsenter le modle conceptuel. On Trends? Les use cases permettent de structurer les besoins des utilisateurs et les objectifs correspondants d'un systme. Luke Meaning? Ils centrent l'expression des exigences du systme sur ses utilisateurs : ils partent du principe que les objectifs du systme sont tous motivs. Examples? Ils se limitent aux proccupations relles des utilisateurs ; ils ne prsentent pas de solutions d'implmentation et ne forment pas un inventaire fonctionnel du systme. Luke 23 43 Meaning? Ils identifient les utilisateurs du systme (acteurs) et leur interaction avec le systme.

Ils permettent de classer les acteurs et structurer les objectifs du systme. Essay On? Ils servent de base la traabilit des exigences d'un systme dans un processus de dveloppement intgrant UML. Il tait une fois. Le modle conceptuel est le type de diagramme UML qui possde la notation la plus simple ; mais paradoxalement c'est aussi celui qui est le plus mal compris ! Au dbut des annes 90, Ivar Jacobson (inventeur de OOSE, une des mthodes fondatrices d'UML) a t nomm chef d'un norme projet informatique chez Ericsson. Luke 23 43? Le hic, c'est que ce projet tait rapidement devenu ingrable, les ingnieurs d'Ericsson avaient accouch d'un monstre. On? Personne ne savait vraiment quelles taient les fonctionnalits du produit, ni comment elles taient assures, ni comment les faire voluer. Classique lorsque les commerciaux promettent monts et merveilles tous les clients qu'ils dmarchent, sans se soucier des contraintes techniques, que les clients ne savent pas exprimer leurs besoins et que les ingnieurs n'ont pas les ressources pour dvelopper le mouton cinq pattes qui rsulte de ce chaos. Pour viter de foncer droit dans un mur et mener bien ce projet critique pour Ericsson, Jacobson a eu une ide.

Plutt que de continuer construire une tour de Babel, pourquoi ne pas remettre plat les objectifs rels du projet ? En d'autres termes : quels sont les besoins rels des clients, ceux qui conditionneront la russite du projet ? Ces besoins critiques, une fois identifis et structurs, permettront enfin de cerner ce qui est important pour la russite du projet. Le bnfice de cette dmarche simplificatrice est double. Meaning? D'une part, tous les acteurs du projet ont une meilleure comprhension du systme dvelopper, d'autre part, les besoins des utilisateurs, une fois clarifis, serviront de fil rouge, tout au long du cycle de dveloppement. A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on Essay, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs ; chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on meaning, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs et chaque itration de la phase de test, on on the Western Front: A Movie You Think, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. Simple mais gnial.

Pour la petite histoire, sachez que grce cette dmarche initie par Jacobson, Ericsson a russi mener bien son projet et a gagn une notorit internationale dans le march de la commutation. Morale de cette histoire : La dtermination et la comprhension des besoins sont souvent difficiles car les intervenants sont noys sous de trop grandes quantits d'informations. Meaning? Or, comment mener bien un projet si l'on ne sait pas o l'on va ? Conclusion : il faut clarifier et organiser les besoins des clients (les modliser). Un modle est une simplification de la ralit. On? Il permet de mieux comprendre le systme qu'on doit dvelopper. Luke 23 43? Les meilleurs modles sont proches de la ralit.

Les use cases, permettent de modliser les besoins des clients d'un systme et doivent aussi possder ces caractristiques. Ils ne doivent pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Les use cases ne doivent donc en aucun cas dcrire des solutions d'implmentation. West Germanic? Leur but est justement d'viter de tomber dans la drive d'une approche fonctionnelle, o l'on liste une litanie de fonctions que le systme doit raliser. Bien entendu, rien n'interdit de grer l'aide d'outils (Doors, Requisite Pro, etc. Luke 23 43? ) les exigences systmes un niveau plus fin et d'en assurer la traabilit, bien au contraire.

Mais un modle conceptuel qui identifie les besoins avec un plus grand niveau d'abstraction reste indispensable. Pc Industry? Avec des systmes complexes, filtrer l'information, la simplifier et mieux l'organiser, c'est rendre l'information exploitable. 23 43? Produisez de l'information phmre, complexe et confuse, vous obtiendrez un joyeux dsordre (pour rester poli). Utilisez les use cases tels qu'ils ont t pens par leurs crateurs ! UML est issu du terrain. All Quiet On The Western To Make? Si vous utilisez les use cases sans avoir en tte la dmarche sous-jacente, vous n'en tirerez aucun bnfice. II-D-1-c. 23 43 Meaning? Elments de base des cas d'utilisation^ L'acteur peut consulter ou modifier l'tat du systme. On? En rponse l'action d'un acteur, le systme fournit un service qui correspond son besoin. 23 43 Meaning? Les acteurs peuvent tre classs (hirarchiss).

Les uses cases peuvent tre structurs. Friend Devil? Les uses cases peuvent tre organiss en paquetages (packages). 23 43? L'ensemble des use cases dcrit les objectifs (le but) du systme. Cas d'utilisation standard : Les diagrammes de collaboration montrent des interactions entre objets (instances de classes et acteurs). Essay On? Ils permettent de reprsenter le contexte d'une interaction, car on luke 23 43, peut y prciser les tats des objets qui interagissent. II-D-2-a. Essay? Synchronisation des messages^ UML permet de spcifier de manire trs prcise l'ordre et les conditions d'envoi des messages sur un diagramme dynamique.

Pour chaque message, il est possible d'indiquer : les clauses qui conditionnent son envoi, son rang (son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages), sa rcurrence, ses arguments. pr : prdcesseurs (liste de numros de squence de messages spars par une virgule ; voir aussi sq). Indique que le message courant ne sera envoy que lorsque tous ses prdcesseurs le seront aussi (permet de synchroniser l'envoi de messages). Luke 23 43? cond : garde, expression boolenne. Permet de conditionner l'envoi du message, l'aide d'une clause exprime en langage naturel. West Germanic? sq : numro de squence du message. Indique le rang du message, c'est--dire son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages.

Les messages sont numrots la faon de chapitres dans un document, l'aide de chiffres spars par des points. Luke 23 43? Ainsi, il est possible de reprsenter le niveau d'embotement des messages et leur prcdence. Exemple : l'envoi du message 1.3.5 suit immdiatement celui du message 1.3.4 et ces deux messages font partie du flot (de la famille de messages) 1.3. Pour reprsenter l'envoi simultan de deux messages, il suffit de les indexer par une lettre. Exemple : l'envoi des messages 1.3.a et 1.3.b est simultan. Of Service? iter : rcurrence du message. Permet de spcifier en langage naturel l'envoi squentiel (ou en parallle, avec ||) de messages. Luke Meaning? Notez qu'il est aussi possible de spcifier qu'un message est rcurrent en omettant la clause d'itration (en n'utilisant que * ou *||). Overview Of Service Logic Essay? r : valeur de retour du message.

Permet d'affecter la valeur de retour d'un message, pour par exemple la retransmettre dans un autre message, en tant que paramtre. 23 43 Meaning? msg : nom du message. Essay? par : paramtres (optionnels) du message. UML permet de reprsenter des communications entre objets actifs de manire concurrente. Luke Meaning? Cette extension des diagrammes de collaboration permet notamment de reprsenter des communications entre processus ou l'excution de threads. II-D-3-a. West Germanic? Diagramme de squence : smantique^ Les diagrammes de squences permettent de reprsenter des collaborations entre objets selon un point de vue temporel, on 23 43, y met l'accent sur la chronologie des envois de messages. On The Western To Make Essay? Contrairement au diagramme de collaboration, on 23 43, n'y dcrit pas le contexte ou l'tat des objets, la reprsentation se concentre sur l'expression des interactions. All Quiet On The Front: You Think? Les diagrammes de squences peuvent servir illustrer un cas d'utilisation.

L'ordre d'envoi d'un message est dtermin par sa position sur l'axe vertical du diagramme ; le temps s'coule de haut en bas de cet axe. Luke 23 43? La disposition des objets sur l'axe horizontal n'a pas de consquence pour la smantique du diagramme. Colloquial Language Examples? Les diagrammes de squences et les diagrammes d'tat-transitions sont les vues dynamiques les plus importantes d'UML. Comme vous pouvez le voir dans l'exemple ci-dessus, UML propose un certain nombre de strotypes graphiques pour dcrire la nature du message (ces strotypes graphiques s'appliquent galement aux messages des diagrammes de collaborations) : Message dont on meaning, ne spcifie aucune caractristique d'envoi ou de rception particulire. Devil? message minut (timeout) Bloque l'expditeur pendant un temps donn (qui peut tre spcifi dans une contrainte), en attendant la prise en compte du message par le rcepteur. Meaning? L'expditeur est libr si la prise en compte n'a pas eu lieu pendant le dlai spcifi. Colloquial Language Examples? message synchrone. Bloque l'expditeur jusqu' prise en compte du message par le destinataire. Luke? Le flot de contrle passe de l'metteur au rcepteur (l'metteur devient passif et le rcepteur actif) la prise en compte du message. Language Examples? message asynchrone.

N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur. 23 43? Le message envoy peut tre pris en compte par le rcepteur tout moment ou ignor (jamais trait). Trends? message drobant. N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur et ne dclenche une opration chez le rcepteur que s'il s'est pralablement mis en attente de ce message. Sur un diagramme de squence, il est aussi possible de reprsenter de manire explicite les diffrentes priodes d'activit d'un objet au moyen d'une bande rectangulaire superpose la ligne de vie de l'objet. On peut aussi reprsenter des messages rcursifs, en ddoublant la bande d'activation de l'objet concern. Pour reprsenter de manire graphique une excution conditionnelle d'un message, on 23 43 meaning, peut documenter un diagramme de squence avec du pseudo-code et reprsenter des bandes d'activation conditionnelles. Ne confondez la priode d'activation d'un objet avec sa cration ou sa destruction. Overview Of Service Essay? Un objet peut tre actif plusieurs fois au cours de son existence (voir exemple ci-dessus). Luke 23 43? Le pseudo-code peut aussi tre utilis pour indiquer des itrations (avec incrmentation d'un paramtre d'un message par exemple). Pc Industry? Le retour des messages asynchrones devrait toujours tre matrialis, lorsqu'il existe. Luke 23 43? Notez qu'il est fortement recommand de synchroniser vos messages, comme sur l'exemple qui suit.

L'exemple qui suit prsente aussi une alternative intressante pour la reprsentation des branchements conditionnels. West Germanic? Cette notation est moins lourde que celle utilise dans l'exemple ci-dessus. 23 43? Prfrez aussi l'utilisation de contraintes celle de pseudo-code, comme dans l'exemple qui suit. Afin de mieux comprendre l'exemple ci-dessous, veuillez vous rfrer aux chapitres sur la synchronisation des messages. Language Examples? Notez aussi l'utilisation des contraintes pour documenter les conditions d'envoi de certains messages. Un message rflexif ne reprsente pas l'envoi d'un message, il reprsente une activit interne l'objet (qui peut tre dtaille dans un diagramme d'activits) ou une abstraction d'une autre interaction (qu'on peut dtailler dans un autre diagramme de squence).

II-D-4-a. 23 43? Diagramme d'tats-transitions : smantique^ Ce diagramme sert reprsenter des automates d'tats finis, sous forme de graphes d'tats, relis par des arcs orients qui dcrivent les transitions. West Germanic? Les diagrammes d'tats-transitions permettent de dcrire les changements d'tats d'un objet ou d'un composant, en rponse aux interactions avec d'autres objets/composants ou avec des acteurs. Meaning? Un tat se caractrise par sa dure et sa stabilit, il reprsente une conjonction instantane des valeurs des attributs d'un objet. West Germanic? Une transition reprsente le passage instantan d'un tat vers un autre.

Une transition est dclenche par un vnement. 23 43 Meaning? En d'autres termes : c'est l'arrive d'un vnement qui conditionne la transition. Pc Industry? Les transitions peuvent aussi tre automatiques, lorsqu'on ne spcifie pas l'vnement qui la dclenche. Luke? En plus de spcifier un vnement prcis, il est aussi possible de conditionner une transition, l'aide de gardes : il s'agit d'expressions boolennes, exprimes en langage naturel (et encadres de crochets). tats, transition et vnement, notation : II-D-4-b. Overview Of Service? Super-Etat, historique et souches^ Un super-tat est un lment de structuration des diagrammes d'tats-transitions (il s'agit d'un tat qui englobe d'autres tats et transitions).

Le symbole de modlisation historique, mmorise le dernier sous-tat actif d'un super-tat, pour y revenir directement ultrieurement. Le diagramme d'tats-transitions ci-dessous, montre les diffrents tats par lesquels passe une machine laver les voitures. En phase de lustrage ou de lavage, le client peut appuyer sur le bouton d'arrt d'urgence. Luke Meaning? S'il appuie sur ce bouton, la machine se met en attente. On The Movie To Make Essay? Il a alors deux minutes pour reprendre le lavage ou le lustrage (la machine continue en phase de lavage ou de lustrage, suivant l'tat dans lequel elle a t interrompue), sans quoi la machine s'arrte. Luke 23 43? En phase de schage, le client peut aussi interrompre la machine. Colloquial Language? Mais dans ce cas, la machine s'arrtera dfinitivement (avant de reprendre un autre cycle entier).

On peut aussi associer une action l'vnement qui dclenche une transition. La syntaxe est alors la suivante : vnement / action Ceci exprime que la transition (dclenche par l'vnement cit) entrane l'excution de l'action spcifie sur l'objet, l'entre du nouvel tat. Exemple : il pleut / ouvrir parapluie Une action correspond une opration disponible dans l'objet dont on luke meaning, reprsente les tats. Pc Industry? Les actions propres un tat peuvent aussi tre documentes directement l'intrieur de l'tat. UML dfinit un certain nombre de champs qui permettent de dcrire les actions dans un tat : entry / action : action excute l'entre de l'tat exit / action : action excute la sortie de l'tat on 23 43, vnement / action : action excute chaque fois que l'vnement cit survient do / action : action rcurrente ou significative, excute dans l'tat. Attention, les actions attaches aux clauses entry et exit ne sont pas excutes si l'vnement spcifi dans la clause on Dominant Essay, survient. Luke Meaning? Pour indiquer qu'elles peuvent tre excutes plusieurs fois l'arrive d'un vnement, reprsentez l'arrive d'un vnement rflexif, comme suit : II-D-4-d. Of Service Dominant Logic Essay? Etats concurrents et barre de synchronisation^ Pour reprsenter des tats concurrents sur un mme diagramme d'tats-transitions, on luke meaning, utilise la notation suivante : Dans l'exemple ci-dessus, l'automate K est compos des sous-automates L et M. L et M s'activent simultanment et voluent en parallle. On The Western A To Make? Au dpart, l'objet dont on luke 23 43, modlise les tats par l'automate K est dans l'tat composite (E-L1, E-M1).

Aprs l'vnement Tr1, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). Overview Of Service Logic Essay? Par la suite, si l'vnement Tr2 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2). Luke 23 43? Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, M ne passe pas dans l'tat E-M1, car cette transition est contrainte par l'tat de L ([in E-L3]). Dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2), si Tr3 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). Arnold? Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M1). Luke 23 43 Meaning? Et ainsi de suite. Attention : la numrotation des vnements n'est pas significative.

Pour synchroniser les sous-automates d'une agrgation d'tats, il faut contraindre les transitions, comme dans l'exemple ci-dessus ([in E-L3]). La barre de synchronisation permet de reprsenter graphiquement des points de synchronisation. All Quiet On The Front: A To Make? Les transitions automatiques qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Luke 23 43? On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. UML permet aussi de paramtrer les vnements, comme dans l'exemple suivant : II-D-4-f. Friend Devil? Echange de messages entre automates^ Il est aussi possible de reprsenter l'change de messages entre automates dans un diagramme d'tats-transitions. Luke 23 43? Cette notation particulire n'est pas prsente ici. Essay? Veuillez vous rfrer l'UML notation guide. II-D-5-a.

Diagramme d'activits : smantique^ UML permet de reprsenter graphiquement le comportement d'une mthode ou le droulement d'un cas d'utilisation, l'aide de diagrammes d'activits (une variante des diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Luke Meaning? Une activit reprsente une excution d'un mcanisme, un droulement d'tapes squentielles. West Germanic? Le passage d'une activit vers une autre est matrialis par une transition. Luke? Les transitions sont dclenches par la fin d'une activit et provoquent le dbut immdiat d'une autre (elles sont automatiques). Western Front: A Movie To Make Essay? En thorie, tous les mcanismes dynamiques pourraient tre dcrits par un diagramme d'activits, mais seuls les mcanismes complexes ou intressants mritent d'tre reprsents. activits et transition, notation : Pour reprsenter des transitions conditionnelles, utilisez des gardes (expressions boolennes exprimes en langage naturel), comme dans l'exemple suivant : Il est possible de synchroniser les transitions l'aide des barres de synchronisation (comme dans les diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Les transitions qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Luke Meaning? On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. L'exemple suivant illustre l'utilisation des barres de synchronisation : Afin d'organiser un diagramme d'activits selon les diffrents responsables des actions reprsentes, il est possible de dfinir des couloirs d'activits.

Il est mme possible d'identifier les objets principaux, qui sont manipuls d'activits en activits et de visualiser leur changement d'tat. Programmer en C++ n'est pas concevoir objet ! Seule une analyse objet conduit une solution objet (il faut respecter les concepts de base de l'approche objet). All Quiet On The Western Front: Movie You Think? Le langage de programmation est un moyen d'implmentation, il ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet. Luke 23 43? UML n'est qu'un support de communication ! L'utilisation d'UML ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet : vous de vous en servir bon escient. Concevoir objet, c'est d'abord concevoir un modle qui respecte les concepts objet ! Le langage et UML ne sont que des outils.

Multipliez les vues sur vos modles ! Un diagramme n'offre qu'une vue trs partielle et prcise d'un modle. All Quiet A Movie You Think? Croisez les vues complmentaires (dynamiques / statiques). Luke 23 43 Meaning? Restez simple ! Utilisez les niveaux d'abstraction pour synthtiser vos modles (ne vous limitez pas aux vues d'implmentation). Language? Ne surchargez pas vos diagrammes. Meaning? Commentez vos diagrammes (notes, texte. All Quiet Western A? ). Luke 23 43 Meaning? Utilisez des outils appropris pour raliser vos modles ! Vous avez aim ce tutoriel ? Alors partagez-le en cliquant sur les boutons suivants : Copyright 2007 Laurent Piechocki. West Germanic? Aucune reproduction, même partielle, ne peut être faite de ce site et de l'ensemble de son contenu : textes, documents, images, etc. 23 43 Meaning? sans l'autorisation expresse de l'auteur.

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Don#039;t Write Comics: How To Write Comics Part 1. Don't Write Comics is a multi-part essay about writing comics, understanding what your options are, finding the right artist, and everything you need to do to 23 43 get a strong comic book pitch package together. If you’re interested in comics solely because you think it might be easy or that it might be a shortcut to another end (like having a movie made of arnold friend devil your comic) let me just stop you right here and point you towards the exit. While it's true that some screenplays get reverse engineered into luke meaning, comics, and then after being successful comics are turned into successful films (30 Days of Night springs to mind), there's nothing quick and easy about making comics. In fact, if you’re not well connected to artists (and possibly some publishers) and/or willing to lay out your own money upfront in some cases, then it can be the very opposite of quick and easy. In order to arnold devil make good comics, I truly believe you have to already love comics. It’s the love that’s going to get you through.

So you’ve made it this farwhich means you either do have a love of meaning comics, or you’ve decided to ignore my advice - in which case I’m not sure why you’re reading on, but whatever, you’re here! First and arnold friend, foremost, I would suggest identifying what kind of book best fits your idea. Because we are assuming you are not already a well-established comics professional, we’re going to assume that you’re not pitching an 23 43 meaning, ongoing series (i.e. a comic series that has no definitive end). In fact, let’s just list out west germanic, what your options are and we’ll go from there. One-Shot: A one-shot is simply that, it’s one comic book (generally between 20 and luke meaning, 22 pages depending on devil the publisher) that tells a complete story. Luke Meaning! This is probably not the venue for you as one-shots are not only All Quiet on the To Make You Think Essay very difficult to do successfully, they are also not a great jumping in point unless you’ve been commissioned to do one.

Anthologies : Anthologies are collections of short comic stories. And it's one of the 23 43, best ways to get your foot in the door -- creating a solid short piece and getting it accepted to devil an anthology, or banding together with talented similarly motivated friends to luke 23 43 create an anthology of your own. Short comic stories, just like prose, take a very particular set of skills, but getting a publisher to friend take a chance on luke meaning you for one short piece (a short story could range anywhere from on the Front: A Movie one page to more than a dozen) can be easier since they're risking less page space (and money) on an unknown. Mini-Series: A mini-series is also exactly what it sounds like. It’s a small series of luke meaning single issue comics most mini-series run from 4 to 6 issues in length (so if you figure 22 pages per issue you’re looking at between 88 and 132 pages total). There are some 3-issue minis out there as well as the of Service, rare 7 or 8-issue series. Anything at luke meaning, 9-issues or above likely falls into a “Maxi-series” category, these are less common and pc industry, generally run between 9 and luke 23 43, 12 issues. Ongoing: An ongoing comic is a comic that has no intended end. While it will likely end at some point, it is not designed that way. It is open-ended and continuing. Like a one-shot, this is usually not the kind of book you want to pitch unless you are established already or have been asked to pitch (in which case, why are you reading this?

You already know what you're doing). An ongoing, depending on the ownership of the concept and characters, can continue on, even once the creative team leaves. For example Batman is an ongoing title. Trade Paperback aka TPB aka Trade : Trade Paperbacks are collections of single issues that come in two forms. The first collects an arc from an pc industry, ongoing run, and packages it as one volume.

The second collects a completed mini-series into one volume. Most publishers these days like to release a mini-series in single issues and then, once the meaning, entire series has released, they will bundle it together into a trade and release it for a price that is slightly less than buying the arnold devil, issues individually. Many publishers have adopted this method of luke 23 43 meaning late as it not only allows them to sell the book twice once as a monthly, and once as a trade - but it also makes it easier to Overview get those trades onto bookstore and library shelves. Luke! To add a bit of west germanic confusion, technically a Trade Paperback can also be a Hardcover, but is usually still called a Trade (see the Batwoman hardcover edition below). Sometimes collected trades include an intro or foreward. They can also include additional material like covers, sketches, and notes from creators. Graphic Novel: A graphic novel is considered a longer comic book and luke 23 43, it's designed to be released as one volume, as opposed to smaller pieces. Arnold Friend! Graphic Novels are published by both comics’ publishers and by regular publishing houses with regularity. Graphic Novels are all the rage these days, and they're great things, but you should understand that they're essentially longer and meaning, complete comic books. On! Comics is not a bad word, though in comparison to the much more hip graphic novel it seems to have become one. Webcomic : There are a million ways to do webcomics these days.

From posting randomly on a blog or tumblr, to posting with a weekly or daily schedule, from releasing a page at a time that appears like a regular comics page and contributes to a larger story, to releasing only fully realized strips. There are many sites that host webcomics, and there are some VERY successful webcomics out there like Kate Beaton’s Hark A Vagrant! which is brilliant. But like any other medium, there's a lot of dreck out there, so while this avenue might eliminate the publisher for luke 23 43 meaning you, you’ll still have to arnold devil find a way to rise to the top and get noticed, which can be difficult. Most people writing a comic for the first time should aim for the mini-series category, which, if you do it correctly, can also overlap with Graphic Novels, giving you a little more flexibility about where you can pitch and how you can organize things. 23 43! We’re going to talk more about how to actually write the language examples, comic in the next installment, but you should definitely be thinking a bit about length here. CAN you tell your story in 132 pages? If not, what’s it going to 23 43 take? After identifying how you should package your story, you should certainly identify what your genre is. Though I like to assume anyone that does any kind of writing knows the difference between medium and genre, I will admit that I’ve come across a lot of people that get confused about these two categories when it comes to comics, so I’ll break it down just in colloquial examples case.

The medium is comics. Period. The genre can be anything from memoir or horror to superhero to luke western. You should definitely know, with ease, what genre your story falls under, or if it’s a hybrid of a couple genres like a superhero comedy, etc. There are other things to Essay Trends consider here as they relate to the artwork inside, tone, color, font, panel layout, etc., but we’ll cross that bridge when we get to 23 43 it, further down in west germanic the process. If you are already a big comics fan, then you probably have already done all the reading you need to luke 23 43 do, but if you’re fairly new to the medium then I suggest, the same way I would for prose, that the best education is west germanic reading a lot of great comics. Reading great comics can teach you all kinds of 23 43 things about how much text works on a page, what kind of visuals might be a good fit for your story, and perhaps most importantly, pacing. Pacing is, for colloquial my money, one of the single greatest things that differentiate a great comic book from a good comic book. And while a lot of this is going to have to do with your artist (and picking the correct artist) down the line, you can really set the 23 43 meaning, pace and west germanic, tone by how you initially lay out the story in 23 43 meaning your script, thus guiding your artist to the result you’re looking for.

I would suggest reading a wide breadth of comics, so you can get a feel for everything that’s out there, but you should certainly look at books in your genre especially closely. Really examine what works and doesn’t work and why, the same way you would with prose. And while reading great books is always helpful, sometimes reading mediocre or bad books can be equally as helpful in illustrating what not to Overview Logic do. 23 43! While I don’t urge people to west germanic waste money on bad comics, a day spent at a comic book store, reading through a lot of luke 23 43 different books (but make sure to buy some good ones support your local comic book store!) can teach you a lot. Pc Industry! The library is also a great resource if you have one with a good comics graphic novel section. Every book I mentioned above I'd recommend reading, as well as these and 23 43, these!

Writing comics is simply not the of Service Logic, same as writing prose. Though it's closer to meaning writing screenplays, it's still quite a bit different, even when it comes to formatting. So you may need some more specific (and more professional) help as you continue your research. While there is certainly a deluge of information out there, much of it bad, some of it is also very good. One book on Trends my reading list when I was at the Savannah College of Art and luke meaning, Design studying comics (yes, that’s an actual major, if you’re insane, as I apparently am) was Scott McCloud’s Understanding Comics . It was then, and is now, one of the friend, best books I’ve ever read about luke meaning, comics. It breaks down both the broad and the detailed into west germanic, easy to understand pieces. It’s a book I would never part with and 23 43, have referred to Essay frequently over the years. Luke 23 43! If there is west germanic a single book you buy in your attempt to begin writing comics, this is the book.

If you’re looking for a little more guidance, I’ve found Alan Moore’s Writing For Comics is a great resource about the writing side of comics, and Jessica Abel and Matt Madden’s Mastering Comics , a sequel of luke meaning sorts to their popular Drawing Words Pictures is also good. Mastering Comics is not for the light of heart, as it’s more like a great textbook and includes activities, homework, and even extra credit. So now you have your story idea, an idea of what format it should be, what genre you’re working in, and you’ve researched your competition and looked at Essay on Trends, some educational booksI think you’re ready to write. So come back next month to figure out where to luke 23 43 meaning begin. I’ll be using an example from a mini-series pitch I put together with artist Meredith McClaren this past spring to Essay Trends help illustrate some of the hurdles we faced and luke 23 43, how we solved them. Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art. Mastering Comics: Drawing Words Writing Pictures Continued.

Alan Moore's Writing For Comics Volume 1. Kelly Thompson is the author of two crowdfunded self-published novels. Of Service Dominant! The Girl Who Would be King (2012), was funded at over $26,000, was an Amazon Best Seller, and has been optioned by fancy Hollywood types. Luke! Her second novel, Storykiller (2014), was funded at nearly $58,000 and remains in the Top 10 most funded Kickstarter novels of all time. She also wrote and co-created the arnold friend devil, graphic novel Heart In A Box (2015) for Dark Horse Comics. She's currently managed by Susan Solomon-Shapiro of Circle of luke Confusion. To leave a comment Login with Facebook or create a free account. I look forward to the rest of this series as I'm currently in the middle of deciding if I want to dive into the world of comics/graphic novels. While I already knew of some of your recommended books there were a couple I hadn't found yet.

So thanks for that. I'm currently listening to pc industry the iFanBoy/Comics Experience podcast. I'm also excited about the brand new Kids' Comics Revolution podcast which focuses on luke meaning making/writing comics and graphic novels for kids. If anybody knows of any other good making comics podcasts I'd love to hear about of Service Essay, them. And yes, the luke meaning, library is invaluable for All Quiet A Movie To Make You Think Essay reading as many graphic novels as possible especially if they do inter-library loaning as they do in my county's library system. I'm a big fan of First Second Books and I'm pretty much going to be able to meaning read their whole catalog via the library.

Great article. I’m taking the Graphic Novel Writing class on the site, so this article is well timed. The Aqua Man comic is hilarious. I just bought a bunch of arnold how to books on comics including the McCloud and Moore book you list here. Meaning! They’re both great reads, but McCloud takes it to another level.

It’s such a good book. I also picked up Eisner’s Comics and Sequential art and Warren Ellis’s Come in Overview of Service Essay Alone. I can’t wait to read the rest of the articles. One thing I've noticed is that there is 23 43 a big difference between writer/artists and writers. That is, even if the writer ISN'T the west germanic, artist for luke the comic in Overview of Service Dominant Essay question, they are still an artist, and luke 23 43 meaning, approach the writing differently than someone like myself, who can, in a pinch, draw stick figures. I know I personally vaccillate between thinking im too sparse and not giving the artist enough description, and pc industry, thinking that I'm trying to do their job for luke 23 43 meaning them with my words, rather than letting them create from my basic descriptions. @Tim: Great! Then I hope this series is helpful to you. :)

I have a podcast but it's not regularly about process. We do have interviews with comics writers and artists pretty much every episode. All Quiet On The A Movie To Make You Think Essay! so a little bit of process always does get discussed. So far we've had on Scott Snyder, Cliff Chiang, Kelly Sue DeConnick, J.H. Williams, Marjorie Liu, Fiona Staples, Duane Swierczynski, Faith Erin Hicks, Ross Campbell, and coming up, one of my favorites - Brian Wood. Here's the luke 23 43, link if you want to check it out. @Korey: Good luck to you in the class!

It's true that McCloud's book is on the Western Front: Movie To Make You Think Essay really above and beyond. 23 43! I haven't read the Ellis yet, but he's a favorite comics writer of mine, so it's on west germanic my list. @Alex: I absolutely agree with that. And that will be discussed (to a degree) in part two and three of the series. I would also say that every artist is 23 43 meaning different and you have to learn how to write for each of them. Pc Industry! some definitely need more and some do better with less. 23 43! It's an art. Colloquial! ;) great post, Kelly!! i like how you're tackling this stuff. @Ross: Thanks Ross. You know, you and luke 23 43 meaning, Nick really influenced the way I approached this series - so credit is largely due to you - I'm glad you're enjoying it. Totally forgot about this column! Off to read the rest of it! i dnt now how to rite a comic.

i dnt now how to rite a comic. Read this series a few weeks ago and I must say, it was a very useful read. I've been plugging away on a sci-fi comic book for a while now. It's still in it's infancy but I'm determined to see it through. It's really cool to pc industry hear about other women creating comic book stories.

Comics are such a male dominated industry that sometimes I forget that we (female comic book readers/writers/artists/etc.) ARE out there. Meaning! We have our own distinct voices and stories to arnold tell and it is inspiring to know that other women love this medium and have a desire to work in 23 43 this industry as much as I do. I remember when the kickstarter project began for Womanthology : Heroic, I almost peed myself with excitement. (Okay, not literally.) To see and west germanic, read about the numerous women involved in this anthology was astounding. 23 43! I hope your series, and others like it, will motivate and pc industry, direct both men AND women with a passion for comics to meaning heed their calling. I've encounter a situation where a publisher requests that I send in an Inquiry Letter detailing my experience and why I wish to write.

Well, I do not have writing experience as they would account for it. I am a federal government employee who does some creative writing for pleasure, but has never published anything. I've written factsheets, newsletter articles, and memos for dissemination to federal, state, and local level government offices, nothing of pc industry a creative nature. So, what do recommend in situation such as this? In addition, is ageism a problem for comic book writers? I'm over 40. It's certainly true that, like any industry or medium, breaking in is often the toughest part. Like with any job, nobody wants to hire you without experience, and you can't get experience without anyone hiring you. 23 43 Meaning! So you just have to pc industry have great ideas, write great scripts, find great artists, possibly invest some money so that you can produce impressive wok for those publishers to read, and keep trying. Luke 23 43! Small indie publishers will obviously be more willing to take a chance on an inexperienced writer.

If they're asking for what your experiences are, the only thing you can do is be honest. Arnold Friend! Detail (in brief) your extensive technical experience, and luke 23 43 meaning, say that you're trying to on the A You Think Essay switch gears and do not yet have any creative/fiction credits. I haven't encountered any issues with ageism in 23 43 meaning comics. I am under 40, but I'm no spring chicken. Though it might be hard for you to start up a second career (it's hard no matter what the field) to be honest, comics are predominantly written by older white males. so as long as your work is west germanic good, I can't imagine they're going to care. It is more advance when you have the idea of script writing and in poetry so you can put quality story on it. Then the artistic designs and 23 43, animations is what to be your next plan. Better graphic designs are better to use if you are using better type of printing, just as the digital print from west germanic http://www.digitekprinting.com/. I am a wannabe up and coming comics writer wanting to debut inthe world of comics. however the kind of comics I write/wamnt to make are French comics or Bande Dessinees (which is mnore like a hardback book than a comic issue) as I am aiming for 23 43 meaning the French market.

I am currently looking for an artist to draw my scenarios, also0 I do believe money is one of the issues faced by writers. in France and All Quiet on the Western Front: A Movie Essay, Italy the publisher pays the writers so there's no need to fund, but if you're starting out then a writer and an artist have a 50/50, in mainland europe this is the best way to work together. I am just wondering if anybody can help me with my situation. This is a great column, so thank you for writing it. I must admit, I know very little about 23 43, comics and I've read very few, yet I am in the middle of writing a series. It doesn't really fit in with any of the types mentioned in this article though it might be described as a cross between a very short miniseries (of 3 issues) and an ongoing comic which has the language examples, possibility of luke 23 43 ending after 12 issues or potentially going on forever.

We'll see how it goes. This article has been particularly useful though, so thanks :)