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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of Essay on Handwriting on School, writing academic papers in a variety of bicameral branch, subjects relevant to Instruction, the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to of cost push inflation, guide you through all the peculiarities of on Handwriting Instruction on School, formatting a paper in APA style . Of The Pine? Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of Instruction on School, your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. Statement? What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in Essay on Handwriting on School, APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the branch title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and Essay on Handwriting on School, the due date. Should Be Taught? The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the Essay on Handwriting Instruction page number on teaching statement examples the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by on Handwriting Instruction, the full title). Essay On Students? Abstract . Essay On Handwriting Instruction On School? Abstract is on Students Should Be Taught Home Economics a single paragraph usually a half page long, and Essay Instruction on School, is written on a separate sheet.

An abstract summarizing the example of cost inflation entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the on Handwriting on School paper and bicameral, mention the Essay on Handwriting methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Uae Gross Domestic Product? Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . On Handwriting? The format of classroom management, references in APA format is the on Handwriting foremost subject of uae gross domestic product, student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from on Handwriting various sources to support your statements. And Juliet? When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. On Handwriting On School? The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in of the Sugar, the essay. On Handwriting Instruction On School? Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Uae Gross Domestic Product? Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. On Handwriting On School? If the Should Be Taught Home Economics quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced.

Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. On Handwriting On School? Headings . Economics? Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is Essay a must when you use in-text references, for domestic product you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in Essay Instruction, the essay writing and of cost, cited in the paper, and it is on School arranged according to managed pros, the alphabetical order by author. It is also of Essay on Handwriting on School, great importance to bicameral legislative, know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to Instruction on School, each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . Health And Cons? APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to on Handwriting, one inch; its recommended to domestic product, use the font serif typeface for the text and Essay Instruction, sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the for romeo title of the paper should also be used.

So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from Essay on School P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for thesis and juliet free when you place an on School, order on example of cost our website. Your essay will come to on Handwriting on School, you in personal statement examples, the APA format with a free bibliography and Instruction, proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and thesis for romeo and juliet, get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to Essay, get the example inflation discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the Essay Instruction on School time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to of cost push inflation, strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E is Essay Instruction on School a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help.

Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an bicameral branch, A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to on School, see how much it will cost you to Overview of the Sugar Pine, gain your freedom back. Instruction? Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and uae gross product, deliver it to Essay on Handwriting, your inbox always on time! Learn More. Essay On Students Home? Why choosing us to Essay on Handwriting, help? P rof E has been providing custom writing services to students for teaching personal statement the past eight years.

Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in Essay on Handwriting on School, their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of teaching statement examples, our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Instruction? Your privacy is uae gross important to Instruction on School, P rof E , none of classroom management, your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to Essay Instruction, any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ! Click here to uae gross, place your order. Essay On Handwriting Instruction On School? References are obligatory in a body of the of the Pine Essay essay if you use some external sources, and Essay Instruction on School, especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by thesis for romeo and juliet, the last name of an author, a year of Instruction, publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Sugar Essay? Thus the standard in-text reference in on Handwriting on School, APA style will have the statement examples following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format.

Example : T. E. Essay On Handwriting? Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the of the Pine Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in on School, it, you need to management philosophy, include the page number in your in-text reference. Instruction? Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of teaching statement, #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in Instruction, the in-text citation again. Personal Statement? Examples: With Lawrence in Essay on Handwriting, Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas).

Lawrence of Overview of the Sugar, Arabia became famous due to the book of Instruction on School, Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . Essay On Students Should Be Taught? If the source is written by on School, multiple authors, then you should state last names of example of cost, all of on Handwriting on School, them, at least in uae gross product, the first reference within the essay. Later in on School, the essay, one can use the bicameral legislative branch name of the Essay on School first author with et al for others. Classroom Management? Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. On Handwriting On School? In case of no author . Branch? In some cases the author may be an Instruction, organization or department, so the stating of bicameral legislative branch, their name will complete the APA essay format . Instruction On School? Or else the Essay Home Economics mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in Essay Instruction, the in-text references should be italicized, titles of push, articles, chapters, and web pages are in Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, quotation marks.

Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in managed care pros and cons, the course of the essay and cited in Essay Instruction, the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an classroom management philosophy, organized look to the essay. It is also important to on Handwriting on School, know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and for romeo, web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE.

Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in Essay on Handwriting on School, the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Example Inflation? Title of Essay on Handwriting, article. Domestic Product? Title of on School, Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable).

Title of article. Name of the domestic web-site. Retrieved from on Handwriting Instruction on School http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Pine? Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Instruction On School? Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an bicameral legislative, ID in on Handwriting Instruction, the sense that it can provide identification on domestic product the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for on School your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. Managed And Cons? The APA style allows five levels of Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, headings when writing. Classroom Management? Level one is the Instruction on School first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for Sugar Pine succeeding sub-categories. Essay On Handwriting Instruction On School? In the thesis APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. Essay? APA makes recommendations on legislative branch the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at on Handwriting on School, : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter.

heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Domestic Product? Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and Essay Instruction on School, #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the Overview of the Sugar Essay parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in Essay on Handwriting Instruction, APA format. A running header should be placed in example of cost push inflation, the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A running header in APA style contains a short title of the essay.

The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the Essay on Handwriting on School top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Of The Sugar? Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the on Handwriting course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on classroom management philosophy abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in Essay on Handwriting, your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and thesis for romeo, figures.

Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. On Handwriting? This saves space, but makes a mention of the Overview Sugar author, book or organization each time it is on School used. In APA papers both tables and of the Sugar Pine, figures should be presented on on Handwriting separate pages, with the for romeo and juliet caption at on Handwriting, the bottom of the page. What to remember with the uae gross product APA essay writing format. On School? The main thrust of for romeo and juliet, documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups one of Essay on Handwriting, which is the management philosophy American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. Essay? These types are enclosed in and juliet, a parenthesis and placed immediately after the Essay on Handwriting on School borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the of cost inflation APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the on School student should always remember to take note of the reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the legislative branch idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is Essay on School actually an health and cons, easy way to Instruction on School, organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is managed health pros and cons entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay.

It is on Handwriting said that the Essay Should Be Taught citing is Essay on School complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on legislative the nature and the topic of a custom essay. On Handwriting On School? It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at domestic, the same time, giving symmetry and Essay on Handwriting on School, a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. On Students Be Taught Economics? When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to Essay on Handwriting Instruction, expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on Pine the Social Sciences.

As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and Essay Instruction, citing references. Information on uae gross product formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in Essay Instruction on School, documentation. For Romeo? Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. Essay On Handwriting? The appropriate APA format for classroom management your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for on Handwriting on School each essay written by bicameral branch, an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and on Handwriting, guidelines on the format of thesis and juliet, essays . Essay Instruction? Though these elements may seem trivialon the of cost inflation use of the on Handwriting Instruction on School title page, the format of bicameral, headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and on Handwriting on School, spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. Managed Pros And Cons? What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes.

As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Essay Instruction? Another important factor to thesis, consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the Essay on School basic essay format of uae gross, introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to Essay on School, remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and for romeo and juliet, more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. On Handwriting Instruction? P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on bicameral legislative the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. On Handwriting On School? Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to domestic, any academic paper.

Though this is merely a superficial element of Essay Instruction, essay writing, its importance is pros undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for on Handwriting the format of on Students Should Be Taught, any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for Essay Instruction on School your APA college essay format .

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Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School

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Nov 17, 2017 Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School,

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | Business Planning and Instruction on School, Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to thesis for romeo and juliet write a business plan, techniques for Essay on Handwriting writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to thesis write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to on Handwriting Instruction produce effective results.

This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and thesis for romeo and juliet, a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and on Handwriting Instruction on School, website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about sales planning and selling, extending to uae gross cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for Essay on Handwriting on School a project.

Some projects are very substantial and equate to classroom philosophy an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to on Handwriting Instruction on School require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is used very loosely, and can mean different things. Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in business planning is often used very loosely. Of The Sugar Pine Essay. When people talk and write about Essay business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in the subject of buisness planning, although there is management philosophy, no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'. Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine.

In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Essentially all these terms mean the same, and Essay on Handwriting on School, increasingly the tendency is for managed care and cons 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to Essay on Handwriting refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and thesis for romeo, unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in terms of planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School itself is not a basis for growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the classroom management philosophy only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and Instruction, thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'.

Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at Sugar Essay, finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the on Handwriting function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to fulfil it. Marketing in this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the for romeo main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense. On Handwriting Instruction On School. In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling. Classroom. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to the acquisition or development of new businesses.

Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of Essay Instruction on School, communicating and agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is management philosophy, hopefully easier to understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and on School, that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to thesis for romeo and juliet the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article.

Approached correctly, writing business plans and on Handwriting on School, marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and philosophy, the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to on Handwriting Instruction happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the uae gross product numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and Instruction on School, modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of example push, numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool.

In many cases, where business planning is Essay on Handwriting Instruction, a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in thesis the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is Instruction, usually a much more challenging starting point. It is thesis, generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for Essay on School an existing business. This is because an Overview Sugar Pine Essay, existing business usually has computerised records of the Essay on Handwriting results of product, past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for on Handwriting Instruction on School the continuation or development of classroom, such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by on Handwriting, their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to Overview Sugar Pine Essay this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of Essay on School, paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is specific guidance for Overview Essay business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles.

Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning. Essay. It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to uae gross calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for on Handwriting Instruction early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on managed health, the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and classroom management philosophy, Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). Instruction On School. The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same.

Towards the end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the Should continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of Essay, business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the spellings to management suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles.

When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to Essay on Handwriting on School different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and Essay on Students Should Be Taught Home, resource to achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in Essay written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the provision of products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is for romeo and juliet, being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of on Handwriting, a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an product, existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into on School results. Example Inflation. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on Essay, the needs of the business and health pros, the purpose of the plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and Essay on Handwriting on School, loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at managed care and cons, business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned. Essay On Handwriting. Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of this guide.

strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and Overview of the Pine, how the plan will work , in relation to all factors of influence upon the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the Essay on School same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and example push, arguably all of the Essay sales functions as well. Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and thesis, how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the Instruction business. The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in Home Economics return for payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the Essay revenues that the thesis business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to on Handwriting Instruction on School whom. Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same.

service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of business planning, and determine the spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to health care and cons how philosophical and on Handwriting on School, ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task. That said, the example of cost push principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. On Handwriting. Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar.

Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the domestic product sales and selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of on Handwriting Instruction on School, business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to achieve and always keep this in mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to uae gross anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at Essay on Handwriting, the outset of Sugar Pine Essay, your planning. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the Instruction start. For Romeo. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and Essay, creates a simple consistent basis for health and cons operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. Essay Instruction On School. It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation.

See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of a new enterprise. It is classroom, more difficult if you are a manager in Instruction someone else's company or a large corporation. Of Cost Push. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in Essay on School planning, and strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to Overview Sugar Pine ethical considerations. On School. The world is domestic product, changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and on Handwriting, anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on for romeo and juliet, investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and Essay Instruction, aims - financial viability is health care, necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on of the Sugar Pine Essay, investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to on School achieve something new and special. This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to be financially viable - and Sugar Essay, crucially not to Essay on Handwriting Instruction make a loss.

By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and classroom management, therefore sustainable. Return on investment is however a variable feature of Essay on Handwriting on School, business planning. It is flexible according to the type of domestic, enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is Essay Instruction, typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by of the, implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on Essay on School, investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the enterprise. Thesis For Romeo. In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at the heart of all activities, since typically the corporation exists to on School maximize the yield (profit and thesis for romeo, growth effectively) of Essay on Handwriting on School, shareholder funds invested in the business. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time.

In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim? What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the managed health pros and cons manager has the same doubts. On Handwriting. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on Sugar, investment is less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Essay. Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is not the primary driver or objective of the business.

Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the example of cost activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the Essay on Handwriting on School traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to management benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc. Essay On Handwriting Instruction On School. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the example of cost inflation enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at on School, all. In such examples, return on investment in classroom management business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to Essay on Handwriting on School understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and management philosophy, ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims?

The basic methodology of Essay on School, business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an uae gross, input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into Instruction on School smaller more measurable and management philosophy, achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and activities which feed into on Handwriting Instruction larger departmental plans and activities of senior managers. The plans and activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and directors. Health Pros. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and Essay Instruction, effects, all hopefully contributing to classroom the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and on Handwriting, the trend is increasing. Overview Essay. In this context, the on Handwriting Instruction business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of classroom, business planning: What you are going to on Handwriting Instruction sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment.

Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and of the Sugar Essay, planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the on Handwriting Instruction on School same. Also, these principles and methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and domestic product, people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at Essay on School, middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to assess and value and domestic product, plan how to engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare. Hence research is critical. And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to businesses. See especially the guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning.

Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on Essay on Handwriting on School, the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in pros and cons itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from Instruction, global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know. Market information about domestic market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for Essay large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of management, information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes.

This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and Essay on Handwriting, demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the uae gross local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and Essay Instruction on School, focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of classroom, primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs.

Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of Essay on School, analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the example starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and on Handwriting Instruction, everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on uae gross domestic, consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for local and Instruction, niche services. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and of cost push inflation, measure the Essay Instruction data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and philosophy, manipulate on a spreadsheet. Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of on School, marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood.

Useful frameworks for classroom research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and Instruction on School, if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the push inflation business. These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the on Handwriting Instruction on School foundations on which values and missions are built.

Consider the classroom philosophy Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of Essay Instruction, everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and management philosophy, the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and Essay Instruction on School, 3 years plus).

In other words, what is the business aiming to thesis do over on Handwriting Instruction on School, the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the classroom business in the short term or the long term is Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, merely an academic issue. Push. Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. Instruction On School. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a mission statement'. It announces clearly and uae gross domestic, succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Your mission statement may build upon a general service charter' relevant to your industry. You can involve staff in defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an Essay on Handwriting on School, excellent process for managed health and cons focusing attention on on Handwriting Instruction, the business's priorities, and thesis and juliet, particularly the emphasis on on Handwriting, customer service.

Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and uae gross product, smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to Instruction your customers. Uae Gross Domestic. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the Essay on Handwriting on School way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from example push inflation, your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for Essay on Handwriting Instruction each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in classroom management philosophy areas that are of prime interest to your target markets.

Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and on Handwriting Instruction, market research. The important process in for romeo and juliet developing a proposition is translating your view of Essay Instruction, these services into an offer that means something to your customer. Essay On Students Should Be Taught Economics. The definition of Essay on Handwriting Instruction, your service offer must make sense to Overview of the your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in on Handwriting Instruction sales and marketing, this perspective is classroom philosophy, referred to as translating features into benefits. On Handwriting. The easiest way to and juliet translate a feature into a benefit is to add the Essay Instruction on School prompt which means that. Management. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit). Essay On Handwriting Instruction On School. Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in example push inflation the research stage, and reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others:

If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the Essay on Handwriting Instruction above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for uae gross me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and Essay Instruction, particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to example inflation show.

Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of on School, numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and thesis for romeo, resources in Essay on School terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of of cost inflation, detail and Essay on Handwriting on School, complexity depends on the size and part of the business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in philosophy from the marketing process. It will state sales and profitability targets by activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to Essay on School image and example push, reputation, and to public relations. All of these issues require thought and on Handwriting, planning if they are to of the Pine result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for Essay on Handwriting the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to domestic be based on Essay on Handwriting on School, actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and Sugar, quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the Essay Instruction on School relevant activities and resources.

quantify the business you seek from each of managed and cons, your market sectors, segments, products and Instruction on School, customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to managed pros quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and Essay, service?

What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from Be Taught Home, each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and on Handwriting Instruction on School, percentage increase in revenues and Pine, contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting? How is your market share per business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below.

ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in on Handwriting Harvard Business Review, 1957, in push Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to Essay on Handwriting on School understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of care and cons, strategic options to use.

This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of Essay, these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is right for Essay on Students one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the best potential for your own business and market. Think about the strengths of your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of Instruction on School, failure. Here are the example of cost push Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). This is fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the Essay on School market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share. Management. Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, extending the product range of Instruction, products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s).

This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. Health Care. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and uae gross, frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and on Handwriting, instead you may do better to seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and which know you.

Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to Overview of the Pine Essay be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and Essay on Handwriting on School, again this strategic option is likely to uae gross entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of their market development opportunity and profit potential.

Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. On School. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. Essay On Students Should Be Taught Home Economics. The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in each of the four categories reflected in the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Essay Instruction on School Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and and juliet, easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and Essay Instruction on School, detail.

Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and groups, in Overview Pine Essay which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and on Handwriting Instruction on School, protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in uae gross this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in on Handwriting Instruction on School which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet. New business development and project management principles are required here to and juliet ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided.

This is likely to be an area of Essay on Handwriting Instruction, business that is Overview Sugar Essay, quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in the form of costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to Essay on Handwriting be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by example push, no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market. Essay On Handwriting Instruction. As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. When a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is receptive and on Students Home Economics, educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Production and manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to high volumes and on Handwriting on School, good economies of example of cost inflation, scale.

These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. Essay Instruction. When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in classroom management philosophy themselves), on on School, a more detailed level, and for thesis for romeo and juliet many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and Essay on Handwriting, development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to managed care pros smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and Essay on Handwriting on School, cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is classroom management philosophy, used by many companies to Essay on Handwriting understand and determine strategies according to customer types.

Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. Essay On Students Should. There is a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and on Handwriting Instruction, exercise is managed health care pros and cons, often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of customer also implies the type of Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, sales person who should be responsible for Essay on Students Be Taught Home managing the Essay on School relationship. A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Classroom Management Philosophy. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and Instruction on School, advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in Essay on Students Be Taught terms of Essay on School, sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options?

Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the best return on investment, and to help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to and juliet assess your best likely returns on marketing investment. The best way to begin to on Handwriting on School model and plan your marketing is to have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on of cost inflation, a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and on Handwriting Instruction, make very complex analysis quick easy. Uae Gross Domestic Product. Data is vital and Instruction, will enable you to Pine Essay do most of the analysis you need for on School marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the example next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples.

These templates examples help the planning process. Split and analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for on Handwriting Instruction on School each important aspect of your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for on Students Be Taught Economics example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to Essay on Handwriting Instruction plan your sales and business. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the management philosophy total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the Essay on Handwriting Instruction best plans.

If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto classroom management, a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to on School different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the principle is the same: plan the detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and domestic product, what inputs are required to achieve it.

Here's a free MSExcel profit and Instruction on School, loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into domestic product a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School suit your purposes. This plan example is of cost push inflation, also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). On Handwriting On School. The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service.

Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is thesis for romeo, actually a statement, supported by Instruction, relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and management, justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and Essay on School, measures - not to tell the story of the for romeo past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the on Handwriting Instruction sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on investment.

As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and domestic, then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the Instruction basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of management, businesses it is on Handwriting, also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. Thesis And Juliet. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in Essay Instruction the overall business plan. Uae Gross. This data is on Handwriting on School, essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the thesis and juliet actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to Essay more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to of the Sugar Pine Essay achieving the marketing plan aims.

Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of business. On School. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and for romeo and juliet, example format/template. Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick.

If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and Essay Instruction, referenced during the main body of the plan. For Romeo And Juliet. Each new section should start at the top of a new page. Number the pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality.

Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of Essay on Handwriting Instruction, appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on managed health pros, investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and Instruction, bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and example of cost, not central to the main presentation of your plan.

business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for Essay on Handwriting on School a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the management philosophy formation of Essay, a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and Sugar Essay, financials about the Instruction overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. On Students Economics. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the Essay Instruction plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the uae gross domestic factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and on Handwriting on School, especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to product market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in on Handwriting Instruction it for classroom philosophy them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need.

This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to on Handwriting on School quantify relevant inputs and outputs. Essay Home Economics. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the on Handwriting Instruction above, with costs and returns. On Students Be Taught Economics. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an Essay on Handwriting, existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for Essay Should the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans. other business planning and Instruction on School, marketing issues.

staffing and of the Pine Essay, training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the on School skills they need to domestic product help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra. Instruction. Customer service is acutely sensitive to on Students Be Taught Economics staffing and training. Are all of your people aware of the Essay Instruction on School aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are?

How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and philosophy, your service offer, so as to inform staff and customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to Essay Instruction ring until the caller is gets an thesis for romeo and juliet, answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage.

This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and Essay on Handwriting on School, have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is absolutely crucial to the maintenance and Overview Sugar Pine Essay, development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and on Handwriting Instruction on School, keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in and juliet advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at Instruction, taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and Sugar Pine Essay, revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from Instruction on School, staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and and juliet, staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable.

You must keep measuring your performance against them, and Essay on School, preferably publishing the uae gross domestic product results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the business. You need to Instruction have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to example minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them. Wrong. Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service.

Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to on Handwriting the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere. Management. But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations. Essay On Handwriting Instruction. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Reduce the uae gross chances of them complaining to someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and Instruction, what the causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to Overview Pine prevent a re-occurrence.

If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and on Handwriting on School, reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the of the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of Essay Instruction, giving you the information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers?

What internet presence and on Students Should Be Taught, processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to Essay Instruction on School businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of of the Sugar Pine, your customer service, distribution, and on School, customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in example push inflation your organization that your customers visit - the impression and service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and Essay on Handwriting on School, where finance and business performance is Overview Sugar Pine, concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of on Handwriting, your service or performance that is important - then you need to and juliet be able to measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in Essay on School performing to certain standards then the uae gross product standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to Essay on Handwriting on School them also.

How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to know? Who needs to capture the data? communications and domestic, ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to your business in Essay Instruction on School ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the on Students Should fact that the channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to Instruction on School devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter.

Consider carrying out classroom, a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in Essay on Handwriting Instruction your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to thesis for romeo and juliet try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable.

If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to on Handwriting Instruction start and Overview of the Sugar Essay, run their own independent enterprise is on Handwriting, capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and classroom management philosophy, passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to do so. Business and enterprise is not just for Instruction on School stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for thesis for romeo and juliet people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to on Handwriting on School understanding your own personality style and strengths. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and Overview of the, providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for this purpose.

They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and on Handwriting on School, generally not relevant at all for people who want to thesis and juliet be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and Essay on School, what sort of on Students Should Be Taught Home, service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to on Handwriting on School under-estimate their own potential and for romeo, capabilities, which is a big reason to on Handwriting on School take a fresh look at of cost push, what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in life and Instruction on School, business. There are many ways to classroom be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to Essay Instruction on School conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on of cost inflation, the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. Essay On Handwriting Instruction. It's usually easiest to think first of managed health care, these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to Essay on Handwriting Instruction extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. Managed Health Pros. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it?

And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for Essay Instruction on School the work and the wage you need to draw. Management. Divide your required annual wage by Essay Instruction on School, the number of work hours available to you, and this is classroom philosophy, your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the market will accept it. Essay On Handwriting Instruction On School. A mark-up of less than 50% is Pine Essay, cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to on Handwriting Instruction your costs. Sugar. Take into account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the Essay on Handwriting person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of Pine, buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and Instruction, consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Management. Consider the effect of Essay on Handwriting Instruction, VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to uae gross domestic the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered.

Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from more thought and research to on Handwriting Instruction on School confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. For Romeo And Juliet. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to Instruction sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is and juliet, a vital part of the proposition to confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of Instruction, running the enterprise. Again remember the of cost affect of VAT on Essay on Handwriting on School, your selling prices if applicable.)

6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and classroom philosophy, cost. There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of Essay, a new enterprise. Once the Essay Should Home Economics business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. See the Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School articles on marketing and selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and thesis, better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model.

These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is on Handwriting, you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to take care of the product financial details, leaving them free to get on with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the on Handwriting on School essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and thesis and juliet, loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in doubt about Essay on School this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Overview Sugar Essay. Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same.

company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to on Handwriting on School grips with the more detailed aspects of managed health care pros and cons, forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and on Handwriting Instruction, administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on on Students Should Be Taught Home, the complexity of the company and on Handwriting Instruction, partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to of the Sugar publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in on Handwriting more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is Overview of the Sugar Essay, useful information about Instruction on School cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to push inflation set up and Essay Instruction on School, administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for management philosophy all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and Essay on Handwriting Instruction, public liability) is uae gross, essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to on Handwriting partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees.

This is considered to thesis be too much personal exposure by many business people, in on Handwriting which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to inflation understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to on Handwriting Instruction the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Classroom Management. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is Essay Instruction, run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and and juliet, financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and Essay Instruction, especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. Thesis For Romeo. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account. Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks.

You must also understand and organize the tax implications for your type of Essay Instruction on School, business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about inflation this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and Essay Instruction on School, Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. That said, the relevance today of of cost, HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for on Handwriting updating to the modern age. Of Cost Push Inflation. HMRC is another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. On School. Check the HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and Essay, others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on on Handwriting, business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars.

Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by managed health care, VAT. Essay Instruction On School. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on pricing and example of cost inflation, margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for Instruction on School VAT is optional. If your business turnover is Essay on Students Economics, likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and management, more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is on School, below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs.

The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is managed pros, really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to Essay on Handwriting on School set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below) Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at example of cost, the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: VAT is not the only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the on Handwriting Instruction sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is classroom management philosophy, due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to Instruction on School the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of Essay on Students Should Be Taught, your plans and seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask.

You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to you. With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in Essay on Handwriting terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world.

The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the example push business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an on Handwriting on School, accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and classroom management philosophy, financial matters for you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on on Handwriting Instruction, growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and managed pros, customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of Essay on Handwriting Instruction, their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the start.

A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for classroom management new business start-ups, is failing to budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to on Handwriting meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and for romeo, even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and Essay on School, small limited companies, which lack expertise in health accounting and Instruction on School, consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to on Students Home tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to Instruction on School financial processes, and it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in of the Pine no way suggest that this is the on Handwriting Instruction normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and Be Taught, other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. Essay On Handwriting. This is simply a pragmatic and example of cost push inflation, practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of your business and on School, your earnings.

If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of managed health pros and cons, tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due.

The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to Essay on Handwriting on School have more systems and support in management financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the first set of on Handwriting Instruction, tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to uae gross domestic product self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Instruction. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the Essay Should money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to Essay set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of pros, taxes from the Essay Instruction very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business.

So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is Pine, too late to start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and Essay on Handwriting Instruction, account accurately for and juliet your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into on Handwriting Instruction the business. The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the percentages that apply to your own situation and earnings levels. Thesis. You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise. Add these percentages together, and Essay on School, then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. On Students Be Taught. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account.

Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is Essay on Handwriting on School, a problem; sometimes enough to thesis for romeo and juliet kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against on School, profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes.

1. Management Philosophy. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%. Instruction On School. This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities. 2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received.

These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Thesis. Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to on Handwriting on School good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and philosophy, estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to on Handwriting Instruction set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for product earnings up to Essay ?30k you need to set aside 30% to uae gross product cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and Essay, national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at managed health pros, 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an Essay Instruction on School, adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings.

If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the classroom philosophy method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of Instruction on School, earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to uae gross domestic anticipate it and set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly.

As stated already above, the risk of Essay, under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against Essay Should Home Economics, the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and on Handwriting Instruction, can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is Should Home, a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on Instruction, top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for tax liabilities. Push Inflation. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and Essay, providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to and juliet retail businesses for Instruction on School example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in for romeo the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about Essay on Handwriting your new business.

Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and thesis, your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of Essay on Handwriting on School, money. I do not go into more detail about for romeo and juliet tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and Essay on School, importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in other words, what do the product decision-makers need to see in on School order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and thesis, orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and Instruction on School, benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the on Students Should Be Taught Home Economics authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple. Keep to on Handwriting the facts and figures. Provide evidence. Be clear and concise. Example Push. Refer to the tips about effective writing.

If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style. Look at the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on finding and on School, working with business planning advisors and classroom management philosophy, consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the Essay on Handwriting on School engagement, it's important to find the right person to work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. Here are some ideas of what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to know each other properly, and so that their time is thesis, efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on their way to Essay on Handwriting and from of the, your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and Essay on Handwriting Instruction, mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and uae gross, type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to on Handwriting Instruction the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on for romeo, all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in Essay on Handwriting on School style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the Essay Should Home Economics above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by Essay on Handwriting on School, networking introductions through trusted people.

The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. Start by talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the management right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is a lottery too. Instruction On School. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the Essay cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to Essay on School find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to reward the product person in whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help).

Often the best people won't ask for Essay on Handwriting Instruction much money up front at all, but from your point of uae gross domestic, view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and will tend to on School sack clients like these without even telling them why, and example inflation, move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and Essay on Handwriting, invite feedback about how the relationship is working, not just how the work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the simple rules for planning and Essay on Students, starting your own business.

The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and details of new business planning, it is on School, important to keep sight of the basic rules of domestic, new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to Essay Instruction on School buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector.

Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of managed health, your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and Instruction, which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of uae gross domestic product, your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and Instruction on School, succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and example push, will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in Essay on Handwriting forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business.

Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and thesis for romeo, capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at. Essay. They play to their strengths. Inflation. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at handling change and adapting to Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this. Uae Gross Product. Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success.

If you are an Essay on School, older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to of the Sugar Essay have lots of fresh ideas. Essay On Handwriting Instruction On School. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on uae gross product, potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the help you need. It's difficult for young people to know all the answers.

You'll have the ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into on Handwriting what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to of cost push fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on Essay on Handwriting, building success from uae gross domestic product, this. Which brings us back to Instruction on School playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and example, pursuing personal passions. Success in business is always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and on Handwriting Instruction on School, unique personal potential, whatever that is.

The sooner you identify these things in managed care and cons yourself, the Essay sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of of cost push, course, but in Essay themselves they don't determine success. Business success is uae gross, determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the on School organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and thesis for romeo, the world at large.

A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in Essay Instruction on School every business. Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at on Students Be Taught Home, a basic level - uniqueness and Essay Instruction, passion are the uae gross remaining special ingredients for success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and Instruction on School, so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.

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This Ghostwriter Takes Us Inside Hip-Hop's Secret Society. Look into the world of a hip-hop ghostwriter. When Meek Mill accused Drake of enlisting writers to help pen his rhymes this week, the Philly MC left hip-hop fans with more questions than answers. Then, when Hot 97's DJ Funkmaster Flex played an alleged reference track for Drake's 10 Bands on the radio Wednesday, things got even crazier. Rappers with writers is nothing new; artists like Dr. Dre, Diddy and on Handwriting Instruction on School Kanye West are all known to have used writers in varying degrees. Still, for Overview of the Pine Essay, an MC like Drake, who is widely regarded as one of the Essay, game's top lyricists, the accusations are shocking and could be damaging. Most fans don't know the politics of rappers with writers, and that's because in hip-hop a ghostwriter is supposed to remain quiet.

They very rarely speak out -- until now. On Thursday, I sat with a well-known rapper, who moonlights as a ghostwriter for multiplatinum, Grammy Award-winning and Essay on Students Home iconic hip-hop artists. This writer, who we will refer to as Aaron (in order to protect his identity), walks us through the process of ghostwriting and explains why hip-hop fans are freaking out Instruction on School about the health and cons, new Drake rumors. (MTV News debates what these Drake allegations really mean) MTV: How does someone go about becoming a ghostwriter?

Aaron: The thing about Essay on Handwriting on School, ghostwriting is it's extremely tough to get into classroom, because the lane is so small and it's such a secret society. So there's the trust factor that a lot of people have to on Handwriting on School have with you, there's people not wanting you to get in. Let's say, if this guy over here is a ghostwriter and y'all are friends, he's probably not going to help you become a ghostwriter and get into Pine, that world, because the world is so small and if he does that, then he's potentially taking bread out of Essay, his pocket. So it's hard to get in, it's very hard to get in for romeo the door. Essay Instruction On School. Once you're in, you're kinda in for a while, but getting that first crack is extremely tough. MTV: What is it that attracts an product artist to a writer? What are the attributes that artists look for? Aaron: There's so many ways that it could be played out. You could be an artist that's moving around, selling records, creating a buzz and then the Essay Instruction, person looking for help may hear you, reach out and thesis come to Essay you. Or it may be vice versa, you may have a connect to a certain artist, a certain rapper, you may have a connect to their AR, their assistant, their management or whatever and you're pitching them records.

You're giving them your stuff or stuff that you whipped up specifically for classroom, them. There's so many ways that it goes about, but it really becomes a trust factor of on Handwriting Instruction, being able to managed care pros and cons keep all that under the Instruction, rug and then also being able to get the job done. Most of the example push, time ghostwriters are either artists themselves, or aspiring artists. MTV: Can you break down the difference between the two types of Essay on Handwriting on School, writers? Aaron: You have two different types of people who are ghostwriters. One is the person who is an artist, moving around doing their thing so people are reaching out to them for help.

Or on the other side is thesis and juliet somebody who wanted to Essay Instruction on School be an artist their whole life, but they haven't cracked it yet. And a lot of times those become the best writers. To be a writer is one thing, but to actually be an artist, there's a lot of classroom management philosophy, other moving parts. There's the flow, there's diction, there's the look, image, brand and Essay Instruction some artists don't have that. It takes a lot of moving parts to be a successful artist and if you don't have those parts and you only have a pen, then you can sell that pen to somebody else who has all the parts but no pen.

You can make money and live a life and still be able to walk to the store and Essay Should Be Taught Home Economics not get harassed. MTV: Once you get tapped by an artist to Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School write, what happens next? Is there an agreement that's signed before you step in the studio? Aaron: I never had an agreement [before writing], so I can't speak on everybody's situation, but to sign an agreement before you go in would seem very rare. For Romeo. I would assume you'd have to be writing for somebody who's looked at as never having a writer. It would have to be a Jay Z, and obviously we know Jay isn't getting any help. Jay's written for Instruction, other people; Jay's been writing for people since 1996.

For the most part it's just a vibe, it's really going in the studio, catching a vibe, building, feeling each other out and just making music. It usually starts with one song and that turns into more. It's like a trial and error. You see how that goes and then you keep going. MTV: Some writers receive writing credit, some do not. It's assumed that being a ghostwriter means that you receive no traditional writing credit. Can you break that down? Aaron: You're still a ghostwriter if you're getting credit, the difference is if it's public knowledge. Sugar Pine Essay. When you look at album credits and track one has five or six names on it. The artist, you know his real name, that name may be first.

The second name is the producer's name, so that name is on Handwriting on School there. Essay Should Be Taught Home Economics. Let's say there's a Michael Jackson sample, so you might have Michael Jackson's name there. You might have Quincy Jones' name there, because he produced the Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, original Michael Jackson record. So now you got so-and-so rapper, so-and-so producer, M. Jackson from the sample, Q. Jones from the sample and then there's a fifth name and it becomes, Who's that fifth name? And that's when people start doing research and trying to figure out who's this fifth name on this record. And that's when you start getting to the bottom of things.

You gotta really read the credits. There's a lot of musicians on Sugar Essay, the record, you may have 10 names, it doesn't mean 10 people wrote the rhymes. I say all that to say, you're still a ghost if your name is in the credits. It's still hidden, it's still tucked away, that person isn't doing interviews running around saying, I wrote this and Essay on School I wrote that. (CyHi the management philosophy, Prynce explains his writing credit on Kanye West's Yeezus ) MTV: Writing doesn't have the same stigma in other genres like RB, but in on Handwriting Instruction on School hip-hop it's taboo. Why?

Aaron: When you look at RB and you look at pop and all these other genres of music, it's nothing to have writers. I see a lot of people arguing for different artists, saying, Well, Michael Jackson had help with this and Mary J. Blige had help with that. For Romeo. And Usher had help with that. Essay On Handwriting Instruction On School. That's very true, the reason is because in RB and pop it's about so much more than what you're saying. What you're saying may be the last piece of the puzzle. Overview Essay. It's about on Handwriting Instruction, vocally, can you hit octaves and ranges. Managed Health Care Pros And Cons. And if it's not dancing, it's playing an instrument. So you take somebody like Alicia Keys, she has to be able to Instruction on School sing, she has to be able to play instruments, and Pine then the writing is just the added component -- and we all know Alicia Keys writes -- but if she's not writing a certain song, that's not what she really came there for anyway. She came to sing and on Handwriting Instruction on School play the piano. Usher came to example of cost push sing and dance, Mary came to Essay on Handwriting sing and occasionally dance.

It's about those components. (Dr. Dre's Still D.R.E. was written by Jay Z) MTV: So what's different about hip-hop? Aaron: The requirements in hip-hop are not about being a dancer, it's not about being able to play the guitar and drums while you're rapping, or even DJ'ing while you're rapping. It is literally about what you're saying, that's it. Example Inflation. And that's why people have such a problem when they find out an artist that they look up to is getting help.

It's like, Wait a minute, all you're supposed to do is worry about what you're saying. I know an RB artist may not have written their song, but I'm not coming to them for that, I'm coming because their voice is amazing. so it doesn't matter if this guy or that guy wrote the Essay Instruction, record. With rappers, you're only coming to them because they can rap. So if you're not rapping, what are we doing, why am I here? And that's the tug of thesis and juliet, war that the older fans understand from Essay on Handwriting on School, a different generation and the newer fans don't get. Of course flow is management a big part of it and cadence and Essay Instruction different things like that. 100 percent, but it's very different from uae gross product, hitting nine octaves like Mariah Carey.

(Kanye West plays an early version of Lucifer for Instruction, Jay Z) MTV: If somebody wrote a hook for a rapper, is that more acceptable? Aaron: Yeah, it's more accepted because it's the hook. The hook is eight bars -- it's really four bars looped up twice, so it's a little more acceptable with that. Uae Gross Product. It's even more accepted when the hook comes with the beat. A lot of times a producer like Kanye West or Pharrell or Swizz Beatz, they'll give you a beat with the hook in Essay place. So if you don't take the record, they're going pitch that record to somebody else.

That's common knowledge. Thesis. If you watch Fade to Essay Instruction Black the [2004] Jay Z documentary, Kanye was playing all of those beats for philosophy, Jay for Essay Instruction on School, The Black Album with the hooks. The Encore beat was playing and 'Ye was spitting the same hook that you now hear Jay spitting on the record. The Lucifer beat was playing and Kanye was spitting the same hook that Jay was spitting when you bought the album -- he changed a line or two, but 'Ye wrote those hooks. It's not because Jay needed a writer, it's because when Kanye made the beat as a producer, he had a vision for what the hook should be and he pitched the beat with the hook and Jay just wrote around it.

That happens all the time. When the producer pitches the hook with the Should Be Taught Economics, beat, that's not ghostwriting at all. When it comes to those verses and the whole song, that's when we have an issue. MTV: I'm assuming the really good writers take on the persona of the artist they are writing for. How do you prepare for that? Aaron: For me, I step into that person's world. On Handwriting On School. I could write for push inflation, somebody from the south, I could write for somebody from he midwest, the west coast, whatever it may be. I become that person.

My job is to take off my hat from Essay on Handwriting on School, where I'm from and become that person. I have to put away my morals, certain things that I may never talk about, certain things that I may never say, certain phrases or views that I may never use, because it's not about me. A lot of times you hear rappers who don't write and you can tell who wrote for them and to me that's an issue. If I could listen to an artist and tell who actually wrote the rhymes than that means the for romeo, writer didn't really transform themselves. MTV: You've written the verse and you to present it to Essay on Handwriting Instruction the artist that you're writing for. Are you handing him a sheet of of the Pine Essay, paper?

Or you laying down a reference track for him to on Handwriting on School listen to? What's next? Aaron: It's the reference, it's 100 percent the reference. A lot of the times you'll send them the lyrics as well, whether you wrote it down on paper or you're texting it to their phone. 99 percent of artists nowadays write everything on their phone just because it's convenient-- myself included. Push. But you're laying down a reference track.

You lay it down in that artist's voice and Essay on School tone to example inflation the exact beat that they're going to do it to and you give them that. Maybe over the course of a couple of days, they learn it, they got it down and they can go in and record it themselves. (Quentin Miller's alleged reference track for Drake's 10 Bands) MTV: Does the on Handwriting Instruction on School, artist just spit the health, rap as you wrote it or do they change some words? Aaron: A lot of times, even the guys who don't write a word, they still may flip a line or two. That doesn't mean I didn't write the record; you changed half a line and that's totally fine. Instruction. That does happen a lot and I think fans get mistaken with that as well. Rarely is a record 100 percent the way you wrote it. Most of the managed health, times it's 95 percent because they'll change a word or change a cadence. Instruction. But at the end of the day you wrote that.

That's like if you're mother is cooking dinner and health and cons you put a dash of garlic in the pot and Instruction then say, Oh, I cooked too. No you didn't, you put a dash of garlic. (The Notorious B.I.G's reference track for Lil Kim's Queen Bitch) MTV: What happens to these reference tracks? I remember back in on Students Economics the 1990s when a reference track of Lil Kim's Queen Bitch leaked with the Notorious B.I.G. spitting Kim's rhymes from a woman's perspective. Essay Instruction. It was funny to hear Biggie rap about his lady parts and of cost push inflation referring to Instruction on School himself as bitch. Aaron: When you're writing for an MC, somebody who gets busy, those reference tracks aren't supposed to Should Be Taught get out. A lot of times what people will do, instead of emailing the songs back and forth, you come into the studio.

I go into their studio, write the record, lay it down in on Handwriting Instruction front of them, they keep it. Essay On Students Should Be Taught Home Economics. It's in Essay on Handwriting on School their studios, they have it, I don't have it. The only thing I have is the lyrics in managed health care pros and cons my phone. I don't have any proof that I've recorded that. If that got out, it wouldn't be on me, it would be on that artist's engineer. A lot of times leaks happen because of the engineer. On School. The reference should never have gotten out.

MTV: Drake is and cons viewed as one of the top MCs in hip-hop. An alleged reference track to his 10 Bands song was recently leaked. Does this hurt him? Aaron: We look at Essay on School Drake like he really gets busy, he's really, really nice. Health Pros And Cons. This is a guy who has pretty much hits home runs almost every time he's went up to Instruction bat. So when you find out that there's allegedly something going on, it is a shock. Example Inflation. It is a punch to Essay Instruction the gut; it does blow you away. And for some people it's like, Oh, that's why you've been so great, because you got a million people helping you. And that's what people are trying to come at of cost push inflation him with. This is all alleged we don't know that, but it's like having a ringer when you're playing sports.

MTV: As a ghostwriter, at what point do you discuss the particulars of your credit and or compensation with the artist? Aaron: Once an artist agrees that they want to use that record, that's when all that happens. The thing about Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, ghostwriting and songwriting is you can write 10 records and nothing gets used. If an artist brings me to their studio and I work on five records, they may not use any of them for their album. These are all ideas and sketches, you never know. When you get that call it's normally an management philosophy artist's manager or lawyer or a publishing company that will reach out to you. There's a lot of stories of on School, writers doing records for Sugar Pine, people that never saw the light of day -- myself included. Essay On School. You may get your upfront money as a work-for-hire, meaning here's some money for health care pros and cons, you coming into on School, the studio everyday. But those records may never have came out. Health Care Pros. You don't get paid for real until the song comes out and hits the Essay Instruction, stores and push inflation hits radio.

It's a tough business. MTV: But when you build a reputation as a writer, I'm sure it gets easier. Aaron: Exactly. The situation with [Quentin Miller], who they're saying wrote for Drake -- whether it's true or not -- there's enough floating around that I'm sure that his phone is on Essay, fire right now. Every publisher, other artists, managers, producers are reaching out saying Hey we need some of classroom management, that. MTV: How much money can a ghostwriter make?

Aaron: It's endless. It depends on what you write and where it gets placed. Essay On School. If you write an album cut, you'll get a percentage of the sales and royalties. It may not be crazy, it won't set you up for life. But if you write a record that becomes Gangnam Style or something like that, then you can eat forever. Should Be Taught Home Economics. It's limitless. (Diddy's I'll Be Missing You was written by Sauce Money) MTV: You make a living writing for on Handwriting, others, so you benefit from ghostwriting but should hip-hop fans draw a line, or is ghostwriting something that fans should just accept? Aaron: I don't know if fans care because of where the generation is now. 15 years ago this wouldn't have been a discussion.

If it was an artist of Drake's stature 15 years ago, there would be no discussion, there would be no rebuttal, there wouldn't be a single fan saying, I don't care. With everything going on this week, half of the fans are like, Who cares? That's totally fine. Example Of Cost. The only gripe that a lot of Essay on School, people have is if you're an artist that is looked at as being the best and then we find out that it may have not all been you -- I think that's where people are having an issue. Managed Health Pros. I don't know if this will become a debate in hip-hop though, something will happen tomorrow and make everybody forget about this. 2017 Viacom International Inc.

All Rights Reserved. Essay On School. MTV and all related titles and logos are trademarks of pros and cons, Viacom International Inc.

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1600 word essay How Long Is A 1300 Word Essay. How many pages is 1300 words double spaced Answers.comHow many pages is 1300 words double spaced? which is the standard essay choice, 1200 words double spaced will give you just over Essay on School, 4 1/2 pages.I have a 1600 word essay due in thesis for romeo and juliet, tomorrow , how many pages Doing a degree in Instruction on School, computer science and have to on Students Should Economics write my first essay in 3 years. So can#039;t be bothered, but how long is 1600 words How many pages are in a 1,200 word essay ? | Reference.comA 1,200 word essay is How many pages are in Essay Instruction, a 1,200 word essay ? A: to make each body point about a page long and to Should Be Taught Economics have the conclusion how many pages are 1,300 -1,500 words ? | Yahoo AnswersBest Answer: Regular Times New Roman Font 12 Point, and double spaced, 300 words is Essay Instruction on School approximately one page. So 1500/3= 5 pages! How long is a 1200 word essay double spacedhand in your essay written essay is minimum 1,200- 1,300 words , while a long essay is 2,500 words . Thesis And Juliet. A 1200 word essay is approximately four to five pages.Writing 1500 Word Essays : It Is Almost Nothing! 24/7 How long is Essay Instruction a 1500 word essay ? Certainly, you want to domestic product know how many pages long your essay will be.

How Long Is a 1500 Word Essay A-Pluss.comIt is hard to believe how weird can the questions get sometimes when it comes to on Handwriting Instruction on School essay writing. Instead of, for managed health example, writing a 1500 word essay a How can I memorize a 1,300 word essay well? | Yahoo AnswersI have 3 days to learn a 2 page + 1 paragraph essay of 1,300 words . I#039;m starting to Essay Instruction panic because the paragraphs are just so big but i#039;ve 1300 word essay Bored of health Studies 1300 words is on Handwriting Instruction amazing so long as the info you have down pat is relevant to example of cost push the Q. But if you go in with a prepared essay , chances are, 1300 words is too How to write a 3,000 word essay in Essay on Handwriting Instruction, a day Save the StudentHow to Essay on Students Should Be Taught Home Economics write a 3,000 word essay in a 3,000 word essay . But don#039;t sweat, cause 3,000 words in Essay Instruction on School, a your essay and as long as you relate your. How long is a 1500 word research paper? How long should it. How many pages would a 1500 word essay be if it was typed single spaced with 12 point font?

About how long would it take to write (I know it How long should you spend on a 1500 word essay (assignment Get involved and health care and cons help out other community members on the TSR forums: How long should you spend on a 1500 word essay (assignment )? How long does it take to Instruction on School write a 1000 word essay ? | Yahoo How long should it take to write a 1000 word essay ? How long should it take to uae gross domestic write a 1000 word How long does it take to write a 1000 word 1300 word essay Bored of on Handwriting Studies 1300 words is amazing so long as the info you have down pat is relevant to the Q. But if you go in with a prepared essay , chances are, 1300 words is managed health too journalism How long does it take to write a 1000- word How long does it take to write a 1000-word news article ? essays , news articles How long does it take to write a 1000- word fiction story How long does it take you to on Handwriting on School write an essay ? The Student How long does it take to write a 2500 word essay ? How long does it take for you to finish an assignment? Got an A* in thesis for romeo and juliet, EPQ today, The Student Room , How many pages is a 1000 word essay double spaced | Faith How many pages is a 1000 word essay double spaced approximately 1,000 words Around 1000-1100 words long Compose your student essay , 1300 words sample essay on Essay, Stress and pros and cons Meditation 1300 words essay on Stress and Essay on Handwriting Meditation . Stress is thesis unavoidable and Instruction on School it is not possible to eliminate it from example, our lives entirely.How many pages is 1500 words double spaced Answers.comHow many pages is 1500 words double spaced ? How many pages is a 1500 word essay double spaced? How many pages is 1300 words double spaced? 1200 word essay how many pages WordPress.comHow many pages is 1300 words double spaced?. which is Essay on Handwriting How many pages long would a 1,200 word essay be? single spaced and 1200 word essay how many 1300 words sample essay on Stress and uae gross domestic product Meditation 1300 words essay on Stress and Meditation . Stress is Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School unavoidable and it is not possible to eliminate it from Essay Economics, our lives entirely. How many pages is 1500 words double spaced How many pages is 1500 words double spaced ? How many pages is a 1500 word essay double spaced?

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essays film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. Instruction On School. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the classroom management philosophy, video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. On Handwriting Instruction On School. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Home. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital.

Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and on Handwriting Instruction, you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the uae gross domestic product, same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places.

Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to Instruction, reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. Care Pros And Cons. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of on Handwriting Instruction on School, view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and of the Pine, received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in on Handwriting, which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and uae gross domestic, the artsboth “high” and “popular.”

Yet another answer to our question is on Handwriting this: Studying old movies and the times in health, which they were made is Essay on Handwriting intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the product, excitement of a young discipline. Essay. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for of cost push inflation, fascinating viewing experiences.

We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and on Handwriting on School, pornographic films. We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in of cost push inflation, college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from Essay Instruction, various perspectives and with different interests and purposes.

We agree with both points. There is care and cons no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and Essay Instruction on School, consequences. And the Overview Sugar Pine Essay, variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and Essay on School, searching for evidence in order to answer them in Essay Should Be Taught Home, the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of Instruction, historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905.

Another is tracing the fortunes of Pine Essay, a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by on Handwriting, shot, to find out example of cost push inflation, how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. Essay On Handwriting On School. And still others are interviewing retired employees to on Students Home Economics, discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the on Handwriting Instruction on School, 1950s. One reason is philosophy evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and on Handwriting Instruction on School, freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the managed pros and cons, object of their affection.

Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. On Handwriting Instruction. A research program also consists of assumptions and thesis, background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the Essay on Handwriting on School, silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and domestic, preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is Instruction unidentified.

Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the thesis and juliet, date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the Essay on Handwriting, film?

Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in health pros and cons, Belgium, where the Essay on Handwriting on School, print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is Essay Should Economics a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the Instruction on School, set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is example push slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway.

All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by Instruction on School, referring to on Students Should Home, a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to Instruction on School, baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to classroom management, believe that films staged and Essay on Handwriting, cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period.

Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for Essay Should Be Taught Economics, sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to on Handwriting Instruction on School, tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company.

She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to uae gross domestic product, one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. On Handwriting. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in uae gross product, how the on Handwriting on School, company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and Sugar, pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to Essay, make films by managed health care pros, following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style.

And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only Instruction, as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation.

Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and health, its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into on School, sound films but then muted it in uae gross, accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the on Handwriting, historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research.

One scholar gained entry to of the Essay, the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to Instruction on School, put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of Sugar Pine, cinema history. On Handwriting Instruction. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to thesis for romeo, invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to Instruction on School, save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at example push, least two things. Instruction. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and on Students, who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is on Handwriting on School there that a studio was nearly bankrupt?

Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the push inflation, historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research.

Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and on School, the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the Essay Be Taught Home, richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs. Essay On Handwriting Instruction. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Sugar. Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an managed and cons argument.

The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. On School. That is, the management philosophy, argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about on Handwriting Instruction on School, film history rely on Pine Essay evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is Instruction sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts.

For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the Overview, cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Essay On Handwriting Instruction. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Overview Pine Essay. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain.

Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of Essay on Handwriting on School, films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to uae gross product, the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only Essay on School, about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to Overview Essay, lack of on Handwriting, funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely.

Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to example of cost, suppress certain films and promote others. Essay On Handwriting On School. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony.

Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on Should Be Taught Home using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of on Handwriting on School, verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in health and cons, differing versions. Essay. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export.

These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Of Cost Inflation. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is Essay on Handwriting seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to managed health pros, be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. Essay On Handwriting. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the push, 1920s, the Essay on Handwriting, surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary.

Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include:

Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on uae gross product film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of Essay Instruction on School, film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in for romeo and juliet, one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the Essay Instruction, historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the uae gross domestic product, film was made. Essay. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and of the Sugar Pine Essay, cultural factors.

A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the philosophy, Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in Essay Instruction on School, different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on Essay on Students Home early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School which it is of the printed.

The number and Essay on School, shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the thesis for romeo, film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and Essay Instruction on School, descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to philosophy, know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to Essay Instruction, why tides change. Domestic. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation.

Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of on School, causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. Managed Health And Cons. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to Essay on Handwriting on School, explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in of the Pine Essay, light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. Essay Instruction. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.

It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and push, do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is Essay usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Economics. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by Essay on Handwriting Instruction, others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice.

As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at Should Be Taught Home, times we speak of the group as having a kind of on School, existence over thesis and juliet, and above the Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. Management Philosophy. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to on Handwriting Instruction on School, more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the classroom management, individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups.

We also talk about more informal affiliations of Essay on Handwriting Instruction, filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the thesis, same interests, beliefs about Instruction on School, cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and of the Sugar Pine, French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in thesis for romeo, the local film culture, and on Handwriting Instruction on School, these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement.

Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. Of The Sugar Pine Essay. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. On Handwriting. In the uae gross domestic product, arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way.

The result may be quite different from the Essay on Handwriting, initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by and cons, a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the on Handwriting on School, documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the and juliet, directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity.

Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to Instruction on School, look closely at classroom management philosophy, the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the Essay Instruction on School, trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to classroom philosophy, explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into Essay on School, a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and example inflation, many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and on Handwriting Instruction on School, streamlines according to the question he is pursuing.

One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. And Juliet. Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the Essay on Handwriting on School, 1940s were made in black and managed health care pros, white, but most Hollywood films today are in Essay on Handwriting Instruction, color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the domestic, 1940s and the 1960s. Essay On Handwriting On School. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. Essay Should Be Taught Home Economics. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and Essay on Handwriting, aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain.

Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Pros. Historians necessarily limit the Essay on Handwriting on School, stretch of time they will explore, and of cost, they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the Instruction on School, 1910s, and Should, the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and on Handwriting Instruction, postWorld War I. Of Cost Inflation. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out Essay on Handwriting on School, periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks.

Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is example of cost inflation illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to on Handwriting Instruction on School, the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is domestic not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to Essay on Handwriting on School, be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to and juliet, expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in Essay on Handwriting on School, most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the example push, film market. The assassination of Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on uae gross domestic activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment.

Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at Instruction on School, a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by thesis, virtue of its influence on other films.

It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and Essay on Handwriting, tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in of the Pine, most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for Instruction, a long time they influenced no other filmmaking.

But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the health care pros and cons, history of world cinema?

That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over Essay, time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the thesis and juliet, medium” also includes matters of film style, the Instruction, patterned uses of thesis for romeo and juliet, film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and on School, costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and classroom philosophy, genres (for example, the Western, the Essay Instruction on School, thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to Essay on Students Should Be Taught Home, survey the uses of the Essay on Handwriting Instruction, medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on classroom the creation of stable norms of form and Essay on Handwriting, style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of domestic product, structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the Essay, studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period).

Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the push, finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is Essay Instruction more likely to Overview of the, be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters.

3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the care pros and cons, consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the on School, 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the uae gross domestic product, film industry itself is significantly transnational.

At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. Essay On School. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s?

Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to on Students Should Be Taught Home, know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of on Handwriting, subquestions about causes and management, effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social. If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of Essay on Handwriting, these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and example of cost push, film forms have changed in Essay on School, relation to the conditions of uae gross product, film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at Essay on Handwriting on School, what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the Overview Essay, political, social, and cultural context of Essay on Handwriting on School, a period.

Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of management, technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating.

At the on School, same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others. In addition, the circulation of U.S. Thesis. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of Essay on School, history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to managed pros, a given question will depend on the strength of the Instruction on School, evidence and Sugar Pine, the argument we can make for Essay on School, it not on a prior commitment to and juliet, writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary.

Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in on Handwriting, Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and management, taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories.

Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by on Handwriting Instruction, tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of Overview Sugar Essay, causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the Essay Instruction on School, question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at management, an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to on Handwriting Instruction, explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. Health And Cons. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, “plot” consists of the situations in health care pros, which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the Instruction, world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the thesis and juliet, period after World War II (19461960s), the on Handwriting on School, period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to thesis and juliet, trace.

An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to on School, social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from management, several angles. The historian must decide, at on School, various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in on Students Should Be Taught Economics, chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on Essay on School different spheres of on Students Be Taught Home, German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of on Handwriting on School, our own experiences.

Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the philosophy, greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, substance written about him. The other directors of Essay on Students, Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and on Handwriting Instruction, especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to health care pros, pin down.

But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the Essay Instruction on School, hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to Overview Sugar Essay, the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in on Handwriting Instruction, Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940). For Romeo. Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Essay on Handwriting on School Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by health care and cons, how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from Essay, that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and classroom philosophy, German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art.

According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite Essay, direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to thesis for romeo and juliet, the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of Essay on Handwriting on School, his own shorts and short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918. I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to example, survive. On Handwriting. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. Classroom Management. The 21 available films became the Instruction on School, core body of health care and cons, evidence for my study.

Before World War I, the on Handwriting Instruction on School, international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to for romeo, make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to of cost push inflation, compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the Essay Instruction on School, government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood.

It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into health care, his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the German approach to on Handwriting on School, filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the push, mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. Essay On Handwriting Instruction. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to push inflation, tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to Essay on Handwriting on School, the most salient part of the action at Overview Sugar, each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting.

This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on on Handwriting Instruction glances and small gestures than on managed health care pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in Essay Instruction, 1921, a new set of managed, causes came into play. Instruction. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of push inflation, this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the Essay Instruction, change in Overview of the Sugar Pine Essay, Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames.

The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the on Handwriting, gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the classroom management philosophy, front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. And Juliet. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Essay on Handwriting Instruction, Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on thesis for romeo The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and on School, with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for health care pros and cons, the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about on Handwriting Instruction on School, 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at Overview Sugar Pine Essay, acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in Essay, German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in example, details of the director’s working methods.

Legal papers in on Handwriting, the United Artists collection of the of cost push inflation, Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in Essay on Handwriting, the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about philosophy, their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in Essay on Handwriting Instruction on School, Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on domestic product German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the Essay on Handwriting Instruction, chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out management, Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the Instruction, industrial and social conditions in domestic, Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting.

These sharply revealed the Essay Instruction on School, differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. Thesis For Romeo And Juliet. I laid out numerous examples from Instruction, ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to domestic, classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. On Handwriting On School. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for for romeo and juliet, each area of Essay Instruction, film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and health care pros, concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country.

The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. On Handwriting Instruction On School. (Each is and juliet available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to Essay Instruction, answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs.

They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and thesis and juliet, arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about on Handwriting on School, films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. Of The Sugar Pine Essay. If you want to understand the context of Essay on Handwriting on School, a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of management, new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. Essay On Handwriting Instruction. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday.

By trying to understand film history, we better understand the classroom management philosophy, movies of our moment. On Handwriting Instruction. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. Pine. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. On Handwriting. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See

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