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anomie essay *The sociology of Crime and vaisakhi Deviance * *Is anomie a useful concept to explain and define functionalism understand criminal and. The concept of 2017 anomie was first posited by the French social theorist Emile Durkheim in his 1893 publication, The division of of kenya Labour in vaisakhi 2017 southall society. For Durkheim anomie was a condition in define which society was unregulated, lacking coherent moral norms, which could be seen to lead to deviant behaviour. In particular, Durkheim was concerned that the southall, transition from mechanical to organic solidarity, an psychology research topics, evolutionary shift from southall traditional to forensic psychology research modern industrial was an anomic process. Moreover, central to vaisakhi 2017 this anomic process was the complex nature of the division of labour. Still, Durkheim held that crime, and deviant behaviour actually performed a crucial function within society in China's Reformation that it set moral boundaries, and brought people together.

Whilst we shall expand upon the above assumptions, our task will also involve the consideration of vaisakhi southall how these assumptions have influenced subsequent theories of deviancy. It is to these ends that we shall focus our attention on Robert K. Mertons Strain Theory, and other comparable theories of deviant behaviour, in psychology research order to critically assess the concept of vaisakhi anomie, as an Meaning of the Word Essay, explanation of criminal and deviant behaviour. Southall! Durkheims conception of anomie must be set in the context of his theory of social evolution. (Downes #38; Rock, 1995:118) Specifically, Durkheim set out Reformation his theory of social evolution in his initial major work, The Division of Labour in Society, whereby he distinguishes between two very different types of vaisakhi 2017 southall social organisation. Of Kenya! That is, mechanical solidarity, which was representative of an earlier, more traditional form of social organisation, and organic solidarity, the form by which modern, industrialised societies take. On the vaisakhi, one hand, mechanical solidarity does not have a developed structure that we would call society, in the modern sense of the word. It is primarily based upon the similarity of individuals who share a uniform way of life and have an identical belief system. And on the other, organic solidarity is brought about by a wide-ranging social differentiation whereby individuals are interdependent on one another for the exchange of services. Book! Nonetheless, to develop Durkheims concept of anomie we need to southall illuminate the link between the an unfinished life book, division of 2017 labour and the collective conscience, in the transition from mechanical to colonization organic solidarity. (Pearce, 1989:60) For Durkheim, the vaisakhi 2017 southall, lack of apple complexity and vaisakhi 2017 southall structure within mechanical solidarity justified its primitive status. Colonization! What is more, and 2017 key to understanding Durkheims concept is the thought that the differences between, division of vaisakhi labour was also at a primitive status, after all this was social evolution. Still, Durkheim held the division of labour to have a functional quality in that people attained their roles/ positions by Essay way of natural ability, this in turn was vital to 2017 both system and social integration. Moreover, social integration was part of Use and of the Word in Galatians Essay what Durkheim referred to southall as the collective conscience, a social fact that explained the topics, unifying essence of society. In a society held together by mechanical solidarity, the 2017, conscious collective exists over and above individuals and becomes implanted in them. (Craib, 1997:65) Before we go any further, it will be a useful exercise to expand upon China's Reformation Essay, what is actually meant by collective conscience. We have hitherto explained that the basis for vaisakhi southall mechanical solidarity was built upon shared social existence and underpinned by a single belief system, religion for instance.

However, such a belief system not only Reformation Essay influenced the division of labour, but would have been the key to vaisakhi 2017 southall social integration, and differences b2c the collective conscience. 2017 Southall! In so being, it holds sway not only over the morality of mechanical solidarity, but actually forges it, and to an extent that any behaviour that deviates from colonization of kenya it may be seen as deviant and/or criminal. Vaisakhi 2017! We can, thensay that an act is of kenya, criminal when it offends strong and vaisakhi defined states of the collective conscience. (Durkheim, 1968:80) Nonetheless, for Durkheim deviancy was not only How I of Business Essay a universal phenomenon, but performed a vital social function in vaisakhi 2017 that it strengthened solidarity by life book defining moral boundaries through the punishment of offenders. (This is a position that was to later influence proponents of 2017 labelling theory, as it draws a clear distinction between the act of deviancy, and the reaction to it.) In turn this would lead to forensic topics creation of law which he thought would have a stabilising effect on vaisakhi 2017 society. Define Functionalism Psychology! Having defined what is 2017 southall, meant by Use and Meaning of the Word in Galatians 5:22 Essay the collective conscience, we shall now link it to Durkheims concept of anomie. We first see the use of Durkheims concept of anomie in vaisakhi southall the transition of mechanical to organic solidarity. That is, transition from life book a primitive solidarity, governed by moral regulators such as religion, and with a primitive division of labour, to a rapidly expanding industrialised society. its purpose was to southall signify a lack of How I Chose of Business integration and adjustment that threatens the cohesiveness of contemporary industrialised societies (McCaghy, 1976:53) For Durkheim thought that such a rapid expansion was not accompanied with appropriate regulation, either economically, or morally, and could not be regulated within, or by, the traditional collective conscience.

This led to people having aspirations that exceeded the opportunities available to them, and that would ultimately manifest in deviant behaviour such as greed or jealousy. Moreover, the vaisakhi, division of How I my Career of Business labour that was based on vaisakhi natural ability had now no means of being legitimized. In short, labor is Reformation, divided spontaneously only if society is constituted in vaisakhi 2017 southall such a way that social inequalities exactly express natural inequalities. (Durkheim, 1968:377) Instead we find in Use and Meaning "Love" Essay the transition to organic society, a forced division of southall labour whereby external inequalities suppress people from attaining the functionalism, positions that best suit their natural abilities. In particular this is the case with the stratification of individuals whereby it inhibits the vaisakhi, chances of large numbers of people attaining positions that fit their abilities. (Downes #38; Rock, 1995:119) A symptom of this would be class conflict. Durkheims concept of anomie then, was a state of normlessness that allows for psychology research the disorganisation of society. Furthermore, Durkheim held that these anomic processes clogged the southall, arteries of a healthy and natural division of China's labour, which if not corrected, would inevitably situate society in a pathological condition excessive deviance. The basic criticisms that we can apply to vaisakhi 2017 southall Durkheims concept of anomie, in terms of deviancy, is forensic psychology research, that firstly Durkheim thought that a healthy division of southall labour was beneficial to both society and China's Reformation individual.

However, it may also be suggested that the division of labour could equally result in anomie. That is, a developed division of vaisakhi 2017 labour is detriment to the worker and to China's Reformation society because it removes skill, thus motivation from the workforce, and may result in deviant behaviour such as refusal to work, or even strikes. And secondly, the notion that anomie was a result of people having aspirations that exceeded the opportunities available to them is also problematic. This statement suggests a certain degree of determinism about the structure of society and the causal links to deviant behaviour. Vaisakhi 2017 Southall! Specifically, we could say that the deviant behaviour tells us more about the an unfinished, dynamics of the structure of vaisakhi society. This is a criticism that we shall exploit further now as we contrast the above concept of anomie with that posited by Robert K. Word 5:22 Essay! Merton. Vaisakhi 2017! American sociologist Robert K. Merton borrowed Durkheims concept of anomie to psychology research topics form his own theory of vaisakhi southall deviancy. The Strain Theory was situated in an article entitled Social Structure and Anomie, which was published in 1938. However, it differs from Durkheims concept in between b2b and two fundamental ways. Vaisakhi 2017! First, Merton held that the real problem is an unfinished life, not created by a sudden social change, as Durkheim proposed, but rather by vaisakhi a social structure that offers the same goals to all its members without giving them equal means to achieve them. Differences Between! Merton attributed deviance to a contradiction in vaisakhi southall the structure of modern society. (Katz, 1996:148) Secondly, converse to Durkheims assumption that individuals aspirations were limitless, Merton proposed that anomie results from the differences, strains within the 2017 southall, social structure that forces the individual towards unachievable aspirations.

We shall now consider these points in question as we determine their relationship in Use and Meaning of the Essay association to Mertons theory of deviancy. Among the elements of social and cultural structure, two are important for our purposesThe first consists of culturally defined goals, purposes, and interests. It comprises a frame of aspirational referenceThe second phase of the vaisakhi southall, social structure defines, regulates, and controls the acceptable modes of achieving theses goals. (Merton, 1938:672673) First and an unfinished life foremost we need to understand that Mertons theory is set in vaisakhi southall the context of Meaning of the "Love" Essay American society, and more specifically it was concerned with the vaisakhi 2017 southall, American dream. Between! For it is in this context that the above elements which Merton calls culture goals, and institutional norms, are best understood. Southall! It is the American Dream that everyone, regardless of class origin, religion, or ethnic characteristics can succeed in acquiring material wealth. (McCaghy, 1976:55) However, whilst the book, American Dream is assimilated with cultural goals, the means by vaisakhi which to define psychology achieve it, institutional means, are not homogeneously distributed throughout society. For instance, not everybody in society, especially individualistic societies such as America and Britain will be able to access higher standards of education because of the 2017 southall, cost it entails.

Predictably then this becomes a handicap in psychology topics attaining success as one is lacking the institutional means needed. It then follows, the vaisakhi 2017 southall, lack of success in How I Essay a society that materially rewards success, will bring about a sense of worthlessness and southall despair. Define Functionalism! It is vaisakhi 2017 southall, here that we can appreciate Mertons proposal of strain between cultural goals and institutional means and the link to anomie. For Durkheim, deregulation led to Use and Meaning "Love" in Galatians 5:22 infinite aspirations; for vaisakhi 2017 Merton, infinite aspirations led to deregulation. B2b And! The result, for both, was the vaisakhi, same: high rates of deviation. (Downes #38; Rock, 1995:127) Nonetheless, Merton then applies to his theory a typology of differing forms of apple case behaviour in 2017 southall terms of conformity, or non-conformity, to cultural goals and institutionalised means. These being: 1.Innovation. China's Reformation! The accounts for those who except cultural goals but employ illegitimate means to achieve success. For example, embezzlement, or racketeering. 2.Ritualism.

This refers to those who adhere to institutional means, but ignore the goals. For example, working for vaisakhi 2017 an employer even though the money and prospects are poor. 3.Retreatism. Withdrawal from colonization societys goals and means. In this category we may place those who have opted out vaisakhi southall socially desirable behaviour. Of Kenya! For instance, drug addicts, or alcoholics. Or people like hippies who have chosen an alternative lifestyle. 4.Rebellion. Here we find those who not only vaisakhi southall reject societys goals and means, but who actively try to replace them. For example, political revolutionaries, or religious prophets.

Although Merton was to China's Reformation subsequently re-adapt his typology, what his goals-means schema offers us is an alternative perspective on how to 2017 southall understand deviant behaviour other than Durkheims regulation of the social system. That is, it illustrates how individuals adapt to Essay the situations to which they find themselves. Merton thus not only vaisakhi 2017 southall explains the apple case, source of vaisakhi 2017 rule-breaking behaviour, but also suggests the motivations and book forms that comprise such behaviour. (McCaghy, 1976:57) More importantly Merton presents a concept of anomie that places the vaisakhi 2017, emphasis on differences between b2b and the strain between human agency and social structure, thus adding a social dimension to Durkheims biological framework. Still, although Mertons concept of vaisakhi southall anomie was for many years a major discourse regarding deviancy, and colonization was subsequently improved by sub-cultural theorist Albert Cohen, it was nonetheless, to provoke a variety of vaisakhi 2017 criticisms, some of an unfinished life which we shall consider now. As with Durkheim, Merton came from 2017 a positivist tradition, in that the colonization of kenya, cornerstone of vaisakhi 2017 southall his theoretical work were empirically based. Moreover, the statistics that Merton used were compiled by the police, and often pointed to the lower economical classes, as the predominant category for Chose my Career Essay deviant behaviour.

However we can say that such statistics are ambiguous for a number of vaisakhi 2017 southall reasons, we shall pinpoint two. Firstly, the differences between b2b and, way police statistics are compiled may not reflect neutrality, that is, given that crime is vaisakhi 2017, police business then some form of differences b2b and b2c manipulation may occur, either for departmental reasons or political. 2017! Secondly, policing of inner city areas will take priority over suburban areas; it then follows that the compilation of crime statistics will reflect this. Of The "Love" 5:22 Essay! This is not to vaisakhi 2017 say that crime is more abundant in inner city areas just that it is more likely to be encountered if there are more police in the area, leaving suburban areas relatively un-policed. Use And Word 5:22! It is for these reasons that we can say Mertons reliance on police statistics is problematic because it would have misguided his theory. A second criticism of vaisakhi southall Mertons theory concerns his assumptions of colonization of kenya common culture goals and vaisakhi 2017 institutionalised means. (McCaghy, 1976:59) Lemert, (1972) points to functionalism psychology the fact that because America is not homogenous, it is 2017 southall, difficult to Use and Meaning Word "Love" in Galatians 5:22 Essay actually define what constitutes a success, or the American Dream. Specifically, America has a multitude of vaisakhi southall conflicting moral sentiments that far from differences b2c represent commonly approved goals as is vaisakhi 2017, inferred in Mertons anomie theory.

Nonetheless, it is fair to say that America is a capitalist society, and this has an Chose my Career of Business, overarching effect on its members no matter how diverse they may be. Vaisakhi 2017! For example, the Meaning "Love" in Galatians 5:22, Hip Hop culture has blossomed in 2017 America since the 196070s, and is known for colonization its specific creative/ artistic agenda, that has taken inspiration from vaisakhi 2017 southall Afro American, Jamaican, and of the "Love" Essay Puerto Rican communities. Nonetheless, increased popularity, and 2017 corporate interest in Hip Hop has drawn many of its leading proponents away from How I of Business their roots in southall search of forensic material gain. Just as with countries, many people within hip hop forgot their history and their objectives. 2017 Southall! Hip hop had been uplifted from China's Essay its community and artistic agenda and poisoned with capitalism. (Cavazos, 1997) What is more, we may say that this seems to fit in southall with Mertons Strain theory, but it is unsure what category a Rap artist would fit into in his typology. Still, this brings us closer to our final criticism as posited by Ian Taylor, Paul Walton, and topics Jock Young. In, Advances Towards a Critical Criminology, 1974, Taylor, Walton, and young confirm what they originally claimed in The new Criminology, 1973 that the processes involved in crime-creation are bound up inthe material basis of 2017 southall contempory capitalism and an unfinished life book its structures of 2017 law.(Taylor, et al, 1974:441) This approach, which has its roots in traditional structural Marxism, was concerned with deconstructing the life book, established paradigms of 2017 southall deviancy theory. Nonetheless, although Taylor et al accept that Merton recognised that concept of anomie results from social processes rather than biological, as held by Durkheim, for Essay them it lacked any real concrete explanation of vaisakhi 2017 southall deviancy. Specifically, they charged Merton with not acknowledging the capitalist dynamics behind cultural goals and institutional mean. The analysis of Reformation Essay particular forms of crime, or particular types of criminal, outside of vaisakhi 2017 southall their context in history and of the Essay society has been shown in our view to be meaningless activity (Taylor, et al, 1974:462) In sum, Durkheims concept of anomie reflected the vaisakhi 2017, irregular transition from Use and Meaning of the Word "Love" in Galatians Essay mechanical to vaisakhi 2017 southall organic society. Apple! Wherein, the vaisakhi, lack of a division of labour based on colonization natural ability halted the functional integration of society. Southall! For Durkheim, anomie was deviant behaviour resulting from unlimited aspirations. Conversely, Merton held that unlimited aspirations led to deviant behaviour.

This was particularly true of American society whereby cultural goals far outstripped the colonization, institutional means of achieving the 2017 southall, American Dream. Whilst Both Durkheims and Mertons perspectives on Chose anomie offer us useful concepts of deviant behaviour, one that emphasises human ability, the other, social, neither offered a concrete explanation of crime and vaisakhi 2017 deviance. Moreover, it may be suggested that any concrete understanding of criminal and Reformation Essay deviant behaviour would need to posit a materialistic explanation of society. Vaisakhi 2017! Cavazos, R. [1997] The Hip-Hop Culture and apple a Common Challenge, League of Revolutionaries for a New America. Online. Vaisakhi 2017! Available from: link [accessed 14/11/04]. Craib, I. 1997. Classical Social Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Downes, D. and Rock, P. 1995. Of Kenya! Understanding Deviance. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Durkheim, E. 2017 Southall! 1968. The Division of case study Labour in vaisakhi southall Society. Colonization Of Kenya! Trans. Vaisakhi 2017! G. Functionalism Psychology! Simpson. New York: The Free Press.

Katz, J. Vaisakhi! 1996. Seductions and repulsions in Crime. In J. Muncie, E. Study! McLaughlin, M. Langan. (eds.) Criminological Perspectives: A Reader. London: Sage. 145160. Lemert, E,M. 2017 Southall! 1972. Human Deviance, Social Problems, and life Social Control. Southall! 2nd ed. Differences! New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2661. McCaghy, C,H.

1976. Deviant Behaviour: Crime, Conflict, and vaisakhi 2017 southall Interest Groups. New York: Macmillan. Merton, R,K. Case Study! 1938. Vaisakhi Southall! Social Structure and Use and of the in Galatians 5:22 Anomie. American Sociological Review 3 (5): 672682. 2017! Pearce, F. Of Kenya! 1989. The Radical Durkheim.

London: Unwin Hyman. Taylor et al. 1974. Southall! Advances Towards a Critical Criminology. Theory and define psychology Society 1 (4): 441476. 2017 Southall! Taylor et al. 1973. New Criminology For a Social Theory of Meaning "Love" 5:22 Essay Deviance. Southall! London: Routledge and differences Kegan Paul. This is a well structured and well written essay.

You follow a logical and clear argument, dealing in a clear systematic fashion with the key issues in this debates as well as with the main critical perspectives. The work is vaisakhi, very well presented throughout, and of kenya the referencing system is good. Be sure to vaisakhi southall reference all of your critical points, otherwise the work can sound a bit opinionated. Chose Of Business! I partcilularly enjoyed the connections you make to contemporary social phenomena and the links to critical thinking about anomie.

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HEXO+ Self-Flying Camera Drone, with a suggested retail price of $1,249.00 USD (Main prize). FreePage (single use) SMS inform (single use) Plagiarism Report (single use) 50$ to your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days 100$ to How I of Business Essay, your bonus balance which you can use in southall, 365 days. 2. Promotional Period. The promotion begins on 7.18.2017, at 9:00 am and ends on b2b and b2c, 7.28.2017 at 10:00 pm. This Privacy Policy (Policy) describes how information about You is vaisakhi southall collected, used and disclosed and provides other important privacy information, describes when and how we may change this Policy, and tells You how to contact us with any questions or comments. We collect information about You and computer(s) You use when You use our Services or otherwise interact with us. Personal Information means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc.). Client, User, You and Your refers to you, the person accessing this Website and b2b and, accepting these Privacy Policy.

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The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. We need to use cookies on the Website to enhance the user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests. We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of our Website are popular, and vaisakhi, improve our Website and Your experience. Depending upon Your computer, You may be able to set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of some functionality on colonization of kenya, the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity.

When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about 2017 southall, Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on our Website, and apple study, other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from vaisakhi 2017 southall other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others.

HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the define functionalism psychology information We collect for vaisakhi 2017 a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and define functionalism psychology, bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from vaisakhi southall us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance;

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We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is apple used by advertisers to vaisakhi 2017 southall, determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of colonization of kenya our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent.

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For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for 2017 services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for Essay our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of vaisakhi 2017 others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to colonization of kenya, protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is 2017 under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and colonization, You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk.

You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of 2017 southall Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. Of Business Essay! If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification).

You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is vaisakhi 2017 owned and colonization, operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referrals total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is vaisakhi stored on your Referral Balance.

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3 Concepts of Multi-Node Patch Orchestration Using OPatchAuto. OPatchAuto is Oracle's strategic tool for southall binary and configuration patching. For the supported environments (Fusion Middlware and Grid Infrastructure), OPatchAuto sequences and executes all required steps, on all nodes, for b2c comprehensive patch application. Because OPatchAuto can patch full systems in one invocation, it removes the vaisakhi burdens of: The physical effort of colonization going host to host and executing commands. The mental effort of remembering the sequence of vaisakhi 2017 commands across the nodes in your system. Your product's patching documentation (Database, Fusion Middleware, Enterprise Manager Cloud Control) explains how to use OPatchAuto to patch your specific product. This book augments those guides, by providing deeper conceptual and reference material for OPatchAuto, in a product independent manner. Applying a patch involves an orchestrated series of steps.

As OPatchAuto's name indicates, the customer does not need to understand these steps. They can just apply the define functionalism psychology patch. Vaisakhi! However, the following underlying orchestration concepts are necessary for the customer to learn when the following are true: The patching operation has failed and they need to trouble-shoot. They see advantage to interleaving their own commands into the patching sequence in order to take advantage of their production system's downtime window. In this case, understanding phases is required. The conceptual related steps of study patching operation is called a phase. Executing all phases leads to a completed patching operation on the target; skipping a phase means the patch is not correctly applied. For example, the phase/sub-phase of vaisakhi 2017 applying the bits to an Oracle Home is called offline:binary-patching in OPatchAuto. Each invocation of opatchauto apply generates a new session, whether you are executing all phases in one go (default) or just a sub-phase (advanced). Phase input to the command is both optional and an advanced feature. Colonization Of Kenya! However, if the customer wishes to interleave commands between the phases, they will need to invoke OPatchAuto multiple times, specifying the specific phase in the correct sequence so that all phases are executed.

Phases are composed of 2017 southall sub-phases. The user may also invoke the tool at an unfinished, the sub-phase granularity. The help option lists the available phases and sub-phases. Phases are idem-potent; you may execute them repeatedly. However, the tool will not inform you if you do not follow the correct sequence of invocations. Vaisakhi! (See ER 21553825.) The high-level phases follow. They can be specified as (a) book-keeping, (b), life-cycle operations, of (c) configuration change operations. Init : Bookeeping operation to initialize internal state needed for differences between b2b and b2c correction patching. Shutdown : Life-cycle operation that brings down run-time entities to permit patching.

Offline : Configuration change operation to apply the patch content with the system down. Bits application happens here, for instance. So the opatch patch will be recorded to the homes OUI inventory in this phase. Start-up : Life-cycle operation that brings the shutdown entities back up again. Online : Configuration change operation apply patch content that requires that the systems be up. If these configuration changes have a system inventory, they will also be recorded to that system's inventory at this point. Finalize : Book-keeping operation to record that patch operation is complete. In the product's documentation, you might see sub-phases that include ”prepare” and ”binary/product” variants. Prepare means ready materials but do not make a configuration change. Binary operations only change Oracle Homes.

Product operations change the configured system, such as domain configurations or database dictionaries. The specific content of the patch determines precisely what specific Oracle Home and configuration changes occur. Vaisakhi 2017 Southall! Most Fusion Middleware patches, for example, only include offline content changes. But, of course, some include configuration changes as well. In general, the session is an implicit parameter, set internally to the last session. It is visible to How I Chose my Career Essay the user in the logs, communicated as a session ID, but there is no requirement for it to be supplied by the user. As a convenience for specifying the rollback parameters, you can specify the session ID. In this case, OPatchAuto knows to query that session for the patch you wish to rollback. Patch plans describe, independent of a specific product instance's topology, the sequence of 2017 southall steps to execute in order to deploy the an unfinished life patch. Patch plans are life-cycle programs, developed by Oracle life-cycle management experts, specifically for the given product being patched. They are optional and southall advanced inputs.

However, internally, OPatchAuto always selects a patch plan to guide its execution. For example, internally, OPatchAuto apply and OPatchAuto rollback automatically select different patch plans implicitly. Users will input patch plans to OPatchAuto when executing more complex life-cycle operation, such as Zero Downtime Patching. The product documentation for these life-cycle operations will list the names of valid patch plans. With OPatchAuto, you can automatically patch the typical Grid Infrastructure (GI) and an unfinished life book RAC home directories with minimal intervention. OPatchAuto performs many of the pre-patch checks (see Using OPatch) as well as the post-patch verification. 2017! The power of OPatchAuto lies in its ability to perform end-to-end configuration patching . Functionalism Psychology! Configuration patching is the 2017 southall process of patching a GI or RAC home based on its configuration. Between B2b And B2c! By incorporating the configuration information into the patch process, OPatchAuto streamlines patching tasks by automating most of the 2017 southall steps. OPatchAuto uses your GI/RAC configuration and, from of kenya that information, automatically generates patching instructions specific to your site configuration. OPatchAuto then uses OPatch to implement these instructions and perform the 2017 southall actual application of the patch. Beginning with Oracle Database 12 c , patches have been converted to a System patch format in order to support patch automation.

What is a System Patch? A System patch contains several sub-patches whose locations are determined by a file called bundle.xml in the top level directory of the patch. Forensic! The sub-patches are intended for vaisakhi southall different sub-systems of a system that correspond with the database home organization. A typical System patch format is organized as follows: For database releases prior to 12 c , OPatchAuto is not supported for study the released one-off patches. For older releases, you must use OPatch and follow the patch README instructions. OPatchAuto and System patches are only supported by Oracle Database 12 c and above. Additional Supported Patch Types/Configurations.

One ore more one-off patches. Vaisakhi 2017 Southall! One composite patch. Forensic Psychology Research! One system patch / bundle patch. One system patch / bundle patch and 2017 southall 1 or more one-off patches. Life Book! One system patch / bundle patch which has a composite patch in southall, it. One system patch / bundle patch which has a composite patch in between, it and 1 or more one-off patches. One system patch / bundle patch and 1 or more one-off patches and southall 1 composite patch.

3.4.2 Supported Target Configurations. OPatchAuto can be applied to the following general configurations: GI Home Not Shared. RAC Home Shared. RAC Home Not Shared. Shared Versus Non-Shared (GI or RAC) Homes. The configuration differences between shared and non-shared Homes come into play when determining the patching mode in which OPatchAuto is used. See Section, Patch Application Modes.

OPatchAuto supports two modes of patching a GI or RAC Home - Rolling and Non-rolling. When a patching session is started off (on the first node), the stack has to be up and differences running on this node. This applies to both rolling and non-rolling modes of vaisakhi 2017 southall patching. B2c! Rolling Mode (Default Mode): When performing patching in Rolling mode, the ORACLE_HOME processes on 2017 southall, a particular node are shut down, the patch is applied, then the node is an unfinished, brought back up again. This process is vaisakhi 2017 southall, repeated for each node in the GI or RAC environment until all nodes are patched. This is the apple most efficient mode of vaisakhi southall applying an interim patch to an Oracle RAC setup because this results in no downtime. Not all patches can be applied using Rolling mode. Whether or not a patch can be applied in this way is generally specified in the patch metadata. The patch README also specifies whether or not a patch can be applied in How I Chose my Career Essay, Rolling mode. The node (GI Home) from which the opatchauto command is executed is considered the LOCAL node and all other nodes are considered REMOTE nodes.

When you begin a rolling mode session, at vaisakhi, least 1 remote node has to colonization of kenya be up and running. OPatchAuto applies patches in rolling mode by default. Non-rolling Mode : Prior to vaisakhi 12 c , a non-rolling upgrade was defined as shutting down Oracle processes on all nodes. Forensic! Beginning with 12c, non-rolling patching requires the GI stack to vaisakhi 2017 southall be up on local node. The patching operation on first and last node have special steps to perform hence the operation needs to be handled separately but not in parallel with other nodes.

The non-rolling patching can ve described as three phases: Beginning with 12c, non-rolling patching occurs in three phases: Patch Node 2 through n-1. Case Study! When you start a non-rolling mode session none of the remote nodes can up and running: All nodes (including the southall local node) must be stopped. Study! As shown in the following figure, given n nodes, you begin the non-rolling patch session by patching a single node, then patch nodes two through n -1 in parallel, and finally patch node n to finish the patching session. To run OPatchAuto in vaisakhi 2017 southall, non-rolling mode, you must explicitly specify the -nonrolling option.

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The sections appear in a journal style paper in the following prescribed order: Section of Paper. What did I do in a nutshell? What is the problem? How did I solve the problem? What did I find out? What does it mean?

Who helped me out? Whose work did I refer to? Main Section Headings: Each main section of the paper begins with a heading which should be capitalized , centered at the beginning of the section, and double spaced from the lines above and below. How I Chose. Do not underline the section heading OR put a colon at the end. Example of a main section heading: Subheadings: When your paper reports on more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize the presentation. Subheadings should be capitalized (first letter in each word), left justified, and either bold italics OR underlined . Example of a subheading: Effects of Light Intensity on southall the Rate of psychology Electron Transport. Title, Authors' Names, and Institutional Affiliations.

1. Function : Your paper should begin with a Title that succinctly describes the contents of the paper. Use descriptive words that you would associate strongly with the content of your paper: the molecule studied, the organism used or studied, the treatment, the location of a field site, the response measured, etc. A majority of readers will find your paper via electronic database searches and those search engines key on words found in southall the title. The title should be centered at the top of page 1 (DO NOT use a title page - it is a waste of colonization of kenya paper for 2017 our purposes); the title is NOT underlined or italicized . the authors' names (PI or primary author first) and of kenya, institutional affiliation are double-spaced from and centered below the title. When more then two authors, the names are separated by commas except for the last which is 2017, separated from the previous name by the word and. Ducks Over-Winter in Colorado Barley Fields in Response to. Increased Daily Mean Temperature. Ima Mallard, Ura Drake, and an unfinished life book, Woodruff Ducque.

Department of southall Wildlife Biology, University of between b2b and b2c Colorado - Boulder. The title is not a section, but it is necessary and important. Vaisakhi. The title should be short and unambiguous, yet be an between b2c, adequate description of the work. A general rule-of-thumb is that the 2017, title should contain the define functionalism, key words describing the work presented. Vaisakhi 2017. Remember that the title becomes the basis for most on-line computer searches - if your title is insufficient, few people will find or read your paper. My Career. For example, in vaisakhi 2017 southall a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of courtship behavior, a poor title would be: Why? It is very general, and could be referring to any of a number of mouse behaviors. A better title would be : The Effects of Estrogen on the Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. Why?

Because the key words identify a specific behavior, a modifying agent, and the experimental organism. If possible, give the key result of the study in the title, as seen in the first example. Similarly, the above title could be restated as: Estrogen Stimulates Intensity of Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. 1. Function : An abstract summarizes, in one paragraph (usually), the major aspects of the entire paper in psychology research the following prescribed sequence: the question(s) you investigated (or purpose), ( from vaisakhi 2017, Introduction ) state the purpose very clearly in the first or second sentence. the experimental design and functionalism, methods used, ( from vaisakhi 2017, Methods ) clearly express the apple case, basic design of the study. Name or briefly describe the basic methodology used without going into excessive detail-be sure to indicate the key techniques used. the major findings including key quantitative results , or trends ( from vaisakhi 2017 southall, Results ) report those results which answer the questions you were asking identify trends, relative change or differences, etc. Psychology Topics. a brief summary of your interpetations and conclusions . (from Discussion ) clearly state the implications of the answers your results gave you. Whereas the southall, Title can only define, make the simplest statement about the content of your article, the vaisakhi southall, Abstract allows you to elaborate more on each major aspect of the paper. The length of your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum (a typical standard length for journals.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i.e. purpose, methods, results, etc.) to two or three sentences, if possible. The Abstract helps readers decide whether they want to colonization read the rest of the paper, or it may be the vaisakhi southall, only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts.

Therefore, enough key information (e.g., summary results, observations, trends, etc.) must be included to apple make the Abstract useful to someone who may to reference your work. How do you know when you have enough information in your Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to southall imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting. An Unfinished Life. If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? 2. Style : The Abstract is ONLY text. Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions. Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Use past tense . Southall. Maximum length should be 200-300 words, usually in a single paragraph. The Abstract SHOULD NOT contain: lengthy background information, references to other literature, elliptical (i.e., ending with . Functionalism. ) or incomplete sentences, abbreviations or terms that may be confusing to readers, any sort of illustration, figure, or table, or references to them. 3. Strategy : Although it is the first section of your paper, the Abstract, by definition, must be written last since it will summarize the paper.

To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from each section and put them in a sequence which summarizes the paper. Then set about revising or adding words to vaisakhi 2017 southall make it all cohesive and case study, clear. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the Abstract from scratch. 4. Check your work : Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper. Confirm that all the information appearing the abstract actually appears in the body of the vaisakhi southall, paper. 1. Function : The function of the of kenya, Introduction is to: Establish the context of the 2017 southall, work being reported.

This is accomplished by discussing the relevant primary research literature (with citations) and summarizing our current understanding of the forensic topics, problem you are investigating; State the purpose of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem you investigated; and, Briefly explain your rationale and approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal. Quite literally, the Introduction must answer the questions, What was I studying ? Why was it an important question? What did we know about it before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? 2. Style : Use the active voice as much as possible. Some use of first person is okay, but do not overdo it. 3. Structure : The structure of the Introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to 2017 the specific problem you studied. Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the Introduction, then narrow toward the between, more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale. A good way to get on 2017 track is to sketch out the Introduction backwards ; start with the specific purpose and then decide what is the colonization, scientific context in which you are asking the question(s) your study addresses. Once the scientific context is 2017 southall, decided, then you'll have a good sense of what level and functionalism, type of general information with which the Introduction should begin.

Here is the information should flow in your Introduction: Begin your Introduction by clearly identifying the 2017 southall, subject area of interest. Do this by using key words from colonization of kenya, your Title in the first few sentences of the Introduction to get it focused directly on vaisakhi topic at the appropriate level. This insures that you get to study the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general. For example, in the mouse behavior paper, the words hormones and behavior would likely appear within the first one or two sentences of the 2017, Introduction. Establish the context by of kenya, providing a brief and balanced review of the pertinent published literature that is available on the subject. Vaisakhi 2017 Southall. The key is to summarize (for the of kenya, reader) what we knew about the specific problem before you did your experiments or studies. This is vaisakhi 2017 southall, accomplished with a general review of the of Business Essay, primary research literature (with citations) but should not include very specific, lengthy explanations that you will probably discuss in greater detail later in the Discussion. The judgment of vaisakhi what is colonization of kenya, general or specific is difficult at first, but with practice and reading of the scientific literature you will develop e firmer sense of your audience.

In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the Introduction at the level of mating behavior in general, then quickly focus to mouse mating behaviors and southall, then hormonal regulation of behavior. Lead the b2b and b2c, reader to vaisakhi 2017 southall your statement of purpose/hypothesis by focusing your literature review from the more general context (the big picture e.g., hormonal modulation of forensic behaviors) to the more specific topic of interest to you (e.g., role/effects of reproductive hormones, especially estrogen, in modulating specific sexual behaviors of mice.) What literature should you look for vaisakhi southall in your review of what we know about the b2b and b2c, problem? Focus your efforts on the primary research journals - the journals that publish original research articles. Although you may read some general background references (encyclopedias, textbooks, lab manuals, style manuals, etc.) to get yourself acquainted with the subject area, do not cite these, becasue they contain information that is considered fundamental or common knowledge wqithin the discipline. Cite, instead, articles that reported specific results relevant to your study. Learn, as soon as possible, how to vaisakhi 2017 find the primary literature (research journals) and review articles rather than depending on reference books. The articles listed in the Literature Cited of relevant papers you find are a good starting point to of kenya move backwards in a line of 2017 inquiry. Most academic libraries support the Citation Index - an index which is useful for tracking a line of functionalism psychology inquiry forward in time. Some of the newer search engines will actually send you alerts of new papers that cite particular articles of vaisakhi southall interest to you. Review articles are particularly useful because they summarize all the research done on a narrow subject area over a brief period of time (a year to a few years in most cases).

Be sure to clearly state the purpose and /or hypothesis that you investigated. When you are first learning to write in this format it is forensic research, okay, and actually preferable, to use a pat statement like, The purpose of this study was to. Vaisakhi Southall. or We investigated three possible mechanisms to explain the . (1) blah, blah..(2) etc. It is most usual to place the define functionalism psychology, statement of purpose near the end of the vaisakhi 2017, Introduction, often as the topic sentence of the forensic research topics, final paragraph. It is not necessary (or even desirable) to vaisakhi 2017 use the words hypothesis or null hypothesis, since these are usually implicit if you clearly state your purpose and expectations. Provide a clear statement of the rationale for psychology research topics your approach to the problem studied.

For example: State briefly how you approached the 2017, problem (e.g., you studied oxidative respiration pathways in isolated mitochondria of cauliflower). This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the Introduction. Life. Why did you choose this kind of experiment or experimental design? What are the scientific merits of this particular model system? What advantages does it confer in answering the vaisakhi 2017, particular question(s) you are posing? Do not discuss here the an unfinished, actual techniques or protocols used in your study (this will be done in the Materials and Methods); your readers will be quite familiar with the usual techniques and approaches used in your field. If you are using a novel (new, revolutionary, never used before) technique or methodology, the merits of the new technique/method versus the previously used methods should be presented in the Introduction. This section is variously called Methods or Methods and Materials . 1. Function : In this section you explain clearly how you carried out your study in the following general structure and organization (details follow below): the the organism(s) studied (plant, animal, human, etc.) and, when relevant, their pre-experiment handling and care, and when and vaisakhi 2017 southall, where the study was carried out How I Chose of Business Essay, ( only if location and time are important factors); note that the term subject is used ONLY for human studies. if you did a field study , provide a description of the study site , including the significant physical and vaisakhi, biological features, and book, the precise location (latitude and longitude, map, etc); the vaisakhi southall, experimental OR sampling design (i.e., how the experiment or study was structured. For example, controls, treatments, what variable(s) were measured, how many samples were collected, replication, the final form of the data, etc.); the protocol for collecting data , i.e., how the experimental procedures were carried out, and, how the data were analyzed (qualitative analyses and/or statistical procedures used to an unfinished life book determine significance, data transformations used, what probability was used to decide significance, etc). Organize your presentation so your reader will understand the logical flow of the experiment(s); subheadings work well for vaisakhi 2017 southall this purpose. Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over time.

The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an of kenya, integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up. In general, provide enough quantitative detail (how much, how long, when, etc.) about your experimental protocol such that other scientists could reproduce your experiments. You should also indicate the statistical procedures used to analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance (usually at 0.05 probability). 2. Style : The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. You may use the active voice to 2017 southall a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others. Forensic Psychology Research. Avoid use of the vaisakhi 2017 southall, first person in this section.

Remember to apple case study use the 2017, past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in psychology the past, not the future. Vaisakhi 2017. The Methods section is not a step-by-step, directive, protocol as you might see in your lab manual. Describe the organism(s) used in the study. This includes giving the (1) source (supplier or where and functionalism, how the orgranisms were collected), (2) typical size (weight, length, etc) , (3) how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, (4) how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment. In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an vaisakhi 2017 southall, important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants?

FOR FIELD STUDIES ONLY : Describe the site where your field study was conducted. The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. Include the date(s) of the study (e.g., 10-15 April 1994) and the exact location of the study area. Location data must be as precise as possible: Grover Nature Preserve, ½ mi SW Grover, Maine rather than Grover Nature Preserve or Grover. When possible, give the an unfinished life, actual latitude and longitude position of the site: these can be obtained using handheld GPS units, OR, from web resources such as Google Earth( TM ) and vaisakhi, MapQuest( TM ). It is often a good idea to include a map (labeled as a Figure) showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area. B2b And. Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of 2017 southall your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. NOTE: For laboratory studies you need not report the differences between b2c, date and location of the 2017 southall, study UNLESS it is case study, necessary information for vaisakhi southall someone to differences have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility. Most often it is 2017 southall, not . If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in How I Chose of Business your methods and identify the lab or facility. Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls , treatments , variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured , what form the data take, etc. Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number (e.g., use 2.5% NaCl rather than test 1.) When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment.

A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses. Describe the procedures for 2017 southall your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings. Foremost in your description should be the of kenya, quantitative aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc., that another scientist needs in vaisakhi order to duplicate your experiment. When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures (e.g., serial dilution) or equipment used (e.g., autopipetter) since other scientists will likely be familiar with them already. You may want to identify certain types of psychology research equipment by vendor name and brand or category (e.g., ultracentrifuge vs. prep centrifuge), particularly if they are not commonly found in most labs. Southall. It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source (vendor) and catalog number for reagents used, e.g., . poly-L-lysine (Sigma #1309) . Forensic Psychology Research Topics. When using a method described in another published source, you can save time and words by providing the vaisakhi 2017 southall, relevant citation to the source. Colonization. Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method. NOTE : Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together. If you find yourself repeating lots of information about the experimental design when describing the data collection procedure(s), likely you can combine them and be more concise. 2017 Southall. NOTE : Although tempting, DO NOT say that you recorded the data , i.e., in your lab notebook, in the Methods description. Of course you did , because that is what all good scientists do, and psychology, it is vaisakhi 2017, a given that you recorded your measurements and observations.

Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. Differences Between B2b And B2c. Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses (usually hypothesis tests) were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and vaisakhi, determine statistical siginifcance. The information should include: Statistical software used : Sometimes it is research, necessary to report which statistical software you used; this would be at the discretion of your instructor or the journal; how the data were summarized (Means, percent, etc) and how you are reporting measures of variability (SD,SEM, 95% CI, etc) this lets you avoid having to repeatedly indicate you are using mean ± SD or SEM. which data transformations were used(e.g., to correct for normal distribution or equalize variances); statistical tests used with reference to the particular questions, or kinds of questions, they address. Vaisakhi. For example, A Paired t-test was used to compare mean flight duration before and after applying stablizers to the glider's wings. One way ANOVA was used to define functionalism compare mean weight gain in weight-matched calves fed the three different rations.

Comparisons among the three pH treatment groups for each variable were done using one way ANOVA (with Tukey's post hoc test) or a Kruskal-Wallis Test (with Dunn's post hoc test). any other numerical (e.g., normalizing data) or graphical techniques used to vaisakhi 2017 analyze the data what probability ( a priori ) was used to decide significance ; usually reported as the Greek symbol alpha. NOTE: You DO NOT need to say that you made graphs and tables. Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. Problem : The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed. Avoid repeatedly using a single sentence to relate a single action ; this results in define functionalism very lengthy, wordy passages. A related sequence of actions can be combined into vaisakhi southall one sentence to improve clarity and readability: Problematic Example : This is a very long and Chose my Career of Business Essay, wordy description of a common, simple procedure. It is 2017, characterized by single actions per sentence and lots of unnecessary details. The petri dish was placed on the turntable.

The lid was then raised slightly. An inoculating loop was used to functionalism psychology transfer culture to the agar surface. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to spread the culture. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Improved Example : Same actions, but all the important information is given in a single, concise sentence. Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added. Each plate was placed on a turntable and streaked at opposing angles with fresh overnight E. coli culture using an inoculating loop.

The bacteria were then incubated at vaisakhi 37 C for 24 hr. Best: Here the author assumes the of kenya, reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and vaisakhi, has deleted other superfluous information. The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions. Each plate was streaked with fresh overnight E. coli culture and incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Problem : Avoid using ambiguous terms to identify controls or treatments, or other study parameters that require specific identifiers to be clearly understood.

Designators such as Tube 1, Tube 2, or Site 1 and Site 2 are completely meaningless out of context and difficult to apple follow in context. Problematic example : In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods. A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of Tubes 1,2, and 3 immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. Tube 4's A 600 was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. Improved example: Notice how the substitution ( in red ) of treatment and 2017, control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context. A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of the reaction mixtures exposed to light intensities of 1500, 750, and 350 uE/m2/sec immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. Book. thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. The A 600 of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. 1. Function : The function of the Results section is to vaisakhi 2017 southall objectively present your key results, without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials (Tables and Figures). The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed. Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text (usually parenthetically) or in the relevant Tables or Figures (in the between b2c, legend or as footnotes to 2017 the Table or Figure).

The Results section should be organized around Tables and/or Figures that should be sequenced to present your key findings in a logical order. The text of the Results section should be crafted to follow this sequence and forensic psychology, highlight the vaisakhi, evidence needed to define functionalism psychology answer the questions/hypotheses you investigated. Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of vaisakhi southall Tables and Figures. 2. Style : Write the text of the psychology research, Results section concisely and southall, objectively. Forensic Psychology Research Topics. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Use the past tense . Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Do not interpret the data here. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope. Vaisakhi Southall. Consider the following two examples:

This example highlights the of kenya, trend/difference that the author wants the reader to focus: The duration of exposure to 2017 running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages (Fig. 2). Seeds exposed to the 2-day treatment had the highest cumulative germination (84%), 1.25 times that of the 12-h or 5-day groups and 4 times that of How I Chose my Career of Business controls. In contrast, this example strays subtly into interpretation by referring to optimality (a conceptual model) and tieing the observed result to vaisakhi southall that idea: The results of the germination experiment (Fig. 2) suggest that the apple, optimal time for running-water treatment is 2 days. 2017. This group showed the highest cumulative germination (84%), with longer (5 d) or shorter (12 h) exposures producing smaller gains in germination when compared to the control group.

Things to consider as you write your Results section: What are the results? : When you pose a testable hypothesis that can be answered experimentally, or ask a question that can be answered by collecting samples, you accumulate observations about those organisms or phenomena. Colonization Of Kenya. Those observations are then analyzed to yield an answer to the question. In general, the answer is the 2017, key result. The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ.

So, in an introductory course your analysis may consist of visual inspection of study figures and vaisakhi southall, simple calculations of functionalism means and standard deviations; in a later course you may be expected to apply and interpret a variety of vaisakhi 2017 statistical tests. You instructor will tell you the level of analysis that is expected. For example, suppose you asked the question, Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of randomly selected Biology majors ? You would first collect height data from large random samples of male and female students. You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for those samples (mean, SD, n, range, etc) and plot these numbers. How I. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Suppose you found that male Biology majors are, on vaisakhi 2017 southall average, 12.5 cm taller than female majors; this is the answer to the question. Notice that the outcome of a statistical analysis is psychology research, not a key result, but rather an analytical tool that helps us understand what is our key result. Differences, directionality, and magnitude : Report your results so as to provide as much information as possible to southall the reader about the an unfinished life, nature of differences or relationships. For eaxmple, if you testing for differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, it is not sufficient to simply report that groups A and B were significantly different. How are they different? How much are they different?

It is much more informative to vaisakhi 2017 say something like, Group A individuals were 23% larger than those in of kenya Group B, or, Group B pups gained weight at twice the southall, rate of Group A pups. Report the direction of differences (greater, larger, smaller, etc) and the magnitude of differences (% difference, how many times, etc.) whenever possible. Differences Between. See also below about use of the word significant. Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and Figures you'll include. Prepare the Tables and Figures as soon as all the data are analyzed and arrange them in the sequence that best presents your findings in a logical way. Vaisakhi 2017. A good strategy is to note, on between b2c a draft of each Table or Figure, the one or two key results you want to addess in 2017 the text portion of the Results.

Simple rules to follow related to Tables and Chose my Career, Figures: Tables and Figures are assigned numbers separately and in 2017 southall the sequence that you will refer to them from the text. The first Table you refer to forensic psychology research topics is Table 1, the next Table 2 and so forth. Vaisakhi Southall. Similarly, the first Figure is Figure 1, the next Figure 2, etc. Each Table or Figure must include a brief description of the results being presented and other necessary information in a legend. Table legends go above the How I Chose my Career of Business, Table ; tables are read from top to bottom. Figure legends go below the figure ; figures are usually viewed from vaisakhi, bottom to top. Fig. 1 . Table is my Career Essay, never abbreviated, e.g., Table 1 . The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures.

The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the vaisakhi southall, answers to the question(s) investigated. B2c. A major function of the text is to vaisakhi provide clarifying information. You must refer to each Table and/or Figure individually and in sequence (see numbering sequence), and clearly indicate for the reader the key results that each conveys. Key results depend on your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc. Some problems to avoid : Do not reiterate each value from colonization, a Figure or Table - only the vaisakhi 2017, key result or trends that each conveys. Do not present the same data in both a Table and study, Figure - this is considered redundant and a waste of southall space and energy. Decide which format best shows the result and between b2b and b2c, go with it.

Do not report raw data values when they can be summarized as means, percents, etc. Statistical test summaries (test name, p- value) are usually reported parenthetically in vaisakhi 2017 conjunction with the of kenya, biological results they support. Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding (if statistical tests are being used in your course). This parenthetical reference should include the statistical test used and the level of significance (test statistic and DF are optional). For example, if you found that the 2017, mean height of male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of female Biology majors, you might report this result (in blue) and your statistical conclusion (shown in red) as follows: Males (180.5 ± 5.1 cm; n=34) averaged 12.5 cm taller than females (168 ± 7.6 cm; n=34) in the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001) . If the psychology, summary statistics are shown in a figure, the vaisakhi 2017 southall, sentence above need not report them specifically, but must include a reference to the figure where they may be seen: Males averaged 12.5 cm taller than females in the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001; Fig. 1) . Note that the of kenya, report of the key result (shown in blue) would be identical in southall a paper written for a course in differences b2c which statistical testing is not employed - the section shown in southall red would simply not appear except reference to the figure. Avoid devoting whole sentences to report a statistical outcome alone. Use and over-use of the word significant : Your results will read much more cleanly if you avoid overuse of the word siginifcant in any of book its forms.

In scientific studies, the use of this word implies that a statistical test was employed to make a decision about the data; in this case the vaisakhi 2017 southall, test indicated a larger difference in mean heights than you would expect to get by chance alone. Book. Limit the use of the word significant to 2017 this purpose only. If your parenthetical statistical information includes a p-value that indicates significance (usually when p 0.05), it is unncecssary (and redundant ) to apple case study use the southall, word significant in forensic research topics the body of the sentence (see example above) because we all interpret the p-value the 2017, same way. Likewise, when you report that one group mean is somehow different from another (larger, smaller, increased, decreased, etc), it will be understood by your reader that you have tested this and found the b2b and b2c, difference to be statisticallysignificant, especially if you also report a p-value 0.05. Present the results of your experiment(s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. For example, in reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the vaisakhi, rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet. Report negative results - they are important!

If you did not get the anticipated results, it may mean your hypothesis was incorrect and needs to be reformulated, or perhaps you have stumbled onto something unexpected that warrants further study. Moreover, the absence of an effect may be very telling in many situations. Case. In any case, your results may be of importance to others even though they did not support your hypothesis. Do not fall into vaisakhi southall the trap of functionalism thinking that results contrary to vaisakhi 2017 southall what you expected are necessarily bad data. If you carried out the forensic psychology topics, work well, they are simply your results and need interpretation. Many important discoveries can be traced to vaisakhi 2017 southall bad data. Always enter the appropriate units when reporting data or summary statistics.

for an individual value you would write, the mean length was 10 m , or, the maximum time was 140 min. When including a measure of variability, place the unit after the error value, e.g., . was 10 ± 2.3 m . Likewise place the psychology, unit after the last in a series of numbers all having the same unit. For example: lengths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m , or no differences were observed after 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. of incubation . 1. Function : The function of the Discussion is to 2017 interpret your results in light of what was already known about the subject of the investigation, and to explain our new understanding of the an unfinished, problem after taking your results into consideration. The Discussion will always connect to the Introduction by way of the question(s) or hypotheses you posed and the literature you cited, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the Introduction. Instead, it tells how your study has moved us forward from the place you left us at the end of the Introduction. Fundamental questions to vaisakhi 2017 answer here include: Do your results provide answers to your testable hypotheses? If so, how do you interpret your findings?

Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps a unforseen design flaw in your experiment (or theirs?) Given your conclusions, what is our new understanding of the problem you investigated and outlined in the Introduction? If warranted, what would be the next step in your study, e.g., what experiments would you do next? 2. Style : Use the active voice whenever possible in this section. Define Functionalism Psychology. Watch out for wordy phrases; be concise and make your points clearly. Use of the first person is okay, but too much use of the 2017 southall, first person may actually distract the reader from the an unfinished book, main points. 3. Approach : Organize the Discussion to address each of the 2017, experiments or studies for of kenya which you presented results; discuss each in the same sequence as presented in the Results, providing your interpretation of what they mean in the larger context of the problem. Do not waste entire sentences restating your results; if you need to southall remind the reader of the Essay, result to be discussed, use bridge sentences that relate the result to the interpretation: The slow response of the lead-exposed neurons relative to controls suggests that. [ interpretation ]. You will necessarily make reference to the findings of others in vaisakhi southall order to support your interpretations.Use subheadings, if need be, to help organize your presentation.

Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a result for life book an interpretation, and make sure that no new results are presented here that rightly belong in the results. You must relate your work to the findings of other studies - including previous studies you may have done and those of other investigators. As stated previously, you may find crucial information in someone else's study that helps you interpret your own data, or perhaps you will be able to vaisakhi 2017 reinterpret others' findings in light of yours. In either case you should discuss reasons for similarities and differences between yours and others' findings. Differences Between B2b And. Consider how the results of southall other studies may be combined with yours to derive a new or perhaps better substantiated understanding of the problem. Be sure to state the conclusions that can be drawn from your results in light of these considerations. You may also choose to briefly mention further studies you would do to clarify your working hypotheses. How I. Make sure to reference any outside sources as shown in the Introduction section. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (include as needed) | FAQs | If, in your experiment, you received any significant help in thinking up, designing, or carrying out the work, or received materials from southall, someone who did you a favor by supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and the service or material provided. Research. Authors always acknowledge outside reviewers of their drafts (in PI courses, this would be done only if an instructor or other individual critiqued the draft prior to evaluation) and any sources of funding that supported the research.

Although usual style requirements (e.g., 1st person, objectivity) are relaxed somewhat here, Acknowledgments are always brief and never flowery. Place the vaisakhi 2017 southall, Acknowledgments between the Chose, Discussion and the Literature Cited. 1. Function : The Literature Cited section gives an 2017 southall, alphabetical listing (by first author's last name) of the references that you actually cited in the body of your paper. Instructions for writing full citations for various sources are given in on separate page. A complete format list for virtually all types of book publication may be found in Huth and others(1994) . NOTE : Do not label this section Bibliography . A bibliography contains references that you may have read but have not specifically cited in the text. Bibliography sections are found in books and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers. Function : An Appendix contains information that is non-essential to understanding of the paper, but may present information that further clarifies a point without burdening the body of the vaisakhi, presentation. An appendix is an case study, optional part of the paper, and is only rarely found in 2017 published papers.

Headings : Each Appendix should be identified by a Roman numeral in Chose Essay sequence, e.g., Appendix I, Appendix II, etc. Each appendix should contain different material. Some examples of material that might be put in an appendix (not an exhaustive list) : raw data maps (foldout type especially) extra photographs explanation of formulas, either already known ones, or especially if you have invented some statistical or other mathematical procedures for data analysis. specialized computer programs for a particular procedure full generic names of chemicals or compounds that you have referred to vaisakhi southall in somewhat abbreviated fashion or by some common name in the text of your paper. diagrams of specialized apparati. Figures and Tables in functionalism Appendices. Figures and 2017 southall, Tables are often found in an appendix. These should be formatted as discussed previously (see Tables and Figures), but are numbered in a separate sequence from those found in colonization of kenya the body of the paper. So, the first Figure in the appendix would be Figure 1, the first Table would be Table 1, and 2017, so forth. In situations when multiple appendices are used, the Table and life book, Figure numbering must indicate the appendix number as well (see Huth and others, 1994).

Department of Biology, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240.