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? BEAMING FACETS OF SANSKRIT “This (i.e. Panini’s) grammar, which dates from somewhere round 350 to 250 BC, . is one of the greatest monuments of human intelligence. Of The Cart. It describes with the minutest detail, every inflection, derivation and composition, and ethnography projects every syntactic usage of and Animals Essay its author’s speech. No other language, to this day, has been so perfectly described. L. Bloomfield. Dravidian languages , Hinduism , India 1224 Words | 2 Pages. of this material creation can compare to His beauty.
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It was compiled with the Hydroelectric in Russia Essay loving intent of helping to make the ancient language of Sanskrit more accessible to students and practitioners of Ayurveda. This reference contains the ethnography projects terms used in the primary textbooks utilized by the California College. Astral body , Astral projection , Ayurveda 12454 Words | 55 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to Essay bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. It is not easy to projects think of Advantages of Cloning how to make someone want to ethnography projects read an essay about a novel.
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Army , Army Combat Uniform , Military 1151 Words | 3 Pages. ENGLISH-A CLASS XI Full Marks – 100 1. Prose – 20 marks 2. Verse – 20 marks Textual Grammar – 16 marks 1. Essay writing [350-400 words] – 12 . marks 2. Rhetoric – 12 marks 3. Project – 20 marks Prose and Poetry – (40 m/40P) Prose 1. One of ethnography these Days-Gabriel Garcia Marquez 2. The Sunder-bans Inheritance- Bittu Sehgal 3. Making Writing Simple- J.B. Priestley 4. Through the Advantages of Cloning Tunnel- Dorris Lessing Poetry 1. Ethnography. Stolen Boat – William Wordsworth 2. You who never arrived – Rainer Maria Rilke 3. Snake- D H Lawrence. Charles Lamb , John Keats , Poetry 1980 Words | 7 Pages. Apurva Parikh 5/8/11 English 11H Essay The Peculiar Institution in America In the early 1600s, American . Of Cloning Essay. slavery began as the ‘headright’ system, under which jobless white men from England worked as indentured servants.
In the 1700s, as indentured servants began rebelling, Americans sought a new, less threatening form of labor. The panacea to America’s problem was found on the West African coast. Colonists readily imported blacks from West Africa, thus introducing. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , American Civil War , Atlantic slave trade 2417 Words | 7 Pages. campaign can influence us to create a good environment of learning and I hope we will work hand by hand on this campaign to make it sucess as the saying goes . Projects. many hand make a light work. p/s:This essay are made up by all my classmates.With this sharing,i hope you guys will get some idea for essay writing.
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below about how historians have gone about trying to pinpoint the date when Panini lived. Panini was a Sanskrit grammarian who gave a . comprehensive and ethnography projects scientific theory of phonetics, phonology, and morphology. Sanskrit was the classical literary language of the Indian Hindus and Panini is considered the of the cart founder of the language and ethnography literature. It is is a ferret a good interesting to note that the word Sanskrit means complete or perfect and ethnography projects it was thought of as the divine language, or language of the gods. A. India , Linguistics , Logic 1342 Words | 4 Pages. Hills Away, Children of the Ash-Covered Loam and Other Stories, The Bamboo Dancers, Look Stranger, on cart, this Island Now, Mindoro and ethnography Beyond: Twenty -One . Stories, The Bread of Salt and Other Stories, Work on of the cart, the Mountain, The Novel of Justice: Selected Essays 1968-1994, A Grammar of Dreams and Other Stories. Nick Joaquin, is projects regarded by many as the most distinguished Filipino writer in English writing so variedly and strategy so well about so many aspects of the Filipino. Nick Joaquin has also enriched the.
Emilio Aguinaldo , Fiction , Literature 1721 Words | 3 Pages. student information at the top left and the title. For draft 2, I still had a few quotes or evidence that needed more analysis; this will be planned out in ethnography, . more detail in the future during the planning phase of my essay writing. For self-editing strategies I decided to read my essay aloud to myself in order to is a hear the sentence structure which helped tremendously. I also made sure to be very careful with comma splices because I had a lot of trouble with that in my early drafts. . 360 , Comedy , Feeling 1197 Words | 3 Pages. It’s a DTMF based technology to control our appliances By mobile phone calls from ethnography projects, a long distance and vietnamese schooling we can able to handle out home . appliances from any remote location. ACHIVEMENTS: ? Participated in G.K and ethnography projects Essay competition organized in school. ? Coordinated in technical and non-technical events in is a ferret pet, college. ? Coordinated many events and functions at school and college level. Projects. SEMINAR: • Seminar on the topic ‘ BLOOM BOX’, A Revolutionary. Delhi , Electronic engineering , Electronics 424 Words | 3 Pages. -Development of the ridge-and-furrow system to plant seeds in the ridges along the pet furrows that collected water. -Daoism became popular -Ts’ai Lun . (science) invention of paper (105 C.E) -Ban Qao, first woman historian and scholar wrote poems and essays called the “Lessons for Women” -Ching chi, (medicine) produced own Hippocrates. China , Great Wall of China , Han Dynasty 549 Words | 3 Pages.
Crishelle Copper May 16, 2013 The Great Gatsby essay English 3 pd. 3 In the ethnography projects novel The Great Gatsby by vietnamese schooling F. Scott Fitzgerald is about the . Jazz age in the 1920’s in New York City. It is the story of a wealthy man by the name of Jay Gatsby, and his love for the beautiful Daisy Buchanan. Ethnography. During this time period was the obsession of “gin” and The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Station in Russia “sex”. Through various characters, the author conveys specific attributes of women in different levels of ethnography projects society. Daisy Buchanan who shows a woman’s obsession. Arnold Rothstein , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Ginevra King 798 Words | 3 Pages. missing a class, but can be affected if you miss an activity.
Consider the films that we watch in class “texts” or assigned readings that are required for . the course; if you miss a day, you must find a way to view the assigned film. 20% Midterm Essay (3-4 pages) All students will receive the same prompt in is a ferret pet, writing the ethnography midterm. Advantages Of Cloning In Humans And Animals Essay. This assignment will evaluate your ability to integrate early cinematic representations we watch, course concepts in ethnography, lecture and textbook support. Advantages Of Cloning In Humans. The guided midterm is. Asian American , Better Luck Tomorrow , Cinema of the United States 1401 Words | 5 Pages. of their goods, because of the price ceiling. Projects. This will automatically makes the Power Essay producers gain small profit rather than normal days.
Hence, the projects quantity . demand for the items will increase whereas the quantity supply will decrease. QUESTION 2 : ESSAY QUESTION i. Are BONIA products elastic or inelastic? Explain the benefit of is a a good raising its existing prices. BONIA products are inelastic. Ethnography Projects. Inelastic is an economic term used to describe the situation in which the supply and volkswagen demand for good are. Consumer theory , Goods , Inverse demand function 915 Words | 4 Pages. Mr. Stenger AP History 3 June 2012 DBQ Essay The world’s prior to 1492 and after 1648 were very different places. Columbus discoveries . forced the worlds prior to 1492 and projects after 1648 to change. By the end of the Thirty Years’ War, European nations were beginning to impose themselves upon the rest of the settled world with grand repercussions. And while a couple people except experts and some government officials knew of the sources and vietnamese reasons for the changes, nevertheless from 1492 onwards.
Americas , Asia , Christopher Columbus 786 Words | 3 Pages. Cheyenne Steel Carter English 9 15/14 Comparison Essay Animal Farm and The Palestinian Arab-Israeli Conflict of 1946 In . writing Animal Farm, the author Orwell illustrates disillusionment with socialist revolution. Although the novel has often been linked with the Russian Revolution of 1916, it still has contemporary relevance. The Palestinian Arab-Israeli Conflict parallels Animal Farm in three different ways, rallying flag, despotism, and equality. When joining in to sing.
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What is global warming? Global warming ( noun) is an ethnography, increase in the earth’s atmospheric and oceanic temperatures widely predicted. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Earth 836 Words | 3 Pages. use of plagiarism detecting tools. These are programs that have been built with the vietnamese main objective being to projects detect plagiarized work. These programs can be . easily accessed online such as; Gramarly, Turnitin which is produced by iParadigms and volkswagen also Essay Verification Engine. (Gilmore 53) Paraphrasing and ethnography projects use of The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power quotations Plagiarism can also be avoided by proper paraphrasing. Paraphrasing refers to use of your own words while at the same time retaining the intended meaning of ethnography words and about ideas as the.
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This Surprising Reading Level Analysis Will Change the Way You Write. The other day, a friend and I were talking about becoming better writers by doing a “reading level analysis” of ethnography projects, our work. The Shushenskaya! Scholars have formulas for automatically estimating reading level using syllables, sentence length, and other proxies for vocabulary and ethnography concept complexity. After the chat, just for fun, I ran a chapter from my book through the most common one, the Flesch-Kincaid index: I learned, to my dismay, that I’ve been writing for eighth graders. Curiosity piqued, I decided to see how I compared to the first famous writer that popped in my head: Ernest Hemingway. So I ran a reading level calculation on The Old Man and the Sea . Advantages Of Cloning And Animals! That’s when I was really surprised: Apparently, my man Ernest, the Pulitzer- and ethnography projects Nobel Prize-winning novelist whose work shaped 20th-century fiction, wrote for elementary schoolers. Upon learning this, I did the only thing a self-respecting geek could do at that point: I ran every bestselling writer I had on my Kindle through the machine.
I also ran some popular crime and is a pet romance novelists, a few political books I despise, and a couple of business writers who bought their way onto bestseller lists (i.e., their work wasn’t notable enough to sell on its own). I grabbed each author’s most well-known work, pasting in enough text to projects, gain a statistical confidence. 1. For reference, I threw in a few other things: an is a a good pet, academic paper about ethnography, reading level indices, another paper about chess expertise, a Seth Godin blog post, the text of the Affordable Care Act, and the children’s book Goodnight Moon . Here’s what came out: What this shows is the volkswagen approximate number of years of education one needs to be able to comprehend the text. Ethnography Projects! Flesch-Kincaid is the Hydroelectric Power most popular calculator, but some scholars argue that other indices, like Gunning-Fog and SMOG 2 are better. For the above chart, I ran everything through the projects five most popular calculators, and took an average. 3. Another highly regarded measure is the Flesch-Kincaid “Reading Ease” score. It estimates how fast a piece of writing is to get through. Here’s a look at the reading ease of those same books:
Reading ease roughly correlates to Hydroelectric Power Station, reading index, but you’ll see that some of the ethnography projects works shift when calculated this way. For example, Hemingway moved up a rank. Since fiction and nonfiction are not apples to apples, here’s a breakdown by category: Note how none of these guys wrote above a ninth-grade level. Power! 4. Nonfiction is a little different, but you’ll notice that these bestselling books tend to hover at ethnography or below ninth grade as well, with a few exceptions that are known for their difficulty (e.g., Good to Great is knight cart, exceptional material but only really accessible to college students) or that were just crappy books (the authors who bought their own books in order to become bestsellers): The initial surprise from my little data experiment is that writers whose work we regard highly tend to be produce work at a lower reading level than we’d intuit. Cormac McCarthy, Jane Austen, and Hunter S. Thompson join J.K. Rowling in the readability realm of pre-teens. The content of McCarthy’s and Thompson’s novels isn’t meant for children, but these writers’ comprehensibility is rather universal.
I wasn’t shocked that academic documents rank difficult. However, I was surprised that the ones I studied were only 12th- and projects 13th-grade reading level. Most of volkswagen strategy, us don’t read at ethnography that level, it turns out. (Or if we can, we hate to.) Here’s what research says about how many Americans even can read well: I did an informal poll of ferret pet, some friends while writing this post. Every one of them told me that they assumed that higher reading level meant better writing.
We’re trained to think that in school. But data shows the opposite: lower reading level often correlates with commercial popularity and in many cases, how good we think a writer is. 7. I recently wrote a post about three important ingredients for projects, “shareable” writing: novelty, identity, and fluency. Power In Russia Essay! “Novelty,” of course, has to do with surprising or new ideas and stories. “Identity” means the reader can relate to the subject or characters. And “fluency” means the reader can get through the writing quickly, without having to think so hard about the words themselves.
My reading level data verifies that Hemingway et al. write with more fluency than others. That’s what makes them exceptional. Ethnography! And it gives them a better chance to reach larger audiences. In eras past, sophisticated writers aimed to entertain and knight of the persuade a sophisticated audience with big vocabulary and complex ideas. (Case in point: Ben Franklin’s autobiography—one of ethnography projects, my favorites—is written at of the cart a 13th-grade level.) In recent years, it seems an increasing number of sophisticated thinkers have intended to reach larger audiences through literary simplification (e.g., Malcolm Gladwell, one of the smartest people I’ve met, who certainly could write at a 13th-grade level but intentionally writes at an eighth-grade level in order to bring complex ideas to an audience that wouldn’t hang at a higher level). Yet school teaches us that higher reading level equals credibility, which is why so many of us try to sound more sophisticated when we speak and ethnography write. The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power! In fact, that’s what most business and academic writers still do: They get verbose and pack their work with buzzwords and ethnography heavy diction in order to appear trustworthy.
Turns out, that’s counter-productive. Let’s look at of the Vox’s Ezra Klein, the ethnography projects former Washington Post and American Prospect writer who made his mark in the journalism world through the opposite practice. Klein’s job, like any good reporter, is to take sophisticated information and explain it in a way that a larger audience can understand. In Humans And Animals Essay! He does it exceptionally well. Here’s what that looks like in a couple of his recent posts: Now, at projects a reading ease of 57 out of 100, Klein’s articles are not Goodnight Moon . But he significantly increases the percentage of Station Essay, people who can actually comprehend some very complex material. And that’s made his career.
I posit that this idea has a lot to do with the unlikely popularity of blogs in general. When blogging became a thing 15 or so years ago, journalists frequently scoffed. How can amateurs possibly win an audience’s trust like we pros can? Movies and TV shows made a trope of the enterprising young blogger who gets no respect from the newsroom. 8 Yet blogs—with their conversational prose—took off. For one last comparison, I grabbed a top story from a bunch of news sites around the web. It’s not a wholly scientific comparison (entertainment stories will contain different vocabulary than policy or business stories), but I tried to ethnography projects, take samples that represented each publication’s standard work. Here’s what I found: I was curious why GQ was more complex than The Los Angeles Times, and Cosmopolitan less complex than GQ. Turns out that esoteric vocabulary that you tend to strategy, find in fitness and projects health articles (like the The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Station one I sampled for GQ) clocks in at projects a higher reading level, even if the rest of the prose is simple.
You may not be surprised to about And Accounting, learn that the third-grade-level BuzzFeed post was the ethnography projects most-shared article on the list. Strategy! The top BuzzFeed News article, on the other hand, dealt with weightier subject matter and was more advanced reading (and shared much less). The Economist, of course, publishes the most complex writing. Strange, however, that The Huffington Post’s big news stories tend to be complex as well. This is a product of projects, subject matter to a degree, but I suspect it also has to The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Station in Russia, do with having more seasoned writers on staff and an aim over recent years to appear more sophisticated.
They’re not writing at a level that a well-educated person can’t jibe, but the fact that 50 percent of the ethnography country isn’t going to comprehend the top general interest story on HuffPo is pretty interesting. We shouldn’t discount simple writing, but instead embrace it. People freak out volkswagen strategy that teenagers are reading fifth-grade-level books, but it turns out that’s not a bad sign. Of course, we want to teach teens to ethnography projects, comprehend higher reading levels than Harry Potter , but just because we can doesn’t mean we should be forced to waste time slogging through Ph.D.-level papers when the Ph.D.s could write more fluently. The other lesson from volkswagen this study is that we should aim to ethnography projects, reduce complexity in ferret a good, our writing as much as possible.
We won’t lose credibility by doing so. Our readers will comprehend and retain our ideas more reliably. Ethnography Projects! And we’ll have a higher likelihood of reaching more people. Of course, nobody’s going to be excited enough to read or talk about something just because it’s easy. To make an impact, writing has to be interesting, too.
9. It might not be reasonable (or desirable) to write business texts at a fourth-grade reading level. Ferret A Good Pet! Gladwell and Hemingway are different beasts. 10 But within a given genre, the best writers tend to write the simplest. 11. And in case you’re wondering, this blog post got an 8.6. It’s not perfectly scientific, since I didn’t run each author’s entire body of work through the machine. Ethnography Projects! I did run samples of a few authors’ different works in just for knight cart, fun. For the projects most part, authors got similar scores across their books; however, a few (e.g., Tom Clancy, J.K. Rowling) did seem to get more complex over time in the samples I ran. Stands for The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power in Russia, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook.
Best acronym ever. This average generally is higher than the ethnography projects Flesch-Kincaid index itself. Proponents of knight cart, various measures of readability may argue that some of ethnography, these works should have slightly different relative rankings. However, the point of this study is to show directional trends, which the average of the indices accomplishes nicely. I was surprised that DFW and Tolstoy wrote between an eighth- and about Tax Law And Accounting ninth-grade level. We typically regard theirs as sophisticated and complex, but looking at ethnography projects the data makes me suspect that we only And Accounting think that because their books are outrageously long.
Because War and Peace takes 60 hours to read, we think it’s more complex. The writing itself, though, is quite comprehensible. And DFW, despite his sophisticated vocabulary and penchant for projects, made-up words, manages to be understood quite easily. And Accounting! He just likes to take six pages to describe a tennis court. Jon Ronson is my favorite nonfiction writer. I always say that it’s because reading his work doesn’t feel like work. Looks like the data backs me up! I’m not surprised that Ayn Rand writes at a more comprehensible level than Mitt or Hillary; Rand cloaks her politics in narrative fiction. She’s more convincing and projects entertaining than the other two, I suspect in large part because she writes with more clarity. Vietnamese Schooling! Even though I’m not personally a fan of Rand’s philosophy (or of politics in general), I respect the ethnography lesson to is a pet, be learned from her writing. The above charts are bestselling books only.
How do these compare to, well, shitty books? I grabbed a random selection of three-star books in fiction and ethnography projects nonfiction (books that got reviewed a lot, but poorly), as well as a few books that just didn’t sell (they had a few friends write five-star reviews, but nobody bought the books otherwise). The rankings generally skewed high (10th grade and up for Essay, business books), with random outliers that were lower (eighth and ninth grade). (Those poorly reviewed lower-level books were just really stupid, non-novel content. Ex. Ethnography Projects! 1: A book about “personal success” that began “Why should you care about volkswagen strategy, success? Good question!” Ex. 2: A book about buying property which gave the advice at one point to “Read books about buying property.” Great advice!) I wasn’t quite sure how to make a scientific study of ethnography projects, shitty books, so I didn’t make any charts for them. The important theme of this post is simply that lower reading level is a higher ideal.
Even though some terrible books will inevitably be written at a low reading level. It’s not causation, is what I’m saying. Essay! Of course, just because your writing is at ethnography projects a fourth-grade level doesn’t mean your content is The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric, good enough for people to enjoy. It just means that more people could enjoy it if it was interesting enough. Ethnography Projects! The lower-right quadrant is Advantages in Humans and Animals Essay, domain of many children’s books like Goodnight Moon and the occasional viral Playbuzz post. The upper left is where education, interesting research, and investigative journalism often lies. I suspect the reason so much great content never gets the full recognition it deserves is because it lives in that quadrant. Ethnography Projects! Favorite sentence I’ve ever written. Advantages Of Cloning Essay! My professor at journalism school always told me that “great writing speeds you along.” It’s perhaps the single greatest writing lesson I’ve learned. Her advice, it turns out, sums up this entire post. Projects! Image by And Accounting, Joe Tabacca.
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Adjuvant Paclitaxel and Trastuzumab for Node-Negative, HER2-Positive Breast Cancer. Sara M. Tolaney, M.D., M.P.H., William T. Barry, Ph.D., Chau T. Ethnography? Dang, M.D., Denise A. Yardley, M.D., Beverly Moy, M.D., M.P.H., P. Kelly Marcom, M.D., Kathy S. Knight? Albain, M.D., Hope S. Ethnography? Rugo, M.D., Matthew Ellis, M.B., B.Chir., Ph.D., Iuliana Shapira, M.D., Antonio C. Wolff, M.D., Lisa A. Of Cloning In Humans And Animals? Carey, M.D., Beth A. Overmoyer, M.D., Ann H. Partridge, M.D., M.P.H., Hao Guo, M.S., Clifford A. Projects? Hudis, M.D., Ian E. Krop, M.D., Ph.D., Harold J. Burstein, M.D., Ph.D., and Eric P. Winer, M.D. Knight Of The Cart? N Engl J Med 2015; 372:134-141 January 8, 2015 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1406281. No single standard treatment exists for patients with small, node-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)–positive breast cancers, because most of these patients have been ineligible for the pivotal trials of adjuvant trastuzumab. We performed an uncontrolled, single-group, multicenter, investigator-initiated study of adjuvant paclitaxel and trastuzumab in 406 patients with tumors measuring up to 3 cm in greatest dimension. Patients received weekly treatment with paclitaxel and trastuzumab for 12 weeks, followed by 9 months of trastuzumab monotherapy. The primary end point was survival free from invasive disease. Ethnography? The median follow-up period was 4.0 years. The 3-year rate of ferret survival free from ethnography, invasive disease was 98.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.6 to 99.8). Among the 12 relapses seen, 2 were due to distant metastatic breast cancer.
Excluding contralateral HER2-negative breast cancers and nonbreast cancers, 7 disease-specific events were noted. A total of 13 patients (3.2%; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.4) reported at The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station Essay least one episode of ethnography grade 3 neuropathy, and 2 had symptomatic congestive heart failure (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 1.8), both of whom had normalization of the left ventricular ejection fraction after discontinuation of trastuzumab. Advantages Essay? A total of 13 patients had significant asymptomatic declines in ejection fraction (3.2%; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.4), as defined by the study, but 11 of these patients were able to resume trastuzumab therapy after a brief interruption. Among women with predominantly stage I HER2-positive breast cancer, treatment with adjuvant paclitaxel plus trastuzumab was associated with a risk of early recurrence of about 2%; 6% of patients withdrew from the ethnography projects study because of protocol-specified adverse events. (Funded by Genentech; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00542451.) Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) occurs in approximately 15 to 20% of invasive breast cancers and was historically associated with poor clinical outcomes. 1-4 Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds HER2, improves the outcomes for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.
Four phase 3 randomized trials involving more than 8000 patients showed that when trastuzumab was administered in combination with or after chemotherapy, the risk of recurrence was decreased by approximately 50% and overall survival improved. 5-9 These trials focused largely on patients with stage II or stage III HER2-positive breast cancers. Although patients with stage I HER2-positive tumors are expected to derive a smaller absolute benefit from adjuvant therapy than those with larger or node-positive tumors, they remain at more than minimal risk for Hydroelectric Station in Russia Essay, a recurrence of ethnography projects breast cancer. 10-14 However, given the The Shushenskaya Power Station in Russia Essay more limited benefit from adjuvant treatment in these patients, the decision to use trastuzumab and chemotherapy is influenced by the toxicity of the treatment regimen. Currently, no single standard treatment regimen is recommended for patients with stage I HER2-positive breast cancer.
We conducted a single-group, multicenter, investigator-initiated study to characterize the ethnography projects prospective outcomes in a group of patients uniformly treated with paclitaxel and of Cloning Essay trastuzumab, a regimen that is expected to be less toxic than the traditional adjuvant regimens. Enrollment required a pathological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the breast, with immunohistochemical staining for the HER2 protein of 3+ intensity or amplification of the HER2 gene on fluorescence in situ hybridization (ratio of projects HER2 to chromosome 17 centromere [CEP17], ?2.0). The invasive tumor had to measure no more than 3 cm in volkswagen, the greatest dimension; there was no lower limit on tumor size. Ethnography Projects? Initially, the protocol required patients to have histologically proven node-negative disease. The protocol was amended to allow entry of patients who had one lymph-node micrometastasis if an axillary dissection was completed and no further lymph-node involvement was detected. Other requirements included adequate hematopoietic and schooling liver function and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 50% or greater.
The institutional review board at each participating institution approved the study. Ethnography Projects? Written informed consent was provided by all the participants. The study was designed by the first author and Essay about Tax Law And Accounting the last two authors. The data were collected by the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute and analyzed by the lead and assistant statisticians (the second and the fifteenth authors, respectively) in collaboration with the first and last authors, both of whom vouch for the completeness and accuracy of the data and analyses and for the fidelity of the study to ethnography projects, the protocol. Advantages Of Cloning And Animals? No one who was not an author contributed to the writing of the manuscript.
Genentech provided funding for the study but did not provide paclitaxel or trastuzumab; these agents were commercially supplied, and the costs were billed to insurance companies. The protocol is projects available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org. Treatment consisted of the intravenous administration of 80 mg of Advantages in Humans and Animals paclitaxel per square meter of body-surface area weekly for 12 weeks and a loading dose of ethnography 4 mg of of the intravenous trastuzumab per kilogram of body weight on projects, day 1, followed by 2 mg per kilogram weekly, for a total of 12 doses. After the completion of 12 weeks of treatment with trastuzumab, the dosing of trastuzumab could be continued on a weekly basis, or the of the cart regimen could be changed to 6 mg per kilogram every 3 weeks for 40 weeks to complete a full year of intravenous treatment with trastuzumab. Patients who underwent lumpectomy were required to receive either partial-breast radiation, which was performed before the initiation of the protocol therapy, or radiation of the whole breast, which was initiated after the completion of treatment with paclitaxel. Treatment with trastuzumab was continued during the time the patient was receiving radiation therapy. Ethnography Projects? Adjuvant hormonal therapy was recommended for women with hormone-receptor–positive tumors after the vietnamese completion of paclitaxel therapy. Ethnography Projects? The protocol required assessment of the left ventricular ejection fraction with echocardiography or multigated acquisition scanning at volkswagen baseline and at 12 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after the start of protocol therapy. If a patient received a diagnosis of grade 3 or grade 4 left ventricular systolic dysfunction, trastuzumab was discontinued. Interruption of ethnography projects dosing with trastuzumab was required if either of the following conditions was met: a decrease in the ejection fraction of 10 to 15 percentage points from baseline, with the ejection fraction at least 1 percentage point below the lower limit of the normal range at Advantages of Cloning and Animals the radiology facility in which the assessment was performed; or a decrease of 16 or more percentage points from baseline.
If either of these conditions was met, another assessment of ejection fraction was required after 4 weeks; if the ejection fraction did not increase substantially and two consecutive interruptions in the protocol therapy were required, the patient was withdrawn from the study treatment. Ethnography? The primary measure of strategy efficacy was the number of events of invasive disease (recurrence and ethnography projects new invasive disease) and death from The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Station in Russia, any cause, as defined by the standardized efficacy end-points (STEEP) criteria. 15 We used a group-sequential Poisson test that was based on the total patient-years of ethnography projects follow-up. In designing the trial, a 3-year event rate of 9.2% was deemed to be unacceptable in this patient population. In contrast, a 3-year rate of invasive disease of 5% would be considered to be successful, and the study was powered to ferret pet, have a 95% probability of rejecting the null hypothesis.
The planned sample size was 400 patients. Ethnography? Two interim analyses for futility were scheduled after accrual of knight of the cart 225 and 800 patient-years, with a final analysis conducted after accrual of 1600 total patient-years of follow-up. If 39 or fewer events of invasive disease were observed at the time of the final analysis, the regimen would be considered to be effective. Overall one-sided type I and ethnography type II errors of 0.05 were controlled in a group-sequential design by means of Essay a Pocock-style error-spending function for beta that is constrained by the exact Poisson distribution. Estimation of the survival and of cumulative probability functions for survival free from invasive disease was performed by means of the ethnography projects Kaplan–Meier product-limit method; confidence boundaries were calculated on the log-scale with the use of Greenwood’s formula for the variance.
Planned subgroup analyses were performed in strata defined according to of Cloning in Humans, tumor size (?1 cm or 1 cm) and hormone-receptor status (with a positive status defined as staining of 1% or more of either the estrogen receptor or the progesterone receptor on immunohistochemical analysis). The analyses of the incidence of adverse events, including planned analyses of cardiac toxicity and ethnography neurotoxicity of grade 3 or higher, were reported with 95% confidence intervals from the binomial distribution. In an amendment to the protocol, the follow-up period was extended to 10 years for all patients. Participants who were alive and free from recurrence were censored at the date of the last follow-up. A total of vietnamese 410 patients were enrolled in the study between October 9, 2007, and September 3, 2010 (see Table S1 in projects, the Supplementary Appendix, available at NEJM.org); 406 of these patients began the protocol therapy ( Figure 1 Figure 1 Enrollment and Station Follow-up. ). The data and projects safety monitoring board at the Dana–Farber/Harvard Cancer Center reviewed data on toxicity on a semiannual basis. The first interim analysis was performed at schooling 167 patient-years, before the target accrual was reached, and the subsequent interim analysis was performed after the accrual of 841 patient-years. On the basis of the strength of the data at the second analysis, the study team asked the board to consider early release of the ethnography data from a third interim analysis, which was performed after accrual of about 1316 patient-years. The board released the ethnography projects data to the study team, and the results were initially presented after accrual of Station Essay 1435 patient-years.
The results shown here are from ethnography projects, all data available as of April 21, 2014, including 1605 patient-years of follow-up, and represent the final analysis. The median age of patients in the study was 55 years (range, 24 to 85). A total of 272 patients (67.0%) had hormone-receptor–positive disease. Among these patients, 62.2% had tumors that measured 1 cm or less in the greatest dimension, and 68.3% had tumors that measured more than 1 cm in the greatest dimension; a majority of the tumors (56.2%) were high-grade. The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric In Russia Essay? In the total study population, 49.5% of the patients had tumors that measured 1 cm or less (stages T1mic [?0.1 cm], T1a [0.1 to ?0.5 cm], and T1b [0.5 to ?1.0 cm]); 8.9% of the patients had tumors that measured between 2 and 3 cm (stage T2). Six patients (1.5%) had nodal micrometastases ( Table 1 Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of the Patients. Ethnography Projects? ). Of Cloning In Humans? Among the 406 patients who began the protocol therapy, 356 (87.7%) completed all 52 weeks of therapy; 24 discontinued therapy because of protocol-specified toxic effects, and 6 patients discontinued because of projects other toxic effects. By the time of the final analysis, 29 patients had left the study: 2 patients died from causes unrelated to breast cancer (0.5%), 17 patients withdrew consent (4.2%), and 10 were lost to Advantages and Animals, follow-up (2.5%) ( Figure 1 ). The median follow-up time was 4.0 years; the maximum follow-up period was 6.2 years.
A total of 12 patients had invasive disease events or died ( Table 2 Table 2 Events Observed for the Primary End Point of Disease-free Survival. ): 2 had distant metastases (one of which was HER2-negative), 4 had local or regional recurrences, 4 had contralateral breast cancer (3 of whom had HER2-negative breast cancer), 1 died from a rapidly progressive primary ovarian cancer, and ethnography projects 1 died from a stroke after participating in the study for 71 months. Four patients had an event that was not considered to be a relapse of Advantages in Humans invasive disease (second, nonbreast primary cancers in the bladder, thyroid, or lung), and data for these patients were censored at the date of diagnosis of the second cancer; 4 patients received a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in ethnography projects, situ (an event not categorized as a relapse of invasive disease) and continue to be followed for relapse of strategy invasive disease. According to the sequential Poisson test, the primary outcome was highly significant (P0.001). The Kaplan–Meier plot and the 95% confidence interval for survival free from ethnography projects, invasive disease ( Figure 2A Figure 2 Probabilities of Disease-free Survival and Recurrence-free Interval. Panel A shows the probability of is a ferret a good pet disease-free survival in ethnography, the intention-to-treat population, and Panel B the recurrence-free interval in volkswagen, the intention-to-treat population (unlike recurrence-free survival, the recurrence-free interval did not include death from cancer other than breast cancer). The shading in Panels A and B denotes the 95% confidence intervals.
Panel C shows the probability of ethnography projects disease-free survival according to tumor size, and Panel D the probability of disease-free survival according to hormone-receptor (HR; estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor) status. Tick marks represent the time of cart censoring for ethnography, patients who were recurrence-free. ) show a 3-year rate of a good 98.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.6 to 99.8). Patient outcomes even exceeded the 95% 3-year rate of survival free from projects, invasive disease that defined success in Tax Law, powering the study to reject the null hypothesis (uncorrected Poisson model, P0.001). The duration of the recurrence-free interval (which, unlike recurrence-free survival, did not include death from cancer other than breast cancer) according to ethnography, standardized efficacy end points 15 was considered to be an exploratory end point. Six patients had a local or regional recurrence or a distant recurrence or died from breast cancer ( Table 2 ). The 3-year rate of recurrence-free survival was 99.2% (95% CI, 98.4 to 100) ( Figure 2B ). Survival curves in And Accounting, subgroups defined according to tumor size (?1 cm vs. 1 cm) and projects hormone-receptor status (positive vs. Strategy? negative) ( Figure 2C and ethnography projects 2D ) showed that the rate of recurrence in these subgroups was lower than anticipated (the lower boundaries of the 95% confidence interval for survival free of vietnamese schooling invasive disease at 3 years in the subgroups exceeded 96.0%). During 12 weeks of combined therapy, 13 patients (3.2%; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.4) reported at least one grade 3 episode of ethnography neuropathy. No grade 4 neurotoxic effects were reported (0%; 95% CI, 0 to 0.9). Two patients (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 1.8) had grade 3 systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle (symptomatic congestive heart failure) during active therapy — at 6 months and 11 months — and both recovered after the discontinuation of trastuzumab.
A clinically significant asymptomatic decline in ejection fraction (as defined in the protocol) that led to an interruption in treatment with trastuzumab occurred in 13 patients (3.2%; 95% CI, 1.7 to Essay about And Accounting, 5.4); in 2 of these patients, the projects ejection fraction did not normalize, and the patients were unable to complete the remaining year of trastuzumab therapy. A total of 7 patients had grade 3 or grade 4 allergic reactions to the study treatment, and only 1 of these patients was able to complete treatment. Alopecia was expected in is a ferret, the vast majority of patients; data regarding its incidence were not collected. Other specified toxic effects reported during the ethnography 52 weeks of is a a good pet protocol therapy are summarized in ethnography, Table 3 Table 3 Most Common Adverse Events Occurring during Protocol Therapy. . About Tax Law And Accounting? Two controversies affect the management of ethnography projects stage I HER2-positive breast cancer. The first involves defining the volkswagen strategy threshold for initiating systemic therapy. Guidelines from the projects National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab should be considered in patients with small, node-negative tumors, including patients with T1bN0 tumors (with N0 denoting no regional lymph-node involvement), but the NCCN acknowledges that such patients are generally not included in randomized trials of adjuvant therapy. 16 The second controversy relates to the determination of the knight of the cart safest and most effective regimen, bearing in mind the potential for considerable toxic effects with chemotherapy and trastuzumab and the generally favorable outcomes in women with very small tumors. Many physicians recommend treatment regimens such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel, and projects trastuzumab (ACTH) or docetaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab (TCH). These regimens are associated with substantial toxic effects and are commonly used in patients who have a much higher risk of disease recurrence, according to the results of randomized trials.
5-8 These studies enrolled a limited number of Essay Tax Law And Accounting patients with stage I breast cancer. In the joint analysis, only 5.7% of patients had node-negative disease. 8 Both the Herceptin Adjuvant (HERA) study (2 years vs. 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer) and the Breast Cancer International Research Group 006 (BCIRG-006) study included greater numbers of node-negative patients, including a limited number of patients with stage I disease. 6,7 Only the projects BCIRG-006 study allowed the enrollment of patients with node-negative tumors measuring less than 1 cm in vietnamese schooling, the greatest dimension. In our trial, we administered adjuvant therapy prospectively only in patients with small, node-negative, HER2-positive tumors and used a treatment regimen similar to ACTH, but omitting doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. The results suggest a low risk of ethnography projects cancer recurrence (less than 2% at 3 years) with a regimen in which the rate of about Tax Law And Accounting serious toxic effects was low (with an incidence of heart failure that was only 0.5%). The results must be considered in the context of several studies that have examined the risk of disease recurrence in ethnography, patients who have not received trastuzumab or, in most cases, chemotherapy. The limitations of these studies are clear; they included a modest number of patients, and there were biases inherent to Tax Law, their retrospective designs.
The largest of the ethnography projects studies focused on 520 patients in the NCCN database who had small HER2-positive cancers (tumors up to 1 cm in the greatest dimension). 10 The 5-year rate of of the survival free from distant recurrence was 94% for patients with T1bN0 hormone-receptor–negative tumors, 93% for ethnography, T1aN0 hormone-receptor–negative tumors, and 94 to 96% for Power Station in Russia, patients with T1a–bN0 hormone-receptor–positive disease. A study from the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center suggests that among 98 patients with T1a–bN0 HER2-positive tumors, the 5-year rate of recurrence-free survival was 77.1%, and the 5-year rate of survival free from distant recurrence was 86.4%. 11 In a study of 117 node-negative, HER2-positive tumors measuring up to ethnography projects, 2 cm in the greatest dimension in a tumor registry in British Columbia, Canada, the 10-year rate of relapse-free survival was 68.3% among patients with hormone-receptor–negative tumors and 77.5% among patients with hormone-receptor–positive tumors. 17 Although recurrence rates vary across these studies, the rates range from vietnamese, approximately 5 to 30%, with distant recurrences occurring in as many as 20% of ethnography patients with tumors measuring up to 1 cm in the greatest diameter. The studies consistently suggest that the risk of recurrence, at least in the first 5 years, is higher in the hormone-receptor–negative group than in the hormone-receptor–positive group. The median follow-up for patients in our trial is only 4.0 years, but the Station Essay benefits that were observed in the initial published reports of the ethnography projects randomized trials of adjuvant trastuzumab-based chemotherapy were maintained with additional follow-up. The study population in our trial had a higher proportion of hormone-receptor–positive tumors (67%) than did the populations in Essay about Tax Law, the pivotal adjuvant trastuzumab studies (51 to 54%), 5-7 although the proportion of hormone-receptor–positive tumors in projects, our trial is knight consistent with that reported in some studies involving women with small, node-negative tumors. The higher frequency of hormone-receptor–positive tumors in our study could have implications for late recurrence, and all patients will be followed for 10 years to ethnography projects, facilitate a comprehensive description of a good patient outcomes. Because the influence of chemotherapy on the risk of recurrence is generally most notable during the first several years after diagnosis, 18 it seems unlikely that a different chemotherapy regimen administered with trastuzumab would affect the risk of late recurrence.
We recognize that a prospective, randomized trial would have been the best option. However, we did not believe that such a design would have been feasible given the accumulating evidence from retrospective studies. Patients and their providers may have been unlikely to enroll in a trial that included a group in which patients would not receive trastuzumab. Some clinicians and investigators might have argued for a trial of trastuzumab alone versus trastuzumab plus chemotherapy, but there are limited data indicating that trastuzumab alone is an effective approach. Projects? 19-21 Instead, we opted for a regimen of trastuzumab plus chemotherapy that would be associated with fewer toxic effects than the knight established regimens for patients with a higher risk of recurrence. The regimen we used in this study was associated with patient outcomes that were better than expected on the basis of historical data. However, the study does not provide data to support the use of ethnography trastuzumab-based chemotherapy in all patients with small HER2-positive tumors, and there will be many patients with T1a disease and some with T1b disease who will decide with their physicians to volkswagen strategy, avoid the toxic effects of a trastuzumab-based regimen. Supported by Genentech. Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org. This article was updated on ethnography, January 8, 2015, at NEJM.org. We thank all the Power in Russia patients who participated in this trial and all the investigators at the participating centers; Rebecca Gelmon for her assistance with the ethnography projects study design and knight cart the development of the statistical analysis plan; and Jennifer Savoie, Michelle Demeo, Emily Morley, Kathryn Josephs, and Jessica Sohl for their assistance with data management.
From the Departments of Medical Oncology (S.M.T., B.A.O., A.H.P., I.E.K., H.J.B., E.P.W.) and Biostatistics and Computation Biology (W.T.B., H.G.), Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, and Department of Hematology–Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital (B.M.) — both in Boston; Breast Cancer Medicine Service, Department of Medicine, Solid Tumor Division, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York (C.T.D., C.A.H.), and ethnography projects Department of Medical Oncology, Hofstra North Shore–LIJ School of Medicine, New Hyde Park (I.S.) — all in New York; Sarah Cannon Cancer Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Nashville (D.A.Y.); Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham (P.K.M.), and Department of Medical Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (L.A.C.) — both in North Carolina; Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Division of The Shushenskaya Power Station Essay Hematology–Oncology, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL (K.S.A.); Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Division of ethnography projects Oncology, University of vietnamese California, San Francisco, San Francisco (H.S.R.); Department of Medical Oncology, Washington University in St. Ethnography? Louis, St. Louis (M.E.); and Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Baltimore (A.C.W.). Tax Law And Accounting? Address reprint requests to Dr. Winer at the Department of ethnography projects Medical Oncology, Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, or at knight cart email@example.com. Slamon DJ , Clark GM , Wong SG , Levin WJ , Ullrich A , McGuire WL . Human breast cancer: correlation of relapse and survival with amplification of the HER-2/neu oncogene. Science 1987;235:177-182.
Slamon DJ , Godolphin W , Jones LA , et al. Studies of the HER-2/neu proto-oncogene in human breast and ethnography projects ovarian cancer. Science 1989;244:707-712. Seshadri R , Firgaira FA , Horsfall DJ , McCaul K , Setlur V , Kitchen P . Clinical significance of HER-2/neu oncogene amplification in primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1993;11:1936-1942.
Press MF , Pike MC , Chazin VR , et al. Her-2/neu expression in Essay, node-negative breast cancer: direct tissue quantitation by computerized image analysis and association of overexpression with increased risk of ethnography projects recurrent disease. Cancer Res 1993;53:4960-4970. About And Accounting? Romond EH , Perez EA , Bryant J , et al. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for ethnography, operable HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005;353:1673-1684.
Piccart-Gebhart MJ , Procter M , Leyland-Jones B , et al. Trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in Advantages in Humans and Animals, HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2005;353:1659-1672. Slamon D , Eiermann W , Robert N , et al. Adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2011;365:1273-1283.
Romond E, Suman VJ, Jeong J-H, et al. Ethnography? Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for HER2-positive breast cancer: final planned joint analysis of a good overall survival (OS) from NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831. Projects? Presented at of Cloning the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, San Antonio, TX, December 4–8, 2012. Ethnography? abstract. Goldhirsch A , Gelber RD , Piccart-Gebhart MJ , et al. 2 Years versus 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab for cart, HER2-positive breast cancer (HERA): an open-label, randomised controlled trial.
Lancet 2013;382:1021-1028. Vaz Duarte Luis I , Ottesen RA , Hughes ME , et al. Outcomes by ethnography projects tumor subtype and knight treatment pattern in women with small, node-negative breast cancer: a multi-institutional study. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:2142-2150. Gonzalez-Angulo AM , Litton JK , Broglio KR , et al. High risk of recurrence for patients with breast cancer who have human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, node-negative tumors 1 cm or smaller.
J Clin Oncol 2009;27:5700-5706. McArthur HL , Mahoney KM , Morris PG , et al. Adjuvant trastuzumab with chemotherapy is effective in women with small, node-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer. Cancer 2011;117:5461-5468. Curigliano G , Viale G , Bagnardi V , et al. Clinical relevance of ethnography projects HER2 overexpression/amplification in patients with small tumor size and node-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:5693-5699. Fehrenbacher L , Capra AM , Quesenberry CP , et al. Distant invasive breast cancer recurrence risk in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive T1a and T1b node-negative localized breast cancer diagnosed from 2000 to 2006: a cohort from an integrated health care delivery system. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:2151-2158.
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J Clin Oncol 2002;20:719-726. George W. Volkswagen Strategy? Sledge. Ethnography? . 2018. HER2-Positive Breast Cancer. The Breast, 763-768.e2. Cesar A. Santa-Maria, William J. Gradishar. . 2018. Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapies for about, Early-Stage Breast Cancer. The Breast, 752-762.e4. Hetal Vachhani, Priti A. Shah, Valentina Robila, Michael O. Idowu. . 2018.
Invasive Carcinomas. Diagnosis and Management of Breast Tumors, 191-232. Waqar Haque, Denley Ming Kee Yuan, Vivek Verma, E. Ethnography? Brian Butler, Bin S. Teh, Lee Wiederhold, Sandra Hatch. . About? (2017) Radiation therapy utilization and outcomes for older women with breast cancer: Impact of molecular subtype and tumor grade. The Breast 35 , 34-41. Shani Paluch-Shimon, Olivia Pagani, Ann H. Partridge, Omalkhair Abulkhair, Maria-Joao Cardoso, Rebecca Alexandra Dent, Karen Gelmon, Oreste Gentilini, Nadia Harbeck, Anita Margulies, Dror Meirow, Giancarlo Pruneri, Elzbieta Senkus, Tanja Spanic, Medha Sutliff, Luzia Travado, Fedro Peccatori, Fatima Cardoso. . (2017) ESO-ESMO 3rd international consensus guidelines for breast cancer in young women (BCY3).
The Breast 35 , 203-217. Kruti S. Soni, Fan Lei, Swapnil S. Desale, Luis A. Marky, Samuel M. Projects? Cohen, Tatiana K. Bronich. . (2017) Tuning polypeptide-based micellar carrier for efficient combination therapy of ErbB2-positive breast cancer. Essay About? Journal of Controlled Release 264 , 276-287. Somaira Nowsheen, Paul V Viscuse, Ciara C. O’Sullivan, Nicole P. Sandhu, Tufia C. Ethnography Projects? Haddad, Anne Blaes, Jennifer Klemp, Lara Nhola, Joerg Herrmann, Kathryn J. Knight Of The? Ruddy. . Ethnography Projects? (2017) Incidence, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Cardiac Toxicity From Trastuzumab in Advantages of Cloning and Animals Essay, Patients With Breast Cancer. Current Breast Cancer Reports 9 :3, 173-182. Matthias Ranftler, Kathrin Strasser-Weippl. . (2017) New chemotherapies in ethnography projects, breast cancer. memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology 10 :3, 127-131. Trisha Greenhalgh. The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power In Russia Essay? . (2017) Adjuvant chemotherapy: an autoethnography. Subjectivity 35 . Ethnography Projects? Sasha E. Stanton, Nancy E. Davidson. . (2017) Breast cancer: What lies beyond APHINITY for knight cart, HER2-positive breast cancer?. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 26 . Xavier Pivot, Pierre Fumoleau, Jean-Yves Pierga, Suzette Delaloge, Herve Bonnefoi, Thomas Bachelot, Christelle Jouannaud, Hugues Bourgeois, Maria Rios, Patrick Soulie, Jean-Philippe Jacquin, Sandrine Lavau-Denes, Pierre Kerbrat, David Cox, Celine Faure-Mercier, Iris Pauporte, Joseph Gligorov, Elsa Curtit, Julie Henriques, Sophie Paget-Bailly, Gilles Romieu. . (2017) Superimposable outcomes for sequential and concomitant administration of projects adjuvant trastuzumab in ferret a good pet, HER2-positive breast cancer: Results from the SIGNAL/PHARE prospective cohort. European Journal of Cancer 81 , 151-160.
Tessa G. Steenbruggen, Mette S. van Ramshorst, Marleen Kok, Sabine C. Linn, Carolien H. Ethnography Projects? Smorenburg, Gabe S. Sonke. . (2017) Neoadjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer: Established Concepts and Emerging Strategies. Drugs 77 :12, 1313-1336. Nadia Harbeck, Oleg Gluz. . (2017) Neoadjuvant therapy for vietnamese, triple negative and ethnography projects HER2-positive early breast cancer. Vietnamese Schooling? The Breast 34 , S99-S103. Jamunarani Veeraraghavan, Carmine De Angelis, Jorge S. Reis-Filho, Tomas Pascual, Aleix Prat, Mothaffar F. Rimawi, C. Kent Osborne, Rachel Schiff. . (2017) De-escalation of projects treatment in HER2-positive breast cancer: Determinants of response and mechanisms of resistance.
The Breast 34 , S19-S26. Ian E. Smith, Alicia F.C. Okines. . (2017) De-escalating and escalating systemic therapy of early breast cancer. The Breast 34 , S5-S9. Meredith M. Regan, William T. Pet? Barry. . (2017) Trial designs and projects results supporting treatment de-escalation and escalation. The Breast 34 , S10-S12. Isabelle Gingras, Geraldine Gebhart, Evandro de Azambuja, Martine Piccart-Gebhart. Vietnamese Schooling? . Ethnography? (2017) HER2-positive breast cancer is lost in translation: time for patient-centered research. Advantages Of Cloning In Humans And Animals Essay? Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 5 . Ettienne J. Myburgh, Lizanne Langenhoven, Kathleen A. Grant, Lize van der Merwe, Maritha J. Kotze. . (2017) Clinical Overestimation of HER2 Positivity in Early Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer and the Value of Molecular Subtyping Using BluePrint. Ethnography? Journal of Global Oncology 3 :4, 314-322.
Melissa Pilewskie, Emily C. Zabor, Anita Mamtani, Andrea V. Barrio, Michelle Stempel, Monica Morrow. . (2017) The Optimal Treatment Plan to Avoid Axillary Lymph Node Dissection in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Differs by Surgical Strategy and Tumor Subtype. Power In Russia? Annals of Surgical Oncology 305 . Ethnography Projects? Katherine E. Reeder-Hayes, Anne Marie Meyer, Sharon Peacock Hinton, Ke Meng, Lisa A. Carey, Stacie B. Dusetzina. . (2017) Comparative Toxicity and Effectiveness of Trastuzumab-Based Chemotherapy Regimens in Older Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer. Knight Cart? Journal of Clinical Oncology , JCO.2016.71.434. Anthony F. Ethnography? Yu, Roy B. Mukku, Shivani Verma, Jennifer E. Liu, Kevin C. Oeffinger, Richard M. Steingart, Clifford A. Hudis, Chau T. Dang. . (2017) Cardiac safety of non-anthracycline trastuzumab-based therapy for HER2-positive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 353 . Pierre Kerbrat, Isabelle Desmoulins, Lise Roca, Christelle Levy, Alain Lortholary, Alain Marre, Remy Delva, Maria Rios, Patrice Viens, Etienne Brain, Daniel Serin, Magali Edel, Marc Debled, Mario Campone, Marie-Ange Mourret-Reynier, Thomas Bachelot, Marie-Josephe Foucher-Goudier, Bernard Asselain, Jerome Lemonnier, Anne-Laure Martin, Henri Roche. . (2017) Optimal duration of adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk node-negative (N–) breast cancer patients: 6-year results of the prospective randomised multicentre phase III UNICANCER-PACS 05 trial (UCBG-0106). The Shushenskaya? European Journal of ethnography projects Cancer 79 , 166-175.
Jeffrey C. Liu, Miriam Zacksenhouse, Andrea Eisen, Sharon Nofech-Mozes, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Aamir Ahmad. . Vietnamese Schooling? (2017) Identification of cell proliferation, immune response and cell migration as critical pathways in a prognostic signature for HER2+:ER?- breast cancer. PLOS ONE 12 :6, e0179223. Ethnography Projects? Thaer Khoury, Carmelo Gaudioso, Yisheng V. Fang, Souzan Sanati, Mateusz Opyrchal, Mohamed M. Desouki, Rouzan G. Advantages Of Cloning And Animals Essay? Karabakhtsian, Zaibo Li, Dan Wang, Li Yan, Rebecca Jacobson. . (2017) The role of ethnography skin ulceration in The Shushenskaya Power Station in Russia Essay, breast carcinoma staging and outcome. The Breast Journal 104 . Anna Rachelle Mislang, Kwok-Leung Cheung, Marije E. Hamaker, Ian Kunkler, Christos Markopoulos, Roberto Orecchia, Etienne Brain, Laura Biganzoli. . (2017) Controversial issues in the management of older adults with early breast cancer. Journal of Geriatric Oncology . Sibylle Loibl, Luca Gianni. . (2017) HER2-positive breast cancer. Projects? The Lancet 389 :10087, 2415-2429. Christoph Suppan, Marija Balic. . (2017) Early stage breast cancer treatment and prognostic factors. memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology 10 :2, 82-85.
Andre Lopes, Jessica St. Louis, Marcelo Luiz Balancin, Angelica Nogueira-Rodrigues, Luana C.F.F. Silva, Eduardo Paulino, Bianca Silveira Sa, Alexandra Bukowski, Edison Mantovani Barbosa, Ronaldo Lucio Rangel Costa, Paul E. Goss. Advantages In Humans? . Projects? (2017) A Rare Presentation of Primary Breast Carcinoma in the Vulva: A Case Report and Literature Review. Clinical Breast Cancer . Kazuko Tajiri, Kazutaka Aonuma, Ikuo Sekine. . (2017) Cardiovascular toxic effects of targeted cancer therapy. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology , 1-7. In Humans And Animals Essay? Damien Maura, Steffen L. Drees, Arunava Bandyopadhaya, Tomoe Kitao, Michele Negri, Melissa Starkey, Biliana Lesic, Sylvain Milot, Eric Deziel, Robert Zahler, Mike Pucci, Antonio Felici, Susanne Fetzner, Francois Lepine, Laurence G. Rahme. Projects? . A Good? (2017) Polypharmacology Approaches against projects the Pseudomonas aeruginosa MvfR Regulon and strategy Their Application in ethnography projects, Blocking Virulence and Antibiotic Tolerance. ACS Chemical Biology 12 :5, 1435-1443. Alexandre de Nonneville, Anthony Goncalves, Christophe Zemmour, Jean M. Cart? Classe, Monique Cohen, Eric Lambaudie, Fabien Reyal, Christophe Scherer, Xavier Muracciole, Pierre E. Colombo, Sylvia Giard, Roman Rouzier, Richard Villet, Nicolas Chopin, Emile Darai, Jean R. Garbay, Pierre Gimbergues, Laura Sabiani, Charles Coutant, Renaud Sabatier, Francois Bertucci, Jean M. Boher, Gilles Houvenaeghel. . (2017) Benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy with or without trastuzumab in pT1ab node-negative human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast carcinomas: results of a national multi-institutional study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 162 :2, 307-316. Christian Jackisch, Philip Lammers, Ira Jacobs. . (2017) Evolving landscape of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer treatment and the future of biosimilars. The Breast 32 , 199-216.
Florence Dalenc, Frederique Penault-Llorca, Monique Cohen, Gilles Houvenaeghel, Jean-Marc Piat, Philippe Liegeois, Laurent Puyuelo, Jean-Philippe Suchaud, Mohammed Zouai, Magali Lacroix-Triki, Nina Radosevic-Robin, Chahinez Benkanoun, Hanane Attar-Rabia, Marie-Pierre Chauvet, Joseph Gligorov, Yazid Belkacemi. . Ethnography Projects? (2017) Daily Practice Management of pT1a-b pN0 Breast Carcinoma: A Prospective French ODISSEE Cohort Study. Clinical Breast Cancer 17 :2, 107-116. Antonio Llombart-Cussac, Javier Cortes, Laia Pare, Patricia Galvan, Begona Bermejo, Noelia Martinez, Maria Vidal, Sonia Pernas, Rafael Lopez, Montserrat Munoz, Paolo Nuciforo, Serafin Morales, Mafalda Oliveira, Lorena de la Pena, Alexandra Pelaez, Aleix Prat. Essay About And Accounting? . (2017) HER2-enriched subtype as a predictor of ethnography pathological complete response following trastuzumab and lapatinib without chemotherapy in is a ferret pet, early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer (PAMELA): an ethnography, open-label, single-group, multicentre, phase 2 trial. The Lancet Oncology 18 :4, 545-554. Nico Jacobi, Rita Seeboeck, Elisabeth Hofmann, Andreas Eger. Ferret? . (2017) ErbB Family Signalling: A Paradigm for Oncogene Addiction and Personalized Oncology. Cancers 9 :4, 33. Zhenzhen Liu, Pengyi Hou, Lian Liu, Feng Qian. . (2017) Characterization of metabolites of ethnography projects larotaxel in rat by volkswagen strategy liquid chromatography coupled with Q exactive high-resolution benchtop quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometer. Ethnography Projects? Xenobiotica 54 , 1-10. Aminah Jatoi, Megan E. Grudem, Travis J. Hydroelectric Power Station? Dockter, Matthew S. Block, Jose C. Villasboas, Angelina Tan, Erin Deering, Pashtoon M. Kasi, Aaron S. Mansfield, Juliana Perez Botero, Scott H. Okuno, Deanne R. Smith, Alan P. Projects? Fields. . (2017) A proof-of-concept trial of protein kinase C iota inhibition with auranofin for the paclitaxel-induced acute pain syndrome. Supportive Care in Cancer 25 :3, 833-838. Mette S. A Good Pet? van Ramshorst, Erik van Werkhoven, Ingrid A.M.
Mandjes, Margaret Schot, Jelle Wesseling, Marie-Jeanne T.F.D. Ethnography? Vrancken Peeters, Jetske M. Meerum Terwogt, Monique E.M. In Russia Essay? Bos, Hendrika M. Oosterkamp, Sjoerd Rodenhuis, Sabine C. Linn, Gabe S. Projects? Sonke. . (2017) Trastuzumab in combination with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin as neo-adjuvant treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer: The TRAIN-study. European Journal of Cancer 74 , 47-54. Is A A Good? Nadia Harbeck, Michael Gnant. . (2017) Breast cancer. Ethnography? The Lancet 389 :10074, 1134-1150. J Sun, S Chia. . (2017) Adjuvant chemotherapy and HER-2-directed therapy for early-stage breast cancer in the elderly.
British Journal of Cancer 116 :1, 4-9. Matteo Lambertini, Noam F. Ponde, Cinzia Solinas, Evandro de Azambuja. . About Tax Law And Accounting? (2017) Adjuvant trastuzumab: a 10-year overview of its benefit. Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 17 :1, 61-74. Projects? Heikki Joensuu. Advantages In Humans And Animals? . (2017) Escalating and de-escalating treatment in HER2-positive early breast cancer. Projects? Cancer Treatment Reviews 52 , 1-11. N. R. Ko, M. Nafiujjaman, J. S. Lee, H.-N. Lim, Y.-k. Lee, I. K. Kwon. . (2017) Graphene quantum dot-based theranostic agents for active targeting of breast cancer. Knight Of The? RSC Adv. 7 :19, 11420-11427.
In-Ho Kim, Ji Eun Lee, Ho-Joong Youn, Byung Joo Song, Byung Joo Chae. . Ethnography Projects? (2017) Cardioprotective Effect of Essay about Tax Law Dexrazoxane in Patients with HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Who Receive Anthracycline Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Trastuzumab. Journal of Breast Cancer 20 :1, 82. Anne Blaes, Chetan Shenoy. . 2017. Ethnography Projects? Geriatric Cardio-oncology. Volkswagen Strategy? Cardio-Oncology, 281-301. Stephen J Luen, Roberto Salgado, Stephen Fox, Peter Savas, Jennifer Eng-Wong, Emma Clark, Astrid Kiermaier, Sandra M Swain, Jose Baselga, Stefan Michiels, Sherene Loi. . (2017) Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in ethnography projects, advanced HER2-positive breast cancer treated with pertuzumab or placebo in addition to Advantages of Cloning and Animals Essay, trastuzumab and docetaxel: a retrospective analysis of the CLEOPATRA study. The Lancet Oncology 18 :1, 52-62.
Nadia Harbeck, Rachel Wurstlein, Maximiliane Burgmann. . 2017. Mammakarzinom bei der alten und geriatrischen Patientin. Geriatrische Onkologie, 1-16. Bing He, Cheng Lu, Guang Zheng, Xiaojuan He, Maolin Wang, Gao Chen, Ge Zhang, Aiping Lu. . (2016) Combination therapeutics in complex diseases. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 20 :12, 2231-2240. Karen A. Cadoo, Patrick G. Morris, Elizabeth P. Cowell, Sujata Patil, Clifford A. Hudis, Heather L. McArthur. . (2016) Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Trastuzumab Is Safe and Effective in Older Women With Small, Node-Negative, HER2-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer. Ethnography? Clinical Breast Cancer 16 :6, 487-493.
BRITTANY L. BYCHKOVSKY, DON S. DIZON, WILLIAM M. Strategy? SIKOV. . (2016) Systemic Therapies for Nonmetastatic Breast Cancer. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 59 :4, 756-771. F. Cardoso, N. Harbeck, C. H. Barrios, J. Bergh, J. Cortes, N. El Saghir, P. A. Ethnography Projects? Francis, C. A. Hudis, S. Ohno, A. Of Cloning In Humans And Animals Essay? H. Partridge, G. W. Sledge, I. E. Ethnography? Smith, K. A. Gelmon. . (2016) Research needs in breast cancer. Annals of The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Oncology , mdw571. Rahul Gosain, YaoYao Pollock, Dharamvir Jain. Ethnography? . (2016) Age-related Disparity: Breast Cancer in the Elderly.
Current Oncology Reports 18 :11. Hartmut Kristeleit, Marina Parton, Mark Beresford, Iain R. Macpherson, Rajan Sharma, Loren Lazarus, Muireann Kelleher. . (2016) Long-term Follow-up Data from Pivotal Studies of is a ferret pet Adjuvant Trastuzumab in Early Breast Cancer. Targeted Oncology 11 :5, 579-591. Arlindo R. Ferreira, Ana Palha, Lurdes Correia, Pedro Filipe, Vasco Rodrigues, Luis Costa, Ana Miranda, Rosario Andre, Joao Fernandes, Joaquim Gouveia, Jose Luis Passos-Coelho, Antonio Moreira, Margarida Brito, Joana Ribeiro, Otto Metzger-Filho, Nancy U. Ethnography Projects? Lin, Ines Vaz-Luis. . (2016) Variation in type of adjuvant chemotherapy received among patients with stage I breast cancer: A multi-institutional Portuguese cohort study. The Breast 29 , 68-73. About And Accounting? Bernd L. Groner, Nancy E. Hynes. . (2016) Breast Cancer Patients Have Greatly Benefited from the Progress in Molecular Oncology. Ethnography Projects? PLOS Biology 14 :9, e2000314. Katarzyna J. Jerzak, Danielle N. Desautels, Kathleen I. Pritchard. Vietnamese Schooling? . (2016) An update on adjuvant systemic therapy for elderly patients with early breast cancer.
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 17 :14, 1881-1888. David Krug. . (2016) Kardiale Toxizitat von Trastuzumab in projects, der adjuvanten Therapie. Advantages Of Cloning In Humans And Animals? Info Onkologie 19 :5, 22-24. Lauren L. Siewertsz van Reesema, Vasilena Zheleva, Janet S. Winston, Rick J. Projects? Jansen, Carolyn F. O’Connor, Andrew J. Isbell, Minglei Bian, Rui Qin, Patricia T. Bassett, Virginia J. Volkswagen? Hinson, Kimberly A. Dorsch, Brad W. Ethnography Projects? Kirby, Robert E. Van Sciver, Angela M. Tang-Tan, Elizabeth A. Harden, David Z. Chang, Cynthia A. Allen, Roger R. Perry, Richard A. Hoefer, Amy H. Knight Of The? Tang. Ethnography? . Hydroelectric Station In Russia Essay? (2016) SIAH and EGFR, Two RAS Pathway Biomarkers, are Highly Prognostic in Locally Advanced and Metastatic Breast Cancer. EBioMedicine 11 , 183-198.
Ines Vaz-Luis, Nancy U. Lin, Nancy L. Projects? Keating, William T. Barry, Joyce Lii, Harold J. Burstein, Eric P. Winer, Rachel A. Freedman. . (2016) Treatment of about Tax Law And Accounting early-stage human epidermal growth factor 2-positive cancers among medicare enrollees: age and race strongly associated with non-use of trastuzumab. Projects? Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 159 :1, 151-162. S. About And Accounting? Goel, I. Ethnography? E. Krop. . (2016) PIK3CA mutations in HER2-positive breast cancer: an ongoing conundrum: Table 1.. Annals of Oncology 27 :8, 1368-1372. Jiarong Chen, Canhong Yang, Bin Guo, Emily S. Of Cloning Essay? Sena, Malcolm R. Macleod, Yawei Yuan, Theodore C. Hirst, Elda Tagliabue. . (2016) The Efficacy of Trastuzumab in ethnography, Animal Models of is a ferret Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Ethnography Projects? PLOS ONE 11 :7, e0158240. Neelima Denduluri, Mark R. Somerfield, Andrea Eisen, Jamie N. Holloway, Arti Hurria, Tari A. King, Gary H. Lyman, Ann H. Partridge, Melinda L. Advantages Of Cloning? Telli, Maureen E. Ethnography? Trudeau, Antonio C. Wolff. Volkswagen? . (2016) Selection of ethnography Optimal Adjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) –Negative and Adjuvant Targeted Therapy for HER2-Positive Breast Cancers: An American Society of Clinical Oncology Guideline Adaptation of the Cancer Care Ontario Clinical Practice Guideline. Journal of Clinical Oncology 34 :20, 2416-2427. Mette S. van Ramshorst, Margriet van der Heiden-van der Loo, Gwen M. H. E. Dackus, Sabine C. Linn, Gabe S. Sonke. Advantages In Humans Essay? . (2016) The effect of trastuzumab-based chemotherapy in small node-negative HER2-positive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 158 :2, 361-371. Ethnography? Riccardo Ponzone, Fiorella Ruatta, Marco Gatti, Isabella Castellano, Elena Geuna, Giulia Amato, Franziska Kubatzki, Paola Sgandurra, Anna Sapino, Filippo Montemurro. . (2016) Omission of axillary dissection after a positive sentinel lymph-node: Implications in the multidisciplinary treatment of operable breast cancer.
Cancer Treatment Reviews 48 , 1-7. Katherine Reeder-Hayes, Sharon Peacock Hinton, Ke Meng, Lisa A. Carey, Stacie B. Dusetzina. . (2016) Disparities in Use of Human Epidermal Growth Hormone Receptor 2–Targeted Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer. Advantages In Humans And Animals? Journal of Clinical Oncology 34 :17, 2003-2009. Projects? Noam Ponde, Lissandra Dal Lago, Hatem A. Azim. Knight Of The? . (2016) Adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients with breast cancer: key challenges. Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 16 :6, 661-671.
Inna Y. Gong, Sunil Verma, Andrew T. Yan, Dennis T. Ko, Craig C. Earle, George A. Tomlinson, Maureen E. Trudeau, Murray D. Ethnography Projects? Krahn, Monika K. Vietnamese Schooling? Krzyzanowska, Christine B. Brezden-Masley, Scott Gavura, Stuart Peacock, Kelvin K. W. Chan. . (2016) Long-term cardiovascular outcomes and overall survival of early-stage breast cancer patients with early discontinuation of trastuzumab: a population-based study. Breast Cancer Research and ethnography projects Treatment 157 :3, 535-544. Sarah V. Colonna, Ashantice K. Vietnamese? Higgins, Joann Alvarez, Benjamin R. Saville, Julia Lawrence, Vandana G. Abramson. . (2016) Analysis of ethnography Risk of Recurrence by Subtype in ? 1-cm Breast Tumors. Clinical Breast Cancer 16 :3, 223-231. Andreas Thomann, Antonio G. G. de Mello Martins, Christian Brengel, Martin Empting, Rolf W. Hartmann. . Of Cloning In Humans Essay? (2016) Application of Dual Inhibition Concept within Looped Autoregulatory Systems toward Antivirulence Agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections. ACS Chemical Biology 11 :5, 1279-1286. S. Guiu, F. Dalenc. . (2016) Les traitements adjuvants des cancers du sein : dernieres avancees et perspectives pour des cancers tres differents. Oncologie 18 :2-3, 120-127. Chau T. Dang, Anthony F. Yu, Lee W. Jones, Jennifer Liu, Richard M. Steingart, Daniel F. Argolo, Larry Norton, Clifford A. Hudis. . Ethnography Projects? (2016) Cardiac Surveillance Guidelines for Trastuzumab-Containing Therapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Getting to the Heart of the Matter. Essay About? Journal of Clinical Oncology 34 :10, 1030-1033.
David Krug. . (2016) Kardiale Toxizitat von Trastuzumab in der adjuvanten Therapie von Mammakarzinompatientinnen. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 192 :3, 193-195. Ciara C. O’Sullivan, Eileen Holmes, Christine Campbell, Ian Bradbury, Jo Anne Zujewski, Richard D. Gelber. . (2016) Reply to A. Oguz et al. Journal of ethnography projects Clinical Oncology 34 :6, 640-641. Arzu Oguz, Gul Sema Keskin, Dilsen Colak, Ozden Altundag, Zafer Akcali. . (2016) Treatment of knight cart Lymph Node–Negative, Early-Stage HER2-Positive Breast Cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 34 :6, 639-640. Stefania Mantarro, Marta Rossi, Martina Bonifazi, Roberto D’Amico, Corrado Blandizzi, Carlo La Vecchia, Eva Negri, Lorenzo Moja. . (2016) Risk of severe cardiotoxicity following treatment with trastuzumab: a meta-analysis of randomized and cohort studies of 29,000 women with breast cancer. Ethnography? Internal and Emergency Medicine 11 :1, 123-140.
Honghong Shen, Yong Yang, Lin Zhao, Jinyang Yuan, Yun Niu. . Pet? (2016) Lin28A and androgen receptor expression in ER?/Her2+ breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 156 :1, 135-147. L. Biganzoli, M. Aapro, Sibylle Loibl, Hans Wildiers, Etienne Brain. Ethnography? . Schooling? (2016) Taxanes in the treatment of breast cancer: Have we better defined their role in older patients? A position paper from a SIOG Task Force. Cancer Treatment Reviews 43 , 19-26. Antonino Musolino, Daniela Boggiani, Angelica Sikokis, Anita Rimanti, Benedetta Pellegrino, Rosa Vattiato, Paolo Sgargi, Fabio Falcini, Caterina Caminiti, Maria Michiara, Francesco Leonardi. Ethnography Projects? . (2016) Prognostic risk factors for treatment decision in pT1a,b N0M0 HER2-positive breast cancers. Cancer Treatment Reviews 43 , 1-7. Martine J. Piccart, Isabelle Gingras. . (2016) Breast cancer in 2015: Academic research sheds light on issues that matter to patients. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 13 :2, 67-68.
Gil Awada, Andrea Gombos, Philippe Aftimos, Ahmad Awada. Volkswagen Strategy? . (2016) Emerging drugs targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in the treatment of breast cancer. Projects? Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs 21 :1, 91-101. Cesar Santa-Maria, Sarika Jain, William J. Gradishar. . 2016. Essay Tax Law? Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2): Translating the Lab to the Clinic. Molecular Pathology of Breast Cancer, 59-70. Nadia Harbeck. . Projects? 2016. HER2-positive breast cancer: neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy.
Handbook of HER2-Targeted Agents in Breast Cancer, 29-49. Balazs T Nemeth, Zoltan V Varga, Wen Jin Wu, Pal Pacher. . (2016) Trastuzumab cardiotoxicity: from knight of the cart, clinical trials to experimental studies. British Journal of projects Pharmacology . C. Breton-Callu, S. Croce, M. Debled, S. Ferron, C. Tunon de Lara. . 2016. Carcinome canalaire infiltrant debutant. Cancer du Sein, 145-149.
Aju Mathew, Edward H. Romond. Vietnamese Schooling? . (2016) Systemic therapy for HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer. Current Problems in ethnography, Cancer 40 :2-4, 106. Sabrina Witherby, Tina Rizack, Bachir J. Sakr, Robert D. Legare, William M. Sikov. . (2016) Advances in Medical Management of Early Stage and Advanced Breast Cancer: 2015. Seminars in Radiation Oncology 26 :1, 59-70. V. Dieras. Advantages Of Cloning In Humans And Animals Essay? . 2016. Therapie ciblee anti-HER2 : principes, validation, indication.
Cancer du Sein, 89-94. Maria Vidal, Laia Pare, Aleix Prat. Projects? . Of The? 2016. Molecular Classification of Breast Cancer. Management of Breast Diseases, 203-219. Frederik Marme. . 2016. Systemic Therapy. Management of ethnography Breast Diseases, 335-390.
Phuong Dinh, Martine J. Piccart. Power Station Essay? . 2016. Projects? HER2-Targeted Therapy. Management of Breast Diseases, 391-410. Emily J. Knight Cart? Guerard, Madhuri V. Vithala, Hyman B. Muss. Projects? . 2016. Breast Cancer in the Older Adult. Management of Breast Diseases, 519-528.
Trevor A Jolly, Grant R Williams, Sita Bushan, Mackenzi Pergolotti, Kirsten A Nyrop, Ellen L Jones, Hyman B Muss. The Shushenskaya Power Station Essay? . (2016) Adjuvant Treatment for Older Women with Invasive Breast Cancer. Women's Health 12 :1, 129-146. Quyen D. Chu, Prakash Peddi. Ethnography? . (2016) Should Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Patients with Early Breast Cancer be Abandoned? Not So Fast. Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology 10 , CMO.S32817. Bryan P Schneider, Anne O'Neill, Fei Shen, George W Sledge, Ann D Thor, Stephen P Kahanic, Paul J Zander, Nancy E Davidson. . (2015) Pilot trial of paclitaxel-trastuzumab adjuvant therapy for early stage breast cancer: a trial of the cart ECOG-ACRIN cancer research group (E2198). Ethnography? British Journal of Cancer 113 :12, 1651-1657. Adrienne G Waks, Sara M Tolaney. . (2015) The evolving understanding of strategy small HER2-positive breast cancers: matching management to outcomes. Future Oncology 11 :24, 3261-3271. Ethnography? Shom Goel, Sara Tolaney. . (2015) Optimizing the Management of is a Metastatic HER2-Positive Breast Cancer. Current Breast Cancer Reports 7 :4, 190-202.
Jesus Anampa, Della Makower, Joseph A. Sparano. . (2015) Progress in ethnography, adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: an overview. Volkswagen? BMC Medicine 13 :1. Arianna Bonomi, Antonietta Silini, Elsa Vertua, Patrizia Bonassi Signoroni, Valentina Cocce, Loredana Cavicchini, Francesca Sisto, Giulio Alessandri, Augusto Pessina, Ornella Parolini. . (2015) Human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) as potential vehicles for drug delivery in cancer therapy: an in vitro study. Stem Cell Research Therapy 6 :1. Jasmeet Chadha Singh, Stuart M. Lichtman. . (2015) Targeted Agents for HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: Optimal Use in Older Patients. Drugs Aging 32 :12, 975-982. J. A. Garcia-Saenz, B. Bermejo, L. G. Estevez, A. G. Palomo, X. Gonzalez-Farre, M. Margeli, S. Pernas, S. Servitja, C. A. Ethnography? Rodriguez, E. Ciruelos. . (2015) SEOM clinical guidelines in early-stage breast cancer 2015. Clinical and Translational Oncology 17 :12, 939-945. Rachel A. A Good Pet? Freedman. . (2015) Treatment of Breast Cancer in the Elderly. Current Oncology Reports 17 :11. S. Antolin-Novoa, E. Blanco-Campanario, A. Anton, M. I. Gallegos-Sancho, R. Perez-Carrion, I. Pelaez, A. Galan-Brotons, L. de la Cruz-Merino, A. Ethnography? Murias-Rosales. Hydroelectric Station? . (2015) Adjuvant regimens with trastuzumab administered for small HER2-positive breast cancer in routine clinical practice.
Clinical and Translational Oncology 17 :11, 862-869. Nadia Harbeck. . (2015) Insights into biology of luminal HER2 vs. Projects? enriched HER2 subtypes: Therapeutic implications. The Breast 24 , S44-S48. Ian E. Strategy? Smith, Charlotte Fribbens. . (2015) Management of breast cancer in older and frail patients. The Breast 24 , S159-S162. Jessica J. Tao, Kala Visvanathan, Antonio C. Wolff. . (2015) Long term side effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer. The Breast 24 , S149-S153. Aleix Prat, Estela Pineda, Barbara Adamo, Patricia Galvan, Aranzazu Fernandez, Lydia Gaba, Marc Diez, Margarita Viladot, Ana Arance, Montserrat Munoz. . Projects? (2015) Clinical implications of the intrinsic molecular subtypes of of Cloning in Humans and Animals breast cancer. The Breast 24 , S26-S35. Yanwei Luo, Xinye Wang, Heran Wang, Yang Xu, Qiuyuan Wen, Songqing Fan, Ran Zhao, Shihe Jiang, Jing Yang, Yukun Liu, Xiayu Li, Wei Xiong, Jian Ma, Shuping Peng, Zhaoyang Zeng, Xiaoling Li, Joshua B. Phillips, Guiyuan Li, Ming Tan, Ming Zhou, Javier S Castresana. Ethnography? . (2015) High Bak Expression Is Associated with a Favorable Prognosis in of Cloning in Humans and Animals Essay, Breast Cancer and Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cells to Paclitaxel. PLOS ONE 10 :9, e0138955.
Stefania Gori, Alessandro Inno, Elena Fiorio, Jennifer Foglietta, Antonella Ferro, Marcella Gulisano, Graziella Pinotti, Marta Gubiotti, Maria Giovanna Cavazzini, Monica Turazza, Simona Duranti, Valeria De Simone, Laura Iezzi, Giancarlo Bisagni, Simon Spazzapan, Luigi Cavanna, Chiara Saggia, Emilio Bria, Elisabetta Cretella, Patrizia Vici, Daniele Santini, Alessandra Fabi, Ornella Garrone, Antonio Frassoldati, Laura Amaducci, Silvana Saracchini, Lucia Evangelisti, Sandro Barni, Teresa Gamucci, Lucia Mentuccia, Lucio Laudadio, Alessandra Zoboli, Fabiana Marchetti, Giuseppe Bogina, Gianluigi Lunardi, Luca Boni, Anna Sapino. Ethnography? . (2015) The Promher Study: An Observational Italian Study on Adjuvant Therapy for HER2-Positive, pT1a-b pN0 Breast Cancer. Knight Cart? PLOS ONE 10 :9, e0136731. Anna Mislang, Laura Biganzoli. . (2015) Adjuvant Systemic Therapy in ethnography, Older Breast Cancer Women: Can We Optimize the Level of Care?. Cancers 7 :3, 1191-1214. E. Senkus, S. Volkswagen Strategy? Kyriakides, S. Ethnography Projects? Ohno, F. Penault-Llorca, P. Poortmans, E. Rutgers, S. Zackrisson, F. Cardoso. . (2015) Primary breast cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for ferret, diagnosis, treatment and ethnography projects follow-up.
Annals of Hydroelectric Power in Russia Oncology 26 :suppl 5, v8-v30. Ciara C. O'Sullivan, Ian Bradbury, Christine Campbell, Marc Spielmann, Edith A. Ethnography Projects? Perez, Heikki Joensuu, Joseph P. Costantino, Suzette Delaloge, Priya Rastogi, Dimitrios Zardavas, Karla V. Ballman, Eileen Holmes, Evandro de Azambuja, Martine Piccart-Gebhart, Jo Anne Zujewski, Richard D. Gelber. . (2015) Efficacy of vietnamese Adjuvant Trastuzumab for Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2–Positive Early Breast Cancer and Tumors ? 2 cm: A Meta-Analysis of the Randomized Trastuzumab Trials. Journal of projects Clinical Oncology 33 :24, 2600-2608. A. S. Coates, E. P. Winer, A. Goldhirsch, R. D. Gelber, M. Gnant, M. Piccart-Gebhart, B. Thurlimann, H.-J. Senn. . Of The? (2015) Tailoring therapies—improving the management of early breast cancer: St Gallen International Expert Consensus on the Primary Therapy of projects Early Breast Cancer 2015.
Annals of Oncology 26 :8, 1533-1546. Miguel Martin, Sara Lopez-Tarruella. . (2015) Optimizing Adjuvant Taxanes in Early Breast Cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 33 :21, 2334-2336. Young Sub Lee, Jin Su Kim, Kyung Deuk Cho, Joo Hyun Kang, Sang Moo Lim. . (2015) Tumor dosimetry for I-131 trastuzumab therapy in a Her2+ NCI N87 xenograft mouse model using the The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power in Russia Essay Siemens SYMBIA E gamma camera with a pinhole collimator. Journal of Instrumentation 10 :07, P07001-P07001. Projects? Ines Vaz-Luis, Melissa E. Hughes, Angel M. Cronin, Hope S. Rugo, Stephen B. The Shushenskaya Essay? Edge, Beverly Moy, Richard L. Theriault, Michael J. Hassett, Eric P. Projects? Winer, Nancy U. Lin. . (2015) Variation in type of adjuvant chemotherapy received among patients with stage I breast cancer: A multi-institutional study.
Cancer 121 :12, 1937-1948. Kathryn J. Ruddy, Hao Guo, William Barry, Chau T. Dang, Denise A. Yardley, Beverly Moy, P. Kelly Marcom, Kathy S. Albain, Hope S. Strategy? Rugo, Matthew J. Ellis, Iuliana Shapira, Antonio C. Wolff, Lisa A. Carey, Beth A. Overmoyer, Clifford Hudis, Ian E. Krop, Harold J. Burstein, Eric P. Winer, Ann H. Partridge, Sara M. Tolaney. . (2015) Chemotherapy-related amenorrhea after adjuvant paclitaxel–trastuzumab (APT trial). Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 151 :3, 589-596. Hamza Aziz, P. Ethnography Projects? Kelly Marcom, E. Shelley Hwang. . (2015) Implications of HER2-Targeted Therapy on Extent of Surgery for Early-Stage Breast Cancer. Strategy? Annals of ethnography projects Surgical Oncology 22 :5, 1404-1405. D. Mavroudis, E. Saloustros, N. Malamos, S. Essay Tax Law And Accounting? Kakolyris, I. Boukovinas, P. Papakotoulas, N. Kentepozidis, N. Ziras, V. Georgoulias, . Projects? . (2015) Six versus 12 months of adjuvant trastuzumab in combination with dose-dense chemotherapy for women with HER2-positive breast cancer: a multicenter randomized study by the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG). Annals of Oncology . A Good? Wei-Jia Wang, Yuan-Yuan Lei, Jin-Hong Mei, Chun-Liang Wang. Ethnography? . (2015) Recent Progress in HER2 Associated Breast Cancer. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 16 :7, 2591-2600. D. Cochereau, P. Cottu. . (2015) Breve de l’AERIO.
Oncologie 17 :4, 194-196. H. Wildiers, E. Brain. And Accounting? . (2015) Different adjuvant chemotherapy regimens in older breast cancer patients?. Annals of Oncology 26 :4, 613-615. Erica L. Mayer, Laura S. Dominici. Ethnography Projects? . (2015) Breast Cancer Axillary Staging: Much Ado About Micrometastatic Disease. Of Cloning In Humans Essay? Journal of Clinical Oncology 33 :10, 1095-1097.
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Nov 17, 2017 Ethnography projects,
constructive essay Center on English Learning Achievement. Writing and Reading Relationships: Constructive Tasks. Judith A. Ethnography Projects! Langer and Sheila Flihan. * This excerpt is a chapter in Writing: Research/Theory/Practice, Roselmina Indrisano and James R. Squire, Eds., Newark, DE: International Reading Association, 2000.
Writing and reading theory and research have very different, although sometimes overlapping, histories. As such, throughout most of the twentieth century, the relationship between them was not regarded as a topic of either theoretical or pragmatic concern. However, during a relatively brief period of time, primarily in the 1980's, reading and writing became a distinct body of inquiry. It grew from separate bodies of scholarship and focused on volkswagen, separate aspects of education as well as on different grade levels. This small but intense body of scholarship and research into ethnography projects, the interrelationships between writing and reading also focused on ways in which those relationships might affect learning, and inform instruction. It was initially motivated and vietnamese schooling, shaped by extensive research on cognitive processes in the separate fields of writing and reading, primarily from a constructivist perspective. Here, both writing and reading were linked to language and communication as well as reasoning. A concomitant wave of research into the social dimensions of writing and reading, with an eye to their actual functions and uses, moved the target of theory and ethnography, research toward contextualized practice within real life and Essay about Tax Law, real school situations. As a result, one route of scholarship began to examine literacy or, rather, literate acts as they serve social and communicative uses, with a concomitant shift in the focus of inquiry away from writing and reading relationships, and toward the projects, ways in which they function in the contexts of life, both in and outside the volkswagen strategy, classroom. As the object of inquiry became more contextualized, similarities and differences in the writing and reading processes and the ways in which reading and writing develop, affect each other, and relate to learning and schooling became less focal.
They did not, however, become less important. We will review these changes and ethnography projects, close the chapter with a call for a renewed although somewhat changed research focus on the uses of reading and writing and the ways in which reading and writing interact in relation to the contexts and social relations in which they are embedded. Informed by past as well as current knowledge from the perspectives of sociocognitive, sociohistorical, and critical theory as well as psychology, linguistics, anthropology and English, this renewed focus will examine ways in which reading and writing function in knight of the cart the development and communication of ideas and understandings in the social, private, and internal worlds of ethnography, people and groups. A Brief History of Writing and knight, Reading Research. Until the 1970's writing and reading were not conceptualized as being integrated.
At most, they were regarded as separate, perhaps related, language processes. In part, this is because notions of writing and reading grew from different traditions. Taking an historical look back, one sees a conceptual and disciplinary schism between scholarship in writing and reading. They have been shaped by different scholars having different backgrounds and training. Writing, as an academic subject, is deeply rooted in classic Aristotelian rhetoric. Focusing on invention, arrangement, style, memory and delivery, Aristotelian rhetoric was intended for the very well educated (usually male) individual.
It dominated course work in American colleges during the 18th century and was modeled after the curriculum already taught in English universities (Langer Allington, 1992, p. Ethnography! 688). The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station! By the ethnography projects, 1800#146;s the volkswagen strategy, work of ethnography projects, Campbell (1963 ) and Blair's (1965 ) belles-lettres view of rhetoric became widespread in the United States, bringing appreciation of the art of writing into volkswagen, the commonplace tradition (Langer Allington, 1992, p. Ethnography! 688). While rhetoric continued to emphasize grammar, diction, word choice, etc., there was a new focus on the functions of discourse and the study of literary models. Toward the end of the 19th century these traditional notions of writing were challenged by practical, functional views of writing and by the progressive movement. The work of Carpenter, Baker Scott (1903) and Dewey (1915), calling for experiential student-centered education became influential, but it did not replace traditional notions of and approaches to writing.
Writing remained rooted in rhetoric through the 1940s, 50s and 60s, but the emphasis shifted among classic Aristotelian views, expressionist views, and the new rhetoric. Interest in writing processes grew in Advantages in Humans the 1970's and 80's. Work in the fields of ethnography, language and cognition (Anderson Bower, 1973; Chafe, 1970; Chomsky, 1965; Fillmore, 1968; 1, 1970; Rumelhart, 1975; Schank Ableson, 1977; Searle, 1969; Tulving, 1972; Winograd, 1972) led to a research emphasis on the relationships among writing processes, the The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station in Russia Essay, learner and the text (Bereiter Scardamalia, 1982; Emig, 1971; Flower Hayes, 1980; Hillocks, 1972). The perspectives of sociolinguistic and anthropological approaches to projects research (Cazden, John, Hymes, 1972; Cicourel et al., 1974; Cook-Gumperz, Gumperz, Simon, 1982; Erickson Shultz, 1977; Frake, 1983; Halliday, 1976; Heath, 1983; McDermott, 1977; Mischler, 1979; Shuy, 1967; Sinclair Coulthard, 1975) led to a continued emphasis on these relationships, but also on the individual learner in a specific context making use of writing and reading for specific purposes that had social and interpersonal meaning. The early history of reading follows a different course. Tradition in reading curriculum relied on British notions of primary instruction (for method), on religion (for content), and by volkswagen strategy, the later 1800's on scientific experiments (for theory) (Langer Allington, 1992, p. 694). Progressive views emphasizing the individual learner and student centered instruction affected reading, but by the early 1900's reading was already deeply rooted in psychological research. In fact, the combined effects of the expanding scientific research base and the application of management principles to projects the organization of schools seemed to overwhelm the is a pet, influence of the progressive reading educators (Langer Allington, 1992, p. 695). Reading research, curriculum and instruction continued to be shaped by associationist and behaviorist psychology through the 1940's, 50's and 60's. During this time reading was also influenced by projects, research and theory in language and vietnamese schooling, concept development (e.g., Bloom, 1971; Bruner, 1960, 1966; Inhelder Piaget, 1958), linguistics (e.g., Bloomfield, 1942; Fries, 1963), and psycholinguistics (e.g. Goodman, 1967; Smith 1971).
During the 1970's the fields of ethnography projects, sociolinguistics and knight of the, language acquisition became influential. Cognitive psychology and constructivist perspectives began to shape reading research as attention began to shift toward the meaning construction that occurs during reading and toward the interactions between reader and text. Due to their different beginnings, research traditionally approached writing and projects, reading as distinct areas of exploration. The 1980's marked a change in schooling focus. Research began to examine the relationships between writing and reading as cognitive and social processes. Throughout the last decade, research has maintained its interest in writing and reading as separate but interdependent and interrelated acts, while interest in literacy, has grown steadily. Distinctions are now made between literacy as the act of writing and reading and literacy as a way of thinking and speaking (Langer 1987). Language is a tool and ethnography, literacy is culturally based involves the higher intellectual skill appropriate to the culture, and is learned by volkswagen, children as they interact with families and communities (Langer, 1987, p. 2). Projects! Langer’s sociocognitive view of literacy is fully compatible with the distinction Collins (1995) makes between a universalist or autonomous literacy, seen as a general, uniform set of techniques and uses of language, with identifiable stages and clear consequences for culture and cognition, and relativist or situated literacies, seen as diverse, historically and of the cart, culturally variable practices with texts (Collins, 1995, p. 75-76).
In light of these expanded views, literacy research has a broader scope. While the skills, processes and interplay of reading and writing remain important, they are much less distinct. Therefore, the central focus of research on literacy examines reading and writing as they embedded in social and cultural contexts. Influenced by the field of projects, anthropology and the methods of ethnographic research, literacy studies now explore how, when and where reading and writing are used, by whom and for what purposes. This shift is evident in the titles of literature published between 1984 and 1997. The titles of reports and books published by National Council of Teachers of English, International Reading Association and nine major journals in the fields of education, reading and English were searched using descriptors such as reading and writing, writing and reading, and literacy.
This search yielded 164 titles. Seventy-three percent of these titles contain the is a ferret, word literacy. Twenty-seven percent of the titles contain the words reading and writing or writing and reading. Interestingly, eighty-two percent of the publications with the word literacy in the title were published between 1990 and 1997. Only eighteen percent were published between 1984 and 1989. Publications with the words reading and writing or writing and reading in ethnography the title seem more evenly distributed, with forty-three percent being published between 1984 and 1989 and fifty-seven percent being published between 1990 and volkswagen, 1997. Writing and Reading Relationships. Writing and reading have long been considered to be related activities. Along with listening and speaking, they have been treated by educators as essential components of the English language arts pie, at ethnography projects least since the National Conference on Essay Tax Law And Accounting, Research in English Charter in 1932 (Petty, 1983). The very image of a pie, with its separate slices, illustrates the collected but separate way in which the parts were construed to relate. However, a large and projects, extremely influential body of research from a constructivist perspective (Anderson, Spiro Montague, 1977; Bereiter Scardamalia, 1982; Hayes Flower, 1980; Spiro, Bruce Brewer, 1980) indicates that reading and writing development are characterized by gradually more sophisticated rule-governed representations, and that the learner is an active problem-solver who is knight of the, influenced by projects, background knowledge, text, and context.
A concomitant and eventually equally influential body of work, primarily from a sociolinguistic, sociocultural, and sociohistorical perspective (Chafe, 1970; Cook-Gumperz Gumperz, 1981; Halliday, 1975; Heath, 1983; Scribner Cole, 1981; Stubbs, 1980; Vygotsky, 1978, 1986) permitted consideration of ways in which life's experiences as well as the is a a good, uses and functions of writing and projects, reading affect not only the acts of writing and Tax Law, reading, but how they relate. As early as the 1960s, during the period of extensive interdisciplinary research into language and thought spearheaded by the Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard (e.g., Brown Bellugi, 1964; Bruner, Goodnow Austin, 1956; Weir, 1962), writing and reading were regarded as related language processes. Loban (1963), in his important longitudinal study of students' reading and writing development across 4th, 6th, and 9th grades, indicated strong relationships between reading and ethnography projects, writing as measured by test scores. He reported that students who wrote well also read well, and is a ferret, that the converse was true. Further, these relationships become even more pronounced across the school grades. In 1983, Stotsky published a review of ethnography, correlational and experimental studies that investigated reading and writing relationships. Her much cited synthesis spans approximately fifty years from the beginning of the 1930's to volkswagen strategy 1981. Correlational studies to that time showed that better writers tend to be better readers (of their own writing as well as of other reading material), that better writers tend to read more than poorer writers, and that better readers tend to produce more syntactically mature writing than poorer readers (p. Ethnography! 636). With regard to instruction she reported, Studies that sought to improve writing by providing reading experiences in place of grammar study or additional writing practice found that these experiences were as beneficial as, or more beneficial than, grammar study or extra writing practice.
Studies that used literary models also found significant gains in writing. In Humans And Animals! On the other hand, almost all studies that sought to improve writing through reading instruction were ineffective (p. 636). However, the cumulative research through the beginning of 1980 was sparse, and projects, did not focus on explaining the nature of the pet, interrelationships between the two processes. A number of scholars contributed toward a growing conception of reading and writing relationships by focusing on students' engagement in the tasks, describing how from the early years, children use signs and symbols (both those in their environment and those they invent) to ethnography projects gain and convey meaning, even as they are first acquiring the conventionally accepted codes (Bissex, 1980; Clay, 1975; Read, 1971).
Wittrock (1983) considered the generative nature of both domains; De Ford (1981) noted the of the cart, supporting and interactive nature of the processes as they occur in primary classrooms; and projects, Goodman and Goodman (1983) described relationships between the two based upon the pragmatic functions of each. Through efforts to comminicate through writing and reading, they gradually adopt both symbols and of Cloning and Animals, conventions of use. Eckhoff (1983) found that the second grade students she studied tended to imitate the style and structure of the basals used for projects reading instruction, which affected the organizational structures and linguistic complexity of the students' writing. Chall Jacobs (1983) conducted a study of writing and reading development among poor children, based on is a ferret, NAEP-like test scores. Although reading and writing scores in grades 2 and 3 were good, they noted a deceleration in proficiency gains beginning in grades 4 and 5 and continuing through grade 7. Factor analyses indicated that reading and writing were strongly related. Together, this work suggested that the projects, two domains do have an impact upon one another, with implications for enhancing learning. It also suggested a need to better understand the underlying processes of writing and reading and how they relate to one another. Writing and Advantages of Cloning and Animals Essay, Reading Processes: Similarities and Differences.
Constructivist theory as well as research asserts that writing and reading are both meaning-making activities (Anderson, Spiro Montague, 1977; Gregg Steinberg, 1980). hen people write and read, meaning is continually in a state of becoming. The mind anticipates, looks back, and forms momentary impressions that change and grow as meaning develops (Fillmore, 1981; Langer, 1984). Language, syntax, and structure are all at play as texts-in-the-head and texts-on-paper develop. Ethnography! Because writing and reading involve the development of meaning, both were conceptualized as composing activities in the sense that both involve planning, generating and revising meaning -- which occur recursively throughout the meaning-building process as a person's text world or envisionment grows. From this perspective, some scholars speak of the writer as a reader and the reader as a writer (Graves Hansen, 1983; Smith, 1983). According to Smith (1983) reading like a writer allows one to actually become a writer. When reading like a writer, in addition to making meaning of the text, the reader takes in Advantages Essay and learns from the author#146;s style, use of conventions and the like. When reading like a writer, the reader uses the author#146;s text as a model for texts that he or she reader will eventually write. During the development of a piece, the writer always does a certain amount of reading. And, further, writers often try to place themselves in the shoes of projects, their audience, the readers, in Advantages in Humans and Animals Essay order to check the comprehensibility of their presentation from the reader's perspective. In a similar manner, the reader has also been considered a writer in ethnography that the reader's mind races ahead to anticipate (and thus create) not only the message, but also the structure and presentational style of a piece; words are thought of as well as ideas, in ways in volkswagen which they might appear (Bereiter Scardamalia, 1982; Flower Hayes, 1980).
Thus, a reader's text can be compared with an author's text, and revised when needed. This sense of writing as reading provides a sense of personal engagement to ethnography the reading experience. Readers also sometimes place themselves in the shoes of the author in order to volkswagen strategy gain a personal or cultural perspective that enriches their own responses or interpretation (Purves, 1993) Tierney Pearson (1983) argued that both readers and writers compose meaning. Projects! They described as essential characteristics of the effective composing process: planning, drafting, aligning, revising, and Essay, monitoring. Further, they saw these acts of composing as involving continuous, recurring, and ethnography, recursive transactions among readers and writers, their respective inner selves, and their perceptions of each other's goals and desires (p. 578). They distinguished their conception from earlier notions of reading and writing relationships in a number of Advantages of Cloning in Humans and Animals, ways including treating the two domains as multi-modal processes and considering the inner as well as social selves of the writer and reader.
Tierney (1985), in a later description of this model, suggests that purpose also plays a role, Both reading and writing are tools in ethnography projects accordance with the purposes they serve; they cannot be extracted from context (p. Essay Tax Law! 115). Both domains were also considered similar composing activities in that writers and readers use similar kinds of knowledge (Aulls, 1985; Flood Lapp,1987; Kucer, 1987) in the act of making their meanings: knowledge about language, knowledge about content, knowledge about genre conventions, knowledge about organization and structure, knowledge of pragmatics (in this case about the appropriate use of other kinds of knowledge in relation to the activity -- the author's purpose for having written the piece, or their own purposes for having taken up that act of writing or reading), and knowledge about ethnography interaction (especially between reader and author). Rubin Hansen (1986) suggested that different types of knowledge that can be tapped through reading instruction might transfer to in Humans and Animals writing instruction: informational knowledge, structural knowledge, transactional knowledge, aesthetic knowledge, and process knowledge. Flower (1988) adds knowledge of purpose.
She asks how writers come by their sense of projects, purpose; how (or whether) readers are affected by the rhetorical structure woven by writers; and how individual purposes interact with context and convention in the creation and interpretation of a text. She calls for strategy more studies on the active strategies of writers and readers and their relationships. Researchers have also pointed to specific differences between writing and reading. In her study of ethnography projects, children reading and writing, Langer (1986a) found that while reading and writing are cognitively related efforts with regard to meaning making, they are markedly different with regard to activity, strategy and purpose. They also differ across ages with regard to the variety of approaches that they use and of the, the behaviors they exhibit while reading or writing. Langer (1986a), developed a procedure for analyzing the ethnography projects, knowledge sources, reasoning operations, monitoring behaviors and vietnamese schooling, specific strategies used during the course of meaning construction before, during and after reading and writing, for a study of 3rd, 6th and 9th graders' reading and writing of stories and ethnography projects, reports. She found that although the same reasoning behaviors are called upon when reading and writing for meaning, the knight of the, patterns of each category showed differences between writing and reading.
Specifically, the study identified differences in behaviors and their frequency of use in response to the nature of the task. When reading and writing, students' dominant concern was found to be with the meanings they were developing. There are stable and consistent approaches to envisionment building that emerged, as evidenced in ethnography projects the students' focus on ideas, content, product, and refinement of vietnamese, meaning. These structures and strategies changed in projects similar ways as the language user matured. However, underlying this overall focus were such differences as a slightly higher concern with bottom-up issues such as mechanics, syntax, text, and Essay, lexical choices when writing as compared to reading (p.94). Also, when students wrote they were more aware of and concerned with the strategies they used to ethnography get at meaning. While writing they were more concerned with setting goals and of Cloning in Humans Essay, sub-goals. When reading, on the other hand, they focused more on projects, content and validation of the text-worlds they were developing.
Shanahan's (1987) study was quite different from Langer's, yet some findings are similar. He used four reading measures and eight writing measures to study the magnitude and nature of the reading and writing relationship, and to estimate the amount of overlap that exists between the components of writing and reading used in his study of 2nd and 5th grade students' writing and reading. His findings suggest that the idea that reading and writing are identical in Advantages and Animals Essay terms of underlying knowledge, does not appear to be true (p. 98). Ethnography! Although the correlations he found between the reading and writing variables he examined were significant, they were much lower than would have been expected if the two domains were identical. Shanahan concludes that, In fact, the correlations are low enough that it would be unwise to expect automatic improvements to derive from the combination of reading and writing or from the schooling, replacement of one with the other (p. 98). Webster Ammon (1994) used a Piagetian framework to explore the relationship between cognitive scores (specific classification and seriation tasks) and specific reading and writing tasks at the elementary level. In interpreting the generally low correlations, they concluded that facility with the relevant cognitive skill is necessary but not sufficient (p.
101) for projects a high level of performance in writing and reading. Also, like Langer (1986a ) their findings indicated that reading and writing differences are more powerful predictors of children's approaches towards meaning development than is schooling, genre (p. 104). Together, the work on reading and writing processes indicates that writing and reading are deeply related activities of language and thought that are shaped through use. The structures and strategies that writers and readers use to organize, remember, and present their ideas are generally the projects, same in writing and reading. However, the structure of the message and the strategies used to formulate and organize it are driven by purpose and therefore different. Writing and Reading Relationships With Regard to Instruction. Researchers and scholars interested in writing and Advantages in Humans and Animals Essay, reading connections have also considered ways in which the two, conceptualized as related composing processes, might implicate various uses of language and thought, and affect students' learning. Specifically, research began to examine how the processes of reading and writing are related in actual practice. Researchers also looked at projects the ways in Hydroelectric Station in Russia which students' knowledge of writing and reading processes can influence and support reading and ethnography projects, writing respectively in the classroom. They also studied the kinds of classroom contexts and instructional activities that might foster reading and writing as mutually beneficial activities.
When approached as similar, related composing processes rather than as isolated skills and behaviors, writing and reading can influence and vietnamese, support the development of reading, writing, and thinking (Squire, 1983). Writers incorporate what they have learned about ethnography language, structure and style from the texts they have encountered as readers. They also reflect on their knowledge of Advantages of Cloning Essay, texts they have read and experiences they have had as a way of generating and projects, synthesizing ideas for writing. Volkswagen Strategy! In becoming familiar with and projects, gaining experience in writing and Essay Tax Law, reading texts even first graders can develop a sense of authorship that helps them in either composing process (Graves Hansen, 1983, p. 182). The experience and knowledge that is shared between reading and writing can strengthen a writer's ability to read and a reader's ability to write (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Rubin Hansen, 1986; Shanahan Lomax, 1986). In a study which compared the interactive model, the reading to write model, and the writing to read model of the writing and reading relationship (Shanahan Lomax, 1986), writing samples from 256 second graders and 251 first graders were examined with regard to specific reading and writing dimensions. Analyses showed that the students' work at both grade levels was best described by the interactive model of the reading and writing relationship that suggests the transfer of knowledge between the two processes. This transfer and sharing of knowledge is also demonstrated in a study of fifth graders sharing their poetry as well as the work of published authors (Comstock, 1992). Over time, students began borrowing literary techniques, like the ethnography, use of imagery and repetition, from schooling each other. Projects! They also began to look to their surroundings for ideas that might prompt them to about write. Blatt Rosen's (1987) account of a young child's ability to call on her experience as a listener and reader of fairy tales as she wrote her own also demonstrates this transfer of knowledge between writing and projects, reading.
She was able to create a tale that includes a protagonist, an antagonist, and a conflict and volkswagen, begins with Once upon a time much like all the tales with which she is familiar (p. 123). It seems that reading and ethnography projects, writing intersect in natural ways when literate persons are actively using reading and writing to learn (Hanson et. al, 1991, p. 58). This, in volkswagen strategy light of research, has implications for what might happen in classrooms that encourage thinking and learning through purposeful reading and writing. It also has implications for what classrooms that support reading and writing relationships might look like. To begin, research tells us that successful instruction in both reading and writing can begin in the earliest grades (Butler Turbil, 1984; Clay, 1985; Graves Hansen, 1983; Shanahan Lomax, 1986), and are best learned when not taught in isolation from each other (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Sternglass, 1987).
Even though it is possible for instruction in writing to improve students' reading comprehension of informational texts (Raphael, Kirschner Englert, 1988), to affect overall learning, instruction does best to focus on ethnography, both reading and Essay about Tax Law, writing (Ferris Snyder, 1986; Shanahan, 1984). Instruction in one cannot replace instruction in the other if all language curriculum goals are to be met (Ferris Snyder, 1986, p. 755). In the classroom, students do best with frequent and extended opportunities to read and write (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Hanson, et. al, 1991; Rubin Hansen, 1986) and when exposed to a body of literature that represents a variety of genres, topics, and styles (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Comstock, 1992). Providing students with choice in what they read and write and ethnography, are encouraged to read and write, and opportunities to write about topics and ideas that interest them and with which they are familiar positively affects their attitudes toward and opportunities to learn (Hanson, 1991; Rubin Hansen, 1986). Teachers most successfully support their students' reading and writing development when they create a variety of learning contexts, such as cooperative learning groups and peer dyads, where discussion and instructional scaffolding support students' needs (Hiebert, 1991). The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric! Within these contexts teachers help students explore their understandings by providing them with ample opportunities to consider personal responses to the texts they compose and to make links between their prior experiences and what they are reading and writing. Students share their ideas and insights and feel that they will be accepted by members of the classroom community (Blatt Rosen, 1987; Butler Turbil, 1984; Comstock, 1992; Graves Hansen, 1983; Hanson et. al, 1991; Rubin Hansen, 1986; Sternglass, 1987).
From this perspective, classrooms serve as contexts where readers can develop their understandings through their knowledge and expertise as writers and vice versa. Instruction that encourages meaning making through reading and writing is based on an understanding of reading and writing as related composing processes. In the classroom, a failure to recognize that composing and comprehending are process-oriented thinking skills which are basically interrelated. impedes our efforts not only to teach children to read and write, but our efforts to projects teach them how to Essay think (Squire, 1983, p. 581). Writing and Reading as Related to Thinking, Conceptualizing and Communicating Knowledge. Moving beyond an examination of the ethnography, ways in which writing and reading are related is research that examines how reading and writing, as processes, are used to conceptualize and communicate thoughts and ideas. This research looks at a good pet the synergism (Tierney, 1992, p. 250) between the interrelated meaning making activities of reading and writing.
During these activities it is the interplay of mind and text that brings about new interpretations, reformulations of ethnography projects, ideas, and is a a good, new learnings (Langer, 1986a, p. Ethnography Projects! 2-3). A number of these studies have examined how reading and writing interact and are informed by one's facility with writing and reading respectively. In addition to demonstrating that children's writing is heavily influenced by their reading experiences, De Ford's (1981) observations of first graders indicate that there is a supportive, interactive relationship between the reading and writing processes. Children learn about is a pet how to become writers from reading as well as how to become readers. By understanding authorship, they sort out what reading is all about through writing (De Ford, 1981, p. 657).
A sense of projects, authorship can lead to is a ferret pet the development of ethnography, critical literacy in which the volkswagen strategy, reader/writer moves past simply understanding the content of the text or using it as a model to be imitated and begins to question, test, shape and reshape it (Flower, 1990). Greene (1992) expands on this notion of learning to become a writer through reading by introducing the metaphor of ethnography projects, mining as a means of exploring how writers read when they have an eye toward authoring their own texts. By comparing the think aloud protocols of several students who are reading argumentative essays with the intention of eventually writing one, Greene looks at how mining a text and critically reading a text differ. Mining is fueled by three key strategies that can inform reading: reconstructing context, inferring or imposing structure, and seeing choices in language. [Using these strategies], a reader can begin to make informed guesses about how to use the ideas or discourse features of a given text in light of is a a good pet, his or her goals as a writer (Greene, 1992, p. Ethnography! 155). When mining, a sense of authorship guides the reader. Advantages In Humans Essay! By using the three strategies the miner of a text engages in an ongoing process of projects, reading, analyzing, and Power Station in Russia, authoring that recognizes the social nature of discourse.
Each piece of writing that a student reads or writes is a contribution to an ongoing written conversation (p. Ethnography Projects! 158). Volkswagen! Conversely, the critical reader engages in a search for meaning by breaking down isolated texts. Little attention is given to the kind of knowledge that would enable them to apply their critical reading skills to other tasks (p. 159). Questions about how a sense of authorship can guide reading are also taken up by ethnography, studies examining how writers create new texts of their own from a good multiple sources which may include the texts they are reading presently as well as their own prior knowledge. Readers/writers transform texts (Spivey, 1990) through the constructive tasks of selecting, connecting and organizing information from ethnography projects source texts and prior knowledge. Vietnamese Schooling! This incorporation of prior knowledge is what Stein (1990) refers to as elaboration.
This cognitive process is the principle means by which information from memory is combined with source text material in the reading process (p. 146). Elaborations during reading create a pool of ideas from which to draw during the writing process (p. 147). Whether referred to as reading to write (Flower, 1990; Stein, 1990) or composing from sources (McGinley, 1992; Spivey, 1990; Spivey King, 1989), the readers/writers are involved in processes of reading and ethnography projects, writing that are so integrated. that boundaries between the two processes tend to blur.
When writers compose. from sources, reading and writing processes blend, making it difficult, if not. impossible, to distinguish what is being done for purposes of reading and from. what is being done for purposes of writing. we often cannot say whether a writer. performs a certain operation to make meaning of the text that is read or to make. meaning for the text that is being written (Spivey, 1990 p. 258). Creating new texts in this way is a complex and recursive process (McGinley, 1992) in which context (e.g., task, setting, prior experience of reader/writer), one#146;s expertise as a reader, and his or her ability to use strategies play important roles (Flower, 1990; McGinley, 1992; Stein, 1990; Spivey, 1990; Spivey King, 1989). Research has also considered the effects of reading and writing on thinking and how different types of writing tasks shape thinking and learning. It suggests that reading and writing in combination are more likely to prompt critical thinking than when reading is separated from writing or when reading is combined with knowledge activation or answering questions (Tierney et al., 1989, p. 134). Volkswagen! Research also looks more specifically at the types of writing that shape thinking (Greene 1993; Langer, 1986b; Langer Applebee, 1987; Marshall, 1987; Newell, 1984; Newell Winograd, 1989).
In the content areas, essay writing was found to ethnography be more beneficial than answering questions or taking notes regardless of students#146; prior knowledge (Newell, 1984). Students involved in note-taking and responding to study questions seem to concentrate on remembering and regurgitating specific information from the text. Essay writing, on the other hand, provides students with opportunities to make connections and think broadly about a topic. The Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power In Russia Essay! These studies indicate that the greatest variety of reasoning operations occur during essay writing, suggesting that this type of activity provides time for ethnography projects students to think most flexibly as they develop their ideas (Langer Applebee 1987, p. 100). These findings are supported by Marshall's (1987) examination of the a good pet, relationship between writing and the understanding of literature. By looking at the effects of restricted writing, personal analytic writing, and formal analytic writing, he found that restricted writing like responding to short answer questions may actually hinder students' understanding of literary texts because such tasks fail to ethnography provide students with an opportunity to explore and elaborate on possible interpretations. Similarly, Greene (1993) studied the ways in which problem-based essays and report writing assignments shaped history students#146; thinking as they attempted to compose from multiple sources. Ferret Pet! He found that both tasks allowed students to develop their understanding of history. Ethnography! There was no significant effect for the type of task with regard to And Accounting learning.
However, [d]ifferent tasks of writing encouraged students not only to think about historical issues differently but also to supply different patterns of organization in ethnography writing about these issues. Differences in text structure concretely reflected students' differential interpretations of And Accounting, how to go about writing reports and solving problems (p. 72). Clearly, the focus of projects, research has shifted. Of Cloning In Humans And Animals! Emphasis on reading and writing as parallel processes with similar cognitive strategies has yielded to understanding the integration of reading and writing and the interaction between the mind and text. Within this body of projects, research, process and purpose remain focal. Also, the effects of grade and ability level on reading and writing persist as areas of Advantages in Humans Essay, concern. Finally, the contexts in which reading and writing are embedded gain increasing attention. Writing and Reading as Literacy Events. As sociolinguistic, sociocultural and projects, anthropological perspectives became more influential, new ways of thinking, talking, and learning about literacy took hold.
There was growing interest in the interactions surrounding text and the ways in which interactions between and among individuals, who they are, and about Tax Law And Accounting, why they are writing and reading influence meaning making. Research that continues to grow from this orientation asks that we reconsider previous ways of looking at writing and reading relationships; reading and writing are considered as intertwined and inseparable language tools. From this vantage point, the attention of research turns to literate behaviors and literate ways of thinking. Here, literacy means the projects, ability to manipulate the language and thought involved when people make sense in a variety of situations; it involves ways of strategy, thinking that are learned in the many contexts of life (Langer, 1987; 1995). The functions and uses of oral, written, and spoken language as well as the images and other semiotic meaning-bearing devices encountered and used in the variety of everyday life experiences (John-Steiner, 1995; New London Group, 1996) are the focus.
Research from this perspective has focused on the ways in which adolescents, adults, and even the ethnography projects, very young use language to construct meaning within particular social and cultural communities (Dyson, 1989, 1992; Heath, 1983; Scribner Cole, 1981; Teale Sulzby, 1986). Within this body of research the literacy event is a conceptual tool useful in and Animals Essay examining within particular communities of modern society the actual forms and ethnography projects, functions of oral and literate traditions and co-existing relationships between spoken and written language (Heath, 1988, p. 350). Research observes the ongoing activities that make up literacy events occurring in the classroom and in the community at large (e.g., home, workplace). Reading and writing are integrated within and essential to these ongoing activities. Langer (1997) describes eight years of research which investigated how individuals in school and in school-like settings think and reason when they are engaged with literature and how classroom interactions may foster literacy development. She found that envisionment-building literature classes invite students to be members of a social community where they can share their ideas and differences with others and expect those differences to move their own thinking toward more individually rich, but never singular interpretations (p. Knight Of The! 10) Her research also showed that a collaborative, broad-based literature activity such as story writing/telling provided individuals of diverse ages, linguistic and cultural backgrounds with opportunities to become aware of and discuss language and discourse differences as well as to ethnography learn English literacy. Despite their ages, be they 2 or 42 years old, they were members of a language and literacy- rich environment where they learned to talk about and control features of language and form--where the Advantages in Humans and Animals Essay, literature that was sought and valued was their own (p.
9). Students in the envisionment-building classroom and those involved in the broad based activity are constantly and simultaneously involved in listening, discussing, reading and writing but reading and writing are not viewed as separate in time or in ethnography projects purpose. Furthermore, they are never regarded as skills, activities, or ends in themselves, but as tools of language (Langer, 1995, p. 140). Research shows clearly that even very young children engage in literacy (Dyson, 1989, 1992) when they use print to represent their ideas and to interact with other people (Dyson, 1992, p. 4). Literacy emerges when children scribble, draw and label pictures, and create, act out or retell stories. During these times they are engaged in Essay And Accounting literate behaviors that are essential parts of the language development process (Teale Sulzby, 1986).
Dyson (1989, 1992) found that children's literacy development was directly linked to the social practices that surrounded them, that is, to their discovery of literacy's rich relevance to projects their present interactions with friends and to their reflections on their experiences (1989, p. Advantages And Animals! 276). Through the support of the peer and adult members of children's literate communities, children learned that language can be used for social and practical purposes. This body of research requires that we reconsider how we understand the relationship between writing and reading. From this perspective, writing and reading are intertwined and embedded in projects the larger picture of literacy. It also moves us to reflect on what counts as literacy. Finally, it asks that we take a closer look at knight cart the ways in which literacy is developed and demonstrated at ethnography projects home, work, and The Shushenskaya in Russia Essay, school. In thinking about literacy as universalist, autonomous (Collins, 1995; Street, 1993) or as schooled literacy(Cook-Gumperz, 1986), what counts are those behaviors, practices, skills, or tasks that are traditionally associated with reading and writing. Ethnography Projects! According to this description, one becomes literate through independent or teacher-led interaction with written texts. One's level of The Shushenskaya Station Essay, literacy, and ethnography, the resultant label of literate or illiterate, is determined through the testing and about, measuring of these skills. Literacy then is assumed to be a standardized, institutional notion which exists and projects, is identified independently of a social or cultural context. Moreover, this notion of literacy is often the basis by which schools and Hydroelectric Power in Russia Essay, society determine one's intellect, educability and potential contribution to and earning power in the work force.
Heath (1983) found that some children, as members of particular communities, are accustomed to and participate in literate ways of thinking and ethnography, behaving that may not be incorporated into or reflected in Advantages in Humans the children's classrooms. As such, children in these communities often have great difficulty succeeding in school. In her study, teachers help children from three communities narrow the gaps between their home and community literacy experiences and those of school. Teachers believed that [t]heir central role was to pass on to all groups certain traditional tools and ways of using language. Children had to reformulate to different degrees their home habits of ethnography projects, handling knowledge and their ways of talking about knowledge (p. Schooling! 354-355). In this body of work, literacy was not seen as solely cognitive interplay of separate reading and writing behaviors or practices, but rather as involving: . manipulation of the language and thought we engage in when we make sense and convey ideas in a variety of situations; it involves ways of thinking, which we learn in the many contexts of ethnography projects, our lives. It enables the personal empowerment that results when people use their literacy skills to think and rethink their understandings of Advantages of Cloning in Humans and Animals, texts, themselves, and the world. It gives importance to individuals and ethnography, the oral and written texts they create and encounter, and calls upon as well as fosters the kinds of language and thought that mark good and sharp thinking (Langer, 1995, p. 1). The studies focused on ways in which reading and vietnamese schooling, writing can be used as tools to make sense of the world and to ethnography projects express thoughts that demonstrate and convey literate knowledge and understanding. Where from here?
A new set of issues have been brought to the table by a variety of writers who take, for example, a feminist perspective (Belenky et al, 1986; Brodkey, 1989; Gilligan, 1982; Fetterly, 1978; Minnich, 1990; Solsken, 1993) or a cultural perspective (Ferdman, 1990; Hakuta, 1986; Street, 1984; Valencia, 1991; Weber, 1991; Wong-Fillmore, 1992). These writers foreground issues of power (Apple, 1982; Bordieu Passeron, 1977; Cope Kalantzis, 1993; Freire, 1972; Halliday Martin, 1993), self (Giroux, 1983; Rockhill, 1993, Rose, 1989), and more recently authorship (Rabinowitz Smith, 1997) which further complicate our notions of writing and reading relationships in important ways. They cause us to consider the connections between literacy and the ways in which we place ourselves vis-a-vis the literacy experience. They propel us to consider essential issues such as whose text and whose agency are being considered, along with what assumptions are being made about reader's knowledge and experiences. The next logical step is for researchers to knight of the cart look at how readers and writers, as both individuals and members of a variety of groups, approach reading and writing as constructive tasks that are embedded in life's situations. More precisely, research needs to ethnography refocus on the ways in which reading and writing develop and influence each other while constantly being affected by the social, cultural, and political contexts in cart which they are enacted. This will require consideration of ethnography projects, genres.
For example, if genres are the schooling, products of ethnography projects, socially developed conventions that foster communicability within groups of a good pet, people, as the variety of groups considered to projects fall within the purview of the educational sphere changes to include the variety of students who populate both our schools and the world, so too will our understandings of the constructions of these genres need to change so that we might recognize, value, and teach them. So too, will we need to study the schooling, inevitable genre changes as the groups themselves change over ethnography projects time. A number of school and classroom-based research agendas are called for. First, careful teaching and about, learning studies are needed of situated (Brown, Collins, Draguid, 1989; Greeno, 1997) and activity-based , 1981) learning events from the perspectives of the ethnography projects, diverse students and teachers who comprise the classes, the nature of the discourse groups they form, communicate within, and learn from, and the ways in which the students learn, as well as the strategy, literacy skills and knowledge they develop in these settings. Of course student learning will need to be considered in relation to the ways in which particular tasks and group dynamics affect various aspects of literacy learning, including the ethnography, degree to which these are learned and how available they are for use in new situations. So too, will a careful look need to be taken at the particular skills and knowledge students learn in these situations, the additional kinds of support that might be needed based on students' knowledge and needs, and how these can be coherently linked in ways that are most supportive of students' growing literacy abilities. Teaching and learning studies will also need to focus on vietnamese, particular ways in which diversity can be used to advantage in ethnography diverse classrooms, as a way to help all students gain from the experiences of others and use what they already know in Essay Tax Law And Accounting new literacy learning. Another set of studies will need to focus on the curriculum. First, the curriculum will need to be studied in terms of what it includes and excludes in ethnography projects skills as well as content, and ways in which they are linked.
The tools of learning and uses of literacy have been rapidly changing in our present-day society, calling us to revisit the guidelines meant to structure and provide coherence to student coursework. Here, studies will need to focus on the literacy knowledge students bring to school with them but are not recognized as such (i.e., computers as well as graphic imagery; the ability to manipulate language in culturally or socially sanctioned ways such as rap) as well as the varieties of literate knowledge they will need to successfully live their lives as participants in our changing society. Research also needs to vietnamese schooling focus on what gets read, when, and how. While issues of the canon tend to become politicized, an orchestrated body of research needs to focus not only on ethnography, what works are to vietnamese schooling be included and ethnography, what others will be optional, but also the ways in which particular combinations of texts can be used to stimulate more complex thinking as well as higher literacy (Applebee, 1996). Essay Tax Law! Finally, studies of the curriculum will need to ethnography projects investigate the volkswagen strategy, role curriculum can play in helping all students maintain a sense of self-worth and learning, yet meet their differential needs as learners, with the end goal of maximum proficiency for all. Further, as classrooms change and students learn to become literate participants in particular social, political, and cultural contexts within their school environments, it will be necessary to explore the ways in which the variety of texts they are exposed to and create through writing and reading relate to their developing literate selves and projects, the strategies they use to explore and achieve life's possibilities. Anderson, J., Bower, G. (1973). Power Station In Russia! Human Associative Memory.
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