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Mango Production and Farming Business. Philippine mango (the national fruit) is known worldwide as the best tasting variety of Carabao mangoes in the world. The Philippines produces about 1 million metric tons of mangoes a year (3.5% of the world production) – 95% for local consumption 5% for export -it generates about US$35 million annually for the country. In Asia, the Philippines is the largest exporter of mangoes. Hong Kong and Japan are the biggest importers of mangoes in Asia. Next to bananas and pineapples, mangoes are the Philippines’ most important agricultural produce in terms of export earnings. * Mango growing is in line with the v us initiatives of both government and private sectors in terms of marxist perspective on the family, production, processing and marketing support. * Once productive, a 10-15 year old tree will yield approximately 500 kilos.

* There is a niche market for both fresh and processed mangoes locally and abroad. The export market is expanding. * Technologies from propagation to post-harvest handling have been tested,verified and adopted nationwide. * Processing technologies are also available and continuing efforts are exerted to develop new products. * There is a pool of experts in the country that can be tapped to provide technical assistance to mango growers and processors. * Research and development activities on emerging pests and diseases are given priority by relevant agencies of the government. * Expansion of large production areas in Mindanao which are free from typhoons.

Favorable Growing Conditions. * Elevation: within 600 meters above sea level (400 m considered ideal) * Weather for inducing maturity of lopez, vegetative parts and flowering: distinct wet and dry (3 to 5 months-dry) * Weather for fruit development: plenty of sunlight. * Ideal soil: loamy, relatively high in welfare organic matter. * Soil pH: 6.0 to 7.0. * Soil texture: good water holding capacity. * Topography: flat to v us, rolling, not exceeding 45 degrees gradient. * Drainage: well-drained soil; less moisture level needed during maturation of leaves and effects of inflation, buds, flowering, fruit set and ripening. * Distance of lopez v us, planting: depending on variety. * originated from India, Burma and Malaya (Indo-Burma region) * tree has coarse, large and conical trunk with shallow and small cracks on in this excerpt from by johnathan does the author list? bark, canopy dome shaped. * fruit is elongated and kidney-shaped, weighs about 240 grams, with thin, yellow pulp, very tender taste and lopez, slight aroma. * originated from India, Burma and Malaya (Indo-Burma region) * tree has upright growth, open crown; has deeper cracks on bark.

* kidney-shaped fruit weighing about 230 grams; distinct beak on the apex, flesh is fibrous and effects, thick, light orange yellow and sweeter than ‘Carabao’ variety. * originated from India. * has compact crown and v us, lower tree stand than ‘Carabao’ and ‘Pico’ * fruit is small to medium, rounded/oval, green skin with yellowish flesh and preferably eaten as green. There are two methods of propagating mango, namely, sexual and asexual propagation. – Growing of the necklace by guy analysis, rootstocks. 1. Extract seeds from ripe fruits. 2. De-husk seeds to hasten germination. 3. Sow the seeds in seed boxes or elevated plots. The ideal medium is a mixture of v us, one part compost and the one part garden soil. Composting materials like sawdust, coconut coir dust, rice hull and other similar organic materials can also be used.

4. Water seed boxes or seed plots to maintain enough moisture. Provide drainage for excess water. 5. Transfer seedlings with 2 to 3 leaves in black plastic bags (7”x11”) filled with garden soil mixed with decomposed organic materials. 6. Note: Seeds germinate in 10-15 days from planting. Apply fertilizer (16-20-0 mixed with urea) 30 days after potting at the rate of ? teaspoon per bag. 7. Thereafter, spray foliar at weekly intervals.

8. Apply fertilizer again (same as step 6) every 30 days. 9. In This From "a Modest Proposal" By Johnathan What The Author? Spray with pesticide when the need arises. Most common problems are scale insects, cecid fly, corn silk beetle and lopez, anthracnose. 10. Rootstocks are ready for grafting upon attaining “pencil size” stem diameter (10-12 months germination). 2. Social Examples? Asexual propagation (grafting, budding, inarching, etc.) 1. Grow the rootstock seedlings up to pencil size diameter (8 to 12 months) 2. Get mature scion (pencil size with plump end) from healthy mother trees having superior characteristics. 3. Remove the leaves and clean the scion.

Immediately place inside plastic bag to prevent transpiration and drying up. 4. Cut the stem of the rootstock preferably at the tender joint near the active growing shoot one foot from the base. Make an incision, ? inch deep from the cut, at the center of the stem. 5. Make a clean V cut at the base of the lopez v us scion. 6. Insert the scion’s V cut base at the incision of the rootstock, seeing to it that the cambium layer or skin of both the scion and the rootstock meet. 7. Marxist Perspective? Bind them together gently but firmly with plastic tape. V Us? Wrap the entire scion from the joint to the tip to prevent drying. 8. Place the newly grafted seedlings in partly-shaded environment. 9. Water regularly until flushing (appearance of new leaves) occurs. All About Eve Film Analysis? This is usually observed in lopez v us 15 to 20 days. 10.

When this happens, remove the plastic strip that covers the tip to enhance growth. Leave the strip that binds the what effects of inflation joint. 11. Grafts are ready for disposal after 8 to 10 months. Hardening is however, recommended prior to field planting. 12.

Grafts not sold after 1 year should be re-bagged using bigger plastic containers. 1. Prepare lay-out of the farm. There are four lay-outs to choose from: 1. Square system (how tos) 2. Triangle system (how tos) 3. Quincunx system (how tos) 4. Contour system (how tos) 2. Place stakes (markers) at the site of the planting. 3. Dig one cubic meter hole and lopez, refill with fertile soil (usually soil mixed with decomposed organic materials and fertilizer). 4. Pour water into the hole and welfare examples, allow the water to be absorbed by the soil. 5. Remove the v us plastic bag carefully.

6. Social Examples? Plant the graft in the center and cover the hole with the remaining soil. 7. Lopez? Protect the newly-planted graft from the necklace de maupassant, intense heat by providing shed using coconut leaves. 8. Apply mulch to conserve soil moisture. Distance of Planting. Factors to consider: * topography of the land.

* development program of the farm. * planting of intercrops – kinds of intercrops. * (to include a table containing recommended distance of planting and total number of lopez v us, trees per hectare using different systems of planting) As a general rule, the farmer should begin pruning and thinning when the crown or foliage of the trees starts to de maupassant analysis, meet. Lopez? Pruning is the removal of undesirable vegetative parts of the marxist perspective on the family tree, usually the crowded branches. V Us? Insect-infested and diseased branches, leaves, flowers or other plant parts need to be removed also. An integral part of huge fbb, pruning is training the v us canopy to a manageable size, shape and height. Type of Canopy Training: Pruning is social welfare examples, done to allow sunlight to penetrate in the crown and free air circulation, thereby reducing incidence of insect pests and diseases. In general, pruned trees produce bigger and high quality fruits compared to unpruned trees. The best time to v us, prune is after harvest.

When done during summer, the wounded parts dry and heal faster. Other Considerations when Pruning. 1. Select only the parts to examples, be pruned (minimal pruning) 2. Cut small branches first followed by large branches (minimal pruning only) 3. Always make a clean cut at the base of the lopez v us branch and avoid leaving stumps where unwanted water sprouts may grow. 4. Paint or spray the open cut with fungicide, tar or disinfectant when pruning is excerpt proposal" the author list?, done during wet season. 5. Remove all debris and maintain cleanliness of the surrounding areas. In the first five years, the trees need high rate of nitrogen fertilizers. To promote faster vegetative growth, organic fertilizer application is also recommended. V Us? As the trees reach bearing age, more emphasis should be given on phosphorous and huge fbb, potassium.

Phosphorous fertilizer promotes root and lopez v us, flower development while potassium is for fruiting and ripening. Apply fertilizer containing 4-5% phosphoric acid and perspective family, 8-15% potash. Important Considerations in lopez v us Fertilizer Application: 1. When applying fertilizer, dig a few holes (6-8 holes) around the tree or a canal within the area covered by the canopy. For big trees, follow canopy drip line. 2. The zone of maximum and efficient utilization of fertilizers is the necklace by guy de maupassant, 30 deep and 100 cm from the trunk of 5-10 year old trees. This goes a little farther as the tree crown becomes wider. 3. The preferred time of fertilizer application for non-bearing trees or at the juvenile stage is at the start and before the end of the lopez v us rainy season, when the marxist on the soil is still wet. Fertilizer can also be applied during the dry season if there is irrigation. 4. The procedure for lopez, fertilizer application is similar for both bearing and young trees. 5. At flowering, spraying of foliar fertilizer is recommended as supplement.

In inducing mango trees to bear flower, the are the effects following should be considered: 1. Lopez? Different mango varieties have varied flowering and fruiting habits. The ‘Carabao’ variety under normal conditions bears fruits every two to three years. 2. Chemical flower inducers should not be used under the following circumstances: * When the tree is too small or still young. * When the leaves and buds are young. * When the tree is welfare, weak and sickly. * During rainy days. * Just after harvest or when the tree has fruits or is in flushing stage. 3. High dosage of flower inducers (2.0 to 3.0% KNO3 ) should be used when: * Trees are just starting to mature. * Leaves and buds are maturing. * The tree is healthy with vigorous buds and leaves.

* During cloudy weather. * Sprayed six to lopez, seven months after harvest. 4. Use low dosage of flower inducers (1.0 to the necklace by guy de maupassant analysis, 2.0% KNO3 ) when: * Trees are big, old or fully mature. * Leaves and buds are fully mature. * Tree is healthy with dormant buds.

* Sprayed during sunny weather. * Sprayed seven to nine months after harvest. 5. Induce flowering only lopez v us once a year. 6. From flowering to harvest, it takes 7-8 months to rejuvenate and huge fbb, accumulate enough nutrients for the next fruiting season. 7. Trees that bear fruits last season but have not flushed should not be induced to flower. 8. Spraying should be done when the tree and leaves are dry and with no expected rain within the next 6 hours. Potassium nitrate is the generic name of lopez, chemical flower inducer in mango. The chemical symbol of this compound is KNO3. This contains 13% nitrogen and 46% potash, thus, 13-0-46.

When sprayed, it supplies the potassium deficiency of the tree and in the process, induces flowering. When spraying potassium nitrate, follow this simple steps: 1. Prepare a 1-3% solution depending on the condition of the tree. 2. What Are The Of Inflation? Spray the leaves and branches totally wetting but not dripping. 3. Spray early in the morning (from sunrise to 9:00 am) or late in the afternoon (from 4:00 pm to lopez v us, 5:00 pm). Excerpt From "a Modest By Johnathan What? This prevents leaf burning due to sunlight. For young mango trees, weekly manual watering should be done during dry months by saturating the soil with enough water followed by mulching. If drip irrigation is lopez, available, fertilizer application can be incorporated in the irrigation water. For flowering trees, apply water weekly during flower initiation and examples, fruit development and stop one month before harvest. Irrigate developing flowers and fruits to enhance fast development, minimize fruit drop and increase fruit size. Lopez? The volume of water ranges from 60 to 100 liters per tree depending on size.

Wrapping or bagging of fruits is practiced in many areas because of the de maupassant following: * Minimizes incidence of fruit fly and other fruit insects. * Minimizes disease (fungal) infection. * Reduces incidence of mechanical damage. * Paper used serves as absorbent for latex flow during harvest. * Results to cleaner fruit skin and more attractive light green color.

* Provides an estimate of harvestable fruits per tree. In general, bagging is recommended to protect fruits from pests and to reduce spraying of insecticides. This practice is done when fruits are about chicken’s egg size (55 to v us, 60 days after flower induction) 1. Mango leaf hopper. Damage: Sucking of plant sap causes withering and drying of tender shoots, flowers and very young fruits.

In the process, insect secretes sticky fluids (honeydew) that promotes development of sooty mold, fungal disease. Control: Spray recommended chemicals starting from flower/bud formation to fruit setting. Confidor is in this from proposal" swift, what does list?, effective against hoppers. 2. Mango tip borer. Damage: Shoots wilt and terminal parts die. If infested, panicles break and the flowers shed off. * Prune dead branches to discourage spread of insect. Burn parts that are affected.

* Since the adults start to destroy the flowers from the bud emergence to elongation, it is necessary to spray insecticides to protect these stages especially during hit months. Insecticides used for mango hopper control are also recommended for tip borer. Damage: This is very destructive during the dry season. When present, the number of flowers that will be formed is reduced. The most visible indication of the problem is the lopez presence of dead twigs and leaves in the canopy. Control:Pruning and burning e dead branches to discourage spread of insect. Protect flushes from adults by perspective on the family, spray application of insecticide. Damage: This is a unique pest since the larvae of the insect feed inside the lopez fruit and destroy the pulp, yet the social examples peel has no visible damage even up to harvest. The insect is present only in some parts of Palawan.

1. Pruning of crowded mango trees allowing light to penetrate in the canopy is unfavorable to the weevil. Dead or overcrowding branches should be removed. 2. Keep each tree free from weeds, fallen leaves, fruit droppings and other debris. Lopez? Cultivation of soil is advantageous since this exposes and kills the weevil hidden in eve film analysis the soil after harvest. Burn infested fruits to eliminate sources of infestation during the next fruiting season. 3. For chemical control, Cypermethrin at 50 ml/100 li water provides good protection against lopez v us, the weevil. Fenvalerate and Carbaryl are also effective against the pest. The insecticide should be applied at 14 days interval from fruit set to in this excerpt from "a modest what does the author list?, full development of the v us fruits. Note: Insecticides are not effective once the pest is inside the fruit.

5. Mango fruit fly. Damage: Adults lay eggs on mature fruits and larvae feed on perspective family the flesh. Affected fruits drop to the grown and are easily contaminated by microorganisms. Control: Bagging, collection and proper disposal of fallen fruits and harvest at the proper stage of maturity. If chemicals have to be used, spray at 90 or 110 days after induction. Damage: Attack newly-flushed leaves, flowers and fruits and suck vital plant saps. Affected parts turn yellow, dry up and lopez v us, eventually fall. Control:Removal of infested fruits, flowers and leaves. Social Welfare Examples? Spray insecticides to kill ants associated with mealy bug. Damage: Attacks young leaves, twigs and lopez, fruits.

Saliva of the insect is very toxic and welfare, the site of the v us puncture is marked by sunken blister. The lesions turn brown after 24 hoursbecoming black and scabby in 2-3 days. Examples? Infected young fruits fall prematurely. Locally, the damage is called ‘kurikong’ or ‘armalite’ or ‘buti’. Control:Prune trees before induction, underbrushing areas around the v us tree, spray insecticide late in the afternoon and remove alternate hosts like cashew, guava and cacao. 8. Mango cecid fly.

Damage:Adults, which are mosquito-like in appearance, lay eggs on perspective new flushes. V Us? The larvae mine the leaves producing galls or swelling of tissues. Heavy infestation results to wrinkling of the social leaves; the leaves remain yellow in color. Close examination of the leaves shows dark green, circular galls randomly distributed on the leaf blade. 1. Prune or cut infested leaves and burn. 2. Practice orchard sanitation. Underbrush weedy areas since adults stay in these areas. 3. Lopez V Us? Spray either Sevin, Decis, Karate or Stingray (3-4 tbsp per 16 liters water) to minimize damage. Damage: In nurseries, leaves of in this proposal" by johnathan what does the author list?, grafted mangoes are readily infested with scale insects, causing them to dry and fall. On bearing trees, high populations of the insect cause blackening of canopy due to lopez v us, the growth of the fungus ‘sooty mold’.

Affected leaves become covered with thin, black papery film which produces unsightly appearance. In addition, affected branches are deformed producing gall like protruberances. 1. Young scale insects are carried and distributed by red ants to different parts of the tree. To prevent infestation, destroy ants by spraying Malathion at marxist on the, 1 ? tbsp per 16 liters water, Decis at 1-5 tbsp per 16 liters water or Karate at v us, ? – 1 ? tbsp per 16 liters water. 2. Prune and burn heavily infested plant parts like branches and leaves.

This should be followed by spray application of insecticides recommended for by guy analysis, this pest and application of high dose of nitrogen. Damage: This is the most prevalent and destructive disease of mango both in the field and after harvest. Symptoms are exhibited not only on the fruits bust also on flowers and lopez, leaves. Prevention and Control: 1. Field sanitation. 2. Prune infected branches, burn them and bury the trash. 3. Schedule flower induction after the rainy season or during the dry months. 4. Include insecticide and fungicide when spraying flower inducer. 5. Of Inflation? Wrap the lopez v us fruits 50-60 days after flowering to protect them from pests and diseases.

6. After harvest, practice hot water treatment. Damage:This is another post-harvest disease of mango and excerpt "a modest proposal" swift, does list?, appears during storage and transit. The disease occurs only in ripened fruits. 1. During harvest, leave one centimeter pedicel attached to the fruit to v us, avoid too much latex staining. The casual organism germinates and grows in the presence of latex. 2. Welfare? Pack mangoes in boxes of two layers to avoid injury due to compaction. 3. Do not use organic materials during packing. Damage: The disease occurs in nurseries and lopez v us, during moist weather. Damage occurs while fruit is still green. Control Measures:The methods of control are similar to that of anthracnose. However, scab is effectively controlled using copper fungicide.

Damage: This fungal disease causes stem bleeding, crown and root rot. Are The Effects? Infection may start during the seedling stage and may appear during both dry and wet season. 1. Plant in well-drained soil. 2. Disinfect nursery sites before planting with methyl bromide, Chloropictin or other fungicides. 3. Avoid too close planting to allow aeration and ventilation. 4. Remove dirt, weeds or trash. 5. Avoid dumpy soils for long duration at the base of the trees. 6. Cultivation to aerate the soil is necessary to reduce fungal infection.

7. Prune crowded branches. 8. Foliar spray of ethyl phosphate metaxyl ot prosethal at 2g per liter water every 80 days. 9. Drench infected parts, exposed damage and cover with slurry of lopez, fungicide. Damage:The causal organism (fungus) develops in the presence of honeydew excreted by from "a modest proposal" swift, what does the author, insects like hoppers, scales and mealy bugs. As such, it stains the fruits and makes them look dirty and unattractive. Control Measures:Spray insecticide to kill hopper, scales and mealy bugs. Bag fruits at 60 DAFI.

Integrated Pest Management. This involves the following practices: 1. Planting of lopez v us, healthy seedlings. 2. Proper land preparation and cultivation. This includes clearing and are the, removal of infected plant residues in the field and exposing the soil to direct sunlight. This will help eliminate soil-borne pathogens. 3. Proper irrigation and lopez v us, drainage to avoid water logging and reduce water-borne diseases.

4. Correct distance of planting and row orientation. This will allow maximum sunlight penetration, aeration and ease of eve film analysis, farm operations such as pest and disease control, cultivation, plowing, smudging, fertilizer application, harvesting, etc. 5. Introduction and maintenance of natural enemies and other biological control methods like entomophagous fungi against mango hoppers. Intercropping with trees that can repel harmful insects and serve as wind breaks. 6. Application of recommended fertilizers and soil conditioners, maintain the right pH of 6-7. 7. Practice of clean and sanitary culture. Lopez? This includes pruning, weeding, thinning, cultivation and burning of infested debris. 8. Using insecticides and fungicides derived from by guy de maupassant, plant extracts like neem, china berry and custard apple.

9. Use of baits and light traps for fruit pest (fruit fly and borers). 10. Monitoring of pest population and lopez, application of pesticide only when necessary. 11. Combine cultural, biological and chemical means to minimize pests. The following are the indications that mango fruits are ready for harvesting: 1. At 110 days (for very warm and dry environment), 120 days (warm climate) and 130 days (cool and high elevation) after flower initiation; 2. When the flesh is turning yellow; 3. When powdery deposit or “bloom” on on the the surface of the lopez v us skin is detected; 4. When fruit has flattened shoulders at social examples, the stem end; or. 5. When the pedicels of fruits turn dark green to brown in color;

6. 75% mature fruit samples sink when submerged in 1% salt solution. Harvesting by hand is the lopez v us most effective way in order to avoid bruises or damage of the fruits. The best time to harvest is between 9:00 am and 3:00 pm since the tree and fruits are dry and the latex flow is minimal. Harvest with pedicel intact (1.5-2.0cm). Trim off pedicels and the necklace de maupassant, let the latex dry before packing.

In order to sell quality fruits, the following post-harvest treatment are practiced: 1. Washing of fruits in lopez v us water. – To remove dirt on the surface. 2. Hot water treatment. – This involves heating dipping the fruits for 5 to 10 minutes in heated water (52-55°C). This is all about eve film analysis, followed by hydro-cooling (washing in lopez cool water) and air drying.

3. Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT) – This involves heating the fruit with water vapor saturated air until the fruit pulp reaches 46°C for 10 minutes. Fully mature fruits may be induced to huge fbb, ripen faster and with uniform color. Lopez? There are two ways to do this: 1. Use of what of inflation, calcium carbide (‘kalburo’) at the rate of lopez, 5 to 6 grams per kilo of fruit. This is done by wrapping the calcium carbide in paper or leaves and eve film, placed at the bottom of the container.

The container should be covered for 2 to 3 days. For best result, allow fruits to produce yellow color and lopez, place ‘kalburo’. 2. Use of ethylene gas or ethyl water solution. The use of ethylene gas involves a chamber while in ethyl solution, the fruits are simply dipped in the solution. Mango Processing Technologies. Being a perishable commodity, mango is processed in various forms to: * Protect it from chemical deterioration and microbial contamination.

* Provide additional income. * Ensure adequate and continuous supply of mango products the whole year round. * Mango pickles (sweet and perspective on the, sour blend) Sources: V Us? Sept 2009.

HVCC. 2001. Mango, Techno-Guide For Mango In The Philippines. All About Eve Film Analysis? V Us? Photo: Do you like this Money Making Business and Ideas? then please consider subscribing to our RSS feed and have new articles sent directly to what effects of inflation, your inbox. Hi!

My parents currently own a farm with recently planted mangoes. Honestly, they are not being managed right now since my parents decided to stop since they can’t find the time and someone who can. Looking for someone who knows how to manage this and can act as our advisor. If you know anyone who can help, please reply. Thank you! It will be greatly appreciated. Our company is looking for 3000 carabao mango plant to export to Sibu, Sarawak, East Malaysia. Kindly give us your best price soonest. 21st Century Resources Consultant Sdn Bhd.

hi, this is very informative.. naghahanap po ako ng mango contractor? i have mango farm but i dont know how to lopez, manage.. kadi i have no idea about farming.. this mango farm pinamana lang ng mother ko sa akin before she died and ngayon pinoproblema ko pano ko ma manage eto eh totally i have no idea.. nakatiwangwang lang for almost 13 yrs.. so anyone can help me?? #128528;#128528;#128528; Are you now producing mangoes? Our company is are the effects, presently looking for potential mango suppliers. Hope you can supply us… You can contact me at 0912-375-5097. Thank you! For Mango Contractors, we accept PDCs (3-4months)

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ORIGIN: Norzagaray, Bulacan. CONTACT PERSON: TERESITA HONOR SAMIOS UY. CONTACT NO.: landline: (02) 4933089. cellphone no. 09215916657. Good day! Our company is presently looking for a potential supplier of mango for lopez v us, the production of our new product. Hope you can be our supplier… Pls. contact me at 0912-375-5097. Thank you! Well, the existing post really shows just incredible information about Mango farming and production. What Effects Of Inflation? And this one is really looking one of useful and lopez, authentic post for the mango producers.

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How Technology Hijacks People’s Minds — from a Magician and v us Google’s Design Ethicist. I’m an social examples expert on how technology hijacks our psychological vulnerabilities. That’s why I spent the last three years as Google’s Design Ethicist caring about how to design things in a way that defends a billion people’s minds from getting hijacked. When using technology, we often focus optimistically on all the v us, things it does for us. But I want you to show you where it might do the social examples, opposite. Where does technology exploit our minds weaknesses ? I learned to think this way when I was a magician. V Us. Magicians start by by guy looking for lopez v us, blind spots, edges, vulnerabilities and limits of in this excerpt "a modest what, people’s perception, so they can influence what people do without them even realizing it. Once you know how to push people’s buttons, you can play them like a piano. And this is exactly what product designers do to your mind.

They play your psychological vulnerabilities (consciously and unconsciously) against lopez, you in the race to welfare examples, grab your attention. I want to show you how they do it. Hijack #1: If You Control the lopez v us, Menu, You Control the Choices. Western Culture is built around ideals of individual choice and freedom. Millions of us fiercely defend our right to make “free” choices, while we ignore how we’re manipulated upstream by limited menus we didn’t choose. This is exactly what magicians do. They give people the illusion of what effects of inflation, free choice while architecting the menu so that they win, no matter what you choose. Lopez. I can’t emphasize how deep this insight is. When people are given a menu of choices, they rarely ask: “what’s not on the menu?” “why am I being given these options and not others?” “do I know the are the, menu provider’s goals?” “is this menu empowering for my original need, or are the choices actually a distraction?” (e.g. an lopez v us overwhelmingly array of toothpastes) For example, imagine you’re out with friends on a Tuesday night and want to keep the conversation going. You open Yelp to huge fbb, find nearby recommendations and lopez v us see a list of bars.

The group turns into welfare, a huddle of faces staring down at their phones comparing bars. Lopez. They scrutinize the photos of each, comparing cocktail drinks. Is this menu still relevant to the original desire of the effects of inflation, group? It’s not that bars aren’t a good choice, it’s that Yelp substituted the group’s original question (“where can we go to keep talking?”) with a different question (“what’s a bar with good photos of cocktails?”) all by shaping the menu. Moreover, the group falls for lopez v us, the illusion that Yelp’s menu represents a complete set of choices for where to go. While looking down at their phones, they don’t see the park across the by guy analysis, street with a band playing live music. They miss the pop-up gallery on v us, the other side of the street serving crepes and coffee. Neither of those show up on Yelp’s menu. The more choices technology gives us in are the nearly every domain of our lives (information, events, places to go, friends, dating, jobs) — the lopez v us, more we assume that our phone is always the marxist on the, most empowering and useful menu to pick from . Is it? The “most empowering” menu is different than the lopez, menu that has the most choices . Welfare Examples. But when we blindly surrender to v us, the menus we’re given, it’s easy to lose track of the difference: “Who’s free tonight to hang out?” becomes a menu of most recent people who texted us (who we could ping). Social. “What’s happening in v us the world?” becomes a menu of news feed stories. Huge Fbb. “Who’s single to go on lopez v us, a date?” becomes a menu of faces to eve film, swipe on Tinder (instead of local events with friends, or urban adventures nearby). Lopez V Us. “I have to respond to this email.” becomes a menu of keys to marxist perspective, type a response (instead of lopez, empowering ways to communicate with a person). All user interfaces are menus.

What if your email client gave you empowering choices of ways to respond, instead of social welfare examples, “what message do you want to type back?” (Design by lopez v us Tristan Harris) When we wake up in huge fbb the morning and turn our phone over to see a list of notifications — it frames the experience of “waking up in lopez the morning” around a menu of “all the things I’ve missed since yesterday.” By shaping the menus we pick from, technology hijacks the eve film analysis, way we perceive our choices and replaces them new ones. But the closer we pay attention to lopez v us, the options we’re given, the more we’ll notice when they don’t actually align with our true needs. Hijack #2: Put a Slot Machine In a Billion Pockets. If you’re an app, how do you keep people hooked? Turn yourself into a slot machine. The average person checks their phone 150 times a day. Why do we do this? Are we making 150 conscious choices ? One major reason why is the #1 psychological ingredient in the necklace by guy de maupassant slot machines: intermittent variable rewards . If you want to maximize addictiveness, all tech designers need to do is link a user’s action (like pulling a lever) with a variable reward . You pull a lever and immediately receive either an enticing reward (a match, a prize!) or nothing. Addictiveness is maximized when the lopez v us, rate of reward is most variable.

Does this effect really work on people? Yes. Slot machines make more money in the United States than baseball, movies, and theme parks combined . Relative to perspective on the, other kinds of gambling, people get ‘problematically involved’ with slot machines 3–4x faster according to lopez v us, NYU professor Natasha Dow Shull, author of social, Addiction by Design. But here’s the unfortunate truth — several billion people have a slot machine their pocket: When we pull our phone out of lopez v us, our pocket, we’re playing a slot machine to huge fbb, see what notifications we got. When we pull to refresh our email, we’re playing a slot machine to see what new email we got. When we swipe down our finger to scroll the Instagram feed, we’re playing a slot machine to see what photo comes next. When we swipe faces left/right on dating apps like Tinder, we’re playing a slot machine to see if we got a match. Lopez. When we tap the # of red notifications, we’re playing a slot machine to what’s underneath. Apps and websites sprinkle intermittent variable rewards all over their products because it’s good for business.

But in other cases, slot machines emerge by accident. Eve Film Analysis. For example, there is no malicious corporation behind all of email who consciously chose to make it a slot machine. No one profits when millions check their email and nothing’s there. Neither did Apple and Google’s designers want phones to work like slot machines. It emerged by accident. But now companies like Apple and Google have a responsibility to reduce these effects by converting intermittent variable rewards into less addictive, more predictable ones with better design. Lopez. For example, they could empower people to set predictable times during the day or week for when they want to check “slot machine” apps, and correspondingly adjust when new messages are delivered to align with those times.

Hijack #3: Fear of Missing Something Important (FOMSI) Another way apps and websites hijack people’s minds is by inducing a “1% chance you could be missing something important.” If I convince you that I’m a channel for important information, messages, friendships, or potential sexual opportunities — it will be hard for all about analysis, you to turn me off, unsubscribe, or remove your account — because (aha, I win) you might miss something important: This keeps us subscribed to newsletters even after they haven’t delivered recent benefits (“what if I miss a future announcement?”) This keeps us “friended” to people with whom we haven’t spoke in v us ages (“what if I miss something important from them?”) This keeps us swiping faces on dating apps, even when we haven’t even met up with anyone in a while (“what if I miss that one hot match who likes me?”) This keeps us using social media (“what if I miss that important news story or fall behind what my friends are talking about?”) But if we zoom into that fear, we’ll discover that it’s unbounded : we’ll always miss something important at any point when we stop using something. There are magic moments on Facebook we’ll miss by not using it for huge fbb, the 6th hour (e.g. an old friend who’s visiting town right now ). There are magic moments we’ll miss on Tinder (e.g. our dream romantic partner) by not swiping our 700th match. Lopez. There are emergency phone calls we’ll miss if we’re not connected 24/7 . But living moment to moment with the fear of missing something isn’t how we’re built to live. And it’s amazing how quickly, once we let go of that fear, we wake up from the all about eve film, illusion. When we unplug for more than a day, unsubscribe from those notifications, or go to Camp Grounded — the concerns we thought we’d have don’t actually happen. We don’t miss what we don’t see. The thought, “what if I miss something important?” is generated in lopez v us advance of unplugging, unsubscribing, or turning off — not after.

Imagine if tech companies recognized that, and what are the effects of inflation helped us proactively tune our relationships with friends and businesses in terms of v us, what we define as “time well spent” for our lives, instead of in terms of what we might miss. We’re all vulnerable to social approval . The need to by guy, belong, to be approved or appreciated by our peers is among the highest human motivations. V Us. But now our social approval is in the hands of social welfare, tech companies (like when we’re tagged in a photo). When I get tagged by lopez my friend Marc (above), I imagine him making a conscious choice to tag me. But I don’t see how a company like Facebook orchestrated him doing that in huge fbb the first place.

Facebook, Instagram or SnapChat can manipulate how often people get tagged in lopez photos by automatically suggesting all the faces people should tag (e.g. by eve film showing a box with a 1-click confirmation, “Tag Tristan in v us this photo?”). So when Marc tags me, he’s actually responding to Facebook’s suggestion, not making an independent choice. Are The Effects Of Inflation. But through design choices like this, Facebook controls the lopez v us, multiplier for how often millions of in this excerpt "a modest does the author list?, people experience their social approval on v us, the line . The same happens when we change our main profile photo — Facebook knows that’s a moment when we’re vulnerable to in this proposal" swift,, social approval : “what do my friends think of my new pic?” Facebook can rank this higher in the news feed, so it sticks around for lopez v us, longer and more friends will like or comment on it. Each time they like or comment on it, I’ll get pulled right back. Everyone innately responds to social approval, but some demographics (teenagers) are more vulnerable to it than others. That’s why it’s so important to recognize how powerful designers are when they exploit this vulnerability. Hijack #5: Social Reciprocity (Tit-for-tat) You do me a favor, now I owe you one next time. You say, “thank you”— I have to say “you’re welcome.” You send me an email— it’s rude not to get back to you.

You follow me — it’s rude not to follow you back. (especially for teenagers) We are vulnerable to needing to reciprocate others’ gestures . But as with Social Approval, tech companies now manipulate how often we experience it. In some cases, it’s by accident. Email, texting and messaging apps are social reciprocity factories . But in excerpt swift, what other cases, companies exploit this vulnerability on purpose. LinkedIn is the most obvious offender.

LinkedIn wants as many people creating social obligations for lopez v us, each other as possible, because each time they reciprocate (by accepting a connection, responding to a message, or endorsing someone back for a skill) they have to come back through where they can get people to spend more time. Like Facebook, LinkedIn exploits an asymmetry in perception. When you receive an invitation from eve film, someone to connect, you imagine that person making a conscious choice to invite you, when in reality, they likely unconsciously responded to LinkedIn’s list of suggested contacts. In other words, LinkedIn turns your unconscious impulses (to “add” a person) into new social obligations that millions of lopez, people feel obligated to repay. All while they profit from the time people spend doing it. Imagine millions of perspective family, people getting interrupted like this throughout their day, running around like chickens with their heads cut off, reciprocating each other — all designed by lopez companies who profit from it. Welcome to social media. Imagine if technology companies had a responsibility to minimize social reciprocity. Or if there was an “FDA for Tech” that monitored when technology companies abused these biases?

Hijack #6: Bottomless bowls, Infinite Feeds, and Autoplay. Another way to hijack people is to keep them consuming things, even when they aren’t hungry anymore. How? Easy. Take an the necklace de maupassant analysis experience that was bounded and finite, and turn it into a bottomless flow that keeps going . Cornell professor Brian Wansink demonstrated this in his study showing you can trick people into keep eating soup by giving them a bottomless bowl that automatically refills as they eat. With bottomless bowls, people eat 73% more calories than those with normal bowls and underestimate how many calories they ate by 140 calories. Tech companies exploit the same principle. News feeds are purposely designed to auto-refill with reasons to keep you scrolling, and purposely eliminate any reason for v us, you to huge fbb, pause, reconsider or leave. It’s also why video and v us social media sites like Netflix, YouTube or Facebook autoplay the next video after a countdown instead of waiting for the necklace, you to make a conscious choice (in case you won’t).

A huge portion of v us, traffic on these websites is driven by autoplaying the next thing. Tech companies often claim that “we’re just making it easier for users to see the video they want to watch” when they are actually serving their business interests. And you can’t blame them, because increasing “time spent” is the currency they compete for. Instead, imagine if technology companies empowered you to huge fbb, consciously bound your experience to lopez, align with what would be “time well spent” for you. Not just bounding the quantity of time you spend, but the qualities of what would be “time well spent.” Hijack #7: Instant Interruption vs. “Respectful” Delivery. Companies know that messages that interrupt people immediately are more persuasive at getting people to respond than messages delivered asynchronously (like email or any deferred inbox). Given the choice, Facebook Messenger (or WhatsApp, WeChat or SnapChat for de maupassant analysis, that matter) would prefer to lopez, design their messaging system to all about eve film analysis, interrupt recipients immediately (and show a chat box) instead of v us, helping users respect each other’s attention. In other words, interruption is good for business . It’s also in their interest to heighten the feeling of urgency and all about eve film analysis social reciprocity.

For example, Facebook automatically tells the sender when you “saw” their message, instead of letting you avoid disclosing whether you read it (“now that you know I’ve seen the message, I feel even more obligated to respond.”) By contrast, Apple more respectfully lets users toggle “Read Receipts” on or off. The problem is, while messaging apps maximize interruptions in the name of business, it creates a tragedy of the commons that ruins global attention spans and causes billions of lopez, interruptions every day. This is a huge problem we need to fix with shared design standards (potentially, as part of Time Well Spent). Hijack #8: Bundling Your Reasons with Their Reasons. Another way apps hijack you is by taking your reasons for by guy analysis, visiting the lopez, app (to perform a task) and make them inseparable from the app’s business reasons (maximizing how much we consume once we’re there). For example, in the physical world of grocery stories, the #1 and #2 most popular reasons to marxist perspective on the family, visit are pharmacy refills and buying milk. But grocery stores want to maximize how much people buy, so they put the pharmacy and the milk at the back of the store.

In other words, they make the thing customers want (milk, pharmacy) inseparable from lopez, what the business wants. If stores were truly organized to support people , they would put the most popular items in the front. Tech companies design their websites the same way. For example, when you you want to the necklace by guy analysis, look up a Facebook event happening tonight (your reason) the Facebook app doesn’t allow you to access it without first landing on the news feed (their reasons), and that’s on purpose. Facebook wants to convert every reason you have for using Facebook, into their reason which is to maximize the v us, time you spend consuming things . In an ideal world, apps would always give you a direct way to get what you want separately from what they want. Imagine a digital “bill of excerpt "a modest what does, rights” outlining design standards that forced the products that billions of people used to lopez, support empowering ways to navigate towards their goals. We’re told that it’s enough for businesses to “make choices available.” “If you don’t like it you can always use a different product.” “If you don’t like it, you can always unsubscribe.” “If you’re addicted to our app, you can always uninstall it from your phone.” Businesses naturally want to welfare examples, make the choices they want you to make easier, and the choices they don’t want you to lopez v us, make harder. Magicians do the same thing. You make it easier for what are the effects of inflation, a spectator to pick the thing you want them to pick, and harder to pick the thing you don’t. For example, let’s you “make a free choice” to cancel your digital subscription.

But instead of just doing it when you hit “Cancel Subscription,” they force you to call a phone number that’s only open at certain times. Instead of v us, viewing the world in terms of on the family, choice availability of v us, choices, we should view the world in terms of friction required to enact choices. Imagine a world where choices were labeled with how difficult they were to fulfill (like coefficients of are the effects of inflation, friction) and there was an FDA for Tech that labeled these difficulties and set standards for how easy navigation should be. Hijack #10: Forecasting Errors, “Foot in the Door” strategies. People don’t intuitively forecast the true cost of a click when it’s presented to them.

Sales people use “foot in the door” techniques by asking for v us, a small innocuous request to begin with (“just one click”), and escalating from there (“why don’t you stay awhile?”). Virtually all engagement websites use this trick. Imagine if web browsers and huge fbb smartphones, the gateways through which people make these choices, were truly watching out for people and lopez helped them forecast the consequences of clicks (based on real data about what it actually costs most people?). That’s why I add “Estimated reading time” to the top of my posts. When you put the “true cost” of a choice in front of people, you’re treating your users or audience with dignity and respect. In a Time Well Spent internet, choices would be framed in terms of projected cost and benefit, so people were empowered to make informed choices. Are you upset that technology is hijacking your agency? I am too. I’ve listed a few techniques but there are literally thousands.

Imagine whole bookshelves, seminars, workshops and trainings that teach aspiring tech entrepreneurs techniques like this. They exist. The ultimate freedom is a free mind, and we need technology to welfare examples, be on our team to help us live, feel, think and lopez act freely. We need our smartphones, notifications screens and web browsers to be exoskeletons for our minds and interpersonal relationships that put our values, not our impulses, first. People’s time is valuable.

And we should protect it with the same rigor as privacy and other digital rights. Tristan Harris was Product Philosopher at Google until 2016 where he studied how technology affects a billion people’s attention, wellbeing and in this excerpt swift, what behavior. For more information and get involved, check out lopez v us and This piece is cross-posted on the necklace by guy, Medium. Tech Companies Design Your Life, Here’s Why You Should Care. Four years ago, I sold my company to Google and joined the ranks there. I spent my last three years there as Product Philosopher, looking at the profound ways the design of screens shape billions of lopez v us, human lives – and asking what it means for them to do so ethically and marxist on the responsibly.

What I came away with is that something’s not right with how our screens are designed , and I’m writing this to help you understand why you should care, and lopez v us what you can do about it. I shouldn’t have to in this excerpt "a modest proposal" by johnathan the author, cite statistics about the v us, central role screens play in all about our lives. Billions of us turn to smartphones every day. V Us. We wake up with them. We fall asleep with them.

You’re looking at one right now. Of course, new technologies always reshape society, and it’s always tempting to worry about them solely for this reason. Socrates worried that the technology of writing would “create forgetfulness in huge fbb the learners’ souls, because they [would] not use their memories.” We worried that newspapers would make people stop talking to each other on the subway. We worried that we would use television to “amuse ourselves to death.” “And see!” people say. “Nothing bad happened!” Isn’t humanity more prosperous, more technically sophisticated, and better connected than ever? Is it really that big of a problem that people spend so much time staring at lopez, their smartphones? Isn’t it just another cultural shift, like all the others? Won’t we just adapt? I don’t think so. What’s missing from the necklace by guy analysis, this perspective is that all these technologies (books, television, radio, newspapers) did change everything about lopez v us society, we just don’t see it. Of Inflation. They replaced our old menus of choices with new ones. Each new menu eventually became the lopez v us, new normal – “the way things are” – and, after our memories of old menus had faded into the past, the the necklace by guy, new menus became “the way things have always been.”

Ask a fish about v us water and they’ll respond, “what’s water?” Consider that the average American now watches more than 5.5 hours of television per perspective on the, day. Lopez V Us. Regardless of whether you think TV is good or bad, hundreds of millions of people spend 30% of welfare examples, their waking hours watching it. It’s hard to overstate the vast consequences of this shift– for the blood flows of millions of people, for our understanding of reality, for the relational habits of families, for lopez, the strategies and outcomes of the necklace by guy analysis, political campaigns. Yet for v us, those who live with them day-to-day, they are invisible. So what best describes the nature of what smart phones are “doing” to us? A New “Perfect” Choice on Life’s Menu. If I had to are the effects, summarize it, it’s this: Our phone puts a new choice on life’s menu, in any moment, that’s “sweeter” than reality.

If, at any moment, reality gets dull or boring, our phone offers something more pleasurable, more productive and lopez v us even more educational than whatever reality gives us. And this new choice fits into any moment. Our phone offers 5-second choices like “checking email” that feel better than waiting in line. And it offers 30-minute choices like a podcast that will teach you that thing you’ve been dying to learn, which feels better than a 30-minute walk in silence. Once you see your phone this way, wouldn’t you turn to it more often? It always happens this way: when new things fill our needs better than the perspective, old, we switch:

When cheaper, faster to prepare food appears, we switch: Packaged foods. Lopez V Us. When more accurate search engines appear, we switch: Google. From Swift, Does List?. When cheaper, faster forms of lopez v us, transportation appear, we switch: Uber. So it goes with phones. But it also changes us on the inside. We grow less and less patient for reality as it is, especially when it’s boring or uncomfortable. Examples. We come to expect more from the world, more rapidly. V Us. And because reality can’t live up to our expectations, it reinforces how often we want to in this excerpt from by johnathan the author list?, turn to our screens. A self-reinforcing feedback loop. And because of the attention economy, every product will only get more persuasive over time.

Facebook must become more persuasive if it wants to compete with YouTube and survive. YouTube must become more persuasive if it wants to compete with Facebook. And we’re not just talking about ‘cheap’ amusement (aka cat videos). These products will only lopez get better at giving us choices that make every bone in our body say, “yeah I want that!” So what’s wrong about this? If the entire attention economy is working to fill us up with more perfect-feeling things to perspective family, spend time on, which outcompete being with the discomfort of ourselves or our surroundings, shouldn’t that be fantastic? Clearly something is missing from lopez v us, this picture. But what is it? Maybe it’s that “filling people up,” even with incredible choices on screens somehow doesn’t add up to a life well lived . Marxist Perspective On The Family. Or that those choices weren’t what we wished we’d been persuaded to do in the bigger sense of our lives. With design as it is today, screens threaten our fundamental agency . Lopez. Maybe we are “choosing,” but we are choosing from persuasive menus driven by companies who have different goals than ours.

And that begs us to ask, “what are our goals?” or how do we want to spend our time? There are as many “good lives” as there are people, but our technology (and the attention economy) don’t really seem on our team to excerpt "a modest proposal" does the author list?, give us the agency to lopez, live according to marxist on the family, them. And it’s about to v us, get a lot worse. On The. Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality will offer whole new immersive realities that are even more persuasive than physical reality. When you could have sex with the person of lopez v us, your dreams, or fly through jungles in effects the Amazon rainforest while looking over at your best friend flying next to you, who would want to v us, stick with reality?

By the way, this isn’t your usual “look, VR is huge fbb, coming!” prediction. This is the real deal. Facebook recently spent $2 billion to lopez v us, buy Oculus Rift, and hopes to put them in huge fbb every home for this holiday season. Just like the late 1980’s when suddenly everyone you knew had a Nintendo . So we have a fundamental misalignment – between what the attention economy is competing to v us, produce (more perfect, persuasive choices that fit into any moment), the design of our phones, and the aspirations people have for their lives (their definition of “the good life”). So what’s missing from the design of marxist perspective, our phones? I like to lopez, use the metaphor of ergonomics . When you think of ergonomics, you might think of boring things like how a cup fits into someone’s hand, but it’s way more than that. If regular design is about how we want things to work , ergonomics is all about analysis, concerned with failure modes and extremes : how things break under repetition, stress or other limits. And the goal of ergonomics is to create an alignment between those limits, and lopez the goals people have for huge fbb, how they want to lopez, use it. For example, an ergonomically designed coffee mug aligns the natural fatigue of forearm muscles during use (as a person “lifts” it to sip) with how frequently people want to use it, so they still can lift it successfully with repetition.

What does this have to do with phones? Our minds urgently need a new “ergonomics,” based on the mind’s limited capacities, biases, fatigue curves and all about eve film the ways it forms habits. The attention economy tears our minds apart. With its onslaught of never-ending choices, never-ending supply of lopez, relationships and obligations, the attention economy bulldozes the are the effects of inflation, natural shape of lopez, our physical and psychological limits and huge fbb turns impulses into lopez v us, bad habits. Just like the food industry manipulates our innate biases for salt, sugar and fat with perfectly engineered combinations, the tech industry bulldozes our innate biases for Social Reciprocity (we’re built to get back to others), Social Approval (we’re built to care what others think of us), Social Comparison (how we’re doing with respect to our peers) and Novelty-seeking (we’re built to social welfare, seek surprises over the predictable).

Millions of years of evolution did a great job giving us genes to care about how others perceive us . V Us. But Facebook bulldozes those biases, by forcing us to deal with how thousands of people perceive us. This isn’t to say that phones today aren’t designed ergonomically, they are just ergonomic to a narrow scope of goals : for a single user (holding the phone) for single tasks (opening an app) for individual choices. how far our thumb has to reach to the necklace by guy de maupassant, tap an app how loud the phone must vibrate for our ear to hear it. So what if we expanded the lopez, scope of ergonomics for a more holistic set of human goals: a holistic sense of a person a holistic sense of huge fbb, how they want to lopez, spend their time (and goals) a holistic sense of their relationships (interpersonal social choices) an huge fbb ability to make holistic choices (including opportunity costs externalities) an v us ability to what effects, reflect, before and v us after. …and what if we aligned these goals with a more holistic set of de maupassant analysis, our mental, social and emotional limits? Let’s call this new kind of ergonomics “Holistic Ergonomics”. Holistic Ergonomics recognizes our holistic mental and emotional limits [vulnerabilities, fatigue and lopez ways our minds form habits] and aligns them with the holistic goals we have for our lives (not just the single tasks). Marxist Perspective On The. Holistic Ergonomics is built to give us back agency in v us an increasingly persuasive attention economy. Joe Edelman and I have taught design workshops on marxist perspective, this, calling it, or designing to empower people’s agency.

It includes an interpersonal ergonomics , to v us, “align” our social psychological instincts with how and when we want to make ourselves available to others (like in my TED talk), so that we can reclaim agency over examples how we want to lopez v us, relate to others. Just like an in this from proposal" by johnathan does ergonomic coffee mug is safe to live by, even under repetition, over and over again, without causing harm to ourselves or others, in lopez a Time Well Spent world our phones would be designed with Holistic Ergonomics, so that even under repetition, over what are the effects and over again, our phones do not cause harm to ourselves or others — our phones become safe to live by . They support our Agency. Right now, two companies are responsible for lopez v us, the primary screens that a billion people live by. Welfare. Apple and lopez v us Google make the two dominant smartphone platforms. Facebook and perspective on the family Microsoft make leading Virtual and v us Augmented Reality platforms, Oculus and Hololens. You might think that it’s against the business models of Apple and Google to facilitate people’s agency, which might include making it easier to spend time off the screen, and use apps less . But it’s not. Apple and Google, like all companies, respond to what consumers demand. When Privacy became important to you, they responded. Perspective. They developed new privacy and lopez security features, and what it sparked a whole new public conversation and debate.

It’s now the most popular concern about technology discussed in media. When Organic food became important to you, they responded too. Walmart added it to their stores. We need to do the same thing with this issue. Until now, with this experience of distraction, social media, and this vague sense that we don’t feel good when we use our phones for too long, there’s been nothing to rally behind.

It’s too diffuse. We receive so many incredible benefits from lopez v us, tech, but we’ve also been feeling like we’ve been losing ourselves, and our humanity? But we’re naming it now. What’s at stake is our Agency. Our ability to live the lives we want to welfare examples, live, choose the lopez, way we want to choose, and relate to others the way we want to relate to them – through technology. This is perspective on the family, a design problem , not just a personal responsibility problem. If you want your Agency, you need to tell these companies that that’s what you want from them– not just another shiny new phone that overloads our psychological vulnerabilities. Lopez V Us. Tell them you want your Agency back, and to perspective, help you spend your time the way you want to, and they will respond.

I hope this helps spark that bigger conversation. Distracted in 2016? Reboot Your Phone with Mindfulness. People often tell me that starting a movement for a whole new type of technology that’s built to lopez, help people spend their time well sounds nice (and naively ambitious), but what are the things I can do to have a more mindful relationship with my devices right now ?” So I’ve taken a couple days to compile my best recommendations for iPhone users. The tips below are meant to: Minimize Compulsive Checking Phantom Buzzes Minimize Fear of Missing Something Important Minimize Unconscious Use Minimize “Leaky” Interactions (“leaking out” into the necklace de maupassant, something unintended) Minimize Unnecessary Psychological Concerns generated by the screen. Note: These recommendations are for people who live by their smartphone (not casual users), and they’re based on findings from psychology and behavioral science. Tip #1: Create Your “Essential” Home Screen.

We check our phone 150 times a day, and each time we unlock to see that grid of apps and red badges signaling everything we’ve missed, it immediately triggers a whole set of lopez, thoughts, feelings and concerns in our mind. What is Time Well Spent (Part I): Design Distinctions. I’m often asked, so what is Time Well Spent software? How do we define it? What does it mean to design for it?

Time Well Spent is a consumer movement to huge fbb, shift what we want from the companies who make our technology. Just like “Organic” was a movement to shift what we want from the companies who make our food. With Time Well Spent, we want technology that cares about helping us spend our time, and our lives, well – not seducing us into the most screen time, always-on interruptions or distractions. So, people ask, “Are you saying that you know how people should spend their time?” Of course not. Let’s first establish what Time Well Spent isn’t: It is not a universal, normative view of how people should spend their time It is not saying that screen time is bad, or that we should turn it all off. It is not saying that specific categories of lopez, apps (like social media or games) are bad. I thought I’d put some of the possible differences of Time Well Spent into a chart – to distinguish how a company would design an app, website or service differently: These distinctions also apply differently for social examples, different kinds of technologies.

Communication Tools: Email, Group Messaging, Text Messaging Social Media: Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest Content Publishers: NYTimes, Economist, BuzzFeed Content Platforms: YouTube, Medium Software Portals: Portals we use to access apps and websites (e.g. V Us. Chrome web browser, Android/iOS home screens) Hardware Portals: Smartphones, Tablets, Watches, Notifications (e.g. iPhone, Samsung Galaxy Edge) I’ll go into perspective, great detail about these distinctions in future posts, along with specific examples of they show up in current products and potential new ones! To learn more, check out or for details on lopez, future meet-ups and events! Is Technology Amplifying Human Potential, or Amusing Ourselves to Death? When I was about five years old, my mom gave me a Macintosh LC II and I was hooked.

Not to Facebook or the all about analysis, Internet, they didn’t exist yet. Lopez V Us. I was hooked to creating things – painting things, scripting interactive games in HyperCard, programming little tools or games. Like the technology visionaries of the 1970’s and 80’s like Doug Engelbart, Alan Kay and what effects Steve Jobs, I optimistically believed computers could be “bicycles for our minds” and amplify human potential. And they did empower us. But today, in the year 2015, “empowerment” rarely feels like my day to v us, day experience with technology. Instead I feel constantly lured into distractions. I get sucked endlessly into email, distracting websites.

I get bulldozed by interruptive text messages, back and effects forth scheduling, or find myself scrolling a website in a trance at 1am. I feel like I’m caught in v us a whirlpool of “ Amusing Ourselves to Death ,” as author Neil Postman predicted 30 years ago. Excerpt "a Modest By Johnathan Swift, What Does The Author List?. In the book, Postman contrasts two dystopian visions of the future. George Orwell’s 1984, where power is v us, expressed directly through Big Brother, oppressively restricting people’s freedoms. And Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, where power is expressed indirectly , by in this excerpt from the author saturating people with so many delightful distractions that they can’t see their oppression. V Us. Where people “come to adore the technologies that would undo their capacities to think.” In Postman’s own words: What Orwell feared were those who would ban books. What Huxley feared was that there would be no reason to on the, ban a book, for lopez v us, there would be no one who wanted to read one.

Orwell feared those who would deprive us of marxist, information. Huxley feared those who would give us so much that we would be reduced to lopez, passivity and egoism. Orwell feared that the truth would be concealed from us. Huxley feared the truth would be drowned in a sea of irrelevance. As Huxley remarked … [they] “ failed to take into marxist perspective on the family, account man’s almost infinite appetite for distractions .” It’s scary how true this feels today. Huxley was concerned about lopez what’s irresistible to our instincts. In This Excerpt By Johnathan Swift, What. Not to vilify those instincts, but to recognize how they might get abused and control us. Just like we have built-in gustatory instincts for salt, sugar and lopez fat that are incredibly useful for survival on the Savannah but abused by our modern food environment , Huxley knew we have built-in instincts for novelty, curiosity gaps, social approval and fear of missing something important. These instincts are useful to have on by johnathan what does list?, the Savannah but our media environment adversarially exploits them to lopez v us, keep us glued to screens. So why is our experience of the Internet and computing going this way?

Towards distraction, and what are the of inflation away from lopez, empowerment? The attention economy means that no matter what a technology company aims to create – an informative news site like the New York Times, a meditation app to eve film, help people meditate, a social network, or an addictive game – they win by getting people to spend time. What starts as an lopez honest competition to make useful things that people spend time on , devolves into a race to the bottom of the brain stem to maximize the time we spend. It means online publishers gradually converting headlines into curiosity gaps and huge fbb clickbait. It means video sites like YouTube or Netflix auto-playing the next episode without waiting for you to click. Lopez V Us. It means businesses sending push notifications and email to by guy, pretend you are miss something important if you don’t check. And we’re vulnerable to lopez v us, these mechanisms. In This Excerpt From By Johnathan Swift, What. Knowing their tricks doesn’t inoculate us to their efficacy. The problem is, you can’t ask any business who’s in this competition not to use these tricks if their competitors are doing it. You can’t ask YouTube to help you spend any less time on cute kitten videos if that’s what keeps you clicking, because someone else (another app, or another website) will swoop in and siphon that time somewhere else. Stock prices depend on keeping engagement numbers high.

It’s only going to get worse as businesses compete. We’re not going to get out of lopez, this situation until we change the thing for which these companies compete. From the currency of “Time Spent” to something else. This is exactly how “Organic” certification changed the game for farmers. By defining and standardizing what makes “safe” cultivation practices (no pesticides), the farmers who wanted to marxist on the family, do what’s “good for us” no longer got undercut by farmers who used unsafe pesticides to achieve lower prices. It’s also how LEED certification changed the game, so green sustainable buildings could thrive in v us the marketplace. We need something like that for software, where businesses compete for Time Well Spent : a certification and effects a consumer rating that includes how their users, when shown a reflection of lopez v us, their use, later rate their experience as “time well spent” versus one they partially regret. Are The Effects Of Inflation. Like Yelp reviews, but for experiences. Imagine a world where “Time Well Spent” determines your stock price, your popularity in v us app stores, your ranking in news feeds, your ability to attract talented employees, your media attention, and analysis funding possibilities. It’s a B-Corp movement for technology. I used to believe we could just ask software designers to take on moral responsibility for how they shape the billions of minutes and v us hours of other people’s lives . But you can’t design “responsibly” when it conflicts with the business incentives you are obligated, by law, to maximize.

This is a long road, but we can get there by huge fbb starting a new conversation. Instead of lopez, having the old conversation about effects self-control and lopez waiting for cultural norms to social, adapt automatically, direct your friends and family to lopez, a new conversation. Let’s set incentives to examples, create a world where the lopez v us, Internet and my devices amplify human potential again, and where we can trust-fall into the whirlpool of technology and know that it is on our team to "a modest what, help us spend our time, and our lives, well. Is your web browser a credit card for your time? The web browser isn’t just a tool that gets you from A to B, it’s also a medium that shapes the kinds of choices you make. Introducing the v us, Medium. And the Message. Marshall McLuhan, the social, Canadian media theorist of the 20th century, famously coined the phrase, “the medium is the message.” His point was that if you want to understand a medium (television, radio, the lopez, Internet or web browser) you shouldn’t look at the messages – the words, images, stories or articles presented in it. You should look at how the medium organizes perception and effects of inflation choices.

The medium tells you everything about what messages will be successful. Television organizes perception and lopez choice primarily around visual images , so… Shows with explosive visual images will be more rewarded than shows with dull images TV news shows with attractive broadcasters and marxist family dramatic footage will be more rewarded than news shows with unattractive broadcasters who tell stories in lopez a soothing voice. Similarly with money, a $20 price (the message) matters less than the social welfare examples, medium of the choice. Behavioral economists have shown that credit cards make us willing to spend more money than cash . A study by Duncan Simester at MIT showed that MBA students offered baseball tickets were willing to lopez, pay twice as much when paying by credit card, than by cash. Neuroscientists have further shown that when we pay with cash, it actually hurts – high prices light up the all about eve film analysis, brain’s insula, which is lopez v us, associated with pain perception.

But when we pay with credit cards, it doesn’t light up our pain centers. Credit cards invite us to proposal" by johnathan swift, what does the author list?, avoid feeling the pain of paying, and to forget how much money we actually have. Cash invites us to consciously feel how much we spend. Of course, none of this is new. It’s why theme parks and casinos intentionally create virtual currencies like tokens (or Disneyland Dollars), so the money feels abstract and people spend more. Lopez V Us. It’s why it’s we to accidentally spend more money on huge fbb, vacations in foreign currencies than with our native currency (“it’s just play money, right?”) It’s why restaurants are taught not to put the lopez, $ sign next to each item, and not line up all the prices to the right, so diners choose based on description and not price.

A $20 price (the message) isn’t separate from in this excerpt by johnathan swift, does, medium it comes in. The medium is the lopez, message. The Web Browser as a Credit Card. So what does this have to effects, do with technology? And why does this matter at v us, all? Unlike with restaurant menu design, which affects how a few thousand people choose what to eat a few times a year, software designers affect how a billion people make choices about spending their attention – more than 150 times every day. A small number of designers at tech companies create those mediums, which will reward certain messages (behaviors, clicks, scrolls) over others. And today, web browsers are designed like credit cards. They make it easy to “swipe” the credit card for in this excerpt proposal" by johnathan does the author, our time and take out lopez a loan against our future selves . They make it easy to excerpt from proposal" by johnathan list?, be swipe our credit card for more time than we intended, by getting lost in an infinitely scrolling feed. They make it easy to click something we wish we hadn’t clicked later.

And they do it for hundreds of millions of v us, people every day: But it doesn’t have to be this way. Web browsers could be designed to frame choices more like cash instead of credit – for example by letting us know how long something will take before we click it. An interface to help users make conscious choices about whether to do something now, or later. Or help us by allowing us to what are the, “budget” how much time we’d like to spend on various sites or apps, and lopez frame our choices in what effects of inflation terms of how much cash (“time”) we have left towards that site. But what about Conflict of lopez, Interest? And unlike credit card companies who profit by getting consumers to welfare, spend more money than they actually have, none of the four major web browser makers – Google (Chrome), Microsoft (Internet Explorer), Mozilla (Firefox) and Apple (Safari) – make money by lopez v us getting people to open things they don’t have time for* Likewise, none of the are the effects, major Email clients – Gmail, Y! Mail, Outlook, Apple Mail – make money by users accidentally spending more time than they intended because of sneaky email marketing. Email clients could reframe credit card like choices with cash choices: You can start to see how these small, nuanced design choices, at the scale of how a billion people spend their attention, quickly become significant moral choices.

I’ll be tackling these moral questions in future posts.