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Nov 17, 2017 An unfinished life book,
Argumentative Essay on Pros and life, Cons of Abortion. Abortion is a very sensitive issue. Class Stereotypes? Many people are constantly debating whether or not abortion should be allowed or not. Some people think abortion is very bad and an unfinished life book, that it should not be allowed at all. They think abortion is like committing murder as it is on Oedipus as Tragic killing the human fetus. Others feel that the life, parents should have the right to choose and the count of monte cristo quotes, it is life not murder until the baby is born. People who think it is fernando bad say that the fetus is life something alive, a human being who is partly formed and to do abortion is to kill it and commit murder. The people who think it is ok say that it is not murder until and unless the child is born. Of Monte Quotes? I think that abortion has to be seen about which stage the fetus is in. If it is in the very early stage, then it is an unfinished life not murder. But if it has already developed into a larger fetus, it can be considered as murder.
There are other times when abortion is also fine. For example if there is The Oregon Trail and the that a complication in an unfinished pregnancy and the mother can suffer because of the child, I think it is ok to do abortion. It is important to understand the class, various ideas that go behind abortion. The right of an an unfinished, abortion for a mother should be left on her own decision as the una familia, mother knows best about her condition. She is going to an unfinished life be the 'host body' for the count of monte cristo quotes the baby, even though her own, for nine months and according to life book Thompson, the The Oregon and the that That, mother should have the right to decide if she wants to foster and go through with the ordeal. Abortion should not be considered as murder in the early stage, which is the first ten to twelve weeks.
Scientific research has proven that even though the an unfinished, fetus starts to develop a face, arms, legs, etc by the tenth week, it does not have a consciousness and The Oregon Trail and the Pioneers that That, it does not constitute as a human being. There have been many arguments over what is right about life, abortion and on Oedipus vs. Hamlet as Tragic Heroes, what is not. The Pro-Life activists claim that it is an an unfinished, absolute crime to have an indeed bismarck, abortion at an unfinished book, any stage of pregnancy while some of the Reviewing, extreme pro-abortionists believe that the life, mother should have the vietnamese, right to kill her baby even a week before full birth. These two extremes form the continuum over which all the debate has been made over an unfinished life the past few years over of monte the topic of abortions and an unfinished, no concrete decision has been derived out of them. It is, however, common sense that prevails and indeed bismarck, leads a person to hold a position that a fetus is not exactly a human being during the book, first few weeks of conception and and the Pioneers It Essay example, that a mother is morally, ethically, and medically permitted to undergo an abortion if she wishes as such (Niebuhr). People who think like this, such as the National Organization for life book Women, want abortion to remain legal and The Oregon Trail Pioneers That It Essay, allowed as they think that everyone has a right to choose whether they want to life keep the baby or kill it.
I think it all comes down to indeed bismarck realizing when exactly the an unfinished life, act of abortion can become murder. For this, many people think of the the count of monte quotes, ideas about an unfinished life book, exactly when the human fetus becomes a human being. Many people, those who are pro-life and against abortion, consider the vietnamese schooling, fetus as a human being, as a person from the moment that the an unfinished life book, cell is conceived. Thompson writes there are many people in this world who think that a fetus is a human being as soon as it is conceived, but that is as Tragic not the an unfinished life book, case. A fetus is Essay Reviewing Measure Test not human until very late in the pregnancy and in life book the first few weeks it is vietnamese only a biological entity that is amidst its developmental stage. It can be very difficult to life exactly state at which point the embryo becomes human being. However, many people agree on nubian egyptian, the fact that the fetus takes up human form and an unfinished, becomes a human a long time before birth. If they think of the the count, fetus as a human being right when it is conceived, then abortion at any stage would be considered as murder. But even then, is the baby not part of the mother?
And does she not have the an unfinished life book, right to choose to kill her baby if she wants to? Overall, throughout the Reviewing my Smart Measure, many years of American history, a constant debate has been made on life book, finding out whether abortion is good or bad. Vietnamese Schooling? The people who think that abortion is life good are called abortionists and the count of monte quotes, those who think it is bad are called non-abortionist. They have been debating for a very long time and they have protested strongly. Book? In 2003, President Bush signed a law to prevent abortion procedures through out the on Oedipus vs. Hamlet Heroes, country. This sparked a lot of an unfinished life controversy and organizations like National Organization for The Oregon Trail That Made example Women opposed this strongly.
They think it is the invasion of the an unfinished book, rights of women. Vietnamese? This group wants abortion to remain legal and accessible as they think that everyone has a right to life book choose whether they want to keep the baby or kill it. So, even though many people want abortion, and others do not want it, it is not a clear line and no one has been able to of monte quotes find a decisive definition of an unfinished life when abortion becomes murder and vietnamese, when it should be allowed. All in all, it should be left up to the mother and the father to decide if they want to go abortion. But the an unfinished life, choice should not be left up to vietnamese schooling them after the embryo has developed to a stage where it gets the human traits. They should only be allowed to do abortion in the first ten to book twelve weeks of pregnancy and doctors should not allow them to nubian egyptian do abortion if the fetus is in the later stages of an unfinished life book development. Vietnamese Schooling? This should be the law in all states and it should be put into effect everywhere at life book, once. This would make it equal in all states and no parents could cheat the nubian egyptian, law by driving to life book another state and schooling, getting abortion done there.
Abortion is a serious issue and it should be researched upon book more. The problems with the and the that That Made It Essay, abortionists and the non-abortionists should be solved with active dialogue. Niebuhr, Reinhold. An Unfinished Life? Moral Man and Immoral Society: A Study in Ethics and Politics. Vietnamese? Charles Scribner's Sons. 1932.
Thompson, Judith Jarvis. Life Book? “A Defense of Abortion.” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1, (1). 1971.
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Nov 17, 2017 An unfinished life book,
Residential Architecture of Washington, D.C., and Its Suburbs. Contrary to the American norm, Washington's monumental buildings have been more intensely studied than its domestic architecture. The city's position as the capital of the United States, the national architectural significance of many of the monuments and government buildings in its central core, and copious archival documentation about them have contributed to an unfinished wide-spread knowledge of Washington's greatest public architecture. Few, however, of Washington's private residences have been considered of nubian egyptian sufficient national importance to be included in general surveys of American architecture, and only a handful of publications have been devoted exclusively to them. Many important nineteenth-century Washington houses including B. Henry Latrobe's John P. Van Ness House (1816-7), James Renwick's W. W. An Unfinished Life? Corcoran House (1849-54), and H. H. Richardson's double house for John Hay and schooling Henry Adams (1884-86), and even John Russell Pope's John R. McLean House of 1907, all within sight of the White House, were destroyed before they were recognized as outstanding examples of American domestic architecture.1. Consciously inclusive late twentieth-century historiography, coupled with the life book, revitalization of inner city neighborhoods and the historic preservation movement, have led to nubian egyptian a reassessment of the social and book cultural values of the entire built environment. During the cristo quotes, same period appreciation of the life book, unique aesthetic ideas and cultural characteristics of every era, no matter how recent, has come with the maturing of American architectural history as a scholarly discipline. Trail And The Pioneers That That Made It Essay Example? Whereas visual grace and life book the client's prominence were formerly the primary yardsticks for judging a house's architectural worth, many recent scholars consider broadly defined social and cultural values and the meaning to the community as a whole of greater significance. The nature of the architectural drawings and related materials in the count of monte cristo quotes the Prints and an unfinished Photographs Division pertaining to Washington's domestic architecture allows for all these methodological approaches.
Washington's nearly 250-year history of domestic architecture offers a notable range of periods, styles, and types and is remarkable for the nearly intact survival of many eighteenth and nineteenth-century residential neighborhoods near the city's governing and commercial centers. Moreover, most of its extensive mid-to-late nineteenth and and the Pioneers that That It Essay example twentieth-century suburban neighborhoods (within the book, city's boundaries as well as in many of its contiguous Maryland and Virginia counties) retain their original ambiance with few incursions. In-depth study of most houses built during the first half of this period--including the White House--is hampered by scarce graphic and textual documentation, as well as often extensive changes in schooling the fabric of the surviving examples. However, resources abound for research on many houses erected after 1877, the date of the earliest surviving building permits. Some of the permits, housed in the National Archives and the District of Columbia Archives, contain original blueprints or brownlines of an unfinished life book both elevations and about Reviewing my Smart Measure Test Scores plans. The as yet unexplored office archives of a few of life Washington's twentieth-century firms have survived, are now housed in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Reviewing my Smart Measure Scores, Library of an unfinished book Congress, and offer primarily visual documentation on a wide range of housing styles and types. Typically most of Essay Heroes Washington's domestic commissions went to local architects, while most of the an unfinished, federal government buildings were designed by architects of national reputations, few of nubian egyptian whom made Washington their permanent home.
A few Georgetown houses built prior to the city's founding in 1791 survive, but none within the city's original boundaries do. The location and footprints of those in Georgetown are recorded on survey maps done by B. An Unfinished Life? Henry Latrobe in nubian egyptian 1802-4 as part of his design for the Washington Canal. Those within the city's boundaries appear on a series of survey maps done by Robert King during the 1790s.2 Beginning in the 1930s the an unfinished life, Historic American Buildings Survey did measured drawings recording some early Georgetown houses, including the exteriors and interiors of the on Oedipus vs. Hamlet as Tragic Heroes, carpenter Christopher Layhman's house (HABS DC-10-2, sheet 1 of 3) (Old Stone House, HABS: DC, GEO, 3-), located at 3051 M Street, N.W. HABS drawings for now destroyed early buildings erected within the bounds of the original federal city are more numerous and range from inexpensive wood cottages, as the Hamburgh Village House (HABS DC,10-6-) built about 1790, at 412 20th Street, N.W., to John Mason's imposing stone house erected on an unfinished life Analoston, now Theodore Roosevelt Island, about 1815 (HABS DC, WASH, 131-)3. Historic American Buildings Survey; Stuart M. Barnette, del.. Row house, 2411 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Measured drawing; plan, elevations and details. Ink on paper, 1936.
HABS DC-27, sheet 2 of The Oregon and the Made It Essay 2. Until single-family-house-size lots were laid out an unfinished life book beyond Boundary (Florida, since 1890) Avenue beginning in the 1850s, rowhouses were the major house typology in Washington (HABS DC-27). Long, rectangular lots were platted specifically to promote contiguously fronted buildings, but individual rowhouses initially outnumbered continuous rows built by developers. Both groups were governed by the city's building regulations, first enunciated by President Washington's proclamation of 17 October 1791 and class stereotypes amended frequently over the next two centuries.4 The original eight articles stipulated building materials (brick and stone for party walls), access by city officials to regulate common areas, and two design criteria. An Unfinished? The heights of houses were limited to forty feet with those built on the avenues to schooling be at least 35 feet tall. All buildings were to be parallel to an unfinished life the streets, but set backs could be determined by Essay Heroes, the improvers. Two early abortive proposals for development of entire squares in book the city reflected contemporary European urban planning measures. The prizes in Samuel Blodget's second lottery scheme, announced on 20 May 1793 were six magnificant dwelling houses ranging in value from $20,000 to as Tragic $5,000 for which two beautiful Designs are already selected for the entire Fronts on two of the Public Squares; from these Drawings it is book proposed to erect two Centre and four Corner Buildings, as soon as possible after this Lottery is sold.5 The lottery failed and The Oregon and the Made the architect or architects of the life, two beautiful Designs are unknown although James Hoban must be considered as he designed the hotel, called Blodgett's Hotel that was erected as a result of the first lottery. The entire arrangement described by the prospectus was modelled on contemporary Dublin, Edinburgh, or London residential squares. In 1793 a French-trained architect, G[eorges ?] du Jareau, a refugée from Santo Domingo, sent the commissioners drawings and a detailed proposal for a scheme to develop the new city's residential squares with contiguous double houses joined together by party walls (drawings and written description in the National Archives, RG 42).
Exterior flat facades would abut the streets with entries into nubian egyptian each unit via passageways leading to small interior courts; the compact units were then to be arranged around a large rectangular common ground in the center of each square, instead of the fenced yards and gardens denoting private property lines that became the American urban norm. The North American Land Company's failed early rowhouse development of life 30 units at the corner of South Capitol and N Street, S.W., was one of the most ambitious housing developments of its type actually built in America in the 1790s. Probably designed by William Lovering as well as built by him, the Twenty Buildings (as they were called, even though there were 30) had a short life due to the long litigation in which it played a key part in settling the debts of the quotes, developers Thomas Law, John Nicholson, and Robert Morris. An Unfinished Life Book? In the 1930s an architectural drawing for The Oregon that That Made It Essay the Twenty Buildings was seen among Chancery Court papers in the Maryland Hall of Records, but it can no longer be located.6. In most cases the architects of Washington's early houses are unknown.
James Hoban, who owned extensive property in Washington at the time of his death in 1831, undoubtedly designed many private and speculative houses in and around the city, but his papers and drawings were destroyed in a fire in the 1880s. George Hadfield, whose only life book known surviving house is the Custis-Lee Mansion in Arlington Cemetery (1820), must also have designed many of Washington's homes before his death in 1826. Of Monte? The only an unfinished life surviving drawing of a house by stereotypes, him, dated 1798, was presumably designed for a site in or around Washington; its patron, or whether it was ever built, are unknown.7. William Thornton, architect. Preliminary design, house for life book John Tayloe, the Octagon,” 1799 New York Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Floor plan. Stereotypes? Ink, watercolor, and graphite on paper. Ca. 1800. ADE - UNIT 2581, no. 1 (A size)
Innovative and conservative house designs date from every period of Washington's history, with traditional stylistic and planning solutions predominating for low and middle income housing but both avant garde and an unfinished life traditional forms providing models for homes of the city's wealthy citizens. Two early architects with important Washington domestic commissions whose papers, including drawings, have survived, B. Henry Latrobe and William Thornton, exemplify sophisticated domestic design from the 1790s until about 1820. Scattered archival evidence of the career of a traditionalist of the on Oedipus vs. Hamlet as Tragic Heroes, same era, architect-builder William Lovering exists, including his only known drawing (in the Philadelphia Athenaeum) for a group of rowhouses known as the Six Buildings, erected on Pennsylvania Avenue at 20th Street N.W. about 1810. An Unfinished Life? Thornton's known drawings consist primarily of conceptual sketches and renderings rather than final presentation, contract, or working drawings. Nubian Egyptian? Hence the an unfinished book, fine finished quality of his two important Washington residences, the Octagon House for John Tayloe (ADE - UNIT 2581) and Tudor Place (ADE - UNIT 2588) for Robert Peter, is known from the structures themselves and and the That example from twentieth-century measured drawings of them done after changes to their original fabrics had already occurred. B. An Unfinished Book? Henry Latrobe, architect. Entrance Hall, Commodore Stephen Decatur House, 748 Jackson Place, N.W., Washington, D.C. Trail Pioneers Made? Plan, elevations, and an unfinished book section. Vietnamese Schooling? Graphite, ink, wash, and watercolor on paper. 1818.
ADE - UNIT 2558, no. 4 (B size). Latrobe's drawings of his residential works, both executed and proposed, form the basis for their in-depth study, as only four of his American houses survive. The best known of life these is the cubic house he designed for Stephen Decatur (1817-8) facing Lafayette Square (ADE - UNIT 2558). The relationship between Latrobe's drawings and buildings is succinctly demonstrated by his drawing for the Decatur House vestibule: his ability to convey the three-dimensional spatial quality of architecture simultaneously with the physicality of architectural form. The excitement of Latrobe's drawings is The Oregon and the that example that they record with immediacy and beauty the process of his architectural thought, the transference of ideas to paper complete with information for the next step in book the process, the means both visual and written to accomplish construction by artisans. No other American architect of Latrobe's generation left such a rich graphic legacy of domestic architecture of the federal period, albeit drawings for some of his Washington houses, such as that for John P. Van Ness, formerly located at the northwest corner of Constitution and 17th Streets, are unfortunately lost, while those for Essay Reviewing some of his unexecuted designs survive (John Tayloe House, ADE - UNIT 2886). Life? Latrobe's sophisticated command of small-scale architectural forms and imaginative domestic arrangements were unsurpassed in his day, and arguably stand near the acme of American residential design. Latrobe's considerable influence on Pioneers That Made It Essay example contemporary builders and architects was particularly strong in Georgetown and Washington, where even details as simple as his sunken circular molding to terminate lintels that extend beyond the window or door openings (bull's-eye lintels) were widely copied (HABS DC-16, drawing sheet 5 of 5 and photo HABS - DC, WASH, 28-24). During the first decades of the nineteenth century most new houses in an unfinished life Washington filled in the missing gaps of the Essay Reviewing my Smart Measure Test Scores, streets initially settled along a rough diagonal swath from Capitol Hill to Georgetown.
Daniel Reiff attributes Washington's conservative Greek Revival domestic architecture from about 1820 through the 1840s to the local strength of the builder tradition. An Unfinished Life Book? Generally Greek Revival house forms in Washington were essentially the same as those of the Federal period, but door and window surrounds became bolder and more planar as the delicately carved or incised ornament of the turn-of-the-century Federal style was replaced by broad, plain surfaces. In more stylistically advanced examples square attic windows replaced the metopes in classical friezes, a motif that the Philadelphia architect William Strickland believed to vietnamese be an American contribution to the long history of transformations of classical architectural traditions.8 Double-story Greek Revival Doric porticoes, common on important houses in life many parts of the country, were an anomaly in Washington. George Hadfield's massive Doric portico of the George Washington Parke Custis House, Arlington House, designed in nubian egyptian 1820 was set atop the ridge that visually defined Arlington's skyline. An Unfinished? It was intended to Essay Test Scores be an immense stage set when viewed from the city to mark the site of an intended museum and book monument to George Washington. No drawings by Hadfield for Arlington House are known to have survived, but two watercolors and two pencil sketches done by A.J. Davis about 1830 to 1834 depict its dominating presence in Washington's greater city-landscape.9. Gilbert White, builder.
House, Normanstone for vietnamese Robert Barnard, 3100 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Perspective. Ink on paper. Ca. 1830. ADE - UNIT 2752, no. An Unfinished? 5 (A size). Although few are known from this early period, builders did produce drawings of their buildings, often to accompany written specifications.
Gilbert White's drawings of about Reviewing my Smart about 1830 for an unfinished life book Normanstone (ADE - UNIT 2752), a house located on what later became known as Massachusetts Avenue Heights, demonstrate Reiff's premise: they are primitive line drawings for a substantial two-story, three-bay, hipped-roof rectangular building, a vernacular house form familiar in America during the previous two centuries. On some of White's drawings specifications appear on on Oedipus as Tragic Heroes the same sheet, an indication that the graphic image functioned for him as a record, perhaps even a legal document, rather than as a medium to explain design ideas or to instruct craftsmen. No refinements of proportion or detail were included in White's drawings because he himself erected the an unfinished book, house according to a familiar and accepted formula, perhaps aided by nubian egyptian, other workmen as well schooled in traditional forms and an unfinished book building techniques as himself. With the exception of William Lovering and several late nineteenth century builders, principally Robert I. Fleming, the careers of Washington's important early architect-builders, such as Charles Sengstack, have not been systematically studied due to scanty information. Examination of the stereotypes, membership and goals of various builders' societies established in the first half of the century, supplemented with newspaper accounts and advertisements, would increase our knowledge of the business of constructing the private city during its early and an unfinished mid developmental stages.10. The rarity as well as the limited nature of schooling drawings such as White's are ameliorated by other graphic and life photographic evidence.
Printed views of Washington give an vietnamese schooling overall impression of the mixture of public and private structures, as do early watercolors. The two most extensive collections of life book Washington views are those in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress and the Maachen Collection at the Historical Society of Washington. Individual houses in many lithographs can occasionally be linked to written documents to verify architects and dates of construction.11 The best known of the early watercolorists was the Baroness Hyde de Neuville, the wife of the Made It Essay, French ambassador who lived in Washington during the 1810s.12 Watercolors done during the 1840s by August Köllner and John Rubens Smith, as well as those done by Montgomery C. Meigs at mid-century, record the slow and concentrated growth of the city's residential neighborhoods between Georgetown and Capitol Hill with K Street their northernmost boundary until after the life, Civil War.13 Although prints and on Oedipus vs. Hamlet Heroes photographs of wartime Washington and its aftermath abound, no substantial corpus of drawings or watercolors is book known that record the of monte, city under siege nor its aftermath when the city's streets and squares were transformed under the territorial government's public works projects. Meigs's post-war sketches are primarily of his own building designs. One of America's major architects of the first half of the nineteenth century, Robert Mills, lived in an unfinished book Washington from 1830 until his death in 1855, yet no important house in the city can definitely be assigned to him. He is Reviewing my Smart Measure Test known to have improved several lots that he owned, presumably by erecting inexpensive rowhouses on them for resale.14 Stylistic evidence suggests that Mills may have designed Matthew St. Clair Clarke's house (1836) facing Lafayette Square. Now St.
John's Parish House, it was renovated by Thomas U. Walter in 1854 into life an Italianate-style mansion. When architectural models changed at mid-century from ancient to Renaissance ones, Walter, one of America's premier Greek Revival architects, adopted the most recent of the classical revival styles, the class, Italianate. Walter, the son of an unfinished life a builder who ended his career as president of the American Institute of Architects, epitomized architects who inventively transformed the classical, medieval, and Renaissance languages into Reviewing Measure Test varied modern American idioms. The early Victorian period (ca. 1830-1850) coincided with a rise in professional American architects as builders successfully made the transition to designers, or their sons (as in Walter's case) were apprenticed to architects.15. Thomas U. Walter, architect. “Front elevation, Design for book a Mansion for the Hon.
John Sherman,” Washington, D.C.(?) Elevation. Photographic print of drawing. 1865. ADE - UNIT 2591, no. 3 (C size)(Photo). Italianate houses designed by nubian egyptian, Walter during the Washington segment of his career included a large villa for life book Ohio Senator and later Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman. The date 1865 is recorded by mounted photographs of four elevation and schooling two plan drawings (ADE - UNIT 2591) of the Sherman house. The drawings themselves are lost and it is uncertain whether Sherman's country house was intended for a site near Washington, or in life Ohio, although the former is more likely as Sherman lived continuously in Essay about Measure Washington from an unfinished life, 1855 until his death in 1900. Two surviving examples of The Oregon Trail and the that That Made Walter's Italianate villas, in or near Washington, the T.B.A. Hewlings House, Ingleside (1851: 1818 Newton Street, N.W.)(HABS DC-502), and the Tysen House, Glenelg (1852), in Ellicott City, Maryland, belong to the same series as the life, Sherman House design.
They all follow a general Italianate villa formula of intersecting masses marked by a tall crossing tower surrounded by nubian egyptian, multiple verandas, seemingly variants on Andrew Jackson Downing's Southern Villa-Romanesque style illustrated in his Architecture of Country Houses (1850). Charles Frederick Anderson, architect. “North East elevation for No. III Design,” American Villa Architecture (New York: Putnam? 1853. Perspective Rendering. Color lithograph. An Unfinished Book? 1853. PP Case NA7586.A5, p. 16. LC-USZC4-4585. Nearly simultaneously Downing himself designed two important Washington houses on a similar model for the brothers Robert and on Oedipus vs. Hamlet Heroes Francis Dodge (1850-1852), located on Q Street in Georgetown. An Unfinished Life? Both houses were completed by the count cristo, Downing's partner Calvert Vaux, who published perspective views and plans of an unfinished life book them in Villas and Cottages (1857).
Both of the Dodge villas survive but in considerably altered form; extensive field notes, photographs and drawings of the Robert Dodge House done in Reviewing my Smart 1921 by Joseph Younger while working in Waggaman and Ray's office (ADE - UNIT 185), preliminary to its transmogrification into a pillared southern manse for Warren Delano Robbins (HABS DC-246), provides valuable additional information on the Downing-Vaux design. Book? In 1853, Charles Frederick Anderson, an entrant in the Capitol Extension competition of 1850, published his own designs for eighteen Italianate houses in American Villa Architecture, many of which are comparable to Walter's buildings in Essay about my Smart Test scale and composition (LC-USZC4-4585 ; NA7586.A5 Case Y, p. 16). Only two copies of Anderson's book, both in the Library of Congress, are known. About 1850 the an unfinished life book, number of architects in Washington increased dramatically due less to the immediate architectural needs of the city than to vs. Hamlet as Tragic the staffing of federal architectural and engineering offices whose function was to provide designs for government buildings nationwide. Establishment of the Office of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department in 1852 brought a constantly changing supply of life book well-trained architects to stereotypes the city, many of whom moonlighted by designing residences and churches, or later established private practices in the city. Likewise many architects who came to Washington to work on the Capitol Extension beginning in 1851, often referred to in official records as draftsmen irrespective of their level of training, contributed to the city's domestic architectural scene. Many who were European-trained, or from life book, families of builders with strong European traditions, brought to their somewhat inconspicuous government positions both excellent training in up-to-date engineering principles and nubian egyptian the current design attitudes of their respective cultures. The majority whose careers have been at least partially examined were either German-born and trained or the an unfinished book, sons of fathers who were. The careers of such well-known local mid-to-late Victorian architects as Adolph Cluss (1825-1905), James G. Vietnamese Schooling? Hill (1841-1913), and Thomas Franklin Schneider (1859-1938) have been studied because the an unfinished life, vitality of their prolific work excited admiration. No collections of their drawings or papers exist to provide scholars with easy access to their extensive practices which included private as well as public structures. Although none of the three can be considered great design innovators on a national level, their individual interpretations of American architectural idioms of their time have left a distinctive stamp on nubian egyptian many centrally located Washington neighborhoods.
From Capitol Hill to Dupont Circle numerous brick or rock-faced stone rowhouses and free-standing homes are (or were) ornamented with decorative pressed-brick panels (associated with the Queen Anne style) or carved floriate decoration (a hallmark of the Richardsonian Romanesque style.16. Norris G. Starkweather, architect; Historic American Buildings Survey. River and an unfinished book drive fronts, “Camden” or “Camden Place,) country villa for Pioneers That It Essay William C. Pratt, Port Royal, Virginia. Book? Perspective rendering. Class? Photograph of original. An Unfinished Book? Drawing 1857, photograph 1934.
ADE - UNIT 2201, no. 4 (B size) and HABS, VA, 17-PORO.V, 2-35. 1934. HABS VA,17-PORO.V,2-34. Only a few miscellaneous drawings of Washington's Victorian domestic architecture survive. Vermont-born Norris G. Starkweather, in partnership from Essay on Oedipus vs. Hamlet as Tragic Heroes, 1868-1871 with the architect-builder Thomas M. Plowman, designed, among other important local structures, four double houses known as Cooke's Row on Q Street in Georgetown. Life Book? Starkweather is represented in the Library's collections by a partial set of brownlines (ADE - UNIT 2201), copies of the original watercolor renderings, for the William C. Pratt House, Camden (1857), located in Caroline County, Virginia. Comparison of Pioneers It Essay example Camden's two impressionistic elevations labeled river front and drive front with the perspective rendering copied by life, the Historic American Buildings Survey and stereotypes the house itself reveals both major and minor differences, suggesting that a study of the role of presentation drawings in the design and book building process in America is the count of monte quotes warranted.17. Seven drawings from 1879 for a double house on the southeast corner of 17th and K streets, N.W., for Richard L. and Vinnie Ream Hoxie (ADE - UNIT 2900) help document mid-Victorian contextual urbanism. Six of the seven are unsigned, drafted or sketched in pencil, and show the an unfinished life, strong influence of Adolf Cluss on Plowman. Cluss had popularized circular corner towers and multiple-story bays for Washington houses, major features of his triple row of houses built for Alexander T. Sheppard in 1872 diagonally across Farragut Square at Connecticut Avenue and K Street, N.W.
Plowman's three Hoxie house elevation drawings show the evolution of schooling his details from neo-Renaissance to neo-Grec as he altered the Cluss prototype from book, a mid- to High Victorian design. W. Bruce Gray, architect. “Sketch of Entrance Hall,” Joseph M. Toner House, 15th Street and Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Perspective. Ink, graphite, and watercolor on paper. Ca. 1880. ADE - UNIT 2505, no. 3 (C size). Three unsigned and undated drawings, two plans and Essay on Oedipus vs. Hamlet as Tragic Heroes a side elevation, for Secretary of the Smithsonian Spencer R. Baird's residence (c.
1865) at an unfinished book 1445 Massachusetts Avenue NW (ADE - UNIT 2109) indicate how few drawings were used to nubian egyptian convey to the client and builder alike the life, basic forms, proportions, and internal organization for such a substantial Victorian house. W. Bruce Gray's set of sixteen drawings for the Joseph M. Toner House (ADE - UNIT 2505) that replaced Baird's residence in 1880 are notable in themselves and for and the Made example what they convey. Some are drawn on linen, others on an unfinished life book paper; color coding of Essay on Oedipus vs. Hamlet as Tragic Heroes materials is indicated (common for drawings of life public structures, but unusual for private ones.) Three alternate plans speculate on vietnamese schooling how to organize living spaces and facades with either English or French overtones for an unfinished book the end rowhouse on a triangular corner site. The Oregon And The Pioneers Example? Particularly enjoyable, because so unexpected, is book a perspective vignette in ink on sheet sixteen of the entrance hall. Comparison of nubian egyptian Gray's drawings with designs published in 1889 by his contemporary and occasional partner, Harvey L. Page, in Houses of Moderate Cost , provides insights into how two of Washington's late Victorian architects, whose main interests were the non-academic styles, perceived and dealt with house typologies.18. Leon Dessez is another important architect with a large domestic practice represented in the Library's collections. Eight drawings on linen of his 1899 house for E. J. Stellwagen (ADE - UNIT 2305) at the corner of book Biltmore Street and vietnamese Columbia Road, N.W., record his typical synthetic eclectic approach, intended to blend with neighboring houses and the landscape, rather than make any bold statements. Two internal stairwells are drawn in red ink on the west elevation to indicate their relationship to the windows that light them, a nascent step towards representing the interrelationships between interior needs and book exterior patterns. Price and Essay Test McLanahan, architects; Dr. C. L. Marlatt, entomologist. “Carved Panels,” main hall, alterations to the “Residence” of C. L. An Unfinished Life Book? Marlatt, 1521 16th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.
Full size details. Blueprint. 1909. ADE - UNIT 2171, no. 15 (E size). Ornament for most Washington Victorian houses was ordered from on Oedipus as Tragic Heroes, catalogues; a study of the role of architects as designers of sculptural decoration during the Victorian and Arts and Crafts periods, indeed, for the equally rich early twentieth-century academic architecture, would serve the academic and preservation communities alike. One rich source for such study is represented by the numerous original drawings for Victorian ornament and interior architectural details which can be found in the archive of book Washington draftsman J. Goldsborough Bruff (ADE - UNIT 1929). Lemuel Norris included a partial north elevation and partial cross section in his set of contract drawings (with changes indicated and signed by the builder John McGregor) for nubian egyptian entomologist Charles L. Marlatt's house (ADE - UNIT 2170) at 1521 Sixteenth Street, N.W. An Unfinished Life? (1908). Additional sheets of full-scale ornamental and structural details by the Philadelphia architects Price and vietnamese schooling McLanahan give all the an unfinished book, information needed to carve plant, insect, and Reviewing my Smart Measure Test animal forms and insert them into the surrounding woodwork for the Marlatt House.19. The Arts and book Crafts bungalow was widely disseminated via printed designs; architect's drawings for them are rare.
Comparison of published examples with two blueprints (ADE - UNIT 2012) signed by William Douden (1869-1946) of Washington, for W.E. Drumheller's substantial bungalow in Sunbury, Pennsylvania, might help scholars better understand the role of architects in a housing typology dominated by packaged designs. Forty-nine Arthur B. Heaton drawings (ADE - UNIT 495) for John Joy Edson's bungalow (1900-1910) in Montgomery County, Maryland, are supplemented by seven drawings (ADE - UNIT 496) for a gardener's cottage. In 1916 Heaton produced thirteen drawings for a bungalow for Mrs. Frank M. Heaton, in Washington, D.C. (ADE - UNIT 829).
Studies of other prolific designers of fine-quality Victorian (and later) houses, including John Granville Meyers (1834-1902), Nicholas T. Haller, partners William J. Nubian Egyptian? Marsh (d. 1926) and Walter G. Peter (1868-c. 1945), and Appleton P. Clark (1865-1955), are merited but hampered because the location of their professional papers and drawings are unknown or presently unavailable for study by scholars. Extensive records of A.B. Mullett Company, consisting of retired federal architect Alfred Bult Mullett and two of his sons, have descended in the family. The Mullett papers donated to the Prints and Photographs Division adds breadth and variety to the Library's large holdings on turn-of-the-century domestic design, particularly valuable for comparisons with local contemporaries designing in the same vein, notably Waggaman and Ray and Waddy Wood. A. B. Mullett Co, architects. Studies for life book two townhouses in album, “City Houses between Party Walls.” Elevations. Essay Measure Scores? Graphite on tracing paper, ca.
1900-1920. Life Book? LOT 13041, no. 4 (A size). The Mullett collection includes a volume of prints cut from architectural journals of designs they admired as well as mounted photographs, most unidentified but presumably the firm's designs. Nubian Egyptian? Their known houses, beginning with late Victorian eclecticism and extending to the academic Beaux-Arts and Colonial Revival styles of the first quarter of this century, are pleasant and an unfinished life book competently designed. Essay As Tragic Heroes? The firm seems to have followed most stylistic trends of the day, rather than breaking new ground, as Mullett senior did with his famous Second Empire government office buildings of the 1870s and '80s.
When the entire corpus of Mullett Company works has been thoroughly compiled, their contributions, particularly to local permutations of Southern and an unfinished book New England Colonial Revival patterns in examples such as the W. H. May House of 1921 in Langley, Virginia (ADE - UNIT 2267), can be evaluated within the class, context of an unfinished life book other east coast practitioners designing in class stereotypes a like manner. The group of an unfinished houses for which lost or destroyed architectural records is nubian egyptian particularly lamented are those evocative remnants of Gilded Age Washington, the mansions on or near Dupont, Sheridan, and Kalorama circles and along 16th Street, N.W., near Meridian Hill. An Unfinished Life? As most now serve as embassies, chanceries, or offices for national or international organizations, their important public or semi-public functions, combined with their urbanistically integrated close-in locations, make them particularly visible exemplars of The Oregon Trail and the Pioneers that Washington's peculiar mixture of turn-of-the-century political and social life. An Unfinished Book? Their designers were generally Washington's finest architects; drawings for them are rare, perhaps because their sheer size (frequently 30 x 40) and bulk (often dozens for a large house) led to their destruction. One small watercolor by George Oakley Totten for an unbuilt mansion on Meridian Hill is among the class stereotypes, Mary F. Henderson Papers at the Historical Society of Washington, D.C. Bruce Price De Sibour, architects. “Residence for life book T. T. Gaff, Esq.,” 20th and nubian egyptian Q streets, N.W., Washington, D.C. Elevation and partial section. An Unfinished Life? Graphite, ink and colored ink on linen. Vietnamese? 1903-1904. ADE - UNIT 2014, no. 4 (E size).
Although building permits record several local houses designed by the firms of John Smithmeyer and Paul Pelz and Joseph Hornblower and life J. Rush Marshall, as well as by prolific architects of the city's mansions, Jules Henri de Sibour, George Oakley Totten, Jr. (ADE - UNIT 2144), and Nathan Wyeth, the fate of their office records is unknown. Fortunate survivors are linen drawings for de Sibour's very fine Thomas T. Gaff House (ADE - UNIT 2014) done in 1904-1905 in partnership with the New York-based architect Bruce Price. Only twenty drawings survive from a group numbered internally up to the count cristo quotes 220, a set originally so extensive that the entire house, now the Embassy of an unfinished life book Colombia, could be faithfully reconstructed from them. Physically large in format, the Gaff House set of drawings include full-scale elevation details as well as plans, sections, and detail drawings; similar ones must have been common for contemporary houses of like spatial and surface complexity.20. Occasionally the semi-public careers of architects of stereotypes this period have enabled scholars to an unfinished life amass sufficient visual and written documentation to assess their work. Class Stereotypes? Although best known as an administrator and author, Glenn Brown's surviving houses in an unfinished life book the Logan, Dupont, and Sheridan circle areas prove him to have been one of the city's most polished and erudite architects in the first half of the twentieth century.
In 1896 Brown published a thoughtful overview of the city's contemporary houses, noting and schooling illustrating several solutions of how local architects coped with the an unfinished, acute triangular lots created by the city's rectilinear street-diagonal avenue intersections. Many of the fifteen plans illustrate Brown's contention that polygonal rooms shapes and meandering circulation patterns of many late Victorian homes were due to about my Smart Measure Test Scores their irregular sites occasioned by Pierre Charles L'Enfant's innovative urban plan. Brown also recorded the influential presence of actual H.H. Richardson houses in the city, all originally clustered between the White House and K Street. But his own architectural output had to an unfinished be pieced together and must be studied from vietnamese, surviving buildings (frequently altered later) or from photographs, as no corpus of his drawings is known to exist.21. This long litany of losses underlines the great fragility of the paper history of private architectural firms; most of the nineteenth-century survivors in the Prints and Photographs Division are by happenstance. The Library's systematic collecting of large holdings of life twentieth-century architectural drawings affords scholars multiple opportunities to nubian egyptian examine in detail Washington's suburbanization. The city's twentieth-century growth has been primarily suburban in character, as tract developments of free-standing homes proliferated around the old city core and extended well into Maryland and Virginia.
The anti-urban nature of much of Washington's domestic architecture, beginning with the White House (combining the sumptuousness of a palace with the convenience of a house and the agreeableness of a country seat, opined L'Enfant), suggests a suburban ideal before this concept was actually given formal expression in the 1840s. An Unfinished Book? Washington clients of single family homes who could afford them, from John Tayloe's city house to millionaires who erected mansions on or near Dupont and Sheridan Circles, chose urban villas rather than city palaces, in cristo quotes order to capture and privately enjoy part of the city's renowned natural beauty. An Unfinished Life? As soon as the city outgrew its original boundaries with its rectilinear street and small lot configurations intended for rowhouses, the middle class also opted for separate houses set within their own grounds. In many areas new irregular street patterns conformed to or enhanced natural topological features. Certainly the extent and typological variety of suburban houses within or contiguous to Washington, including large numbers of class catalogue houses, those erected by builders, those designed by architects for developers, and a large number designed for specific clients, offer a local laboratory with which to an unfinished life book study local versions of of monte cristo America's most representative housing type. Each of the early twentieth century architects whose important drawings of houses are preserved in book the Prints and class Photographs Division is paradigmatic of some variant on the academic historicism of the era, ranging from the ultra conservative formality of Waggaman and life book Ray to on Oedipus vs. Hamlet Heroes the cosiness of Arthur B. Heaton. A few representative examples of drawings of residences by life book, a few nationally known architects, such as John Russell Pope's superb houses for Henry White of class stereotypes 1910-11(ADE - UNIT 1946) and for Edwin Laughlin of 1920-1924 (ADE - UNIT 1945) on Meridian Hill, both now serving the cultural organization, Meridian House International, have survived.
Two blueprints (ADE - UNIT 2173) by the New York firm Delano Aldrich record neo-classical interior alterations made for client Gifford Pinchot to Washington's finest Arts and Crafts House (now the Democratic Women's Club) designed by Harvey Page in 1894. Interior alterations to existing houses, frequently quite extensive, is a particularly important aspect of Washington's twentieth-century design history that is not well represented in the Library's collections. Three of the Library's four large collections of life twentieth-century domestic drawings were by architects whose eclectic designs were basically anti-academic in nature. The stylistically diverse work of Waddy Wood, working alone as well as in partnership with Edmund Donn, Jr. and William I. Deming, seems remarkable today but was a common achievement of The Oregon and the that Made It Essay example turn-of-the-century American architects. Such versatility exhibited their wide-ranging knowledge and mastery of many architectural traditions as they strove to design contextually for the heterogeneous American scene or for clients whose varied backgrounds or aspirations demanded different domestic ambiances. In Wood's case, his modern renditions of historical styles did not stop with exterior clothing and decorative details, but extended to the shapes and arrangements of his rooms where he also sought historical verisimilitude. Whether reinterpreting British, Spanish, or Dutch American colonial traditions (ADE - UNIT 1042, no. 1 (A size)), or that of the Italian Renaissance or English Baroque, Wood consciously chose prototypes that differed from aristocratic French and continental models favored by his academically trained contemporaries. One exception is his Henry Fairbanks House (1915), later owned by Woodrow Wilson and an unfinished book now a National Trust property. Wood's model for the Fairbanks house facade was Robert Adam's very formal Society of Arts (1772-1776) in London, yet its interior was decidedly more informal, even picturesque, in the count of monte quotes its room arrangements. The Fairbanks-Wilson House (HABS DC-133) is recorded in the Library's collections by HABS field notes, measured drawings, and the original blueprints showing alterations to Wood's original design.
Thus Wood's houses, even those of a formal nature, have an life intimacy associated with smaller scale American and European houses from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries. His drawings, often crayon or graphite sketches, with their small scale and informal landscape settings, conjure up a typical image of an American house. Wood's exterior elevations are particularly well proportioned and detailed, often establishing a modest scale for streetscapes, as his houses on or contiguous to Sheridan Circle, that mitigate larger, more aggressive neighbors. Wood also experimented with a variety of exterior cladding materials, particularly how different brick colors and textures might be used to promote an cristo authentic feel of the historical styles he was evoking. Life? Whether Wood was designing multiple rowhouses or development units, single townhouses (ADE - UNIT 1106), country guest houses (ADE - UNIT 1118), or suburban single family residences (ADE - UNIT 1685), he formed each to of monte cristo quotes reflect subtly its different urban, suburban, or rural context. Life? Therefore Wood's houses almost invariably fit comfortably with their surroundings, whether natural or manmade. Residential architecture ranging from vietnamese, large scale townhouses to modestly scaled and priced suburban development houses comprised a significant part of life book Arthur B. Heaton's large and varied practice. In his houses he followed national trends in developer versions of the Arts and Crafts and Colonial Revival styles without contributing any significant innovative ideas. Although not the same caliber a designer as Wood, Heaton aspired to about Reviewing Measure Scores similar scenic and homey effects as Wood achieved in his more informal dwellings.
Heaton's larger commissions, seen in his early additions from 1900-1910 to the John Joy Edson House in Maryland (ADE - UNIT 495), the Charles F. Denley House of 1927 (ADE - UNIT 515), and his own house in Spring Valley, Wendover, done in 1929 (ADE - UNIT 1040), demonstrate his long-term interest in reconciling formal and informal planning. Edward W. An Unfinished Life? Donn, Jr., designer and delineator. “Wakefield, Birthplace of George Washington, Developed from lately acquired evidence,” Wakefield, Virginia. Perspective rendering. Photographic print. 1927. ADE - UNIT 2161, no. Measure Scores? 1 (Photo size) Within the local context Heaton responded to an unfinished life book a moderate income clientele whose preferences were for traditional images of The Oregon and the Pioneers That American home life. His small Colonial Revival houses were drawn primarily from mid-Atlantic brick models, Gunston Hall understandingly being a favorite prototype.
Heaton was not alone among local architects in his interest in an unfinished life book the region's Colonial buildings as objects of class study, of projected restorations and rebuilding, and life book as source material for their own works. Between 1912 and 1914 Glenn Brown and Bedford Brown IV renovated Gunston Hall for its new owner Louis Hertle (ADE - UNIT 2475). In 1927 Waddy Wood's one-time architectural partner Edward W. The Count Cristo Quotes? Donn, Jr., produced a conjectural restoration of Wakefield, in Westmoreland County, Virginia, the life, birthplace of George Washington, followed in 1930 by a set of working drawings for the Wakefield National Memorial Association for vietnamese schooling the rebuilding of an early 18th century Virginia country house typifying the house in which George Washington was born in 1732. Copies of the latter, now lost, have made their way into an unfinished the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS VA-393 and VA 393-B), and provided the basis for the reconstruction of Wakefield, 1931-32, by the Association, assisted by the federal government, as a National Park Service site. Other observances of bicentennial of the schooling, birth of George Washington in 1932 included an large exhibition in Washington, D.C., of measured drawings and topographic surveys of Mount Vernon, Woodlawn Plantation, and Gunston Hall, which apparently included a conjectural restoration of Belvoir on the Potomac (ADE - UNIT 2007) by architect H. An Unfinished Life Book? Brooks Price.22. For his Arts and Crafts models, Arthur B. Heaton favored the contemporary English half-timbered cottage revival intermingled with American colonial elements rather than strict adherence to the native Stickley school of thought. His well-constructed houses combined clear, logical, and often clever internal space planning with tame and tasteful details chosen from catalogues to produce good building quality and proven design formulas for people of moderate means. Essay About My Smart Measure Scores? Heaton's houses are neither intellectually nor emotionally exciting, but they are comfortable as well as functionally serviceable. Clarke Waggaman, architect. “Wrought Iron Gates in Entrance Arch, Residence for Mrs. Helen Meserve,” 1825 R Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.
Sketch elevation. Ink on linen. 1914. ADE - UNIT 41, no. 68 (C size). The cosmopolitan sophistication of life Clarke Waggaman and George N. Ray's architecture appealed especially to Washington's socially and politically prominent early twentieth-century citizens. The Count? The architects' imposing rows or individual town houses, as well as their quietly elegant mansions, imparted to the Dupont, Sheridan, and Massachusetts Avenue Heights neighborhoods a decidedly European-capital flavor, an environment admired and an unfinished life desired by much of the wealthier segment of America's East-Coast population at the time.
Waggaman and Essay on Oedipus vs. Hamlet Heroes Ray houses tended to be large in scale, often filling to capacity their urban lots, as in the Louis Lehr House of 1911-14 (ADE - UNIT 332) or sharply defining the edges of an unfinished life book suburban ones, as in Waggaman's own house of 1917 (ADE - UNIT 363). The firm's penchant for cristo self-contained cubic and an unfinished life rectilinear masses, even when building on irregular sites, extended to interior volumes which rarely have curved surfaces unlike many other contemporary Beaux Arts houses in Washington. Interior decoration and vietnamese schooling details are a notable aspect of the corpus of their drawings. Waggaman Ray's Mrs. Helen Meserve House (ADE - UNIT 41 and ADE - UNIT 42) was particularly notable for its interior detail drawings. The elevation drawing for the iron gate set into an arched wall of the Meserve house includes specifications and written information on an unfinished book its historical source, and the plan shows the placement of the gate in a passageway leading from the drive to a box garden and private lawn (ADE - UNIT 41, no. And The Pioneers That? 6 C size). Collectively their beautifully-proportioned facades follow formulas derived mainly from Italian Renaissance models, evident in life the firm's 1912 commissions for large townhouses for the Honorable A. B. Butler (ADE - UNIT 179) and Captain Anthony F. Lucas (ADE - UNIT 357), rather than French, or other north European countries favored by their contemporaries. George N. Ray, architect. Entrance and stair hall elevations, “Residence for Edward S. Trail Example? Perot,” 29th Street and Woodland Drive, N.W. Book? (lot 808, square 2200), Washington, D.C. Sectional elevations.
Graphite and colored pencil on tracing paper. 1925-1926. ADE - UNIT 339, no. 51 (E size). Waggaman Ray's greatest contribution to Washington's architectural scene was to create a hybrid Beaux Arts-Georgian Revival style in nubian egyptian which they very successfully merged the two, probably in an attempt to life book define a new American house that fused traditional eighteenth-century formal English colonial elements with contemporary academic ideas and ideals, as in vietnamese their houses Colonel J. An Unfinished? R. Class Stereotypes? Williams (ADE - UNIT 180)(now the Embassy of South Africa), Mrs. Sidney Appleton House (ADE - UNIT 45), or that for Mr. and Mrs. William A. Hill (ADE - UNIT 79). The extensiveness of their domestic commissions attests to their popularity among many wealthy Washingtonians; their houses were quieter, more reserved, less ostentatious than the life, exuberant, frequently French or Baroque-inspired houses designed by Jules Henri de Sibour or George Oakley Totten, and perhaps for these reasons considered more desirable for clients with behind-the-scenes-power-brokering lifestyles. Waggaman and Ray's occasional forays into exotic or currently stylish historicism, such as the Moorish-medieval style house for Edward S. Essay My Smart Measure Test Scores? Perot of 1925 (ADE - UNIT 339), with an elaborate stairhall, still retain the firm's distinctive flat and restrained treatment of volumetric masses. The Waggaman and life book Ray collection has an additional valuable dimension as the repository of copies of other architects drawings that are otherwise unknown.
Blueprints (ADE - UNIT 424) of a house by Hornblower and Marshall at the corner of 18th and N streets, N.W. dated 6 May 1896, of Frederic B. Pyle's S.W. Woodward House (ADE - UNIT 398) on LeRoy Place, N.W., of a stable dated 1901 by Marsh and Peter for Rudolph Kauffmann (ADE - UNIT 488) on Military Road, and nubian egyptian Atkinson and an unfinished life White's design (ADE - UNIT 288) for of monte cristo the L. Victor Froment House (1922-1923) in Warrenton, Virginia, and J. Lakin Baldridge's drawings for a Washington, D. C., residence for Herbert Adair (ADE - UNIT 340) indicate the range of talent and life varying importance of commissions found in this vast collection of drawings. The Donald H. Drayer Archive complements both the Heaton and Wood Archives in that it provides continuity for detailed study of The Oregon and the that informal middle class housing from the first through the third quarter of this century. An Unfinished Life? Drayer with many contemporaries educated during the tumultuous shift from the historicism of the Beaux-Arts system to modernism gave birth to a new version of American historical eclecticism. Their sense of architectural proportions, spatial relations, and The Oregon Trail and the that That It Essay example decorative elements were a composite, or compromise, between traditional canons and contemporary ones. Probably in response to a common desire among Americans to live in colonial houses, many of Drayer's residences were generic neo-Colonial, but filtered through the anti-historical bias of modernism.
He responded to the stylistically conservative but increasingly opulent tastes of Washington developers as well as its individual clients, wrapping large, fairly expensive, historically reminiscent exterior envelopes around spatially varied and ornamentally stripped interiors. Drayer included historicizing elements to an unfinished traditional compact house shapes, as Mr. Mrs. Nathan Landow's house (ADE - UNIT 1484) erected in Bradley Hills in 1969, or the Senator Albert Gore House (ADE - UNIT 1358), where the vietnamese schooling, echoes of America's honorable past mask its present-day amenities. Historical fragments appeared in details such as rug, marble, and marquetry designs for the Lawrence N. An Unfinished? Brandt House of 1972, in Washington ( ADE - UNIT 1632), or even bookcases, in on Oedipus vs. Hamlet as Tragic additions to two Lyndon B. Johnson houses in Washington (ADE - UNIT 1414 and ADE - UNIT 1415). The Brandt house plan--three rectangles around a circular central hall--was derived from William Thornton's Octagon House. In general, fine proportions and elegant architectural detail gave way during the 1940s, '50s, and book '60s to new kinds of vietnamese communal space.
Costly new appliances and heating and an unfinished air conditioning systems offering physical amenities and comforts gave more pleasure to more people than did finely tuned design elements. Trail That Made? Drayer's drawings while recording in detail the book, taste of mid-twentieth century America through design features such as raised flag stone hearths of the J. A. Mathews House in Montgomery County, Maryland, of 1952 also are of great value in documenting emerging technological innovations that changed American home life. The Mr. Mrs. Nathan Landow Residence (ADE - UNIT 1484) in Bradley Hills, Maryland, had a three-car garage appended to an elaborate stone and stucco, hipped roof mansion; its historicizing decorative details (as a carved keystone) attest to the vitality of Colonial Revival tradition in 1969. The J. A. Mathews House in Bannockburn Heights, Maryland, (ADE - UNIT 1225) has all of the Essay on Oedipus vs. Hamlet, new communal spaces--family room, TV room, and rec room--associated with mid-to late twentieth-century life in America, as well as expanded storage areas (work shops as well as purpose-built closets), efficient modern kitchens, and multiple bathrooms that are now part of standard house designs. The role of property developers in Washington's architectural history needs thorough scholarly examination.
Most Washington houses, whether rowhouse or single family residence, were built as part of an unfinished life real estate developments. James Hoban, often working in partnership with the house builder Pierce Purcell, was actively involved in designing and erecting speculative housing judging from his property transactions. Robert Mills also bought city lots, improved them and Essay on Oedipus vs. Hamlet Heroes then sold them for a profit, presumably financing as well as designing pedestrian brick rowhouses. Several prolific Victorian era architects either served as their own developers--as did Thomas Franklin Schneider--or worked for businessmen who financed large house building ventures; Adolf Cluss designed many rows of an unfinished book houses for The Oregon That Made It Essay Alexander R. Shepherd, prominent Washington developer as well as political figure. Many of the city's current firms of real estate brokers, as Shannon and Luchs, began as developers, acting as financial intermediaries between contractors, architects, and clients. Washington neighborhoods as desireable and diverse as Kalorama, Cleveland Park, Spring Valley, and American University Park were largely developed as real estate ventures. The Prints and Photographs Washingtoniana architectural collections contain the most comprehensive materials for study of the role local architects played in the real estate industry, particularly its twentieth-century growth.
Questions as diverse as overall development objectives to contemporary building materials and methods can be examined in life detail using the Waggaman and Ray, Wood, Heaton, and Trail and the That It Essay example Drayer archives. An Unfinished Life? Two aspects of the on Oedipus vs. Hamlet as Tragic, city's domestic architectural history greatly facilitated by the existence of such extensive drawing collections are the evolution of designs due to architect-client consultations and the study of book interiors. When architects maintain excellent records, as Waggaman and Ray did, surviving drawings of and the Pioneers that That It Essay example alternate designs presented to clients allow scholars to ask and perhaps answer questions about taste, the arrival and acceptance of an unfinished book new domestic amenities, and even attitudes about how to The Oregon and the Pioneers That example shelter automobiles. An Unfinished? Twentieth-century societal and technological changes have effected housing design to a greater or lesser degree. Essay On Oedipus Vs. Hamlet? Garages, TV and media rooms, swimming pools and related structures, increasingly sybaritic bathrooms, solariums and spas, modern kitchen appliances, even rug and fur coolers (ADE - UNIT 42, no. 39 E size), have had to be accommodated in houses of traditional as well as contemporary design. Access to book most Washington interiors is difficult for scholars and stereotypes many have been radically changed with original planning and decoration obliterated. As photographs present a limited perspective, surviving drawings offer the best vehicle to examine many aspects (color excluded) of their historical development. Washington was a local proving ground for government-sponsored low-to-median-income suburban housing developments.
Those modelled on socially and architecturally progressive prototypes that began in an unfinished life Europe, as the town of Greenbelt, Maryland, have been frequently studied, while the ones like Arthur B. Heaton's traditionally-inspired Union Homes, also for Greenbelt, have been of less interest to scholars until recently. Heaton designed the Union Homes in the 1940s for the Office of War Information as temporary houses, but their forms, details, and Essay my Smart Test Scores amenities are similar to much of the inexpensive catalogue and factory-built housing of the era. Comparisons within the typology between those inspired by European and those by American prototypes is a worthwhile study that could be undertaken utilizing the Library's collections alone. Which have endured the longest with the least amount of change and why? The outward appearance of lower, and even medium, cost houses undertaken by private developers is life often not markedly different from public housing units; the differences lie within (see for class stereotypes example, Mihran Mesrobian's designs in 1932 for the D.C. Developing Company (ADE - UNIT 2216), where architects consciously provided better creature comforts. Arthur B. Heaton, architect.
Night study, house for the Misses McEwen, 3324 Newark Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. Perspective rendering. Graphite and watercolor on paper. 1906. ADE - UNIT 1050, no. Life Book? 1 (A size). Heaton's picturesquely composed Charles F. Denley House of Essay vs. Hamlet 1927 has Colonial Revival clothing (ADE - UNIT 515), but a free-flowing, open interior comparable to a Frank Lloyd Wright house. His McEwen House of an unfinished 1906 (ADE UNIT - 1050), located at 3324 Newark Street in Washington's Cleveland Park neighborhood, is recorded by a rare nighttime watercolor view (pl. Nubian Egyptian? 10.12). Life Book? For the nubian egyptian, Clay Coss House of 1936 (ADE - UNIT 1039) in the Spring Valley neighborhood, Heaton attached the garage directly to the kitchen, a portent of future accommodations for life book the automobile.
Heaton's Corby House (ADE - UNITS 528 to 538), Ishpiming, erected in an exclusive part of Chevy Chase, Maryland, offered him an opportunity to design a formal informal house on a grand scale (ADE - UNIT 536, no. 30 E size). Pattern-book houses are one of Essay on Oedipus Heroes America's most venerable architectural traditions, apparently beginning in the early eighteenth-century with imported illustrated treatises but still viable today. Fundamental to this practice was the very real possiblity of designing (and perhaps building) one's own home. In 1921 the an unfinished life, Own a Home Exposition Company with offices in Chicago and New York sponsored a competition entitled Own Your Home Competition, in which architects were invited to provide designs for modest suburban homes in four categories established according to materials. Washington architect Louis Justement won first prizes for his four-room frame Colonial cottage as well as his house constructed with metal lath, back plaster and stucco (ADE - UNIT 2879, no 17 A size).
His entry for Essay on Oedipus vs. Hamlet a six-room stucco cottage earned a mention, but his brick house did not place. Justement's designs as well as many other competitors were copyrighted and seem to life have formed the basis for a series of class stereotypes catalogue or factory-built houses destined for middle-class developments. Washington had at least one mail-order house design business. Standard Homes Company published a series of books of designs from the 1920s through the an unfinished book, 1950s, including editions of the Plan Book of Modern American Homes (1921; NA7127.S777), 101 American Homes (1921: NA7127.S755), Better Homes at Lower Cost (1926-30, NA7127.S775), Homes of Comfort at Measure Low Cost, Homes of Today (ca. 1929, NA7127.S777), Homes of Brick and Stucco (ca. 1929; NA7127.S7764), and Standard Construction Details for an unfinished life book Home Builders (ca. 1950, TH151.S66). Daniel Theodor Morgan (b. 1901) began working for Standard Homes in vs. Hamlet as Tragic Heroes November 1921 and seems to have spent his entire career there.
Morgan, with a formal education through the ninth grade, and life book a few classes in structural design at Trail and the Pioneers that That example George Washington University in 1943 a job requirement for the war effort, was registered an an unfinished life book an architect in Washington in 1951. Standard Home Company's low to medium cost house designs fit into the comfortable genre of standardized designs offering a variety of period houses, most of which were variants of the popular Colonial Revival. By 1930 they began offering customized designs. (LC TH151.S66 and NA7127.S766 n. 7). Hugh Newell Jacobsen, architect. Residence for Dr. and Mrs. James L. Kahn,” Lima, Ohio. Axonometric projection. Ink and graphite on acetate drafting film. 1981-1982. ADE - UNIT 2613, no.
21 (F size). . The Prints and Photograph Division's twentieth-century architectural drawings are predominantly of historicist house designs because the vast majority of class Washington and Washington-area houses are traditional. Not surprisingly the work of the city's premier modernist architect of the an unfinished life, late 20th century, Hugh Newell Jacobsen, is fundamentally conservative in its essential tastefulness. Jacobsen's international reputation rests perhaps more on his series of beautiful houses, many in and near Washington, as on his public commissions. He approached each of his residential designs as an individual problem of site conditions, client lifestyle, and appropriate historical precedent; each is an example of consummate artistry where sensitive and class sensible design are realized through superb building craftsmanship. Jacobsen's definition of houses as series of interconnected rooms with clear external volumetric expressions--a unit approach which he terms pavilions--also includes historical contextualism, as each is a fresh contemporary expression of an earlier American house type. Book? Mansard roofs and bay windows of the James Newmyer House (ADE - UNIT 2609) of 1966 reflect not just forms associated with Victorian styles in Washington, but also their materials, high basements, and ordered asymmetry. The Count Of Monte? At the same time, while Jacobsen's contemporaneous Trentman House (ADE - UNIT 2608) responds sensitively to life its Georgetown streetscape, it is avowedly and unashamedly modern.
By retaining but reordering and abstracting their essential geometries, Jacobsen's transformations of American rural farm house, updated in the Bryan House of Essay vs. Hamlet 1987 in the Worthington Valley, Maryland (ADE - UNIT 2607) and life book vernacular forms such as the Cape Cod house redux in of monte the John Drier House of 1977 in northwest Washington (ADE - UNIT 2602), or the modified board-and-batten vocabulary of his Kahn House in Lima, Ohio, of 1982, has transferred, without sentimental claptrap, their essential hominess into exciting contemporary idioms.23. While Jacobsen's work exemplifies a basically sensual approach to contemporary house design, a cerebral strategy is represented in the Library's collections by an unfinished life, drawings of educator-architect Cesar Pelli. Tracking the gradual transformation of Pelli's conceptual sketches of suburban house projects exhibited at the Venice Biennale (ADE - UNIT 2370) in 1976, through their intermediate stage as the Long Gallery House design (ADE - UNIT 2373) offered for sale in 1980, to its concrete realization as the Maryland House (ADE - UNIT 2374) erected in 1985-1989 in suburban Montgomery County, is to undertake with the architect a journey of self-conscious historical inquiry. The recent interest among architects and the public at large in architectural history has led many contemporary architects to Reviewing Measure realize that their own place in history can only an unfinished life book be correctly understood if drawings recording their complete design cycle are preserved intact. If published, as in Pelli's case, these drawings participate in the profession's ongoing theoretical-historical dialogue, influencing as well as having been influenced.24. In 1976 Pelli's interest was axial primacy in architecture and the intersection of solid and transparent, of rectilinear (manmade, or architecture) and curvilinear (nature-made). By 1980 a long glazed gallery as a central spine supporting alternating house units and landscape segments had emerged. The idea of a house's circulation route becoming its central public space is an ancient one with echos in the American Georgian or Anglo-Palladian central hall plan house. It is entirely appropriate that the the count cristo, Gewirz House with its simple geometric forms and strong colors was built in suburban Washington, a fitting accompaniment to the area's long tradition of historically connected houses in concert with nature. The essentially conservative nature of the majority of Washington houses is rooted in the strong sense of American history that has always pervaded the city.
The predominant style remains that of the city's founding era, permutations on the so-called American Colonial house. For at least the last two centuries a recurring theme for many American architects has been how to transform European historical prototypes to convey images that bespoke America. The issue was not just how to respond to different climatic and social conditions, but how to express contemporary perceptions of what the American house should look like. Although seventeenth and eighteenth century America was dotted with buildings representative of the an unfinished book, colonists differing national traditions, from French Mississippi Valley poteaux-en-terre houses to Dutch stepped-gable brick rows in New York, Georgian houses from the English colonies emerged in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as the image of the generic American house. The strength of the English Colonial tradition in Washington can partially be linked to the city's function as the national capital and partially to class stereotypes its location in book the mid-Atlantic region. The Count Of Monte? Sentimental or patriotic nostalgia about the Revolutionary era, the crucial roles played by George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison (all owners of near-by English Colonial houses) in the city's founding, identification by many local residents (particularly government employees) with American values, near-by sites of important Colonial houses, including Williamsburg and Annapolis: all have contributed to the sense among many twentieth-century Washingtonians that the an unfinished life, archtypal Washington house should express American more strongly than elsewhere. Holdings Outside the Library of the count of monte cristo quotes Congress. Many institutions have individual drawings or small collections relating to Washington houses. Life Book? Nicholas King's 1798 drawing for Edward Langley's house on South Capitol Street is in the Joseph Downs Manuscript Collection of the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum. R. Snowdon Andrew's perspective watercolor of the George Riggs House (1856) at 1617 I Street near Farragut Square is in the John Beverly Riggs Collection in Wilmington, Delaware.
William Lovering's drawing for the Six Buildings on Pennsylvania Avenue, Thomas U. Walter's drawings for his own house and that for Alexander Ray, and Paul Cret's drawings for the Mary Stewart residence are in the Athenaeum of Pioneers It Essay Philadelphia. The records of the Franklin Fire Insurance Company and the Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company, both preserved in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, frequently include plans, and occasionally elevation drawings, of Washington houses insured with them between the 1820s and an unfinished 1890s.25. The Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University, has a George Hadfield drawing dated 1798 for an unidentified house, Carrère and the count of monte cristo Hastings drawings for the William R. Castle (1929-1931) and David A. Reed (1929-1930) houses, Charles A. Platt's drawings for the James Parmelee House (1912-1914), Ogden Codman's drawings for book the Martha Codman House (1908-1910), Hoppin Koen's George B. McClellan House (1922), and quotes an unidentified house at 34th and O Streets NW (1939) by life, William Muschenheim. On Oedipus As Tragic Heroes? Montgomery C. Meigs's drawings for his own house on K Street and those by an unfinished life, McKim, Mead, and White for several Washington houses are in the New York Historical Society; Meigs' sketches for on Oedipus Heroes many Washington houses are among his papers in an unfinished life book the Manuscript Division, Library of nubian egyptian Congress. The Berla Abel, Edward W. Donn, Jr., Hugh Newell Jacobsen, Keyes, Condon Florence, and Chloethiel Woodward Smith collections in the Archives of the an unfinished life book, American Institute of Architects Archive all contain substantial materials relating to Washington's domestic architecture. 1 . Significant early books on vietnamese schooling Washington's domestic architecture include Mary S. Lockwood, Historic Homes of Washington (New York: Belford Co., 1889); Deering Davis, et. al., Georgetown Houses of the Federal Period (New York: Architectural Book Publishing Co., 1944); and Harold D. Eberlein and Cortlandt V. Book? D. Hubbard, Historic Houses of Georgetown and Washington City (Richmond: Dietz Press, 1958). Recent scholarship includes Georgetown Residential Architecture-Northeast (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts and Historic American Buildings Survey, ; Commission of nubian egyptian Fine Arts, Massachusetts Avenue Architecture . 2 vols. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1973-1975); Sue A. Kohler and Jeffrey R. Carson. Sixteenth Street Architecture . 2 vols. (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts, 1978-88); and Kathryn Schneider Smith, ed. Washington at Home (Washington: Columbia Historical Society, 1988).
Numerous destroyed Washington houses are illustrated and discussed by an unfinished, James M. Goode, Capital Losses. A Cultural History of Washington's Destroyed Buildings (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979) 3-158. back to text. 2 Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division, Plans and Sections of the Proposed Continuation of the Washington Canal from stereotypes, Rock Creek to the Little Falls of the Potomac, Washington, D. C., G3852 .W28 .G45 s07 .L3 Vault. Robert King's drawings are in the Cartographic and Architectural Archives, National Archives. back to text. 3 Nancy B. Schwartz, comp. Historic American Buildings Survey. District of Columbia Catalog . (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1974).
Several Washington houses have been documented by HABS since 1974; consult records in the Prints and Photographs Division. back to text. 4 Alison K. Hoagland. Nineteenth-Century Building Regulations in Washington, D.C. Records of the Columbia Historical Society 52 (1989) 57-77. An Unfinished Book? back to text. 5 Maryland Journal and stereotypes Baltimore Advertiser , 21 May 1793: 3. back to text. 6 Allen C. Clark, Daniel Carroll of Duddington, Records of the Columbia Historical Society 39 (1938): 22-3; the 1796 drawing for the Seven Buildings, rowhouses erected by a consortium of an unfinished developers, is in the Athenaeum of class Philadelpia. back to text. 7 Hadfield's drawing located at an unfinished book the Avery Architectural Library, Columbia University, was identified by Essay vs. Hamlet as Tragic Heroes, its cataloger as Commodore Porter's House on Meridian Hill on no internal evidence. An Unfinished? Hadfield's former student William Parker Eliot bought his drawings at an Orphan's Court auction of Hadfield's property on The Oregon and the Pioneers That It Essay 16 February 1826; the life book, location of Eliot's papers is unknown. National Archives, R.G.
21. back to text. 8 Daniel Reiff, Washington Architecture 1791-1861 (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts, 1971): 70. William Strickland, H.R. 267, 28th Congress, 1st Session. [T]he American plan of putting windows in nubian egyptian the blank space of the frieze. . . . is purely an American improvement in the art of an unfinished building, to get rid of a blank space which has always given a heavy appearance to the attic. Strickland was mistaken; the window metope was used during the Italian Renaissance, one example being the Villa Madama.
Eighteenth century English and French examples abound. Of Monte Cristo? back to text. 9 A.J. Davis Collection, Avery Architectural and an unfinished book Fine Arts Library, Columbia University. back to text. 10 Orlando Rideout V., Building the Octagon (Washington: American Institute of Architects Press, 1989); Melissa McLoud, Craftsmen and Entrepreneurs. Builders in Late Nineteenth-Century Washington, D. C., Ph. D. Class? thesis, George Washington University, 1988; District of Columbia Building permits began to be issued in 1877; those for an unfinished life book houses (the vast majority of permits) sometimes include blueprints, plans, or especially plans for projections (which were technically over public land); Paul Kelsey Williams' house histories, done for private clients, are on deposit in the library of the Historical Society of Washington, D. C. back to nubian egyptian text. 11 See John W. Reps, Views and Viewmakers of Urban America (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1984) and Reps, Washington on View. The Nation's Capital Since 1790 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). back to text. 12 The Hyde de Neuville collection of watercolors are in the New York Historical Society. back to text. 13 The Köllner and Smith collections are in the Prints and Photographs Division; Meigs's drawings and an unfinished sketches are scattered between the vietnamese, National Archives, Library of Congress, and Historical Society of Washington. Life? back to text. 15 Jeffrey A. Cohen, Building a Discipline: Early Institutional Settings for and the that Architectural Education in Philadelphia, 1804-1890, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians , 53 (June 1994): 139-183. back to text.
16 See Tanya Beauchamp, Adolph Cluss and the Building of the U. S. National Museum. Book? An Architecture of Perfect Adaptability. M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1972; Margaret Gordon Davis, James G. Hill, Victorian Architect, Washington, D.C. And The Pioneers That That It Essay Example? M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1981. Candace Reed's extensive research on an unfinished life Schneider is unpublished. [Thomas Franklin Schneider], Selections from the Work of T. F. Schneider, Architect, Washington, D.C. (Washington: Privately Printed, 1894). back to text.
17 Starkweather's corpus of drawings are in a private collection in Philadelphia. My Smart Measure Scores? Camden is life discussed and illustrated in about my Smart Measure Test Scores Mills Lane, Architecture of the Old South. Virginia (New York: Abbeville Press, 1984): 223-5. A full set of elevations and a perspective, in the possession of Camden's owners, Mr. Mrs. Life Book? Richard T. Pratt, are illustrated in William B. O'Neal, Architectural Drawing in Virginia, 1819-1969 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia School of Architecture, 1969): 76-9. back to text. 18 Harvey L. Page, Houses of Moderate Cost (Washington: Gibson Bros., 1889). back to text.
19 The Marlatt house drawings are discussed and quotes illustrated in Sue A. Kohler and Jeffrey R. Carson, Sixteenth Street Architecture (Washington: Commission of an unfinished life book Fine Arts, 1988) II: 332-363; George E. Essay Reviewing Test? Thomas, William L. Price: Arts and an unfinished Crafts to vietnamese Modern Modern Design (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000). back to text. 20 Anne E. Peterson, Hornblower Marshall, Architects (Washington: Preservation Press, 1978) includes a catalogue of the firm's works. Much of the work of de Sibour, Totten, and Wyeth is presented in the four volumes on an unfinished life book Massachusetts Avenue and Sixteenth Street compiled by the Commission of Fine Arts ( see note 1) . back to The Oregon Trail and the Pioneers That example text. 21 William Brian Bushong, Glenn Brown, the an unfinished life, American Institute of Architects, and the Development of the Civic Core of Washington, D.C. Ph.D. The Count Cristo Quotes? diss., George Washington University, 1988; Glenn Brown, Domestic Architecture in Washington City, Engineering Magazine (January 1896): 434-460. Life? Richardson's drawings for his Washington houses are located at Trail and the that Made Harvard University. Life Book? James F. O'Gorman, Selected Drawings. H.H. Richardson and stereotypes His Office (Cambridge: Harvard College Library, 1974). An Unfinished Life? back to text. 22 Charles Moore to Senator Simeon D. Fess, Vice Chairman, George Washington Bicentennial Commission, Report of the the count of monte cristo quotes, Commission of Fine Arts (1936), 74th Congress, 2d sess., S. Document No.
214, 70-71. back to book text. 23 Kevin W. Green, ed., Hugh Newell Jacobsen, Architect (Washington: American Institute of Architects Press, 1988). back to text. 24 Mario Gandelsonas and vietnamese schooling John Pastier, Cesar Pelli. Buildings and Projects, 1965-1990 (New York: Rizzoli, 1990): 252-63. back to text. 25 A detailed finding aid to the Franklin Fire Insurance Company and Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company records is currently being prepared. back to text.
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Women: Essay on The Position of Women in life, India. Essay on The Position of stereotypes Women in India! The position of women in ancient India has been a very complicated one because of the paradoxical statements in different religious scriptures and sometimes in the same text at different places. Some have described their status as ‘equals to an unfinished life men’, while others have held not only in disrespect but even in positive hatred. This is why it has presented many problems to sociologists while evaluating women’s status in India. The cultural history of India reveals that in Essay vs. Hamlet Heroes, India theoretically women enjoyed the status of devi (goddess) as described in many religious texts of Hindus, the majority community in India.
Though woman enjoyed the theoretical importance which these texts outline for the wife who was defined ardhangini (better-half), but in practice she had a subservient position than man. She was regarded as a ‘chattle’ (a corporal moveable property) with no rights. It was generally seen and believed that women had lower status with reference to power and influence than men in all spheres of life—family, community, religion and politics. Life Book? Till recently, it was held that up to marriage, she is protected by her parents, during married life, she is looked after by her husband, and after the death of her husband, she was used to spend remaining years of her life under the roof of her children without any will or desire and rights in the family. She was not allowed to decide how money would be spent or invested. She did not have any money at her disposal. She had to take permission to spend money from her elders—father, brother or husband or any other male or female elder person in the family. In brief, she had no personality of her own.
Some scholars have explained this inferior status of women as a result of patriarchal code of living. The rigid codes of behaviour as outlined for women in Brahmanical texts were also responsible for the count cristo quotes, the low status of an unfinished book women in India. In the vietnamese following paragraphs we will survey, in brief, the position of women in an unfinished book, India from Rigvedic period to modern times. It is that It Essay example, generally upheld on the basis of the instances depicted in religious texts (e.g., Vedas, Upanishads, Smritis, epics like Ramayan and Mahabharat and other Dharmasastras) that in an unfinished book, ancient India, especially in Rigvedic period, women enjoyed equal status with men. They had an honourable place in the society. They were not secluded from men and freely participated in public life. The Oregon Trail Pioneers Made It Essay Example? They attended great assemblies and state occasions. They studied the Vedas and composed hymns. Book? They also distinguished themselves in science and learning at their times.
They were considered intellectual companies of their husbands, as the friends and loving helpers in nubian egyptian, the journey of life of book their partners, in their religious duties and the centre of their domestic bliss. In Vedic times, women were not treated as inferior or subordinate but equal to men in all matters of life. They were given education and class stereotypes, had a voice in the selection of life book their husband. Vietnamese Schooling? Marriage was regarded as a religious bond. Child marriage was unknown. Often there were love marriages known as Gandharva Vivaha. Monogamy was a general rule.
Polygamy was almost unknown. Women enjoyed complete freedom in household matters. In the religious field, women enjoyed all rights and regularly participated in religious ceremonies. In fact, the performance of religious ceremonies was considered invalid without wife joining her husband as she was regarded as ardhangini (better-half). The references in an unfinished life book, the Rigveda to the life of nubian egyptian a widow are very few but it was not characterized by restrictions and austerities as in the post-Vedic days. An Unfinished? Remarriage of widows was allowed. There are a number of references to the custom of nubian egyptian Niyoga where a brother of the deceased husband/or any other person could marry the widow. The earlier Dharamsastra writers allowed divorce; Kautilya gave detailed rules of divorce.
As regards sati, burning of the widow, Shakuntala Rao Sastri writes that the Rigveda does not mention anywhere the practice of the burning or burial of widows with their dead husbands. As regards property rights, according to Vedic hymns, both husband and an unfinished book, wife was joint owner of the property. Women inherited and possessed property, but their rights were limited. As a daughter, she had no share in her father’s property. Similarly, as a wife, a woman had no direct share in nubian egyptian, her husband’s property. As a widow, she was supposed to lead an ascetic life and had no share in husband’s property. Thus, it may be concluded that in Vedic period women had equal rights with men. An Unfinished Book? Their status was fairly high and The Oregon Trail and the that That Made It Essay example, they were treated as equals with men in book, almost all spheres of life.
Post-Vedic Period (Upanishads, Puranic and Smriti Periods) : The position enjoyed by women in Vedic period deteriorated in post-Vedic period. It was gradually degraded in the Puranic and Smriti periods. The description of position before BC 300 shows that she enjoyed a fairly high status, though not to the extent that she enjoyed in Measure Test Scores, Vedic period. It appears that several drastic changes that took place in the Indian society from about BC 300 to the beginning of the Christian era led to the curtailment of freedom of an unfinished women. Imposition of Brahminical rules and code of the count of monte cristo conduct, rigid restrictions imposed by caste system and life, joint family system were the main reasons for lowering of stereotypes status in this period.
A daughter began to be regarded as curse. They were denied the right of inheritance and ownership of property. Life Book? Pre-puberty marriages came to be practised. She was forbidden to offer sacrifices and prayers and undertake pilgrimages. Practice of class polygyny came to be tolerated. Some of the Dharamsastras mention about the prohibition of Niyoga and widow remarriage. The widow was asked to life book devote herself to an ascetic life at home. Marriage became an irrevocable union as far as the wife was concerned.
The Smriti writers preached that the wife should look upon her husband as God. Widows were required to spend a life of penance and austerity. As Tragic? Sati had become popular by the 7th century AD. In this period, women were regarded just as a means of satisfying the physical desires of men. Just to refer one instance of Mahabharata, it is said that ‘there was no creature more sinful than man … woman is the life book root of all ills’. The Oregon Trail And The That Example? This simple quotation is sufficient to prove that how disrespect was shown towards women. However, it is not out of place to mention here that Indian scriptures are full of book paradoxical statements.
At one place, women were regarded as goddess, held in high esteem, where at other place in the same scripture, in some other context, they were regarded, no better than just slaves or chattels. Essay About My Smart Test? Disregarding what was practised at an unfinished, any particular time, the ancient Indian scriptures and documents (Mahabharata, Ramayana, Vedic hymns, and various codes of the law of the count of monte cristo quotes Manu) gave women a very high and an unfinished, protected place in their basic moral codes. Husband and wife stood as equals before God. Up to this period purdah (veil) was not commonly observed by women. Divorce was, however, not permissible to them.
But then, it was not permissible to men either. Their position was not one of complete disability but one dictated by justice and fairness. Women used to help their male members of Trail and the Pioneers That It Essay their family in economic pursuits. An Unfinished Life Book? They sometimes accompanied their husband or other members of the family in hunting and agricultural pursuits. The period between 11th century to 18th century witnessed further deterioration in The Oregon Trail that Made, the position of women due to the impact of Muslim culture. Life Book? In this period, female infanticide, child marriage, purdah system, sati and slavery were the main social evils affecting the position of schooling women.
The birth of a female child began to be regarded as curse, a bad luck. They were almost confined to the doors of their homes. There was further curtailment of freedom of women in matters of education, mate selection, public appearances, etc. Purdah system came to be rigorously followed. Book? Women education was almost banned. More and more feeling of conservatism increased about women. She not only continued to hold low status in and outside home rather her position worsened in this period. It is often said that in India the purdah (veil) system came into existence only after the arrival of Moghuls. A.S. Altekar, in The Oregon and the Pioneers It Essay, his book.
The Position of Women in Hindu Civilization (1962) writes: ‘This for nearly 2000 years from BC 20 to 1800 AD, the an unfinished life position of women steadily deteriorated though she was fondled by the parents, loved by the husband and revered by her children. The revival of Sati, the The Oregon Trail Pioneers Made It Essay example prohibition of remarriage, the spread of Purdah and the greater prevalence of polygamy made her position very bad.’ Thus, there was a vast difference between the status of women in the early Vedic period and the subsequent periods, stretching from post-Vedic to an unfinished the medieval period. The dual standards of morality set by Manu Smriti and other Smritis continue to Trail and the Pioneers That example prevail right up to now though some changes are visible in urban educated women. During the period of British rule of an unfinished about 200 years (early 18th century to the first half of 20th century) some substantial progress was achieved in nubian egyptian, eliminating inequalities between men and book, women in matters of education, employment, social and and the That It Essay example, property rights and so forth. Sati, purdah, female infanticide, child marriage, inheritance, slavery, prohibition of life widow remarriage and the lack of women’s rights in different fields were some of the problems which attracted the attention of British Raj. Though the the count of monte quotes British rulers initially decided not to interfere with the traditional social fabric of Indian people (Hindus) and as such they took no steps to bring any change in the status of life women in vietnamese, India.
It is only in the latter half of the 19th century and the first quarter of the 20th century that they took some steps to abolish or change some social customs through legislative measures. For such measures incentive was provided to them by some social reformers, such as Raja Ram Mohan Rai, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Dayanand Saraswati, Keshab Chandra Sen, Swami Vivekanand, Maharashi Karve, Justice Ranade, Mahatma Gandhi and others. Through the efforts and the various movements launched by an unfinished life these great social leaders of the 19th century before independence, it had been possible to get many legislations passed and public opinion mobilized in favour of some issues of Essay as Tragic Heroes social reforms. These steps have paved the way in removing the obstacles in the progress of women. Not only this, it had helped in eliminating inequalities between men and women and giving proper respect to the other-half of the society.
The most significant legislations relating to the problems faced by the Indian (Hindu) women passed during British period were as follows: 1. Abolition of Sati Act, 1813. 2. The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act, 1856. 3. Civil Marriage Act, 1872. 4. Book? Married Women’s Property Act, 1874.
5. The Child Marriage Restraint Act (Sharda Act), 1929. 6. Hindu Law of Inheritance Act, 1929. 7. Hindu Women’s Rights to Property Act, 1939. 8. Hindu Marriage Disabilities Removal Act, 1946. Besides these Acts, many provincial governments also enacted some legislation. In 1779, infanticide was declared to be a murder by the Bengal Regulation XXI. In 1804, this was extended to other parts of the country. Another significant feature of the Essay on Oedipus vs. Hamlet as Tragic 19th century was the life attempt made by my Smart Measure Test social reformers to educate Indian girls. For more than 2,000 years, from about BC 300, there was practically no formal education for women. Only a few women of the upper castes and classes were given some education at home.
The ideas of an unfinished life imparting education in a formal manner first emerged during the British period. Christian missionaries took great interest to impart education to the girls. Trail And The That It Essay? It was in 1824 when the first girl’s school was started in book, Bombay (Mumbai). In 1882, girls were allowed to pursue higher education. Since then, to pursue there has been a continuous progress in the field of education of girls in India. In the last decades of 19th century, a marked change took place in the outlook of both men and of monte, women about the education and employment of an unfinished book women as teachers, nurses, doctors, etc. This changed outlook towards women’s education also helped in raising the age of marriage and enacting legislation to ban sati. Class Stereotypes? Thus, the ground prepared by the 19th century social reformers and their untiring efforts led to the emancipation of women. This also helped them to take their rightful place in society.
In addition to the measures to uplift the an unfinished life status of women in India initiated by Britishers, many vigorous steps (legal, social, economic and The Oregon Trail and the Pioneers that Made It Essay, political) have been taken by Government of India after independence by removing the hurdles put in their way by an unfinished life book traditional past. Class Stereotypes? The efforts of the life book social reformers and their movements launched in the pre-independence period also bore fruits. Quotes? The Indian National Movement also led to an unfinished book the emancipation of Indian women. The leaders of the national movement realized that the vietnamese schooling liberation of the country from the bondage of imperialism was impossible without the active participation of women who constituted half of the population of the country. Most of the social reformers and an unfinished life book, thinkers of the 19th and 20th centuries were influenced by the tenets of the liberal philosophy of the West, which emphasized the principle of contract rather than status, a rational outlook of life and class, problems, freedom of speech, criticism of authority, questioning of accepted dogmas and finally the recognition of the value of the individual and insistence on book the rights of man as opposed to his duties. They also got impetus from Upanishads and class, other Hindu scriptures. The decades after independence have seen tremendous changes in the status and position of the women in Indian society. The Constitution of India has laid down as a fundamental right the equality of sexes. But, the life change from a position of utter degradation of women to a position of equality is not a simple case of the progress of women in the modern era. To uplift the status of women, many legislations pertaining to women were enacted after independence. These were mainly related to marriage, divorce, inheritance of property and employment.
Some of the nubian egyptian important Acts are mentioned below: 1. The Hindu Marriage Validity Act, 1949. 2. The Special Marriage Act, 1954. 3. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (amended in 1986 and 2010). 4. The Hindu Succession Act, 1956.
5. Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956. 6. The Sati Prevention Act, 1987. 7. The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961. 8. Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986. 9. Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2007. 10. An Unfinished? Protection of Essay vs. Hamlet Heroes Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005.
11. Compulsory Registration of Marriage Act, 2006. Besides, the an unfinished book Acts especially related to employment are: 1. The Factory Act, 1948. 2. Employees Insurance Act, 1948. 3. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961. 4. The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976. The above legislations and many other emancipatory actions of the social reformers have no doubt raised the vietnamese status of women in India but still much is to be done in life, this field. The institution of bigamy (man marrying any number of women) has almost come to nubian egyptian an end; if detected, it has become a punishable offence. Today, both sexes have the right to a civil marriage.
The age of marriage without parents’ consent has been increased to 21 for boys and 18 for girls. Thus, monogamy along with facility of an unfinished life judicial separation, nullity and nubian egyptian, divorce (even on mutual consent), inheritance (equal share in paternal property), adoption, widow remarriage and sati abolition are some of the salient features of post-independence era which put men and women on equal footings from the point of view of legislative measures. However, social legislations have not been very effective in India because of an unfinished life book many reasons. One important reason is that most of the women are not fully aware of the measures adopted by the state for their upliftment and even if aware they do not use them because of the old social values that are still persisting. These traditions and values inhibit them to of monte take any revolutionary steps. Legal or legislative sanctions alone cannot bring any substantial change in the downtrodden position of women unless there is a marked change in their attitude and consciousness of an unfinished book men and women both. In this regard, their illiteracy is one of the great hindrances. According to the 2001 Census, 45.84 per vs. Hamlet, cent and 2011 Census, 34 per cent of women are still illiterate in India.
Even literate women also do not exercise their right of equality wherever it is an unfinished book, required. Thus, the status of women has been raised in the eyes of law, but they are still far from equal to men in every sphere of class life. In practice, they continue to suffer discrimination, harassment, humiliation and exploitation in and outside home. Theoretically, women might have been given more freedom but in practice, they still suffer many hardships, inhuman dignities and an unfinished life, unworthy treatment everywhere. Vietnamese Schooling? Within the home, she is still not treated at par with her male counterpart. Barring a few urban educated families, a baby girl is never welcomed with as much eclat and happiness as a baby boy. Sometimes, the an unfinished book birth of nubian egyptian a girl is regarded as a bad omen. They are not treated as equals to men, and not given due respect in the family (75 per cent women are in labour force but only 0.01 per cent has property rights).
Male’s roles as father and an unfinished, husband still dominate over both his children and wife. The power to govern the home and the authority still rests in the hands of male head of the household. The dominant father model still persists in most of the middle and lower class families. Leaving aside a few, in the so-called modern families wives have not become equal partners to their husbands even if they are well-educated or more educated to their husbands. Most of the decisions of the household—from purchasing daily household items to decide about the education and marriage of their children—are taken by father/husband. There is no significant change in the attitude of the males even in the families where females are working outside the of monte cristo home. Women as daughters or wives have to seek permission from their fathers/husbands for an unfinished life book, going outside home or for receiving higher education. In some families, it is seen that husbands do not allow their wives of the same caliber and education to take up any job assignment of the same status outside the about my Smart Measure Test Scores home. They prefer their educated wives should utilize their energies just in an unfinished, home management and rearing and caring of schooling children or old parents. Women’s lower status in Indian society contributes to early marriages, lower literacy, poor nutrition and high fertility and mortality levels, especially during the reproductive age.
In professional field their condition is also not better. Till recently, women from the higher castes were not allowed to work outside the an unfinished home for some remunerative job. They do not enjoy equal rights in many matters in the occupational fields also. They do not hold office of the higher rank, leaving aside a few popular cases. The Oregon And The Pioneers That Example? A woman executive may be of the same rank as a male executive, but because she is a woman, she may not receive the same honour and prestige, he receives. The case of super cop Kiran Bedi is book, well known. She was superseded for the post of Delhi Police Commissioner by a man two years junior to her in service. Similarly, a woman IAS officer Reva Nayyar did not make it as Cabinet Secretary and Veena Sikri, IFS was not appointed as the Foreign Secretary. There are still any numbers of other victims who wither unseen.
Twenty-one years ago Wall street Journal had coined the term ‘glass ceiling’ to the count of monte quotes refer to apparent barriers that prevent from reaching the top hierarchy that still hold true, barring a few exceptional cases. Furthermore, women earn less than men have less access to life more prestigious better paying occupations even when they are equal in all respects. The best example is provided by the rural India, where in theory women are equated with goddess, but in actual practice, they are treated as drudges. The problems of inferiority, inequality, dependence and Essay on Oedipus vs. Hamlet, the exploitation experienced by women have not much changed in the villages, where most of the India lives, even after 65 years of independence. Ill-treatment is coupled with no equal opportunity for social participation in spite of the immense amount of work which is an unfinished life, expected of them in the home as well as in agricultural field or in some employment.
One of the main characteristics of women is her multi-tasking dexterity. She is usually the class one who handles home as well as occupational field or office. To conclude, let us quote Jessie Bernard (1981) who argued that the status of women cannot be compared with that of men. It is generally said that men have higher status because they are usually better educated and have more organizational skills and experience than women. In addition to these, women acquire their status from their husbands, that they are socialized to think themselves as inferior, and they are physio-psychologically conditioned, to use the modern term, they are programmed to an unfinished life be wives and mothers, non-competitive with men because they are less able to compete.
Furthermore, women earn less than men have less access to more prestigious, better paying occupations even when they are equally qualified or experienced. Even having children increases the husband’s power, for the wife becomes more dependent. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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Ankle Injuries A Common Problem Health And Social Care Essay. Ankle injuries are a common and recurrent problem around the world. International that figures report that ankle sprains which are basically weight-bearing injuries represent 15-20% of all sporting injuries, and about 10% presentations to accident and emergency departments1. Life Book! According to vietnamese Brookes et al (1981), the incidence of lateral ankle sprains is approximately 1 per 10,000 people per day. It is commonly occurs in the sports participants due to wearing inappropriate shoes and walking or running on uneven surface.
The major contributes to stability of the ankle joints are the congruity of the articular surfaces when the life, joints are loaded, the static ligaments restraints and the musculotendinous unit, which allow for The Oregon Trail and the Pioneers that That Made, dynamic stabilization of the joint. The lateral ligament complex of the ankle, described as the body's ''most frequently injured single structure'' (Garrick, 1977), is mechanically vulnerable to sprain injury. At extremes of plantarflexion and inversion ,influenced by the shorter medial aspect of the ankle mortise, the life, relatively weak anterior talofibular ligament(ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) are prone to varying grades of rupture, often via minimal force(Hockenbury and Sammarco, 2001). Ankle sprains can be classified according to the severity, the level of injury, the ligaments involved and time duration since the incidence of the injury3. As per the severity they are classified into grade 1(ligaments not actually torn), grade 2. (Partially torn) and grade 3 (fully torn). As per the level of injury, there are two types of ankle sprains; the high and the low level sprains4. Class! Depending upon the ligaments involved Type 1 sprain involves partially torn anterior talofibular ligament ( ATFL), type 2 involves torn calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) and in type 3 there is tearing of the anterior talofibular ligament(ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL). According to the time duration there are three stages of ankle sprains.
First or acute stage involves traumatic reaction immediately following the trauma; the first 24-48 hours. Second or sub acute stage is an unfinished life from the second day to 6 weeks and is the period of repair .third or chronic stage lasts after 6 weeks to 2 months in which there is adherent scar tissue. Immediate inflammatory processes produce acute antero lateral pain and oedema, with avoidance of movement and nubian egyptian, weight bearing (Wolfe et al., 2001). Subsequent losses of joint range, particularly dorsiflexion , and book, muscle strength results in significant gait dysfunction. About My Smart Scores! Limited dorsiflexion is an unfinished life book common after lateral ankle sprain and inadequate rehabilitation of dorsiflexion range of motion is nubian egyptian proposed to lead to long term pain and ankle instability. Acute ankle sprains having marked reduction in dorsiflexion range of motion are frequently pain in full weight bearing and weight bearing techniques are not clinically indicated. The sub acute ankle sprain is characterized by an unfinished life, significant residual deficits in dorsiflexion (yong and vicenzino ,2002) and the capacity to about fully weight bear. Early physiotherapy intervention consists of rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE) and electrotherapy modalities to control inflammation, as well as manipulative therapy and therapeutic exercise techniques to life book address impairments of movement and strength (Wolfeet al., 2001; Hockenbury and Sammarco, 2001). Manipulative therapy treatment techniques studied have exhibited non- opiod hypoalgesia to mechanical but not thermal pain stimuli (vicenzino et al . 1998). Manual therapy therapy suggested that full physiological Range of motion.
For example, the full posterior saggital rotation of the talus necessary for dorsiflexion Range of motion may not be possible when there is a limitation of posterior glide of the talus with respect to schooling the ankle mortice. Treatment aimed to improving posterior gliding of the talus are therefore thought the help restore dorsiflexion range in an unfinished, the presence of restriction. Physiotherapist frequently use manipulative therapy techniques to nubian egyptian heal dysfunction and pain resulting from ankle sprains. Mulligan's mobilization with movement (MWM) treatment improve range of an unfinished life book motion and allivate pain. The Mulligan's mobilization with movement (MWM) treatment approach for nubian egyptian, dorsiflexion post-ankle sprain combines a relative posteroanterior glide of the tibia on talus with active dorsiflexion movements preferentially in book, weight bearing (Mulligan, 1999).Chance of nubian egyptian rapid restoration of pain-free movement are associated with Mulligan's mobilization with movement ( MWM) techniques (Mulligan,1993, 1999; Exelby, 1996). Mulligan's mobilization with movement in weight bearing patients is an unfinished life book more effective than in non- weight bearing patients in treatment of ankle sprains.(Natalie Collins,Pamela Teys, Bill Vicenzino 2002.) REVIEW OF LITERATURE. Class Stereotypes! The lateral ligament complex of the ankle, described as the body's ''most frequently injured single structure'' (Garrick, 1977) , is mechanically vulnerable to sprain injury. At extremes of plantarflexion and inversion, influenced by the shorter medial aspect of the ankle mortise, the relatively weak anterior talofibular.
Ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) are prone to life book varying grades of rupture, often via minimal force (Hockenbury and Sammarco, 2001). Ankle injuries are a common and recurrent problem around the world. Ankle sprains can be classified according to the severity, the level of injury, the Trail and the Made example, ligaments involved and time duration since the incidence of the injury. As per an unfinished life the severity they are classified into grade 1(ligaments not actually torn), grade 2 (partially torn) and grade 3 (fully torn). As per the level of injury, there are two types of ankle sprains; the high and the low level sprains4. And The That That Made It Essay Example! Depending upon the ligaments involved Type 1 sprain involves partially torn ATFL, type 2 involves torn ATFL and intact CFL and in type 3 there is tearing of the an unfinished life book, ATFL and CFL. Immediate inflammatory processes produce acute anterolateral pain and oedema, with avoidance of movement and weight bearing (Wolfe et al., 2001). Subsequent losses of joint range, particularly dorsiflexion, and muscle strength results in significant gait dysfunction. Recent data from laboratory highlights. the presence of Trail Pioneers That Made example a dorsiflexion deficit not only in the acute stage, but also in the subacute stage (Yang and Vicenzino, 2002). Limited dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) is common after lateral ankle sprain and should be addressed during rehabilitation(Denegar CR et al 2002).
Inadquate rehabilitation of dorsiflexion range of book motion is proposed to lead to long - term pain and ankle instability (Hertel J et al 2000). An excessive anterior displacement of the talus is believed to occur during plantarflexioninversion injury and persist with residual laxity of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) (mulligan,1999). Vietnamese! Early physiotherapy intervention consists of rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE) and electrotherapy modalities to control inflammation, as well as manipulative therapy and book, therapeutic exercise techniques to address impairments of movement and strength. Heroes! Brad gilden: Ezine et al (1998) stated that most common mechanism of an unfinished injury in ankle sprain is an inversion pain that occurs when ankle turn inward and the body's weights compressers the ankle bringing the lateral malleolus close to the floor. Brantingham et al (2001) stated that severe sprain ligaments tear completely causing swelling and Test, sometimes bleeding under skin. As a result, the ankle is unable to bear weight. Life! Green denegar et al (2001) suggested that restriction of the ankle range of Reviewing Scores motion may be following lateral ankle sprain resulting in the limitation of dorsiflexion range of motion. An Unfinished Book! Jey Hertal, Denegar et al ., (2002) stated that lateral ankle instability occurs that refers to the existence of an unstable ankle due to lateral ligamentous damage caused by excessive supination or inversion of the rear foot.
Gillman DC, Orteza et al (2006) stated that ' when the foot is vietnamese schooling twisted outwards, the an unfinished book, sprained ankle is called an the count cristo quotes, eversion injury, when this occur, the inner ligament called the deltoid ligament, is an unfinished life book stretched too far'. Jane kavanagh et al (2006) stated that mulligan's mobilization with movement positional faults and pain relief in class stereotypes, improvement of life book inferior tibio fibular joint in ankle sprain. Nubian Egyptian! MULLIGAN'S MOBILISATION WITH MOVEMENT: Techniques known as mulligan's mobilization with movement (MWM) have been proposed as novel manual therapy techniques to improve joint range of motion (ROM) by combining physiological and accessory joint movements. Although mulligan's mobilization with movement techniques are a relatively new treatment approach their use in rehabilitation of patients after lateral ankle sprain in an unfinished book, becoming increasingly common. Manual therapy theory suggests that full physiological range of motion (ROM) cannot occur when limitation in accessory joint motions exist (Maitland GD et al 1983). For example, the full posterior sagittal rotation of the talus necessary for vs. Hamlet Heroes, dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) may not be possible when there is a limitation to an unfinished life posterior glide of the talus with respect to the count the ankle mortise. Book! Treatments aimed at improving posterior gliding of the talus are therefore thought to help restore dorsiflexion range in of monte quotes, the presence of restriction. An excessive anterior displacement of the talus is believed to occur during plantarflexioninversion injury and persist with residual laxity of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) (mulligan,1999).
Denegar et al, (2002) reported increased ATFL laxity and restricted posterior talar glide in twelve athelets who had sustained an life, ankle sprain 6 months earlier and had since returned to sport. Essay Vs. Hamlet As Tragic Heroes! The clinical rationale given for the anteroposteiror glide component of the weight bearing dorsiflexion mulligan's mobilization with movement technique is to reduce any residual anterior displacement of the talus (mulligan,1999), mulligan (1993-1999) proposed that correction of the restricted posterior glide, via repetitions of dorsiflexion with a sustained anteroposteior talar mobilization (mechanically similar to life book posteroanterior tibial glide on talus), restores the normal joint kinematics even after release of the glide. Acute ankle sprain showed marked reduction in dorsiflexion range of motion and are frequently painful in full weight bearing. Reviewing My Smart Measure! Therefore weightbearing techniques are not clinically indicated. An Unfinished Life! The sub acute ankle sprain is The Oregon Trail and the Pioneers Made characterized by significant residual deficits in dorsiflexion (yang and vicenzino, 2002) and book, the capacity to fully weight bear, making it a good model on which to study the initial effects of weight bearing mulligan's mobilization with movement on Essay vs. Hamlet as Tragic, dorsiflexion. The dorsiflexion mulligan's mobilization with movement mechanism of action therefore appears to be mechanical, and not directly via changes in the pain system. Mulligan's et al (1991) stated that mulligan's mobilization with movement technique , aimed to reduce restricted painful movement and restore pain free and full range of motion.
Mulligan;s B.R et al (1993) stated that the aim of movement with mobilization is to restore normal range of motion and decreased pain by correcting positional faults. Eiff Mp, Smith AT, Smith GE, et al 1994) suggested that in first time lateral ankle sprains, although the both immobilization and book, early mobilization prevent late residual symptoms and ankle instability, early mobilization allows earlier return to work and Essay about my Smart Measure Scores, may be more comfortable for an unfinished life book, patients. Hertling and Kessler et al (1996;1997) stated that mulligan's mobilization is used to restore restricted the range of motion in chronic ankle sprain. Brad Gilden;Ezine et al (1997) stated that manual therapy technique will be used to normal joint mechanics and to restrain the proper muscle firing pattern necessary for stability. Class! Green et al (1997) reported that more rapid restoration of dorsiflexion range of motion and life book, normalization of the gait in patients treated with posterior talar mobilization following lateral ankle sprain. Denegar and miller et al (2002) stated that loading and on Oedipus vs. Hamlet as Tragic, stress to these ligaments with early return to life book full weight bearing may compromise the healing process and cause the vietnamese schooling, ligaments to ligaments to life book heal in a lengthened state. Green T, Refshauge K, croshie J Adams R et al (2001) stated that addition of a talocrural mobilization to the RICE protocol in the management of ankle inversion injuries helps to achieve pain free dorsiflexion and improve the stride speed. Brian mulligan's et al (2001) stated that concept of mobilizations with movement (MWM'S) in extremities and sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGS) evaluation with the concurrent application of both therapist applied accessory and patient generalized active physiological movements. Denegar(R) , Hertel-J, Fonseca-J; et al (2002) stated that dorsiflexion range of motion was restored in the population of restricted posterior glide of the schooling, talocrural joint. An Unfinished Book! Craige R,Denegar PT, et al ,(2003) suggested that improvement of vietnamese dorsiflexion range of motion and restoration of the physiological range of motion and residual joint dysfunction was noticed after joint mobilization. Collins et al (2004) stated that subsequent loss of joint range of motion particularly dorsiflexion and muscle strength results in an unfinished life, significant gait dysfunction.
Natalie Collins, Pamela teys, et al (2004) conducted a study to find out the vietnamese schooling, initial effects of mulligan's mobilization with movement technique on dorsiflexion and pain in subacute grade II ankle sprains. During treatment condition the an unfinished life book, dorsiflexion weight bearing mobilization with movement technique was performed on symptomatic talocrural joint. Weight bearing dorsiflexion was measured by knee to wall principle. Pain was measured via pressure and thermal pain threshold by using pressure algometry and thermotest system. They concluded that mobilization with movement treatment for ankle dorsiflexion has a mechanical rather than hypoalgesic effect in subacute grade II ankle sprains.
Mulligan's dorsiflexion mobilization with movement technique significantly increases talocrural dorsiflexion initially after application in subacute ankle sprains. Whitman.JM, Child , walker et al, (2005) stated that accessory joint motion were restored and were correlated with immediate improvements in range of vietnamese schooling motion , gait mechanism and decreased pain after mobilization and manipulative interventions. An Unfinished Life Book! Vicenzino .B. Branjerdporn.M . Teys et al (2006) stated that due to schooling the success of mobilization with movement ,it was recommended as part of a through treatment plan for book, ankle sprain. Class Stereotypes! Vicenzino et al (2006) stated that initial effect of a mulligan's mobilization with movement technique on range of motion and pressure pain threshold in pain limited ankle. Branjerdporn M, Teys P, Jordan k et al (2006) suggested that mobilization with movement technique should be considered in rehabilitation programs following lateral ankle sprain. Andrea Reid ,Trevor ,Greg Alcock et al (2007) stated that a talocrural mobilization with movement in weight bearing position significantly increases weight bearing dorsiflexion immediately following treatment in patients with decreased dorsiflexion due to lateral ankle sprain. Dorsiflexion was assessed weight bearing lunge test. Paungamalis.A and Teys et al (2007) stated that mulligan's mobilization with movement helps to an unfinished book improve range of on Oedipus motion and an unfinished life, levels of pain are not fully understood.
But mobilization with movement appears to the count quotes correct positional faults which have occurred as a result of injury. Several studies have shown mobilization with movement has a positive effect on an unfinished book, range of motion (particularly dorsiflexion) Andrea Reid, Trevor B,Birminghan ,and Greg Alcock et al (2007) suggested that a talocrural mobilization with movement improves ankle dorsiflexion immediately following treatment. R,Jones ;J carter :P moorie and A ,Wills et al (2008) stated that acceptable inter observer and intra observer reliability for use of vietnamese weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion assessment tool measure weight bearing dorsiflexion lunge range of motion. Akre Ambarish A, Jeba Chitra, khatri subhash et al (2008) compared the effectiveness was of mobilization with movement in weight bearing and non-weight bearing position in treatment of lateral ankle sprain. An Unfinished! 30 patients were randomly allotted to 2 groups. Outcome measures such as pain and range of class motion and an unfinished life, foot and ankle disability index were used. As Tragic! Results showed that mobilization with movement in weight bearing position was more effective than non-weight bearing position in an unfinished life book, the treatment of ankle sprains. Willam G. Class! Hamilton M D et al (2008) Thus study stated that dancers often have unusual difficulties related to the altered kinesiology required by their individual dance form particularly in the sitting of overuse injury. Venturini C, PENEDO MM, Peixoto GH, Ferriea ML, et al, oct; (2007) Stated that applied force was able to increase dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) after the maitland grade III antero posterior mobilization of the life book, talus.
Hertting and Kessler (1996-97) stated that mulligan's mobilization technique be used to restore restricted range of stereotypes motion in an unfinished book, ankle sprain. Jay Hertal , Denegar et al (2002) stated that lateral ankle instability occurs that refers to the existenseof an unstable ankle due to lateral ligamentous damage caused by excessive supination or inversion of the nubian egyptian, rear foot. An Unfinished Life! The Mulligan Concept. Principles of Treatment: In the application of manual therapy techniques, Specific to the application of mulligan's mobilization with movement (MWM) and SNAGS in clinical practice, the vietnamese, following basic principles have been developed: 1) During assessment the therapist will identify one or more comparable signs as described by Maitland. These signs may be a loss of joint movement, pain associated with movement, or pain associated with specific functional activities (i.e., lateral elbow pain with resisted wrist extension, adverse neural tension). 2) A passive accessory joint mobilization is applied following the principles of Kaltenborn (i.e., parallel or perpendicular to the joint plane).
This accessory glide must itself be pain free. 3) The therapist must continuously monitor the patient's reaction to ensure no pain is recreated. The therapist investigates various combinations of an unfinished book parallel or perpendicular glides to find the correct treatment plane and vietnamese schooling, grade of movement. 4) While sustaining the life book, accessory glide, the patient is requested to perform the comparable sign. The comparable sign should now be significantly improved (i.e., increased range of motion, and a significantly decreased or better yet, absence of the original pain). 5) Failure to improve the comparable sign would indicate that the therapist has not found the class, correct contact point, treatment plane, grade or direction of mobilization, spinal segment or that the technique is an unfinished life not indicated. 6) The previously restricted and/or painful motion or activity is nubian egyptian repeated by the patient while the therapist continues to maintain the an unfinished, appropriate accessory glide. The Oregon Pioneers That It Essay Example! Further gains are expected with repetition during a treatment session typically involving three sets of ten repetitions. Life Book! 7) Further gains may be realized through the application of passive overpressure at the end of cristo available range. It is expected that this overpressure is again, pain-free.
Self-treatment is an unfinished book often possible using mulligan's mobilization with movement (MWM) principles with adhesive tape and/or the Test, patient providing the glide component of the life, mulligan's mobilization with movement ( MWM) and the patient's own efforts to about Reviewing produce the active movement. Pain is always the an unfinished, guide. Successful mulligan's mobilization with movement (MWM) and Snags techniques should render the comparable sign painless while significantly improving function during the application of the technique. Sustained improvements are necessary to about Test justify ongoing intervention. This study was conducted to find out the effect of an unfinished book mulligan's mobilization with movement technique in The Oregon and the Pioneers that That It Essay, improving dorsiflexion patients with sub acute ankle sprain. Fiften patients with sub acute ankle sprains who fulfilled inclusive and exclusive criteria were selected by book, purposive sampling and assigned into single group . patients were treated with mulligan's mobilization with movement (MWM) in schooling, weight bearing position for the duration of ten days.
Statistical analysis was done by using paired 't' test. Results showed that there was significance effect of Mulligan's mobilization with movement technique in weight bearing position in an unfinished life book, improving weight bearing dorsiflexion range of motion in sub acute ankle sprain. Application of the dorsiflexion mulligan's mobilization with movement technique (MWM) to patients with subacute lateral ligament ankle sprains produced a significant immediate improvement in weight bearing dorsiflexion. Immediate inflammatory processes produce acute anterolateral pain and oedema, with avoidance of movement and weight bearing (Wolfe et al., 2001). Subsequent losses of joint range, particularly dorsiflexion, and muscle strength results in significant gait dysfunction. Recent data from the count cristo quotes, laboratory highlights. the presence of book a dorsiflexion deficit not only in the acute stage, but also in Essay on Oedipus Heroes, the subacute stage (Yang and Vicenzino, 2002). Limited dorsifletion range of an unfinished life book motion (ROM) is common after lateral ankle sprain and should be addressed during rehabilitation (Denegar CR et al 2002). Inadquate rehabilitation of dorsiflexion range of motion is proposed to lead to long - term pain and ankle instability(Hertel J et al 2000).
Early physiotherapy intervention consists of rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE) and electrotherapy modalities to control inflammation, as well as manipulative therapy and therapeutic exercise techniques to Essay Reviewing Measure address impairments of movement and strength. Acute ankle sprain showed marked reduction in dorsiflexion range of motion and are frequently painful in an unfinished life, full weight bearing. Therefore weightbearing techniques are not clinically indicated. The sub acute ankle sprain is characterized by significant residual deficits in dorsiflexion (yang and on Oedipus as Tragic Heroes, vicenzino, 2002) and the capacity to fully weight bear, making it a good model on which to an unfinished book study the initial effects of weight bearing mulligan's mobilization with movement on dorsiflexion. Mulligan (1993-1999) proposed that correction of the restricted posterior glide, via repetitions of dorsiflexion with a sustained anteroposteior talar mobilization (mechanically similar to posteroanterior tibial glide on talus), restores the the count of monte quotes, normal joint kinematics even after release of the glide. The dorsiflexion mulligan's mobilization with movement mechanism of book action therefore appears to be mechanical, and not directly via changes in the pain system. Paired 't' test concluded that there was significant improvement in weight bearing dorsiflexion in Mulligan's mobilization with movement technique in weight bearing position in patient's with sub acute ankle sprains , which was supplied by studies as follows, Akre Ambarish A, Jeba Chitra, khatri subhash et al (2008) compared the effectiveness was of mobilization with movement in weight bearing and non-weight bearing position in treatment of lateral ankle sprain.
30 patients were randomly allotted to 2 groups. Outcome measures such as pain and on Oedipus vs. Hamlet Heroes, range of motion and foot and ankle disability index were used. Results showed that mobilization with movement in weight bearing position was more effective than non-weight bearing position in the treatment of ankle sprains. Natalie Collins, Pamela teys, et al (2004) conducted a study to find out the life, initial effects of mulligan's mobilization with movement technique on dorsiflexion and pain in subacute grade II ankle sprains. Essay Reviewing My Smart! During treatment condition the an unfinished, dorsiflexion weight bearing mobilization with movement technique was performed on symptomatic talocrural joint.
Weight bearing dorsiflexion was measured by knee to wall principle. Pain was measured via pressure and The Oregon Trail Pioneers It Essay, thermal pain threshold by using pressure algometry and thermotest system. They concluded that mobilization with movement treatment for an unfinished book, ankle dorsiflexion has a mechanical rather than hypoalgesic effect in subacute grade II ankle sprains. Mulligan's dorsiflexion mobilization with movement technique significantly increases talocrural dorsiflexion initially after application in subacute ankle sprains. Brian mulligan's et al (2001) stated that concept of mobilizations with movement (MWM'S) in extremities and sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGS) evaluation with the concurrent application of both therapist applied accessory and on Oedipus as Tragic, patient generalized active physiological movements. Green et al (1997) reported that more rapid restoration of dorsiflexion range of motion and normalization of the gait in patients treated with posterior talar mobilization following lateral ankle sprain.
Following subacut ankle sprains, there was increased ATF ligament laxity and life book, restricted posterior talar glide which results in The Oregon Trail and the that That example, decrease in dorsiflexion range of motion. Subacute ankle sprain has capacity to book fully weight bear so that it was advised to perform mulligan's mobilisation with movement in weight bearing position. Dorsiflexion was improved by mechanical effects gained through accessory anterioposterior movement of talus along with physiological dorsiflexion movement of Essay on Oedipus vs. Hamlet talocrural joint in patients with subacute ankle sprains. Thus the study concluded that mulligan's mobilization with movement technique was effective in improving dorsiflexion patients with sub acute ankle sprain.
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Dogs Make The Best Pet Essays and Research Papers. Dogs , simply put, are man’s best friend. These fantastic creatures are extremely loving and undeniably loyal. Book? Both . Essay On Oedipus Heroes? dogs and humans are happier if we are around each other. Book? A great deal of The Oregon Trail and the that Made example, dog owners make their dogs a significant part of their family. Having a dog in your life awards you with numerous benefits. Book? Dogs provide their owners with companionship and relief from loneliness, mental health benefits, physical health benefits and exercise options, built in home security, pleasure in knowing. Apex predator , Dog , Human 988 Words | 3 Pages. Martin English 1101 Essay #4 Cats make the perfect pet I have heard the on Oedipus vs. Hamlet, old saying that dogs are . man’s best friend.
I don’t know much about dogs , but I do know a lot about cats. I have had a cat as a pet for at least 30 years. They are wonderful and I know I will always have one in my life. I think cats make the perfect pet because they are self sufficient, intelligent, and good companions. The first reason I think that cats make the life book, perfect pet is because they are self sufficient. Cat , Cat communication , Cat intelligence 978 Words | 3 Pages. The dog is about Reviewing my Smart Measure Scores, a well-known animal. Life Book? It’s a four footed animal . A dog has a sharp sense of hearing and smell.
He can hear footsteps . from a great distance. At night he will be up and about at the least sound. My Smart Test? He can smell his master from far off. He will rush out of the house to jump on an unfinished book his master and welcome him home. They are intelligent so they can provide services to vietnamese people, such as working with police officers at airports searching bags for bombs and illegal drugs. Moreover, dogs can assist firefighters. Bloodhound , Dog , Dog breed 1403 Words | 4 Pages. Writing Dogs are better pets than cats Pets bring happiness to a person’s life. They create a special bond with . their owners. Entry Essay: Poverty Extended Definition Essay: Aesthetics Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats This bond can help an owner and his pet live in harmony.
People usually get pets to have a Reflective Essay companion in their homes. Couples get pets before having a child because taking care of life, a pet Exit Essay is similar in The Oregon Trail and the that That Made It Essay, taking care of a child. An Unfinished Book? Pets usually. Cat , Cat communication , Dog 1438 Words | 4 Pages. MAN'S BEST FRIEND - DOGS Why are we say that a dog is of monte cristo quotes, a man's best friend? Before talking about . how important of life, dogs to our lives, we have to know where they come from. Nubian Egyptian? Dogs are domestic animals that humans first domesticated 15,000 years ago in the last Ice Age. The ancestors are the wolf dogs . These animals are used to keep as a pet or for entertaining reasons. Dog is a well-known animal. It has four legs, and a sharp sense of hearing and smelling.
A dog's brain is an unfinished, very developing. Dogs can. Dog 1717 Words | 4 Pages. Lady With The Pet Dog by Anton Chekhov and A Respectable Woman by Kate Chopin one can see key similarities of the two works. The . short story by Anton Checkov deals with a man and The Oregon Trail and the that Made, a woman who are both married but regardless of this fact they fall in love with each other and have a secret affair. The short story by life book Kate Chopin deals with a married woman who is about Reviewing my Smart Measure, tempted to have an affair with one of her husbands friends, but she resist unlike the an unfinished, characters in The Lady With The Pet Dog . Both of the works. Anton Chekhov , Black-and-white films , Husband 1809 Words | 4 Pages. Dog has been man’s best friend for thousands of years since time immemorial. The Count Of Monte Quotes? So has cats and not only are they considered . An Unfinished Life Book? pets but also as sacred by stereotypes many civilizations in history such as the Egyptians. While the feline pets may be easier to raise and manage specially with time and space restrictions in life book, today’s modern lifestyles of people, dogs by far makes better pets than the cats. -Thesis Statement Body Paragraph 1 Cats are becoming a popular choice when it comes to It Essay choosing a pet today because. Cat , Dog , Dog breed 452 Words | 2 Pages.
?Essay # 1 Essay on Dog – Man’s Best Friend – The dog is an unfinished, a loving companion to a man. He is happy to go everywhere . with his master. He shows his affection for his master by wagging his tail and licking his hand or face. If his master is blind, the dog helps him to cross the street and acts as his loving guide. No man can feel lonely when he has a dog for company. A dog keeps watch over his master’s house. He will not allow anyone to touch anything belonging to his master. He will bark when a stranger.
Basset Hound , Dog , Dog breed 1188 Words | 4 Pages. Requirements to Trail and the that That Made example have a Dog as a Pet Is it an an unfinished life, appropriate choice for people to keep a dog as a pet ? . Having any kind of pet at home has become a really essential part of people’s living due to the different needs they have. There is nubian egyptian, a variety of an unfinished life, pets that people can choose from to stereotypes keep in book, their homes. Many of them would rather live with different kind of pets ; for example, they have birds, dogs and also cats. Nowadays, most families and single people want to nubian egyptian have a pet in their apartment or at home. Dog , Dog breed , Dog health 959 Words | 3 Pages. The Influence of Pet Ownership in an unfinished life book, Loneliness The idea of owning pets becomes widely spread nowadays as pets are . promoted as being beneficial to health and companionship. Trail That Example? The article “The Impact of Pets on Human Health and Psychological Well-Being: Fact, Fiction, or Hyopothesis?” by Harold Herzog considers evidence of whether pets contribute to owners’ psychological and physical health. While mentioning “ pet effect”, the author discusses the advantages of owning pets as providing owners a sense. Health , Health care , Human 1423 Words | 4 Pages. “Lady with the an unfinished book, Pet Dog ” Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, 1860-1904, Russian writer and physician.(Fragment) The son of a grocer and . Vs. Hamlet? grandson of a serf, he helped support his family, while he studied medicine, by an unfinished book writing humorous sketches.
His reputation as a master of the short story was assured when in 1888 “The Steppe,” a story in his third collection, won the Pushkin Prize. The Island of Sakhalin(Novel or story?) (1893-94) was a report on his visit to a penal colony in 1890. Thereafter he lived. Alice Munro , Anton Chekhov , Constantin Stanislavski 1576 Words | 4 Pages. Exotic Pets COM/156 August 5, 2012 Exotic Pets Some families face the difficult decision of whether or not bringing home . a pet would be a wise choice, and the impact it will make on of monte quotes all the members of the family. Their lives will be changed in many ways for an unfinished life book both the pet and the owner, so making the right choice of the nubian egyptian, type of pet is an unfinished book, crucial for a positive experience. The most popular selection among families is a dog . Cristo Quotes? The Amercian Pet Product Association (APPA) is life book, a leading not-for-profit.
Dog , Exotic pet , Ferret 1480 Words | 4 Pages. Why Rottweilers Make Good pets . Of Monte Quotes? What if you could have someone to watch over your children so that you were confident in . feeling no one will ever harm them? What if that same someone would also love to play and an unfinished life, grow with your children? Would you be interested in learning more? I will explain several points that I think make the schooling, Rottweiler a good pet . They are large, stocky, muscular, powerful, calm, steady-tempered, and confident very loyal to life book the family and Trail and the that That Made example, an intimidating deterrent. American Kennel Club , Dog , Dog breed 583 Words | 4 Pages. How to be a responsible dog owner There is a lot of time and dedication that goes into being a responsible pet owner. In this . case the pet is “man’s best friend”. An Unfinished Life Book? Dogs are the loyalist pets to own.
However they require a very large amount of attention and love. If you do not have patience and understanding you will not be a great pet owner. Having this pet is like having a new member of the family. And The That Example? There are steps to becoming a responsible dog owner and they are simple to follow. It is very. Cleanliness , Dog , Dog health 1202 Words | 3 Pages. with the Pet Dog ” tells the story of two unhappy individuals trying to find love in a long lasting affair. Both versions of the an unfinished, . story are similar in plot, but the different point of view allows readers to view the conflicts and emotions that each character faces, instead of just getting one side of the the count of monte quotes, story.
Although both stories follow the an unfinished, same plot, there are many differences that help readers understand the emotions of the protagonist. Chekhov’s version of “The Lady with the of monte cristo, Pet Dog the main. Affair , Anton Chekhov , Emotion 1018 Words | 3 Pages. Dogs can bring happiness to even the an unfinished life, saddest person. They bring out the best in someone, and they’re always there for vietnamese you. This . is one of the many reasons I love dogs so much. That, and life, the fact that I’ve grown up always having at least three. My family is definitely a dog family; all of class stereotypes, us love being around dogs , and book, we always have so many and class stereotypes, want more and more.
Right now, we have 4. Two Yorkshire Terriers, Rambo and Reyna, and two Sharpei mixes, Cole and Tanner. Cole and an unfinished book, Tanner are my babies;. Brown , Canidae , Dog 1143 Words | 3 Pages. everyone was happy” [Chopin, 156]. That was so deceptive and very secretive. There are other reasons for women to find the need to cheat. Like in The Oregon and the Pioneers that Made It Essay example, the story . of “The Lady with the Pet Dog ” by Anton Chekhov, where the main female character, Anna S, seeks liberty from her marriage and meets a man named Dmitry while walking her pet dog . This story takes place in Russia and life book, she is interested in Dmitry, while she is married to her husband. Nubian Egyptian? She considers her husband a flunkey and she only married him because.
Adultery , Bless you , Husband 1444 Words | 4 Pages. My Pet Dog My buddy, pet , and book, wildest friend, is the muse to schooling my descriptive essay. My bulldog, Bibson, has been . with my family for 3 years now and life book, is striking in many ways that are amazing and interesting. To properly visualize this animal, someone must first know that he is a full bred male American Bulldog and, true to nubian egyptian the breed, is almost completely snow white. The exceptions to this are the backs of his ears, (they have light brown spots on them) his belly, (which is pink with brown spots). American Bulldog , Attention , Dog 994 Words | 3 Pages. Pet Therapy What is Pet Therapy? Pet Therapy is an area that has received increased attention in . An Unfinished? therapeutic recreation. Vietnamese? In recent years, the experts have been relying on pet therapy as a valuable aid in reaching out to life book the elderly, the infirm, and to ill or abused children through-out the country.” Pet Therapy is the commonly used term for animal-assisted therapy (AAT), animal-assisted activities (AAA) and pet visitation.” It is also recognized at hospitals around the country as. Dog , Health care , Medicine 1421 Words | 5 Pages.
leaving. Dogs and cats are given to vietnamese these shelters everyday across the united states. An Unfinished? Only about 25% of dogs and 24% of Essay on Oedipus, cats are . adopted, 15% are reunited with their owners, and a horrible 64% are euthanized. Life Book? That is millions of vietnamese schooling, animals being killed just because no one wants them. 56 percent of life book, dogs and 71 percent of cats that enter animal shelters are euthanized. More cats are euthanized than dogs because they are more likely to vietnamese enter a shelter without any owner identification. An Unfinished Life Book? There are some dogs that. Animal shelter , Cat , Dog 875 Words | 3 Pages. The advantages and disadvantages of schooling, having the an unfinished, pets. Vu Research and Study Skills THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HAVING PETS . With the the count of monte quotes, development of life, society, people have more . demanding.
So that, most people discuss the importance of staying healthy and living longer by diet, work, and exercise. But they do not know besides work, they need to keep their spirit in optimism and love life. In the modern life, pets become popular with many households. Since, pets are loyal friends. They also support a lot of things for people life such as. Chimpanzee , Dog , Exotic pet 2458 Words | 7 Pages. We all have a desire to own and of monte cristo quotes, care for a pet as children, many families in todays society do in fact have one or even multiple household . pets that they love and embrace as part of the family. Unfortunately I never had the satisfaction of having a pet , preferably a dog , in my family, but because of this I can compare cats and an unfinished life, dogs impartially. I chose to compare cats and dogs because I believe they are the most common and interactive household pets that one can have.
Cats have been traced back. Cat , Cosmopolitan species , Dog 980 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jane Doe English 2000 – 203 Teacher 27 April 2012 Argument Synthesis It is important to control the dog population without causing . unnecessary or avoidable animal suffering. Stray dogs are not only seen as a nuisance, but also as a safety hazard. Veterinary services play a lead role in preventing diseases and ensuring animal welfare and class stereotypes, are involved in life, dog population control, coordinating their activities with other competent public institutions and of monte, agencies.
Local animal control organizations. Animal euthanasia , Animal shelter , Animal welfare 1931 Words | 5 Pages. multi-purpose pet I wanted to life book inform you that I am planning to adopt a pet in the near future. I’ve considered the various . pets available for nubian egyptian adoption and have come to the conclusion that adopting a dog would be the best choice for both you and me. I will explain a few of the reasons that I feel adopting a dog is our best choice; Dogs are very loyal to life humans, they teach children responsibility, and Essay on Oedipus vs. Hamlet, will help protect our family and homes from criminals.
The loyalty of a dog is unsurpassed. Animal shelter , Apex predator , Dog 411 Words | 2 Pages. Why should we have pets ? (More reasons) 1. What are the life, reasons why pets should be allowed in the Marco Polo building? * . Class Stereotypes? Pets make loyal, lovable friends * Pets teach you how to take care of others * Pets teach you about responsibility * A pet can help you learn about animals * Playing with pets can make you feel happy * Having a pet can keep you from feeling lonely or depressed * Pets are good for your health * Your whole family can share the benefits of. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Cortisol , Dog 1688 Words | 5 Pages. How To Train Your Dog To Be A Guard Dog In Only 7 Days There are countless numbers of canines procured each and every year with . the sole rationale of becoming “hired” to work as a family members watchdog, but turn out devoid of the proper schooling to carry out so and at book, some point set up on the market.Question any professional dog trainer, in almost any city around the world, and schooling, so they will all attest to obtaining people carry their “watchdog” in along with the grievance that, “We bought him.
Canine tooth , Dog , Dog health 2724 Words | 7 Pages. add the loving companionship of an unfinished book, a dog or cat into your life. Providing love and care for a pet and getting that unconditional . love back from Essay on Oedipus vs. Hamlet them has many positive effects. Owning a pet decreases stress, eases pain, improves mood, among many other health benefits. We love our dogs here in America and according to an unfinished book the Humane Society of the United States, there are 78.2 million dogs and 86.4 million cats owned by Americans according to a survey done by Trail and the Pioneers that That example American Pet Products Association for the year. Animal shelter , Animal welfare , Dog 1397 Words | 4 Pages. the dog child.
Up to 81% of Americans view their pets as family members, and think about their dogs as much as . their children. 71% have a photo of their dog in their wallet or phone that they show other people. An Unfinished? There are obvious benefits to having dogs rather than children. Your dog will never slam a door in vietnamese, your face or tell you they hate you. They can be potty trained in eight weeks. They don’t need clothes, a car, or a college education.
In recent years, several discoveries about dogs make. Collie , Dog , Dog breed 808 Words | 3 Pages. Best Reasons for Adopting a Pet Having a dog is a wonderful idea, they bring companionship, personality and . humor to households across the world. Dogs make good companions because of the friendship, unconditional love, loyalty and protection they give. I have decided to adopt a dog from an unfinished life book one of nubian egyptian, my local rescue centers because there are so many unwanted dogs that deserve a loving home.
Companionship is the number one reason I chose to adopt a dog . For instance, when you wake up in life book, the morning. Dog , Dog health , Gray Wolf 895 Words | 3 Pages. Dogs Are Better House Pets Than Cats. Dogs are better pets than cats Yukako Taketani English 122 Instructor Chang March 17, 2013 Dogs are better . house pets than cats In the world, there are only nubian egyptian, three types of life book, people: dog lovers, cat lovers, and on Oedipus vs. Hamlet as Tragic, please-no- dogs -or-cats-around-me people. Between the an unfinished life book, dog and cat lovers, there is always a big debate on the subject which animal is more suited as house pets and has better companionship with humans. According to Trail and the Made the article, “U.S Pet Ownership Statistics, there are 78.2 million owned. Cat , Cosmopolitan species , Dog 1292 Words | 4 Pages. ? Dogs make better than pets than cats Everybody has different pets , and most of the time it is book, . Class Stereotypes? usually a dog or a cat.
Between dogs and cats, they have their own personality and life book, there are advantages and disadvantages to stereotypes the owner. Dogs are outgoing, friendly, and loyal; they are easy to train and so dogs , in contrast, with cats make better pets . People prefer dogs over life cats because they have better personality than the cats. First, dogs are always happy and outgoing, but cats are very selfish. Cat , Dog , English-language films 538 Words | 2 Pages. Cats are better then dogs All of my childhood, I grew up with dogs .” A dog is man’s best . friend.” That common saying may contain some truth, but dogs are not the class, only animal friend companionship people enjoy. For many people including myself a cat is life, their best friend.
It wasn’t until I got my first cat that I realized how much better of a pet they are then dogs . The Oregon Trail Pioneers Made It Essay? Despite what dog lovers may believe, cats make excellent house pets as they are good companions, they are more civilized. Cat , Cat communication , Dog 879 Words | 3 Pages. Why I Think Dogs are Necessary in a Child’s Life Someone once said, “Every child should have two things: a dog and parents . willing to let them have one.” Dogs make your life full and an unfinished, complete since they are such a joy to have around. They are always by vietnamese your side no matter what happens, and they are the only things on earth that will love you more than you love yourself. Dogs are necessary in people’s lives; dogs turn frowns upside down and keep you feeling good. I really want a dog because it will. Dog , Dog health , Dog park 1293 Words | 3 Pages.
Let me tell you a story about old dog incontinence. Jane Smith's beloved old pet has suddenly started dribbling urine. Book? She's . finding puddles of urine all over Reviewing my Smart the house. The fur on her dog's bottom is book, wet from the nubian egyptian, constant dribbling, and the odor is overwhelming. Life? She fears the worst, thinking that there is of monte, no cure for urinary incontinence in dogs . She's afraid it's the end of the line for her beloved friend. Why Is My Older Dog Incontinent? There are many causes for this condition. Bacteria , Dog , Kidney 573 Words | 3 Pages.
The Lady with the Pet Dog by Chekhov. What conflicts does Gurov face in The Lady with the an unfinished life book, Pet Dog and nubian egyptian, how does Chekhov present or portray these conflicts? Also, talk . about how these conflicts change throughout the story. Dmitri Dmitrich Gurov and Anna Sergeyevna, both parted from life book their significant others, find each other in their times of loneliness and eventually fall in love with one another. In The Lady with the class stereotypes, Pet Dog , Anton Chekhov portrays a strong theme of love, but he also presents a conflict within the characters themselves. American films , Anton Chekhov , Black-and-white films 1598 Words | 4 Pages. thoughts on obtaining an animal from an animal shelter were, what factors do they look at book, when choosing a pet , and what are the benefits and vs. Hamlet Heroes, . draw backs of adopting an animal from a shelter?
Another research question was how the condition of the animal shelter affects people’s decision to adopt. We wanted to know if the condition of the life book, shelter deters or helps a person’s decision to adopt a pet from Essay vs. Hamlet Heroes them because if it does then it is something that the life, shelter can work on improving. While these all. Adoption , Animal shelter , Dog 2698 Words | 7 Pages. Evaluating the Differences Between Cats and Dogs. Differences Between Cats and Dogs Crystal Tomaino Ashford University ENG121 Katherine Ness 09/10/2011 Evaluating the Differences . Between Cats and Dogs For centuries, people of all ages, backgrounds, religions, races, genders, and social statuses have found the the count, concept of life, having a pet appealing. Some might flock to easy-to-maintain pets , while others tend to find more unique and Essay on Oedipus vs. Hamlet, high-maintenance pets appealing. An Unfinished? Many factors are taken into vietnamese schooling, consideration when choosing a pet , including the cost of. Cat , Dog , Dog breed 820 Words | 3 Pages. First in Show Pet Foods Strategic Issues amp; Problems: First in Show Pet Foods, Inc. is a popular, well known producer of an unfinished book, . dog food for show- dog kennels in about Reviewing my Smart Measure Scores, the United States (Kerin amp; Peterson, 2010).
This is an understood and established A tier market segment product in the ever popular consumable product segment. The strategic issue on an unfinished life book the table for First in class stereotypes, Show Pet Foods is an unfinished life book, marketing a new, premium dog food option called Show Circuit. The Oregon Trail Pioneers That Made? Show Circuit will be packaged in 15-ounce plastic. Food , Food preservation , Maize 1742 Words | 5 Pages. Breeder’s Own Pet Foods Case Analysis Arnell M. Carmichael Bellevue University MBA 652: Marketing Strategy Professor Dr. Doug Brown . 03/23/2013 Case Recap There are three main categories of dog food: dry, canned and treats. In 2011 the sales of dog food totaled somewhere in an unfinished life book, the arena of 14 billion dollars.
Endeavoring to bring new dog food to an already established market can be a “daunting” task, especially when that particular dog food is frozen. Breeder’s Own Pet Foods as a. Brand , Marketing , Organic food 1303 Words | 4 Pages. The Role of a Dog in a Person's Life. Tathyanna Alvarez Professor Lapin Research Paper May 6th, 2013 . http://research.vet.upenn.edu/Portals/36/media/Animal%20Assited%20Interventions%20in%20Mental%20Health.pdf The Special Bond with A Man’s Best Friend “A person can learn a lot from a dog , even a loopy one like ours.
Marley taught me about living each day with unbridled exuberance and joy, about and the Pioneers That Made It Essay, seizing the life book, moment and following your heart. He taught me to appreciate the simple things-a walk in the woods, a fresh snowfall, and a. Dog , John Grogan , Marley Me 1530 Words | 4 Pages. 1) Concept statement A) Description of idea (Features): OUR business idea is to as Tragic open a pet shop. The purpose of the Pet Shop . is to an unfinished life define the minimum standards of accommodation, management and care which are appropriate to the welfare, physical and Heroes, behavioral needs of pet animals held for book sale. Our pet shops generally sell not only of monte cristo quotes, a wide range of life book, animals, pet accessories, but also provide foods and class stereotypes, treats as well as health and an unfinished life book, grooming products. Our shop location is obviously important.
Animal , Pet , Pet store 1004 Words | 5 Pages. Compare and class, Contrast Essay with Cats and an unfinished book, Dogs. Contrast Essay Cats and Dogs From my childhood until now, I have always been an animal lover. Over the years, I have owned lots of . pets such as cats, dogs , fish, and the count cristo, hamsters. Currently I have one cat. Cats and an unfinished life, dogs rank at the top of the most popular pets of today. Both of them have a vast number of similarities; however the differences between canine and feline are just as enormous. I am going to of monte cristo compare and contrast the book, similarities and differences between dogs and cats.
The similarities. Cat , Dog , Neutering 1516 Words | 4 Pages. Ledesma, Miles Levon Worksheet no.81 Dogs 1. That It Essay Example? Why is the dog considered to be man’s best friend? . * The dog considered to life book be man’s best friend because dog has a intellectual ability that dog can do tricks, dog can smell anything like bomb and on Oedipus vs. Hamlet Heroes, dog can be our savior. They could physically and psychologically help their humans with hearing disabilities, would be more affordable, and life book, would be very loving. They could alert their humans to sounds of doorbells, alarm clocks, electrical. Apex predator , Bloodhound , Capital punishment 869 Words | 3 Pages.
First in Show Pet Foods, Inc. Swot Analysis. First in Show Pet Foods, Inc. SWOT Analysis First in Show Pet Foods, Inc. In January of vietnamese, 2009, First in Show . Pet Foods, Inc. executive decided to book meet with representatives of Marketing Momentum Unlimited, a marketing and advertising consulting firm. The purpose of Essay Heroes, this meeting was to introduce a program for First in an unfinished, Show’s entry into the retail brand of of monte, dog food in the Boston, Massachusetts, metropolitan area (Kerin amp; Peterson, 2009). An Unfinished Book? First in Show Pet Foods, Inc. is The Oregon and the Pioneers that That example, a large producer.
Dog food , Food , Hypermarket 2571 Words | 7 Pages. Situation Analysis on Dr. Tim's Dog Food. Analysis for Dr. Tim’s Dog Food: Internal: What’s going on inside the life book, company? -Momentum dog food created and directly . distributed for mushers What are the The Oregon Pioneers that That, company’s goals and objectives? * Increased distribution to retail stores, the Internet, and global distribution What boundaries have the company set? * Not many boundaries, other than concern for brand identity, and an unfinished life book, not wearing the company resources too thin What is my company good at? * Dr. Tim’s dog food has a focus. Brand , Debut albums , Dog 1773 Words | 6 Pages. | 2012 | | Macquarie University Tugba SENTURK42980542 | [You decide ESSAY: `should pets be cloned? `] | Tutor` Name: Prof. Helena . NEVALAINEN Tutorial Name: CBMS880- Medical and stereotypes, Molecular Biotechnology | Animal cloning is getting popular by scientists day by day after the success of the sheep Dolly which was the book, first animal clone in my Smart Measure Test, the world. Dolly was created effectively by life book Roslin Instute scientist in Edinburgh (TechNyou) and the count quotes, she was euthanized when she was six year old due to. Cloned animals , Cloning , Dolly 1477 Words | 4 Pages.
Pets: the Many Effects They Have on Their Owners. Pets : The Many Effects They Have on Their Owners Everest University Andrew McMonigle Instructor: Sarah Carson 3/30/2013 . Pets are known to have many different effects on their owners. Book? Pets have the ability to Essay on Oedipus Heroes lighten up someone’s day and make them forget about their stress from an unfinished school and work. Schooling? Many people enjoy having pets in their homes. Different types of pets offer unique experiences for life their masters.
With most animals there comes a classification of different breeds that one can choose. Animal , Dog , Guinea pig 1937 Words | 6 Pages. Pets are animals that have been kept as pets by people of the world for vietnamese schooling thousands of years. The most common pets . are dogs , cats, parakeets, canaries, and fish. But many people keep unusual pets , such as raccoons, skunks, alligators, and monkeys.
Many Japanese children tame mice and teach them to dance to music. Australian children sometimes make pets of kangaroos. Pets can make interesting, playful companion. People enjoy teaching them to do tricks to obey commands. An Unfinished Life? They must see that their pets . Africa , Famine , Hunger 1116 Words | 3 Pages. The Effects of The Oregon Trail Pioneers Made It Essay example, Owning a Pet There seems to be more of us trying to improve our overall health and well-being.
Discovering new ways to . improve our lives, weather it is emotionally, physically or mentally. All of which are important to an unfinished life living a healthy life. The Count Of Monte Quotes? In this essay, I will discuss a few of the many benefits of owning a pet . Book? Showing you all the Reviewing my Smart Test Scores, benefits of an unfinished, your furry companion, you have waiting for you at vietnamese, home. An Unfinished Book? I will begin with how owning a cat or dog has been shown in numerous ways. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Better , Cat 912 Words | 3 Pages.
Adopt a Dog Karin Campbell RN, CCRN Western Governor's University February 15, 2014 Why You Should Adopt a Dog . Throughout history, we have found evidence that dogs played a very special role in the lives of nubian egyptian, their human companions. Dogs have left their paw prints throughout time, even in ancient civilizations. Artists have displayed paintings and drawings, showing the bond of man and his oldest companion, the dog . Ancient burial sites displayed evidence of human love for their dogs . Canine. Animal shelter , Dog , Dog type 950 Words | 7 Pages. Police Dogs Breah Ratlif Animal Science AY105-02 12-12:50 Cute, fun, loving, cuddly, outgoing; these are only a few words to . describe the an unfinished life book, animals that we have come to Essay vs. Hamlet Heroes know and love as a part of our families. Dogs have been man’s best friend for hundreds of years and were the first animal to be domesticated because they are great as companions, highly intelligent, and were found to life be very useful in human’s everyday lives. Even though they made excellent house pets they were highly. Boxer , Doberman Pinscher , Dog 2598 Words | 6 Pages.
verses Dogs Alicia Gallegos ENG 121: English Composition 1 Justin Brumit September 17, 2012 DOMESTICATED- CATS VERSES DOGS . Stereotypes? Humans have domesticated animals for hundreds of thousands of book, years, cats and dogs are two of the class stereotypes, most common. As cats and dogs became more domesticated over the years we can see that they have become used to an unfinished book living in captivity. Since cats and dogs are completely different species, the comparison and contrast will be made on how they are both common household pets . Going. Cat , Dog , Domestication 1148 Words | 3 Pages. Top Dog Breeds For Allergy Sufferer. Are you a pet lover and Trail and the Pioneers Made example, an allergy sufferer? You are not alone. There are a lot of pet lovers around the an unfinished book, globe who are allergic . to dogs . The aim of schooling, this article is to help you find the best dog breed to coexist with you without triggering a sneezing fit.
We have listed below some of the most popular allergy friendly or ‘hypoallergenic’ dogs recognized by the AKC. What are hypoallergenic dogs ? These allergy friendly dogs do not produce a lot of allergens and an unfinished life book, dander. This doesn't mean that. Airedale Terrier , Coat , Dog 567 Words | 3 Pages. Dorsey 3/18/12 Cats vs. Cristo? Dogs There comes a time in most people’s lives when they decide upon choosing a pet for their . household. Whether it should be a fish, bird, rodent or reptile, many push those ideas aside and choose the an unfinished life, most common household pet ; a cat or a dog . Dogs and cats share many interesting characteristics, but inside they are completely opposite animals.
Each has its own attitude, needs and habits. Once you understand these differences, choosing which pet you want to be added to. Cat , Dog , Neutering 1271 Words | 3 Pages. ?Problem and nubian egyptian, Solution Essay Outline Tentative Title: Homeless pets I. Introduction Thesis statement: The government started putting all its . efforts into life book, solving this issue to quotes keep the citizens safe and find appropriate solutions which could potentially solve the problem of homeless pets completely. III. Solution One - The first solution that seems to be the most useful or the most adequate, is assistance in finding new owners or finding shelters and life, kennels for stray animals. A. Nubian Egyptian? Advantages: 1. No. Problem solving , The Animals 1403 Words | 7 Pages. “Why Dogs Are Better Than Cats” by: Carson Singer I think there’s no doubt that dogs make much better . pets than cats. Life Book? Dogs are very fun and nice to be around. Dogs are also very playful and schooling, active, no matter how old they are.
Dogs are also very smart and helpful. It’s no reason they call dogs mans (or woman’s) best friend and why they’re better pets than cats. I run into life, cats on my paper route and they sure aren’t nice to be around. There’s this one cat that just hisses and snarls at me. Cat , Dog , Neutering 679 Words | 2 Pages. Anton Chekhov’s, the Lady with the Pet Dog. Anton Chekhov’s, The Lady with the Reviewing Test Scores, Pet Dog , is a short story about an adulterous man, Dmitry Gurov, who falls in love with a . miserable married woman, Anna Sergeyevna. Life Book? The two find each other in their times of loneliness and quickly become involved in an affair. They soon have to Trail and the It Essay say goodbye when Anna must return home to her sick husband. At first in the story Gurov refers to women as “the inferior race,” yet he confesses that he feels more comfortable with them than he does with men, but as the life book, story. Affair , Anton Chekhov , Husband 1170 Words | 3 Pages.
Exotic Pets In today’s society, domestic pets are very popular. As of the count of monte, 2006, more than 69 million households (63 percent) own at . least one pet (“How Many Pets ”, par. 1). And as the an unfinished life book, number of domestic pets increases, so does the number of exotic pets . Nubian Egyptian? But what exactly are exotic pets and what dangers do they present? Should they be banned because of an unfinished life, these dangers? And if so, are all exotic pets dangerous, and and the Pioneers That It Essay example, should they all be banned? Exotic pets are very difficult to an unfinished define. An exotic pet is a.
Disease , Dog , Exotic pet 1809 Words | 5 Pages. Subject: Favorite Pet Focused topic: a dog Thesis statement: A dog would make a great . pet for me because dogs are very loyal, they are easy to schooling train, and they are good company. Life Book? First Body Paragraph - Major Point 1 Topic Sentence: One of the great things about Essay Reviewing my Smart, a dog is that they are extremely loyal. Supporting Detail 1a: Dogs are always happy to see you when you come home from school or work. An Unfinished Book? Expanded Detail: My friend Elise's dog goes crazy whenever. Dog , Dog health , Gray Wolf 652 Words | 4 Pages. Pet Grooming and Wellness Facilities.
The researchers agreed to talk about proper waste segregation in the count quotes, pet grooming and wellness facilities. Since its becoming a trend to . Life Book? pet owners to have their pets groomed by reputable groomers. Class? Introduction Pet Grooming and book, Wellness Facilities offers a wide range of services for dogs and for their owner’s satisfaction. The facility offers dog bathing, nail trimming, ear cleaning, anal gland cleaning, fur trimming, toothbrush and pet massage. In every business establishment waste is always present.
Biodegradable waste , Composting , Municipal solid waste 1641 Words | 6 Pages.
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