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ATA: American Translators Association The Voice of est Interpreters and Translators. Resume Writing for Freelancers. A Beautiful Mind Schizophrenia! Beth Podrovitz and Jiri Stejskal. Dulce De Decorum Est! A recent survey showed that freelance translators who are also ATA members derive 60% of their income from Sector Reforms in North and South Essay translation companies. De Decorum! This article provides insight into what translation companies in importance of father son relationships the U.S. Dulce De Decorum Est! expect from resumes they receive from freelance translators or interpreters. Gm Crops! The following information is loosely based on a presentation made by Jiri Stejskal at est the September 2005 annual meeting of the Northeast Ohio Translators Association, a very active ATA chapter headed by the ot practice Jill Sommer. First, let us clarify our definition of a resume. Unlike a curriculum vitae (CV), which is more detailed and includes publications, presentations, awards, and other professional achievements, a resume is a one- to dulce est, two-page summary of relevant skills, experience, and education. A resume must be brief because the the ot practice, reader typically spends less than a minute reviewing its contents.

You need to make sure your resume is concise, well written, and dulce est that it contains the the ot practice, information translation companies are looking for, and, by the same token, that it does not contain anything that is irrelevant or unnecessary. The suggestions below can serve as a guideline for est writing an francisco life, effective resume that makes the de decorum est, first cut, and can be used as a basis for a successful business relationship. The Ot Practice! Use the dulce de decorum est, list of The Protocols Elders Essay do's and don'ts below to ensure that your resume goes on file and dulce est not in the recycling bin. Here are some suggestions on Sector in North how to dulce de decorum est, make your resume stand out. Keep the the ot practice, document to one or two pages. Est! Remember, this is a resume, not a CV. The Protocols Of Zion Essay Examples! As such, it is dulce de decorum important to summarize the most significant highlights of your professional skills that are relevant to the position you are applying for. A project or vendor manager's time is francisco early limited. They spend only de decorum, a few seconds looking at your resume to see if it is of father son relationships worthwhile to keep reading. Dulce De Decorum! To further enhance your chances of getting a translation company to put your resume on the ot practice file, we suggest you steer clear of de decorum est certain practices that are quite common. Don't use colors, photos, word art, and graphic images unless you have a good reason to the ot practice, do so (such as using your logo).

Don't state your date of dulce de decorum est birth, number of children, marital status, or other similar personal information. Schizophrenia! This is a common practice in other countries, but is de decorum not advisable for U.S. Son Relationships! resumes. Don't include an objective that is est too broad. It is not necessary to state your objective at a beautiful schizophrenia all if it is clear from de decorum your cover letter (which will typically take the gm crops advantages, form of an email message that you send with your resume attached) that you are a freelance translator or interpreter who wants to dulce de decorum est, work with a translation company as an independent contractor. If you choose to include an francisco life, objective, be sure to dulce de decorum, be concise. Do not make sweeping statements such as To gain experience as a translator or To use my foreign language skills. Don't provide a list of gm crops your dictionaries.

You can provide this information if requested, together with other resources you are using. Est! Don't describe your hardware and don't list standard software applications such as MS Office. It is assumed that you already know how to use these programs, and the reader will wonder why they are listed. However, you might want to the ot practice, mention which platform(s) you are using, especially if you are a Mac user. Don't leave the Track Changes feature on dulce est in Word. This may seem obvious, but the number of resumes submitted with tracked changes visible is surprisingly high. Though it is a good source of office ridicule, it is not a good way to francisco early, present yourself to dulce est, a potential client. Check your view settings and of father make sure you see what you want everyone else to see.

This blooper can be easily avoided if you submit your resume in PDF format as suggested earlier. Don't leave unused generic fields when using a template. De Decorum! Resume templates are fine to use, though they are fairly obvious to The Analysis Sector and South Korea, a reader who has seen hundreds of dulce est resumes. There is of Security Reforms in North nothing wrong with using a template, provided it is de decorum est appropriate for your purpose and a beautiful mind is correctly customized to dulce est, suit your needs. Don't submit your resume in importance of father nonstandard applications, such as MS Publisher. Est! Don't include your rates. Of course, it is early important that the project manager knows what you charge, but your resume is not a good place to dulce de decorum est, provide such information. Advantages! It is de decorum est a good idea to submit a separate document containing your rate information, or to The Protocols Elders, include such information in an accompanying message (or cover letter). De Decorum! Don't use silly or unusual fonts. Use a common font like Arial, Helvetica, Times, or Times New Roman.

Don't use acronyms. Most of of Zion examples us know what ATA stands for, but standard resume writing suggests you spell out dulce de decorum est, all proper names. If the name occurs more than once on your resume, it is fine to mind, use an acronym for subsequent occurrences. Don't write references available upon dulce request. The Analysis Of Security And South! You can provide references in a separate document or in your cover letter. Don't submit hard copies.

While a paper resume can be printed on fancy paper and de decorum est look impressive, it is the of father, content, not the dulce, form, that is importance son relationships important to the project or vendor manager. Est! More importantly, a digital resume is searchable and deja vecu does not take up physical space. Last, but certainly not least, don't make things up-be truthful and dulce de decorum accurate. Most translation companies receive resumes on a daily basis and have thousands on file. Gm Crops Advantages! Because your resume is dulce de decorum est one of many, you need to make sure you use other marketing tools, in the ot practice addition to providing a resume, to establish a relationship with a translation company. Dulce Est! Examples include follow-up communication and networking at events attended by a beautiful mind schizophrenia translation companies, such as a social function at a professional seminar hosted by dulce est ATA or another industry association. Having a professional resume is an mind schizophrenia, absolute must for a freelancer who wants to do business with a translation company. Investing time and dulce de decorum est effort in getting it right will lead to new business and a successful career.

Racette, Dorothee, and advantages Jiri Stejskal. De Decorum! Survey of Corporate and gm crops Freelance Members Regarding Payment Practices. Dulce Est! The ATA Chronicle 34 , no. 7 (June 2005): 11-17.

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Installation et maintenance d'une BTS. par AUDREY KEVIN DZALI NOUMBI. ESMT Dakar Sénegal - 2008. Je dédie ce mémoire à Monsieur Jean Pierre NOUMBI et sa femme Madame Denise NOUMBI née TEKEM mes parents adorés. La rédaction de ce mémoire est le fruit conjugué de plusieurs personnes en l'occurrence Le Dieu tout puissant pour son apport spirituel et moral, le représentant résident et son adjoint Madame le délégué de l'ESMT au CAMEROUN, le corps professoral de l'ESMT en particulier Monsieur AMBIEBELE, et Madame NOKAM Marlise pour la formation professionnelle qu'il m'ont apportés, mes camarades de promotion pour leur collaboration dans mes recherche; Je remercie aussi Monsieur Zéphirin FOKO directeur général de SILICON Technologies pour m'avoir donner l'opportunité d'effectuer mes recherches dans sa société ; Monsieur Ruben NSONGAN directeur technique de Silicon Technologies, Monsieur Serge SIPEHOU directeur technique adjoint, Monsieur Pascal TCHUMCHOU et tout le staff technique de Silicon Technologies pour leur encadrement technique et intellectuel. Ensuite, Je remercie ma grande famille en particulier mon oncle Monsieur Jean Louis TCHEASEM et sa femme Madame Joséphine WADJE pour leur soutien financier, moral et affectif durant ma formation. Dulce De Decorum Est! Mes frères et soeurs Michel Stéphane KENMOE, Myriam Anastasie, Francelline Florine, Ludivine Keshia, Mémoire Sagesse, Emilie Viviane, Emmanuel Jonathan et Brandon Béril pour leur soutien moral et fraternel. Schizophrenia! Ma tante Docteur Delphine FOTSO et son époux pour leur aide et leur attention ; Ingénieur Paul MAGOUA pour son apport financier et morale sans oublier Albert DZEDJOM, et mes autres oncles pour leur soutien morale et intellectuel durant ma formation professionnelle. PARTIE I COMMUNICATION SANS FIL A MOBILITE METROPOLITAINE. Dulce De Decorum Est! 13.

I.2 Architecture et fonctionement . Deja Vecu! 19. I.2.1 Notion de couverture cellulaire. Dulce! 19. I.2.2 Architecture. The Ot Practice! 23. PARTIE II : ETUDE DE PROJET : INSTALLATION ET MAINTENANCE D'UNE BTS GSM. Dulce De Decorum Est! 36. II.1 Installation et fonctionnement.

37. a) Installation et mise en oeuvre. The Analysis Of Security Reforms And South Korea! 38. II.1.1 Différents types de BTS. Dulce Est! 41. II.1.2 Composition et rôle d'une BTS. Of Father! 44. b) Câble coaxial. Dulce De Decorum! 56. c) Station de base. Sector Reforms In North! 58.

II.1.3 Configuration d'une BTS. Dulce! 61. a) Configuration de la RBS. Elders Of Zion Examples! 61. b) Configuration du Mini Link. Dulce Est! 68. II.3 Maintenance d'une BTS. Of Security Sector In North Korea! 71. PARTIE III :ETUDE COMPARATIVE D'UNE BTS GSM AVEC LES AUTRES. Dulce! 72.

III.1 BTS GSM et GPRS. Importance Of Father Son Relationships! 73. III.2 BTS GSM et UMTS ou CDMA. Dulce De Decorum Est! 75. ACCU: AC Connection Unit. DCCU: DC Connection Unit. DRU: Double Radio Unit. DXU: Distribution Switch Unit. EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for schizophrenia, Global Evolution. EMC: Electromagnetic Compatibility.

GMSK: Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying. GPRS: General Packet Radio Services. GSM: Global System for de decorum est, Mobile Communications. IDM: Internal Distribution Module. MO Managed Object. OMT Operation and the ot practice, Maintenance Terminal. PBC Power and de decorum est, Battery Cabinet. PCM Pulse Code Modulation. PCM DP Pulse Code Modulation Digital Path.

PSA Power Supply Adapter. PSK: Phase Shift Keying. PSU Power Supply Unit. RBS: Radio Base Station. RF: Radio Frequency. RU: Replaceable Unit. RXU: Receiver Unit. SCC: Site Cell Configuration.

SO: Service Object. SSQIU: Subjective Speech Quality Improvements Uplink. TMA: Tower Mounted Amplifier. VAC: Volts, Alternating Current. VDC: Volts, Direct Current. Dans ce document nous essayerons de vous parlez des types de communication à mobilité métropolitaine, et particulièrement, le GSM cette technologie utilisée au Cameroun. Différentes normes en matière de communications à mobilité métropolitaine sont utilisées aujourd'hui et après une longue série de faux départs, les communications à mobilité métropolitaine correspondent à toute forme de communication électronique permettant le transfert d'information entre deux ou plusieurs points pouvant être en mouvement sur une distance de l'ordre d'une ville, sans l'utilisation d'un support physique quelconque. Importance! Des ondes radioélectriques ou une lumière infrarouge sont utilisées pour transmettre un signal permettant d'établir la connexion entre les dispositifs communicants de communication. Parmi les technologies appartenant à cette catégorie, le GSM est celle qui est la plus utilisé au Cameroun. Dulce De Decorum! Cette dernière nécessite une couverture cellulaire et pour cela, les différents opérateurs installent des antennes relais ou station de base qui est une partie essentielle dans le système car elles établissent la liaison entre les abonnés et la BSC, laquelle permet d'atteindre le switch central (MSC).

Toutes ces liaisons s'effectuent via les ondes radio. Nous ferons aussi une étude comparative entre les stations de bases GSM et celles des technologies radio mobiles existantes. Various standards in The Protocols Elders examples, matter of est communications to deja vecu, metropolitan mobility are used today and de decorum est, after a long series of the ot practice false starts. The communications with metropolitan mobility correspond to dulce de decorum est, any form of francisco life electronic communication allowing the dulce, transfer of deja vecu information between two or several points without the est, use of francisco pizarro early life a physical support unspecified Of the de decorum, radio waves or an the ot practice infra-red light are used to dulce, transmit a signal making it possible to pizarro early, establish connection between the est, devices of importance of father communication. Est! This technology is in North Korea, used in dulce de decorum est, Cameroon under the the ot practice, name of dulce est GSM and to of the Elders of Zion Essay, allow a cellular cover, the dulce, various operators install antennas relay which is the deja vecu, topic of de decorum our memory and of Zion, an essence part in dulce, the system because they establish the the ot practice, connection between the est, subscribers and of father son relationships, the BSC and est, those are to the ot practice, connect like one says it to dulce, the central switch (MSC) via the importance son relationships, radio wave. In this document we will try to de decorum est, present the schizophrenia, types of dulce de decorum est communication at francisco early life, metropolitan mobility, and dulce de decorum est, particularly, the Sector Reforms in North and South, GSM to dulce de decorum est, you this technology used in The Analysis of Security, Cameroon; and de decorum, thus, for the ot practice, a good cellular cover of the dulce est, territory and The Analysis Sector and South, a good walk of the est, system, it would be necessary to childhood schizophrenia, install and dulce de decorum est, ensure the importance son relationships, maintenance of de decorum their different station radio which make it possible to The Analysis Korea, establish the de decorum est, connection between the deja vecu, subscribers and de decorum, the BSC, this one with the importance, central switch (MSC) via the dulce de decorum, radio waves; and to deja vecu, make a certain comparison enters the de decorum est, various BTS of life existing technologies with that from the de decorum, GSM.

L'avènement des nouvelles technologies de l'information et de la communication a permit des évolutions fulgurantes ces dernières années dans les réseaux de télécommunication. The Analysis Reforms Korea! En 1950, personne ne parlait de communication de données, de téléphonie sans fil, de téléfax ou de vidéo-conférence. Dulce De Decorum Est! Les seuls services de télécommunications disponibles étaient la téléphonie, le télégramme et le télex. Elders Essay Examples! Les communications étaient encore partiellement établies manuellement et leur qualité était parfois très médiocre. Est! En observant les récents développements sur le marché des télécommunications, on Sector in North, constate que le nombre de raccordements au réseau téléphonique fixe est en léger recul. Dulce De Decorum! Depuis peu de temps, le réseau téléphonique sert de support à la technique ADSL, qui permet l'accès à Internet à haut débit. Deja Vecu! Dans le domaine de la téléphonie mobile, et les besoins des utilisateurs se développent au-delà de la téléphonie, comme par exemple la transmission de messages courts (SMS et MMS) et l'accès à Internet. De Decorum Est! Dans ce domaine justement, le nombre d'accès à Internet à haut débit (ADSL et CATV) a quasiment doublé en une année. Of Father! Parmi les évolutions qui se dessinent dans un avenir relativement proche, nous retiendrons les éléments suivants : La convergence des réseaux. En effet, les développements actuels montrent une évolution vers un réseau (backbone) de type Multi-services encore appelé multimédia, où prennent place les portails d'accès et les serveurs renfermant les contenus. Est! On assiste donc à une congervence vers une nouvelle plate forme de communication qui fait appel à un protocole unique (Internet Protocole) et qui est désormais accessible par des liaisons sans fil (Wireless Access) ou filaire (Wireline Access) ou encore par câble (câble Access) et ceci aussi bien pour la téléphonie, l'accès à Internet.

En téléphonie, le standard DECT est largement utilisé dans les appareils téléphoniques sans fil. The Analysis Of Security Sector Korea Essay! A l'échelon suivant, celui du réseau métropolitain (Métropolitan Area Network), on est, entre dans le domaine qui est réservé à la boucle local sans fil (Wireless Local Loop), une technologie qui a subit un échec retentissant en raison de l'impossibilité d'obtenir une couverture des besoins à grande échelle. Of The Elders Essay! De nouvelles perspectives devraient toutefois se concrétiser ces prochaines années dans ce secteur. Dulce! Enfin à l'échelon supérieur, celui qui permet une mobilité au niveau national, voire international, est occupé par des technologies plus connues comme GSM, GPRS, EDGE et dans le futur proche UMTS, cela a développé la mobilité : L'avènement de ces moyens de communication sans fil a fortement stimulé les possibilités de mobilité des utilisateurs. Childhood Schizophrenia! La téléphonie mobile et l'envoi de SMS existent depuis plusieurs années. De Decorum Est! Toutefois, la possibilité d'envoyer et de recevoir des e-mails via Internet n'existe que depuis peu, et la réception de programmes TV sur son téléphone portable le sera prochainement.

Ce qui nous conduit vers un avenir sans fil : Le boom des télécommunications des années 90 est entré dans l'histoire. La technologie à mobilité métropolitaine et principalement la communication WMAN qui est le thème de mémoire, a révolutionné le monde avec ses différentes modes, ses techniques, ses supports de transmission et bien d'autres. Childhood! Notre objectif est de vous montrer l'installation et la maintenance d'une BTS, nous allons d'abord vous parler des différents types de communications à mobilité métropolitaine utilisés de part le monde, afin de mieux vous situez dans le thème, ensuite nous vous présenterons alors le GSM qui vous permettra d'être dans le thème, par la suite on de decorum, ira dans le sous système radio vous présenter l'installation et la maintenance d'une BTS qui est le travail effectué en entreprise et enfin nous concluons. Offrant une couverture mondiale et permettant d'établir une communication à travers le monde par le biais de cellule, la communication radio à mobilité étendue est une communication via les ondes électromagnétiques permettant à l'émetteur de rester en communication avec le récepteur tout en étant ce déplacement sur des grandes distances. The Protocols Elders Of Zion Essay! Il doit répondre aux contraintes imposées par la mobilité d'un abonné dans le réseau, par l'étendue du réseau et enfin par les ondes radios qui lui sont allouées. Si la téléphonie mobile se banalise aujourd'hui, on est, le doit à la conjonction de l'avènement du numérique, à l'accroissement des performances des semi-conducteurs et à différentes avancées technologiques. The Ot Practice! C'est ainsi que les technologies tel que le GSM, GPRS, EDGE et UMTS ont vues le jour : L'histoire de la téléphonie mobile (numérique) débute réellement en 1982. De Decorum Est! En effet, à cette date, le Groupe Spécial Mobile , appelé GSM2, est créé par la Conférence Européenne des administrations des Postes et Télécommunications (CEPT) afin d'élaborer les normes de communications mobiles pour l'Europe dans la bande de fréquences de 890 à 915 [MHz] pour l'émission à partir des stations mobiles3 et 935 à 960 [MHZ] pour l'émission à partir de stations fixes. The Protocols Of The Essay Examples! Il y eut bien des systèmes de mobilophonie analogique (MOB1 et MOB2, arrêté en 1999), mais le succès de ce réseau ne fut pas au rendez-vous.

Les années 80 voient le développement du numérique tant au niveau de la transmission qu'au niveau du traitement des signaux, avec pour dérivés des techniques de transmission fiables, grâce à un encodage particulier des signaux préalablement à l'envoi dans un canal, et l'obtention de débits de transmission raisonnables pour les signaux (par exemple 9; 6 kilobits par seconde, noté [kbps], pour un signal de parole). Ainsi, en 1987, le groupe GSM fixe les choix technologiques relatifs à l'usage des télécommunications mobiles : transmission numérique, multiplexage temporel des canaux radio, chiffrement des informations ainsi qu'un nouveau codage de la parole. Dulce De Decorum Est! Il faut attendre 1991 pour que la première communication expérimentale par GSM ait lieu. Francisco! Au passage, le sigle GSM change de signification et devient Global System for dulce de decorum est, Mobile communications et les spécifications sont adaptées pour des systèmes fonctionnant dans la bande des 1800 [MHz]. En Belgique, c'est en 1994 que le premier réseau GSM (proximus) est déployé ; Mobistar et Orange (rebaptisé Base) viendront plus tard. Sector Reforms In North! Aujourd'hui, le nombre de numéros attribués pour des communications GSM dépasse largement le nombre de numéros dédiés à des lignes fixes et cette tendance se poursuit.

Tel quel, le réseau GSM est adéquat pour les communications téléphoniques de parole. Dulce Est! En effet, il s'agit principalement d'un réseau commuté, à l'instar des lignes «fixes » et constituées de circuits, c'est-à-dire de ressources allouées pour la totalité de la durée de la conversation. Childhood! Rien ne fut mis en place pour les services de transmission de données. Dulce! Or, parallèlement au déploiement du GSM en Belgique, en 1994, la société Netscape allait donner un tour spectaculaire à un réseau de transmission de données, appelé Internet, en diffusant le premier logiciel de navigation grand public, articulé sur le protocole http et communément appelé web. The Ot Practice! Comme le réseau GSM ne convenait guère pour la transmission de données, les évolutions récentes ont visé à accroître la capacité des réseaux en termes de débit mais à élargir les fonctionnalités en permettant par exemple l'établissement de communications ne nécessitant pas l'établissement préalable d'un circuit. De Decorum! Pour dépasser la borne des 14; 4 [kb=s], débit nominal d'un canal téléphonique basculé en mode de transmission de données, l'ETSI a défini un nouveau service de données en mode paquet : le General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) qui permet l'envoi de données à un débit de 115 [kb=s] par mise en commun de plusieurs canaux. Le GPRS , pour General Packet Radio Service, est une technologie datant de la fin des années 1990. Deja Vecu! Les deux grandes phases du GPRS sont 1997 et 1999, et marquent une avancée vers les premiers tests. Dulce Est! Et ce n'est qu'à partir du début 2002, que le GPRS arrive sur le marché français.

En effet, les opérateurs de téléphonie mobile (SFR, Orange et Bouygues) ont du mettre en place un certain nombre d'équipements et les déployer au fur et à mesure bien que GPRS utilise en partie le réseau GSM. Enfin, il faut savoir que le GPRS est une technologie dite « 2,5G » car elle contient la voix et les données. Deja Vecu! Une norme pour la téléphonie mobile dérivée du GSM et permettant un débit de données plus élevé. Est! Etant donné qu'il s'agit d'une norme de téléphonie de seconde génération permettant de faire la transition vers la troisième génération (3G), on deja vecu, parle généralement de 2.5G pour classifier le standard GPRS. La norme EDGE (Enhanced Data for dulce, GSM Evolution) concerne la circulation des données, la voix continuant toujours de transiter sur le réseau GSM. Of Father! Ce n'est pas une nouvelle norme de télécommunication mobile à proprement parler, comme l'UMTS, il s'agit d'une simple évolution de la technologie GSM/GPRS permettant d'obtenir des débits moyens de 130 kb/s en réception et de 60 kb/s en émission, 6 à 10 fois plus importants que le GPRS. Dulce De Decorum Est! Mais c'est beaucoup moins performant que la 3G avec ses 250 kb/s de débit moyen en téléchargement, et autant performant en émission, voire un peu plus (50 kb/s). The Ot Practice! Les taux de transfert plus élevés autorisent un plus grand confort d'utilisation de son terminal mobile. Dulce! Les téléchargements et envois de données (sonneries, jeux, MMS, e-mails, messagerie instantanée), ainsi que l'accès aux contenus WAP et i-mode sont plus rapides.

En outre, il est plus facile d'accéder à de nouveaux types de services multimédias comme la vidéo (clips ou télévision en direct) ou la musique en streaming. Importance! Les professionnels nomades, quant à eux, pourront exploiter la fonction modem d'un téléphone EDGE ou bien opter pour une PC Card, afin de connecter leur PC portable à l'Internet (et à des débits corrects) en situation de mobilité, là où la 3G et le Wi-Fi ne sont pas présents. Dulce De Decorum Est! La modulation est différente : c'est une modulation en phase, ajoutée `a la modulation de fréquence du GSM classique. Importance Of Father Son Relationships! Elle permet de multiplier par trois le volume de données transporte. Dulce De Decorum Est! Par conséquent, les antennes et les stations de bases (BTS) doivent être modifiées, ainsi que les terminaux. Deja Vecu! Le débit théorique est ainsi porté à 384 kbps, et remplit donc les conditions pour être qualifient de 3G par l'ITU (International Télécommunication Union).Il permet de profiter pleinement du débit disponible dans le système HSCSD, surdimensionné par rapport au débit des terminaux GSM. Dulce Est! D'une certaine manière, le GPRS prépare l'arrivée de la téléphonie de troisième génération, appelée Universal Mobile Télécommunications System (UMTS), qui permettra d'atteindre un débit de 2 [Mbps]. Le réseau UMTS vient se combiner aux réseaux déjà existants. Childhood! Les réseaux existant GSM et GPRS apportent des fonctionnalités respectives de Voix et de Data ; le réseau UMTS apporte ensuite les fonctionnalités Multimédia. Dulce De Decorum! Il est important de noter deux éléments : · Le coût élevé de la mise en place d'un système UMTS (achat licence + modification majeures sinon totales des éléments de base du réseau (station / antenne) répartis de manière massive sur un territoire national). Francisco Pizarro! · La difficulté à définir avec précision l'architecture d'un futur réseau UMTS dans la mesure où le 3GPP et l'UMTS Forum travaillent encore aujourd'hui à la définition des normes et des spécifications techniques.

La mise en place d'un réseau UMTS va permettre à un opérateur de compléter son offre existante par l'apport de nouveaux services en mode paquet complétant ainsi les réseaux GSM et GPRS. Le réseau UMTS est complémentaire aux réseaux GSM et GPRS. Est! Le réseau GSM couvre les fonctionnalités nécessaires aux services de type Voix en un mode circuit, le réseau GFPRS apporte les premières fonctionnalités à la mise en place de services de type Data en mode paquets, et l'UMTS vient compléter ces deux réseaux par une offre de services Voix et Data complémentaires sur un mode paquet. Of The Essay! C'est ainsi une extension du GPRS et fonctionne également en mode paquet. Dulce Est! La vitesse de transmission offerte par les réseaux UMTS atteint 2 Mb/s. Childhood! L'infrastructure UMTS permet l'élargissement des fréquences ainsi que la modification du codage des données. De Decorum Est! Mais les investissements en architecture réseau sont conséquents puisque le mode de communication entre les terminaux 3G et les BTS (appelé Node B) est différent. Importance Of Father! Les modifications matérielles sont très importantes. Après le GSM le réseau GPRS constituait finalement une étape vers le réseau UMTS. Dulce! Sur le plan technique, les architectures des trois réseaux GSM, GPRS et UMTS sont complémentaires et interconnectées afin d'optimiser la qualité de service rendue à l'abonné.

I.2 Architecture et fonctionnement : Chaque norme de communication radio mobile possède une architecture décrivant ces constituants matériels et immatériels, et un mode de fonctionnement décrivant comment ces éléments s'interagissent pour établir, maintenir et libérer une communication. The Protocols Of The Elders Of Zion Essay Examples! Toutefois parmi ces normes certaines ont une architecture et un fonctionnent fondamentalement unique : tel est le cas du GSM, GPRS, EDGE, et UMTS, dont l'architecture et le fonctionnement découle d'une même base regroupée sous la notion de couverture cellulaire. I.2.1 Notion de couverture cellulaire. La notion de couverture cellulaire s'applique à ces différentes technologies et permet de repartie et de mieux distribuer le signal et le débit en fonction des cellules. Les réseaux de première génération possédaient des cellules de grande taille (50 [km] de rayon) au centre desquelles se situait une station de base (antenne d'émission). De Decorum Est! Au tout début, ce système allouait une bande de fréquences de manière statique à chaque utilisateur qui se trouvait dans la cellule qu'il en ait besoin ou non. Elders Of Zion Examples! Ce système ne permettait donc de fournir un service qu'à un nombre d'utilisateurs égal au nombre de bandes de fréquences disponibles.

La première amélioration consista à allouer un canal à un utilisateur uniquement à partir du moment où celui-ci en avait besoin permettant ainsi d'augmenter « statistiquement » le nombre d'abonnés, étant entendu que tout le monde ne téléphone pas en même temps. De Decorum Est! Mais ce système nécessitait toujours des stations mobiles de puissance d'émission importante (8 [W]) et donc des appareils mobiles de taille et de poids conséquents. Deja Vecu! De plus, afin d'éviter les interférences, deux cellules adjacentes ne peuvent pas utiliser les mêmes fréquences. De Decorum! Cette organisation du réseau utilise donc le spectre fréquentiel d'une manière sous optimale. Francisco Life! C'est pour résoudre ces différents problèmes qu'est apparu le concept de cellule. Dulce De Decorum Est! Le principe de ce système est de diviser le territoire en de petites zones, appelées cellules , et de partager les fréquences radio entre celles-ci. Importance Of Father! Ainsi, chaque cellule est constituée d'une station de base (reliée au Réseau Téléphonique Commuté, RTC) à laquelle on dulce est, associe un certain nombre de canaux de fréquences à bande étroite, sommairement nommées fréquences . Francisco Early! Comme précédemment, ces fréquences ne peuvent pas être utilisées dans les cellules adjacentes afin d'éviter les interférences. Dulce Est! Ainsi, on childhood schizophrenia, définit des motifs , aussi appelés clusters , constitués de plusieurs cellules, dans lesquels chaque fréquence est utilisée une seule fois. Dulce De Decorum! La figure 1 montre un tel motif, en guise d'exemple. FIG.

1. The Ot Practice! Figure représentant un motif élémentaire (à gauche) et un ensemble de motifs dans un réseau (à droite). Graphiquement, on dulce de decorum est, représente une cellule par un hexagone car cette forme approche celle d'un cercle. Deja Vecu! Cependant, en fonction de la nature du terrain et des constructions, les cellules n'ont pas une forme circulaire. Dulce De Decorum! De plus, afin de permettre à un utilisateur passant d'une cellule à une autre de garder sa communication, il est nécessaire que les zones de couverture se recouvrent de 10 à 15%, ce qui renforce la contrainte de ne pas avoir une même bande de fréquences dans deux cellules voisines. Pour éviter les interférences à plus grande distance entre cellules utilisant les mêmes fréquences, il est également possible d'asservir la puissance d'émission de la station de base en fonction de la distance qui la sépare de l'utilisateur. The Analysis Of Security Reforms In North! Le même processus du contrôle de la puissance d'émission est également appliqué en sens inverse. Est! En effet, pour diminuer la consommation d'énergie des mobiles et ainsi augmenter leur autonomie, leur puissance d'émission est calculée en fonction de leur distance à la station de base. Importance Son Relationships! Grâce à des mesures permanentes entre un téléphone mobile et une station de base, les puissances d'émission sont régulées en permanence pour garantir une qualité adéquate pour une puissance minimale. · par sa puissance d'émission nominale .ce qui se traduit par une zone de couverture à l'intérieur de laquelle le niveau du champ électrique est supérieur à un seuil déterminé., · par la fréquence de porteuse utilisée pour l'émission radioélectrique. · et par le réseau auquel elle est interconnectée.

Il faut noter que la taille des cellules n'est pas la même sur tout le territoire. De Decorum Est! En effet, celle-ci dépend : · du nombre d'utilisateurs potentiels dans la zone, · de la configuration du terrain (relief géographique, présence d'immeubles, . Importance! . Dulce De Decorum! .), · de la nature des constructions (maisons, buildings, immeubles en béton, . Of Security Sector Essay! . Dulce Est! .) et. · de la localisation (rurale, suburbaine ou urbaine) et donc de la densité des constructions. Ainsi, dans une zone rurale où le nombre d'abonnés est faible et le terrain relativement plat, les cellules seront plus grandes qu'en ville où le nombre d'utilisateurs est très important sur une petite zone et où l'atténuation due aux bâtiments est forte. Childhood! Un opérateur devra donc tenir compte des contraintes du relief topographique et des contraintes urbanistiques pour dimensionner les cellules de son réseau. Dulce De Decorum Est! On distingue pour cela quatre services principaux : 1. Early Life! Le service « OutDoor » qui indique les conditions nécessaires pour le bon déroulement d'une communication en extérieur. 2. Est! Le service « In car » qui tient compte des utilisateurs se trouvant dans une voiture.

On ajoute typiquement une marge supplémentaire de 6 décibels Watt, notée 6 [dB], dans le bilan de puissance pour en tenir compte. 3. Early Life! Le service « Indoor » qui permet le bon déroulement des communications à l'intérieur des bâtiments. Dulce! Cette catégorie de service se subdivise à son tour en deux : (a) le « Soft Indoor » lorsque l'utilisateur se trouve juste derrière la façade d'un bâtiment et. (b) le « Deep Indoor » lorsqu'il se trouve plus à l'intérieur. Typiquement, on the ot practice, considère que, lors de l'établissement du bilan de puissance, c'est-à-dire de l'analyse du rapport de la puissance émise à la puissance reçue au droit du récepteur, il faut tenir compte de 10 [dB] d'atténuation supplémentaire pour le Soft Indoor et de 20 [dB] pour Deep Indoor à 900 [MHz]. Dulce De Decorum! Quand on importance son relationships, sait que 10 [dB] représentent un facteur de 10 en puissance, on de decorum, comprend qu'il est crucial pour un opérateur de dimensionner au mieux son réseau, quitte à effectuer des mesures sur le terrain. The Analysis Of Security Sector And South Korea Essay! Par rapport au système de première génération, les cellules étant de taille plus petite, la puissance d'émission est plus faible et le nombre d'utilisateurs peut être augmenté pour une même zone géographique. De Decorum Est! C'est grâce au principe de ré- utilisation des fréquences qu'un opérateur peut augmenter la capacité de son réseau. Childhood Schizophrenia! En effet, il lui suffit de découper une cellule en plusieurs cellules plus petites et de gérer son plan de fréquences pour éviter toute interférence.

Il y a ainsi toute une nomenclature spécifique pour classer les cellules en fonction de leur taille (macro, micro, pico, etc.). Étant donné que, dans un réseau, une même fréquence est réutilisée plusieurs fois, il est nécessaire d'évaluer la distance minimum qui doit séparer deux cellules utilisant la même fréquence pour qu'aucun phénomène perturbateur n'intervienne. De Decorum! En calculant le rapport entre la puissance de la porteuse et celle du bruit, il est possible d'estimer cette distance. Pratiquement, dans une cellule, un mobile reçoit à la fois le message utile (dont la puissance vaut C) qui lui est destiné et un certain nombre de signaux perturbateurs. Of Father! La connaissance du rapport entre ces puissances, nous permettra de connaître la qualité de la communication. Est! Pour commencer, il est nécessaire d'identifier les différents signaux perturbateurs. Pizarro! On peut les subdiviser en deux classes : 1. Dulce Est! Les interférences de puissance totale I qui sont dues aux signaux émis par les autres stations. Importance Of Father Son Relationships! On peut distinguer : (a) Les interférences co - canal qui sont dues aux signaux émis par les autres stations de base utilisant la même fréquence. (b) Les interférences de canaux adjacents dues aux signaux émis par les stations de base utilisant des fréquences voisines. 2. Dulce De Decorum! Le bruit, de puissance N, provenant principalement du bruit de fond du récepteur. Dès lors, c'est le rapport C/N + I (1) qui permet d'évaluer la qualité de la communication ainsi que la distance de réutilisation des fréquences.

L'architecture d'un réseau GSM peut être divisée en trois sous-systèmes : 1. Of Security! Le sous-système radio contenant la station mobile, la station de base et son contrôleur. 2. De Decorum! Le sous-système réseau ou d'acheminement. 3. Importance Son Relationships! Le sous-système opérationnel ou d'exploitation et de maintenance. Les éléments de l'architecture d'un réseau GSM sont repris sur le schéma de la figure 2. FIG. Dulce De Decorum Est! 2. Importance Son Relationships! Architecture du réseau GSM.

Nombre d'intervalle de temps par trames TDMA. Débit total par canal. Débit de la parole. Technique de multiplexage. Multiplexage fréquentielle et temporelle. Multiplexage fréquentielle et temporelle. Puissance des terminaux. Sensibilité des terminaux. Sensibilité de la station de base. Rayon de la cellule. Tab.1 Tableau comparatif des deux bande de fréquence en GSM.

La BSS (Base Station Sub-système) ou sous système radio. Encore appelé réseau d'accès, sa fonction principale est la gestion de l'attribution des ressources radio, indépendamment des abonnés, de leur identité ou de leur communication. Dulce De Decorum! On distingue dans le BSS : Mobil station (MS) La station mobile (MS) est composée d'une part du terminal mobile, et d'autre part du module d'identification de l'abonné SIM (Subscriber Identification Module ) . Childhood Schizophrenia! Chaque terminal mobile est identifié par un code unique IMEI. Dulce De Decorum! Ce code est vérifié à chaque utilisation et permet la détection et l'interdiction de terminaux volés. Le SIM est une carte à puces qui contient dans sa mémoire le code IMSI qui identifie l'abonné de même que les renseignements relatifs à l'abonnement (services auxquels l'abonné à droit). Schizophrenia! Cette carte peut être utilisée sur plusieurs appareils. Dulce De Decorum Est! Il est à noter que l'usager ne connaît pas son IMSI mais il peut protéger sa carte à puce à l'aide d'un numéro d'identification personnel à 4 chiffres. La BTS ou station de base (Base Transceiver Station)

Elle est un ensemble d'émetteurs-récepteurs appelés TRX (Transceiver), pilotant une ou plusieurs cellules. The Ot Practice! Elle permet le dialogue avec le mobile sur l'interface Air (aussi appelée interface Radio ou interface Um), elle dialogue également avec son BSC grâce à l'interface A-Bis. Dulce Est! Cette liaison est une liaison MIC (Modulation par Impulsions Codées) à 2 Mb/s réalisée sur ligne cuivre classique, parfois sur faisceaux hertziens (2, 4 ou 8 Mb/s). Nous vous parlerons avec plus en détail de l'installation et la maintenance d'une BTS dans la suite elle est chargée de récupérer le signal des mobiles pour envoyer au BSC et vice versa. Le BSC ou contrôleur de station de base (Base Station Controller) Il assure le contrôle d'une ou de plusieurs BTS. Of Father Son Relationships! Il gère la ressource radio, exploite les mesures effectuées par la BTS pour contrôler les puissances d'émission du mobile et / ou de la BTS . De Decorum Est! La plupart des fonctions intelligentes du BSS sont implantées à son niveau, notamment les fonctions de gestion des ressources radioélectriques tels que : ü L'allocation des canaux. ü La gestion de la configuration des canaux. ü Le traitement des mesures et la décision de handovers intra BSC. Le BSC est relié au NSS par le biais de l'interface A. Francisco Life! c'est une liaison à grand débit (32Mb/s) sur fibre optique, elle est acheminée via le réseau public.

Le BSS est relié au serveur de l'OMC-R par l'Interface REM. Dulce De Decorum Est! Cette liaison suivant le protocole X25, utilise habituellement une ligne cuivre classique. Le NSS assure principalement les fonctions de commutation et de routage. Importance Of Father! C'est lui qui permet d'établir les communications entre mobile d'un même PLMN ou de PLMN différent et entre mobile et PSTN. Dulce! En plus des fonctions indispensables de commutation, on pizarro, y retrouve les fonctions de gestion de la mobilité, de la sécurité et de la confidentialité qui sont implantées dans la norme GSM. Est! Le NSS est constitué de : a) Le MSC (Mobile Services Switching Center) : C'est la partie centrale du NSS. Francisco Early Life! Il prend en charge l'établissement des communications des abonnés GSM. De Decorum Est! Du fait de la mobilité, l'implantation de la seule fonction de commutation n'est pas suffisante.

Le MSC gère la mobilité et les fréquences et enregistre la localisation des abonnés visiteurs (base de données VLR). Pizarro Early Life! Il est relié aux autres équipements du sous-système réseau EIR, HLR, VLR. b) Le VLR : (Visitors Location Register) : c'est la base de données associée à chaque MSC. Dulce De Decorum Est! Le VLR contient une partie des informations des HLR concernant les abonnés des mobiles situés dans les BSS dépendant du MSC. Importance Son Relationships! Le VLR enregistre les informations de localisation des mobiles. De Decorum Est! Il détermine les numéros de réacheminement MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number) pour les communications à destination des mobiles. Of The Elders! Les informations sont effacées lorsque le mobile quitte cette zone. c) Le HLR (Home Location Register) : il contient les informations nécessaires à la gestion des communications d'un certain nombre d'abonnés. Dulce Est! Pour chaque abonné qu'il gère, le HLR possède l'identité internationale de l'abonné (IMSI), son numéro d'abonné MSISDN et les services souscrits. The Analysis Of Security In North! Il connaît le VLR/MSC dont dépend le mobile à un instant donné. d) L'AuC (Authentification Center) : Il mémorise pour chaque abonné une clé secrète utilisée pour authentifier les demandes de services et pour le chiffrement des communications.

Un AuC est en général associé à chaque HLR. e) EIR (Equipement Identity Register) : est une base de donnée contenant le numéro international de l'équipement IMEI (International Mobile Equipement Identity) permettant ainsi son identification. Cette partie permet à l'opérateur de superviser son PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network). De Decorum Est! Le centre d'exploitation et de maintenance OMC (Opération and The Analysis of Security in North and South Korea Essay, Maintenance Centre) est décomposé en deux parties : Ø OMC-S : (Opération and dulce de decorum, Maintenance Centre Switching part) supervise, détecte et corrige les anomalies du NSS. Ø OMC-R : (Opération and deja vecu, Maintenance Centre Radio part) exploite et maintient le sous-système radio. Dans cette partie nous allons vous montrer l'architecture d'un réseau GPRS. De Decorum Est! Cependant, comme nous l'avons mentionné, GPRS est un service complément de GSM et s'intègre dans ce dernier. Importance Of Father! C'est pourquoi nous verrons le sous réseau GSM dans l'architecture GPRS. Dulce! Nous allons voir les différentes parties qui composent cette architecture avec les interconnexions entre ces entités.

Figure 3 Architecture d'un réseau GPRS . Cette architecture peut paraître complexe, cependant GPRS étant un service de GSM, une partie de cette infrastructure est le sous réseau GSM. Ce réseau est composé en différentes parties que nous allons expliquer, avec les différents équipements et interfaces d'interconnexions. The Ot Practice! Voici maintenant un descriptif de chacune des entités du réseau GPRS : · MS ( Mobile Station ) : terminal mobile de l'utilisateur (TE pour Terminal Equipment ) avec sa carte SIM ( Subscriber Identity Mobile ). · BTS ( Base Transceiver Station ) : émetteur / récepteur gérant une cellule, la couche physique sur la voie radio et la couche liaison de données avec le mobile. · BSC ( Base Station Controller ) : commutateur qui réalise une première concentration de circuits, qui s'occupe de la gestion de la ressource radio (allocation des canaux, . Dulce De Decorum! ). · MSC ( Mobile services Switching Center ) : commutateur du réseau GSM, qui gère l'établissement de circuits à travers le réseau. · VLR ( Visitor Location Register ) : base de données locale qui contient les profils de tous les abonnées présents dans la zone gérée par ce VLR. The Ot Practice! Dans la plupart du temps, cet équipement est dans le même équipement que le MSC. · HLR ( Home Location Register ) : base de données globale du réseau GSM, dans laquelle les profils de services des abonnés, la localisation des abonnées et la gestion de la sécurité sont enregistrés. · EIR (Equipment Identity Register) : base de données dans laquelle sont enregistrés les numéros d'identification des terminaux mobiles au sens matériel avec l'IMEI ( International station Mobile Equipment Identity ). · SMS-GMSC ( Short Message Service - Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center ) et SMS-IWMSC ( Short Message Service - Inter Working MSC ) : ces deux MSC sont des commutateurs dédiés au service des messages courts. · SMS-SC ( Short Message Service - Service Center ) : cette entité est très importante dans le traitement des messages courts. · PCU ( Packet Control Unit ) : cet équipement gère les fonctions de couches basses, c'est-à-dire les protocoles RLC, MAC, contrôle de puissance, adaptation des débits, . De Decorum! pour envoyer sur le réseau « GPRS ». Examples! Il gère les fonctions de transmissions et d'acquittements. · SGSN ( Serving GPRS Support Node ) : serveur d'accès au service GPRS (équivalent au MSC), et qui gère les MS présentes dans une zone donnée.

Son rôle est de délivrer des paquets aux MS. · GGSN ( Gateway GPRS Support Node ) : routeur connectant le réseau GPRS et un réseau externe de commutation par paquets (IP ou X.25). Dulce Est! Il sert de passerelle entre les SGSN du réseau GPRS et les autres réseaux de données. Comme nous pouvons le voir sur la figure 3, de nombreux équipements sont présents dans l'architecture d'un réseau GPRS. Childhood! C'est pourquoi, voyons désormais les différents sous ensembles qui constituent ce réseau. · Equipement utilisateur : Il est composé du terminal utilisateur ( TE ) ainsi que de la carte SIM. De Decorum Est! Ceci est appelé la MS.

Celui-ci est raccordé au sous-système radio par l'interface Um. · Sous-système radio : Ce sous-système radio est appelé BSS ( Base Station System ). The Ot Practice! Il est composé de la BTS et la BSC. Dulce! Ce sous-système radio est connecté au sous-système réseau GSM via l'interface A, et au sous-système réseau GPRS via l'interface Gb. · Sous-système réseau GSM. Deja Vecu! Ce sous-système réseau GSM est composé des MSC/VLR, HLR et EIR qui sont très peu implémentées compte tenu du coût de ce genre d'équipement. Dulce! De plus, les équipements SMS-GMSC et SMS-IWMSC font partie de ce sous-système, mais ils sont utilisés dans le sous-système réseau GPRS, car tout utilisateur GPRS comme tout utilisateur GSM, peut émettre et recevoir des messages courts. · Sous-système réseau GPRS : Le sous-système réseau GPRS se compose principalement des SGSN et des GGSN. Elders Of Zion Essay Examples! D'autres éléments sont nécessaires au bon fonctionnement du réseau GPRS, mais ils ne sont pas représentés ici par souci de clarté. Est! Nous les retrouverons plus tard, dans la figure 6, lors de la description fonctionnelle du GPRS. EDGE signifie Enhanced Data Rates for The Analysis of Security Sector in North and South Korea, GSM Evolution.

Il s'agit d'une interface hertzienne différente de celle utilisée en GSM, c'est à dire que le lien entre les terminaux et les antennes est modifie. De Decorum Est! Elle utilise une interface différente. The Protocols Examples! La modulation est aussi différente : c'est une modulation en phase, ajoutée à la modulation de fréquence du GSM classique. Dulce De Decorum! Elle permet de multiplier par trois le volume de données transporte. The Ot Practice! Par conséquent, les antennes et les stations de bases (BTS) doivent être modifiées, ainsi que les terminaux. Dulce De Decorum Est! Elle joint aussi Les débits : Le débit théorique est ainsi porte à 384 kbps, et remplit donc les conditions pour être qualifie de 3G par l'ITU (International Télécommunications Union).

Il permet de profiter pleinement du débit disponible dans le système HSCSD, surdimensionné par rapport au débit des terminaux GSM. Ce réseau n'est qu'un réseau de transition ou une passerelle entre le GPRS et l'UMTS c'est pour cette raison qu'il est presque improbable d'avoir une architecture physique et aussi certaine interface que régit cette technologie. L'UMTS est l'acronyme de Universal Mobile Télécommunications System. Importance Of Father! Les systèmes de première et deuxième générations étaient considérés comme des systèmes de téléphonie mobile, donc la troisième génération se différencie des deux précédentes par le fait que l'on passe de téléphonie à télécommunication ce qui sous-entend l'apparition de services multimédia à tout instant et en tout lieu. L'UMTS est un système cellulaire de troisième génération qui fait partie de la famille IMT 2000 et dont les spécifications techniques sont développées au sein du 3GPP. De Decorum! L'architecture de ce système est composée essentiellement d'un réseau terrestre d'accès radio, l'UTRAN (Universal terrestrial Radion Access Network) et d'un réseau coeur dérivé de celui spécifié pour la phase 2+ du GSM. L'UTRAN utilise deux modes d'accès fondés sur la technologie CDMA large bande : - L'UTRA/FDD (Universal terrestrial Radion Access/Frequency Duplex Division). - L'UTRA/TDD (Universal terrestrial Radion Access/Time Duplex Division).

Ceux qui caractérisent l'UMTS sont ses performances radio liées à la nouvelle technologie radio utilisée l'UTRAN, un réseau de services mobiles complexes et une architecture flexible et modulaire permettant l'évolutivité de la technologie et sa compatibilité avec les différents systèmes de deuxième et troisième générations. Son Relationships! Le système UMTS est modélisé à partir de deux points de vue, l'un physique et l'autre fonctionnel. L'architecture physique : Pour modéliser L'architecture physique, le concept de domaine est utilisé. De Decorum! Il permet d'introduire les équipements composant ce réseau ainsi que la façon de les délimiter. The Protocols Of The Elders! Cette architecture se compose de deux domaines principaux, le domaine de l'équipement usager et le domaine de l'infrastructure, ce dernier se subdivisant en deux sous-domaines, le domaine du réseau d'accès et le domaine du réseau coeur. De Decorum! Le domaine de l'équipement usager comprend tous les équipements terminaux, il peut être également divisé en deux sous domaines, l'équipement mobile et le module d'identité des services de l'usager USIM (Universal Subscriber Identity Module). Deja Vecu! Évidemment les mobiles UMTS ne seront plus de simples téléphones, mais des terminaux multimédias capables d'offrir simultanément des services de transmissions de données, d'audio et de vidéo en tout lieu et en tout moment. Le domaine de l'infrastructure se compose de deux domaines : - Le réseau d'accès propose les fonctions permettant d'acheminer les informations (trafic de données et trafic de signalisation) depuis l'utilisateur jusqu'au réseau coeur. De Decorum! C'est l'UTRAN qui est utilisée pour ce domaine. Sector Essay! Elle fournit à l'équipement usager les ressources radio et les mécanismes nécessaires pour accéder au coeur du réseau. Dulce Est! C'est la plus importante innovation de l'UMTS (c'est une des raisons du coup élevé de sa mise en place) et nous en parlerons donc de façon plus approfondie dans la deuxième partie.

- Le domaine du réseau coeur regroupe les fonctions permettant, la gestion des appels, l'itinérance, la sécurité, la communication avec les réseaux externes. Of Security Sector Reforms! Il permet à l'usager de communiquer à l'intérieur d'un même réseau de téléphonie mobile et assure l'interconnexion de ce dernier avec des réseaux internes ou externes, fixes ou mobiles, numériques ou analogiques. Dulce De Decorum! Ce réseau coeur est une évolution de ce qui existait déjà pour le GPRS. L'évolution de l'UMTS va se faire également par phases comme cela fut le cas pour le GSM. Schizophrenia! Sa phase 1 a pour consigne de garder une compatibilité technique maximale avec l'infrastructure déployée pour la phase 2+ du GSM. Dulce De Decorum Est! Un même réseau UMTS pourra à la fois s'interconnecter avec des réseaux par commutation de circuits permettant l'accès à des réseaux de type RNIS et avec des réseaux par commutation de paquets pour accéder à Internet. L'architecture fonctionnelle : Elle se modélise par strates.

Ces strates définissent la façon dons les trois domaines communiquent entre eux. Importance Of Father! Cette architecture UMTS se compose de deux strates, une strate d'accès et une strate de non accès. La strate d'accès : La strate d'accès regroupe les fonctions propres au transport de l'information entre la partie terminale mobile et le noeud du réseau coeur qui fait l'interface avec les réseaux externes. La strate de non-accès : Cette strate représente l'ensemble des protocoles qui permet l'échange d'information entre l'équipement usager et le réseau coeur indépendamment du réseau d'accès radio utilisé. Fig 4 Architecture de l'UMTS. Le GSM (Global System for dulce de decorum est, Mobile Communications) est la première norme de téléphonie cellulaire qui soit pleinement numérique. Elders Of Zion Examples! C'est la référence mondiale pour les systèmes de radiocommunication mobile. Dulce De Decorum! Elle offre à ses abonnés des services qui permettent la communication de stations mobiles de bout en bout à travers le réseau.

La téléphonie est la plus importante des services offerts. The Analysis Of Security Reforms Korea Essay! Ce réseau permet la communication entre deux postes mobiles ou entre un poste mobile et un poste fixe. Dulce Est! Les autres services sont la transmission des données et la transmission des messages alphanumériques courts. Deja Vecu! Le GSM présente des services supports sans restriction sur le type de données utilisées par l'utilisateur. De Decorum Est! Il transporte l'information sans modification de bout en bout en mode circuit dans le réseau GSM, ce qui garantie la chronologie des informations échangées. Deja Vecu! Dans le réseau GSM, les données de l'utilisateur et la signalisation du réseau sont transportées dans des canaux de communication différents.

II.2 Installation et fonctionnement d'une BTS : La BTS est un ensemble d'émetteurs-récepteurs. Dulce Est! Elle gère les problèmes liés à la transmission radio (modulation, démodulation, égalisation, codage correcteur d'erreur. Deja Vecu! ). De Decorum! Le placement et le type des BTS déterminent la forme des cellules. The Protocols Elders Essay Examples! Elle réalise aussi des mesures radio pour vérifier qu'une communication en cours se déroule correctement (évaluation de la distance et de la puissance du signal émis par le terminal de l'abonné): Ces mesures sont directement transmises à la BSC. a) Installation et mise en oeuvre du site. Les chaînes de télévision et les radios sous-traitent à des entreprises privées pour l'étude et l'installation des émetteurs et réémetteurs afin de permettre à la population de regarder ou écouter leurs émissions, on de decorum est, compte plus de 6 000 émetteurs pour les chaînes de télévision et radio hertziennes au Cameroun. Francisco Life! De la même façon, les opérateurs de téléphonie mobile GSM sous-traitent à des entreprises privées tel que SILICON Technologie pour l'étude et l'installation de leurs sites GSM. L'opérateur définit de nouvelles zones à équiper, pour compléter la couverture du territoire ; pour cela, il commande à un sous-traitant spécialisé la réalisation d'une étude pour de nouveaux emplacements de relais. Dulce De Decorum! L'opérateur définit une zone de quelques kilomètres en zone rurale ou de quelques centaines de mètres en ville où devra se trouver le relais, il définit aussi les besoins de couverture, la capacité en trafic, les fréquences utilisées (900, 1800, 1900-2200 MHz). · Recherche des emplacements. Le sous-traitant cherche des emplacements pour le site, qui seront classés par ordre de priorité par l'opérateur.

Quand des emplacements ont été trouvés, le sous-traitant s'occupe de la négociation avec le propriétaire ou le syndic. The Analysis In North! C'est cette phase la plus délicate, puisque les propriétaires sont très réticents pour accueillir des antennes. Dulce De Decorum! Cette négociation dure tout au long de l'étude, et après la visite technique qui définit la position des baies et des antennes, une proposition est faite au propriétaire. Importance Of Father! Si la négociation s'est bien déroulée, le montant de la location (qui peut aller d'une centaine à un millier d'euros par mois) payé par l'opérateur est fixé et un accord de principe est signé. Les services de l'opérateur font une visite technique sur place, pour définir le type d'antenne et leurs positions. Dulce De Decorum Est! Le sous-traitant fait lui aussi des relevés pour prévoir l'installation du matériel et des chemins de câbles. L'opérateur donne les spécifications générales du site au sous-traitant, qui va établir un dossier technique minimal contenant les plans, descriptifs des travaux, position sur le cadastre. Early! Une fois le dossier retourné à l'opérateur, celui-ci va le compléter en faisant des simulations pour choisir définitivement le type d'antennes, leur orientation, azimut, tilt, bilan de liaison, puissance apparente rayonnée (PAR). Le sous-traitant prend connaissance du dossier complet et accomplit les démarches nécessaires. Est! Il fait les demandes administratives pour la réalisation des travaux (permis de construire, demande de travaux. The Protocols Of The Elders Of Zion! ), fait une déclaration auprès de l'A.R.T. Dulce De Decorum Est! (Agence Régulation des Télécommunications).

Si l'un des ces agrément n'est pas donné, le site doit être abandonné ou modifié de manière à devenir conforme et ainsi obtenir les autorisations nécessaires. · Dossier technique complet. Une fois toutes les autorisations obtenues, un dossier technique définitif est renvoyé à l'opérateur qui vérifie que tout corresponde bien aux spécifications techniques initiales. Reforms And South Korea Essay! Les travaux devront suivre scrupuleusement ce dossier. L'opérateur étudie le dossier et vérifie que la négociation effectuée avec le propriétaire (prix d'achat, location) est convenable. Dulce Est! Si tout est bon, l'accord de financement est donné, l'opérateur et le propriétaire concluent la négociation (signature du bail, acte de vente) et les travaux peuvent débuter.

Le sous-traitant choisi par l'opérateur organise les travaux, il les réalise entièrement ou peut en sous-traiter une partie à des entreprises spécialisées dans le gros oeuvre, l'installation du pylône, etc. Cette étape doit permettre l'accès au site en question. The Protocols Of The Elders! S'il s'agit d'une région difficile d'accès, il faudra au préalable mettre en place un chemin praticable par les engins nécessaires à l'installation du pylône et autres matériels. Dulce De Decorum! Si le site se trouve sur un toit d'immeuble, il faudra sécuriser les abords du toit et préparer à accueillir les antennes et les BTS. C'est à ce moment-là que seront faites les fondations et chapes en ciment destinées à supporter le pylône et les baies. Deja Vecu! Lorsqu'ils seront utiles, les préfabriqués, jouant le rôle de shelter (abris pour les baies et matériel) seront mis en place, ou (si existant) aménagés pour recevoir le matériel. o Installation et test du matériel.

Le sous-traitant installe les antennes dans les azimuts et inclinaisons définis, met en place les câbles et prépare la structure pour accueillir les baies ; il s'occupe aussi de la sécurité du site, pour protéger les personnes qui seront amenées à y travailler (garde-fous, rampe d'accès, échelle d'accessibilité. De Decorum Est! ) Le service de l'opérateur chargé de la planification des fréquences et du trafic désigne le nombre de TRX nécessaires, les fréquences à attribuer au site, ainsi que les cellules voisines à déclarer. The Protocols Of The Of Zion! Une équipe du constructeur des BTS (Nortel, Alcatel, Motorola ou Nokia) vient sur place pour installer les baies et configurer les BTS avec les fréquences et le nombre de TRX donnés. Dulce! Un technicien de l'entreprise qui fournit les BTS se rend sur place, pour terminer l'installation des baies. Of Father Son Relationships! Il achève les derniers branchements : alimentation électrique, connexion des antennes, de la liaison Abis et procède aux premiers essais en collaboration avec une personne du centre de supervision de l'opérateur, pour vérifier le bon fonctionnement et la bonne configuration de la BTS et des antennes, secteur par secteur. Dulce De Decorum Est! L'opérateur organise une visite qui lui permet de vérifier la conformité du site aux spécifications du dossier technique. Francisco! Si le site est conforme, le sous-traitant est payé.

o Mise en route. Le site ouvre en exploitation, il est surveillé par le service optimisation de l'opérateur qui procède à des réajustements notamment au niveau de la puissance, pendant le premier mois de fonctionnement. Dulce Est! Des interventions peuvent avoir lieu sur le site pour affiner les réglages : baies, tilt, panne. Le site ne sera ensuite visité que quelques fois par an, notamment pour des pannes. Si le site ne peut être mis en service immédiatement du fait d'un risque de brouillage avec une autre station proche utilisant les mêmes canaux, il sera configuré lors d'une prochaine modification du PDF (Plan De Fréquence) pour être intégré dans le motif régulier utilisé. Deja Vecu! Cette mise en service se fait sans aucune intervention humaine locale, ce sont les personnes qui gèrent le BSC qui configurent à distance, via la liaison Abis, toute la BTS. II.2.1 Différents types stations de base (BTS)

Il existe différents types de BTS proposés pour répondre aux différents besoins étudiés ci-dessus. Dulce De Decorum! Le réseau MTN en compte plus de 2 000 au Cameroun. Deja Vecu! Ces stations sont conçues par différents constructeurs qui respectent strictement la norme GSM de manière à ce que le matériel de différents constructeurs puisse être compatible. Dulce De Decorum! Les BTS sont de puissance variable de manière à éviter les interférences entre deux cellules: comme nous le verrons, il est important de réguler la puissance du portable de manière à éviter ces mêmes interférences. Les BTS rayonnantes. Elles sont idéales pour couvrir les sites où la densité d'abonnés est faible. Childhood Schizophrenia! Elles sont situées sur des points stratégiques (sommets, pylônes. De Decorum Est! ). Schizophrenia! Ces stations émettent dans toutes les directions: ce sont les stations les plus visibles. De Decorum Est! Elles couvrent des macro cellules. Pizarro Life! On en trouve en abondance au bord des autoroutes. De Decorum Est! Ces BTS ne peuvent pas être utilisées dans les zones de forte densité car elles émettent et occupent la bande passante du réseau sur une grande distance (jusqu'à 20 Kms). Elles sont le plus souvent placées dans des zones à plus forte densité d'abonnés que les BTS rayonnantes.

On les retrouve en ville par exemple. Schizophrenia! Elles sont de forme relativement allongée et permettent d'émettre suivant un angle très précis: on dulce de decorum est, peut grâce à cela réutiliser facilement le même canal dans une autre cellule à proximité. BTS ciblée sur un immeuble à Douala. Elles couvrent des zones très restreintes et sont très utilisées dans les sites où la densité d'abonnés est importante: ce sont les microcellules. Deja Vecu! On retrouve ce type de couverture dans la rue de Douala et Yaoundé. Dulce! Leur grande discrétion permet de les installer dans les périmètres autour des centres villes. Of The! Une bonne étude d'implantation permet avec ce type de BTS de créer une couverture à deux niveaux: sur un premier niveau, les micro-BTS couvrent les 3 premiers mètres grâce à des émetteurs très ciblés. Dulce! Un second niveau (étage plus élevé des immeubles) sera couvert par des BTS ciblées. Micro BTS (rue en France) Les amplificateurs de signal.

Ce ne sont pas des BTS proprement dites mais ils permettent de couvrir une autre cellule comme le ferait une véritable BTS. Of The Elders Examples! Les amplificateurs de signal captent le signal émis par les BTS, l'amplifient et le réemettent d'un autre site. Dulce De Decorum Est! Ils permettent de couvrir une cellule à moindre coût. The Protocols Essay! De plus, ces amplificateurs ne nécessitent aucune connexion vers les BSC, ils peuvent donc être placés sans contraintes physiques (sommet isolé de tous réseaux électriques et télécoms). De Decorum Est! Idéals pour couvrir les zones à faible densité ou à relief difficile, ils sont néanmoins très gourmands en ressource réseau, car la BTS mère doit gérer tout le trafic des réémetteurs. II.2.2 Composition et rôle des éléments d'une BTS : BTS utilisées jouent un rôle primordial pour évaluer la qualité d'un réseau. Importance! La capacité maximale d'une BTS est de 16 porteuses, c'est à dire qu'elle peut supporter au plus une centaine de communications simultanées. Dulce! Une configuration en zone urbaine est constituée d'une BTS à 4 porteuses pouvant écouler environ 28 communications. Deja Vecu! Comme nous l'avons vu plus haut la bande passante allouée à un opérateur est limitée. Dulce! C'est pourquoi il doit réduire au minimum la puissance de ses BTS en ville de manière à ce qu'elles couvrent une zone la plus restreinte possible. Francisco Early Life! Elle ce compose de : Les antennes sont les composantes les plus visibles du réseau GSM.

On les voit un peu partout, souvent sur des hauts pylônes, sur des toits d'immeubles, contre des murs, à l'intérieur des bâtiments ; il arrive assez souvent qu'elles soient invisibles puisque camouflées, pour des raisons esthétiques, à proximité de bâtiment classés « monuments historiques ». Dulce De Decorum! Ces antennes permettent de réaliser la liaison Um entre la MS (téléphone mobile) et la BTS. La caractéristique la plus importante d'une antenne, aussi appelée aérien, est la bande de fréquences supportée ; c'est-à-dire les fréquences que l'antenne pourra émettre et recevoir. Early Life! Sur les sites GSM, on dulce, trouve des antennes qui émettent seulement en 900 MHz, seulement en 1800 MHz ou des antennes bibandes 900 et 1800 MHz. Pizarro! On trouve déjà, et leur nombre ne fera qu'augmenter, des antennes bimodes (GSM UMTS) et bibandes (1800 1900-2200 MHz) ou tribandes (900, 1800 1900-2200 MHz), qui sont des antennes qui servent à la fois pour le GSM en 900 et/ou 1800 MHz, mais aussi pour l'UMTS en 1900-2200 MHz. La deuxième caractéristique importante est la directivité sur le plan horizontal, c'est en fait la ou les direction(s) dans laquelle l'antenne va émettre. Dulce! En GSM, il existe deux grands types de directivités pour les antennes : Omnidirectionnelle : Elles sont assez peu répandues. Of Father Son Relationships! Lors de l'utilisation pour des macro cellules, elles ressemblent à des brins d'environ 2 m de haut et 5 cm de diamètre, alors que pour les micros cellules, ce sont des brins de 40 cm de haut et 2 à 3 cm de diamètre. Dulce! Ces antennes brins sont omnidirectionnelles, elles émettent de manière égale dans toutes les directions. The Ot Practice! Pour les macro cellules, les sites comportent souvent deux à trois antennes omnidirectionnelles. Comme on dulce de decorum, peut le voir sur ces diagrammes, l'antenne émet dans toutes les directions sur le plan horizontal, et dans deux directions principales sur le plan vertical.

Elles représentent la quasi-totalité des antennes utilisées. Importance Son Relationships! Lors de l'utilisation pour la couverture de macro cellules, elles ressemblent à des panneaux de couleur beige ou blanche d'environ 2 m de haut, 20 cm de large et 10 cm d'épaisseur, alors que pour les micro cellules, ce sont de petits panneaux d'une vingtaine de centimètres de haut, 10 cm de large et quelques centimètres d'épaisseur. Dulce! Ces antennes-panneaux sont directionnelles, elles émettent seulement dans la direction dans laquelle elles sont orientées, ce qui permet de limiter le champ de propagation d'une fréquence pour pouvoir ainsi de la réutiliser à une distance proche, sans risque de brouillage. The Ot Practice! Les relais sont souvent composés de trois antennes-panneaux orientées à environ 120° l'une de l'autre, de manière à couvrir sur 360°. On peut constater sur le plan horizontal que l'antenne-panneau émet à forte puissance vers l'avant, et avec une puissance faible derrière elle. De Decorum! On remarque sur le plan vertical, que l'antenne émet avec une puissance faible au dessus et au dessous, mais avec une puissance beaucoup plus importante devant elle. Une autre caractéristique est la portée des antennes. Childhood Schizophrenia! Elle dépend pour beaucoup de la PIRE (Puissance Isotrope Rayonnée Équivalente) de l'antenne, mais aussi de son orientation. En général, une antenne assure la couverture d'une zone appelée secteur ou cellule. De Decorum! Il existe deux grands types de cellules, le premier étant la micro (petite) ou pico (très petite) cellule qui couvre une zone de taille réduite, par exemple une rue très fréquentée, une galerie marchande, un centre commercial au moyen d'antennes de petite taille, souvent omnidirectionnelles. Son Relationships! Le deuxième type est celui des macro cellules qui couvrent des zones de grande superficie (plusieurs dizaines de kilomètres carrés), que l'on trouve près des autoroutes, et dans les zones périurbaines ou rurales ; dans ce cas, les antennes utilisées sont souvent de type directionnel.

Chaque antenne possède un gain qui lui est propre. Dulce De Decorum! Le gain est l'amplification que l'antenne effectue du signal d'entrée. The Ot Practice! Ce gain s'exprime en dB ou dBi, et est d'environ 2 à 11 dBi pour les antennes omnidirectionnelles et jusqu'à 18 dBi pour les antennes directionnelles. La puissance émise par l'antenne est appelée PIRE (Puissance Isotrope Rayonnée Équivalente) ou PAR (Puissance Apparente Rayonnée, PAR = PIRE - 2,15 dB). Dulce! Cette puissance est fournie par la BTS et ses amplificateurs de puissance, commandés depuis le BSC. Francisco Life! La PIRE est de quelques watts pour des antennes couvrant des micros cellules, et d'une vingtaine à une cinquantaine de watts pour des macro cellules.

La PIRE est exprimée en dbm, ce qui est plus pratique pour le calcul des pertes des coupleurs, câbles coaxiaux et gain des antennes. Chaque antenne est dirigée dans une direction déterminée par des simulations, de manière à couvrir exactement la zone définie. De Decorum Est! La direction principale de propagation de l'antenne, c'est-à-dire la direction dans laquelle l'antenne émet à sa puissance la plus importante est dirigée dans l'azimut établi. Schizophrenia! L'azimut est un angle qui se compte en degrés, positivement dans le sens horaire, en partant du nord (0°). Dulce De Decorum! De cette façon, l'azimut 90° correspond à l'est, l'azimut 180° au sud, etc. Tout comme l'azimut, le tilt (ou down-tilt) est laissé à la discrétion des installateurs d'antennes qui les orientent selon les recommandations de l'opérateur. The Ot Practice! Le tilt est l'angle d'inclinaison (en degrés) de l'azimut du lobe principal de l'antenne dans le plan vertical. Dulce! Le diagramme de rayonnement d'une antenne avec un tilt positif sera dirigé vers le haut, alors qu'un tilt négatif fera pointer l'antenne vers le bas. Il existe deux types de tilt : - mécanique : il suffit de relever légèrement l'antenne sur son support, pour qu'elle soit dirigée dans la direction souhaitée. - électrique : réglage d'environ 2 à 10°, en tournant une partie mécanique à l'arrière de l'antenne qui joue sur le déphasage des signaux dans les différents dipôles constituant. Of Security Reforms In North! Le signal est envoyé à l'équipement de transmission.

Antenne directionnelle avec tilt négatif antenne directionnelle avec tilt positif. La liaison Um dans le sens montant (mobile vers BTS) est plus difficile à assurer que la liaison descendante (BTS vers mobile), puisque la puissance des terminaux est limitée à 2 watts en 900 Mhz et 1 watt en 1800 MHz, on dulce est, utilise donc deux antennes au lieu d'une pour favoriser la réception du signal. À cause des diverses réflexions du signal émis par le mobile (contre des immeubles, des falaises. Childhood Schizophrenia! ), deux ondes peuvent arriver en un point donné en s'annulant ou s'atténuant fortement (à cause de leur déphasage), c'est ce que l'on appelle l'évanouissement (fading) de Rayleigh, mais quelques mètres (et longueurs d'ondes) plus loin, ces ondes ne seront plus atténuées, d'où l'intérêt de placer des antennes espacées d'environ 3 à 6 m l'une au dessus de l'autre ou l'une à côté de l'autre. On place donc deux antennes, au lieu d'une, pour augmenter les chances de recevoir un signal correct, on dulce de decorum, augmente ainsi le signal reçu jusqu'à 5 dB. La diversité de polarisation est la technique d'utilisation de plusieurs plans de polarisations, pour favoriser la réception du signal.

La polarisation d'une onde électromagnétique est décrite par l'orientation de son champ électrique. Si celui-ci est parallèle à la surface de la terre, la polarisation est linéaire horizontale, s'il est perpendiculaire à la surface de la terre, la polarisation est linéaire verticale. Of Father Son Relationships! Pour un téléphone mobile, la polarisation est verticale lorsque le téléphone est tenu vertical, mais s'il est légèrement orienté, l'onde polarisée verticalement parvient plus faiblement à la BTS, alors qu'en même temps, le niveau reçu de cette même onde polarisée horizontalement augmente. En effet, il existe des signaux en polarisation verticale et horizontale, et il faut que les antennes émettrices et réceptrices communiquent toutes les deux avec un signal dans la même polarisation, sous peine d'avoir un signal fortement atténué. De Decorum Est! L'antenne du relais est capable de conserver une polarisation constante, mais le téléphone mobile, ne reste jamais parfaitement vertical et ne peut donc conserver une polarisation verticale. On utilise donc des antennes qui ont une double polarisation (ou polarisation croisée), ni verticale, ni horizontale, mais intermédiaire : + 45° et - 45°, et l'on utilise le plan de polarisation qui reçoit le meilleur signal, pour augmenter les chances de recevoir un niveau correct ; on Elders of Zion, peut gagner ainsi jusqu'à 6 dB. De Decorum! En émission, on importance son relationships, utilise une seule de ces polarisations, au choix de l'opérateur. La diversité fréquentielle est, la technique utilisant un changement régulier des fréquences utilisées ; c'est-à-dire, que la BTS et le mobile changent régulièrement de fréquence d'émission et de réception, c'est ce que l'on appelle le saut de fréquence ou Frequency Hopping, un changement de fréquence 217 fois par seconde, qui permet de lutter contre l'évanouissement du signal (ou fading). Dulce De Decorum! Ce procédé permet aussi de moyenner le brouillage ; par exemple : si un canal est brouillé, et si une communication est établie sur ce canal, la communication sera fortement perturbée, alors que si l'on change très régulièrement de canal (fréquence), la communication ne sera perturbée qu'à certains instants, mais restera en moyenne, audible. Deja Vecu! On utilise le saut de fréquence pendant les communications, ce qui peut permettre de gagner quelques dB supplémentaires. Dans certains cas, les sorties des antennes sont suivies immédiatement de LNA (Low Noise.

Amplifier - Amplificateur à Faible Bruit) qui permettent d'amplifier le signal reçu par l'antenne, en provenance du mobile, sur la liaison Um (voie montante). Est! Les LNA doivent être situés au plus près de la sortie des antennes, pour éviter qu'un signal trop faible ne soit totalement inexploitable à la sortie des câbles coaxiaux. Examples! Ces LNA ressemblent à de petits cubes situés à quelques centimètres des antennes, en haut des pylônes. Chaque relais GSM est partagé en plusieurs zones d'émission, une pour chaque antenne (sauf présence de diversité spatiale), habituellement jusqu'à 3 zones par relais, appelées aussi secteur ou cellule. Monosectorisé : Est dit monosectorisé un site GSM qui ne possède qu'un seul secteur, c'est-à-dire qui ne gère qu'une seule cellule. Dulce! Il y a une seule antenne, ou deux si la diversité spatiale est utilisée, voire jusqu'à trois pour certains sites omnidirectionnels constitués de trois brins omnidirectionnels.

Ce type de site omnidirectionnel est utilisé en zone rurale pour assurer une couverture assez importante, sans permettre une grande quantité de communications, ou en zone urbaine importante, pour micro cellule, afin de supporter des communications passées dans une zone réduite (centres commerciaux, rues piétonnes. Childhood Schizophrenia! ). Dulce Est! Un site monosectorisé avec panneau directionnel, peut être utilisé pour affiner une couverture locale, ou en zone rurale, au dessus d'une vallée encaissée, où les deux autres secteurs ne seraient pas utiles. Un site bisectorisé est un site GSM qui possède deux secteurs, et donc deux cellules distinctes. Early! Le site peut comporter au moins deux antennes et jusqu'à quatre si la diversité spatiale est utilisée. De Decorum! Ce type de site sert à couvrir des zones où seuls deux secteurs sont utiles (flanc d'une colline. Childhood Schizophrenia! ). La majorité des sites GSM sont des sites trisectorisés, c'est-à-dire qu'ils sont constitués de trois cellules, ce qui permet une meilleure intégration au PDF (Plan De Fréquences). De Decorum! Ces sites sont très répandus en zone rurale et périurbaine, où la couverture n'est quasiment assurée qu'à partir de ce type de sites. Les secteurs de chaque site sont numérotés. The Analysis Sector Reforms And South Korea! Le secteur n°1 est le secteur qui a l'azimut le moins élevé, c'est-à-dire, c'est le secteur dont l'azimut est le plus proche du Nord (Az 0°). b) Câbles coaxiaux.

Pour relier la BTS aux antennes, on dulce de decorum est, utilise des câbles coaxiaux (ou feeders en anglais), qui peuvent atteindre jusqu'à une cinquantaine, voire exceptionnellement une centaine de mètres de longueur, pour parcourir la distance entre la BTS et les antennes. Deja Vecu! Ces câbles sont blindés et parfaitement isolés, de manière à n'introduire aucun parasite entre l'antenne et la BTS, mais surtout pour éviter les pertes. Dulce! Les câbles utilisés apportent une atténuation d'environ 2dB pour 100 mètres, ils ont très souvent un diamètre de 7/8 pouce (environ 2,2 cm) et sont constitués de deux couches de cuivres, une au coeur et une autre vers l'extérieur, séparées par un isolant plastique. Câble coaxial de type Andrew. Pour repérer les différents câbles, les installateurs d'antennes placent des étiquettes à des endroits où les câbles sont nombreux : pied du pylône, sortie du local technique. Of Father! Ces étiquettes contiennent une ou plusieurs des informations suivantes : - nom de l'opérateur GSM. - nom du signal provenant de l'antenne, polarisation (« +45 »), (« -45 ») Exemple d'étiquetage des câbles coaxiaux : « -45 » à connecter sur l'entrée polarisation - 45° de l'antenne. Les antennes GSM, même si elles ne sont pas particulièrement monstrueuses, ne plaisent pas, notamment aux ABF (Architectes des Bâtiment de France) ; c'est pour cela que les opérateurs utilisent quelques procédés pour les dissimuler. Voici quelques techniques rencontrées : - intégration dans les faux plafonds des antennes pour micro cellules. - peinture des antennes de la même couleur que le support.

- fixation des antennes dans un espace très réduit (quelques centimètres de large) - création d'une fausse couverture (semblant de mur de pierre en résine. Dulce! ) - faux arbre-antenne métalliques. Après cet effort, les antennes ne peuvent plus se distinguer, sauf à être un fin connaisseur des relais GSM, et même, cela reste difficile. c) Base Transceiver Station. La BTS est le premier élément électronique actif du réseau GSM, vu par le mobile. Importance! C'est l'élément intermédiaire entre le BSC qui reçoit des informations, donne des ordres et le mobile qui les exécute. Schéma synoptique d'une BTS. Ce schéma synoptique est très simplifié, afin de présenter de manière très claire les éléments essentiels d'une BTS.

Une BTS est composée d'un équipement de transmission (grande armoire métallique) modulaire avec des emplacements disponibles pour enficher des cartes électroniques. § Equipement de transmission. L'équipement de transmission est une grande armoire métallique, parfaitement blindée électriquement, hermétique, climatisée l'été et chauffée en hiver pour conserver une température de fonctionnement constante. Dulce De Decorum! Elle est modulaire, elle contient des emplacements pour des cartes électroniques qui sont ajoutées suivant les besoins du site. Schizophrenia! C'est aussi une unité de commande qui est la partie essentielle de la BTS, elle gère tout son fonctionnement.

Elle génère les fréquences de référence, crée les différentes porteuses, assure la modulation et démodulation des signaux, commande les amplificateurs de puissance, fournit les signaux aux TRX, et ceci sur tous les secteurs. De Decorum Est! Elle est généralement pour les sites MTN appelé RBS (Radio Base Station et est en deux exemple : RBS 900 et RBS 1800) et ces RBS dépendent de la technologie. Of Father Son Relationships! Celle que nous avons utilisée durant notre stage, est la RBS 2216. L'alimentation de l'unité de transmission se fait avec la tension du réseau AES SONEL 230V alternatif. De Decorum Est! Ensuite, le transformateur convertit cette tension en une tension continue pour l'alimentation de tous les éléments de la BTS, qui peut consommer jusqu'à une trentaine d'ampères en fonctionnement à plein régime. Childhood! Des batteries sont associées à cette alimentation, pour permettre un fonctionnement de plusieurs heures en cas de coupure de courant. Dulce! Ces batteries sont appelées BBS (Battery Back-up System) qui comporte 8 batteries, des fusibles qui dirige et fournie l'énergie nécessaire pour alimenter les équipements de transmissions ce qui laisse une sensibilité plus longue de temps de secours pour le fonctionnement de la RBS. The Ot Practice! Elle est aussi équipée des alarmes, des unités de climatisations et des convertisseurs et régulateur de tension.

La protection est nécessaire pour les équipement et elle est de deux sortes : le para tonnerre et le para foudre qui sont installés et la mise à la terre pour permettre au équipement de bénéficier d'une certaine sécurité. d) Mini Link ou carte de communication. MINI LINK qui permet d'assurer la liaison entre la BTS et la BSC. Dulce! Elle est constituée de trois modules qui sont répartis suivant deux types d'unité : Les unité Indoor et OutDoor : Le module Indoor (AMM : Access Magazine Module, MMU : Modem Module Unit) qui permet de connecter le trafic principal de 155 Mbit/s et la transmet. Deja Vecu! Elle permet d'effectuer la commutation, la démodulation et la modulation des données utilisée pour protégé et configuré les terminaux. Dulce Est! Elle est possède une unité de ventilateur qui est toujours adaptée pour garantir suffisamment le refroidissement. Le module Outdoor (RAU : Radio Access Unit et l'antenne) permet de produire et recevoir l'onde radio fréquence et le converti en un format de signal qui va circuler dans le câble par radio, qui relie les deux modules. The Analysis Sector Reforms And South Essay! Antennes du Mini Link est différente de celle de la BTS. Dulce De Decorum! C'est à travers cette antenne que les signaux traités par la RBS sont envoyés à La BSC. The Analysis And South! Elle à la forme d'un tambour et est installé au niveau d'une des antennes suivant la direction où est situé la BSC.

C'est le Mini Link qui assure la liaison entre la BTS et la BSC. Apres avoir effectuer le génie civile, et installer de manière physique le pilonne et les différentes antennes, on dulce de decorum, passe à la configuration d'une BTS qui est la configuration du Mini Link et celui de la RBS. Of The Essay! La configuration permet d'établir la liaison c'est-à-dire en paramétrant les différents unités de manière à ce qu'il puisse ce communiquer entre eux. a) Configuration de la RBS. La configuration est effectuée à partir d'un logiciel appelé OMT (Operating and de decorum est, Maintenance Terminal). i) Installation de l'OMT. La borne d'opération et d'entretien est utilisée pour l'installation, emplacement Acceptation, entretien et diagnostic du système 2000 de RBS. Francisco Early Life! Il se compose des outils utilisés pour le traitement, l'opération et l'entretien des données d'installation, essai et surveillance. Dulce Est! D'autres dispositifs importants sont : · Une interface utilisateur graphique facile à utiliser.

· Opération orientée objectivement. · Possibilité pour stocker des valeurs de moniteur. Dans OMT la fenêtre principale est une fenêtre de vue, dans ce cas-ci la vue d'ensemble de système. Elders! Toute l'information est montrée dans une fenêtre séparée. Dulce! Plusieurs fenêtres peuvent être ouvertes à tout moment. Childhood! Dans cet exemple seulement un, contenir des informations sur l'IDB, est montré. Initialisation : L'OMT est dans l'état d'Init quand il est commencé. Dulce De Decorum! Dans cet état, l'OMT n'est pas relié à le RBS et n'opère aucun IDB. Deja Vecu! La seule vue disponible dans cet état est vue d'ensemble De Système. IDB Local : Dans cet état, l'OMT n'est pas relié au RBS, mais fonctionne sur une copie locale de IDB dans les vues d'OMT.

All excepté la vue de MOIS sont disponibles dans cet état. Relié (Aucun IDB) : Ici l'OMT est relié au RBS mais n'a aucun accès à n'importe quelle copie d'IDB. Dulce Est! Le seul la vue disponible dans cet état est la vue d'ensemble de système. The Analysis Of Security Sector Essay! L'état (aucun IDB) relié si être vu comme état transitoire, parce que cet état n'offre aucune nouvelle opération ou les fonctions ont comparé à l'IDB local ou ont relié l'état. Relié (IDB Local) : Maintenant l'OMT est relié au RBS et actionne dessus une copie locale d'IDB. Dulce! Toutes les vues excepté la vue de la position d'où on of Security Reforms in North and South Essay, devrait être sont disponibles. Dulce Est! L'état local relié d'IDB devrait, comme l'états (aucun IDB) relié, soit vu comme état transitoire.

Relié : Dans cet état, l'OMT est relié au RBS et opère un IDB copié à ou de le RBS. Deja Vecu! L'IDB a été lu du RBS à l'OMT, ou la copie locale d'IDB a installé sur le RBS. De Decorum Est! L'IDB dans l'OMT n'est pas automatiquement mis à jour quand IDB dans le RBS est changé. Voici comment ce présente l'interface d'une OMT : Il y a une barre de menu au dessus de la fenêtre principale. Reforms In North Essay! Ces opérations peuvent être exécutées en cliquetant sur une icône sur la barre de menu selon le choix de l'opération dans le menu. Schéma de fenêtre barre de menu. File le menu de dossier contient des commandes IDB-connexes, par exemple ; Lire IDB et installer IDB. Est! Ces commandes peuvent également être trouvées sous l'opération menu quand l'objet d'IDB est choisi. Of Father! Sous le menu de dossier est également.

Sortir la commande, qui clôture l'application d'OMT. Connection le menu de raccordement contient les commandes qui manipulent le raccordement entre l'OMT et le RBS. Dulce Est! Ces commandes peuvent également être trouvées sous le menu d'opération quand l'objet d'OMT est choisi. Views les marques de menu de view il possible de choisir différentes vues : Système vue d'ensemble, vue de Cabinet, vue de matériel et vue de MOIS. Object les différents objets pour la vue choisie peut être trouvé sous l'objet menu. Deja Vecu! Par exemple, RUs passif, admissions d'alarme et SOS. Opération le menu d'opération contient les différentes opérations qui sont disponibles pour l'objet choisi. Windows des commandes qui sont employées pour arranger des fenêtres et des icônes qui sont trouvées en dessous de la fenêtre menu. Help les offres de menu d'aide commande que des pages d'aide d'affichage pour les deux applications d'OMT et l'outil d'aide. ii) La configuration.

Cette configuration ce fait de la manière qui suit : Installation des IDBs (Installation Data Base) selon la vue d'ensemble du système permet d'exécuter la commande de l'installation IDB que l'OMT actionne dans la RBS. Est! L'IDB dans le RBS est remplacé par l'IDB que l'OMT opère. The Ot Practice! DXU doit être en mode local à pouvoir accepter un nouvel IDB. De Decorum Est! Le DXU peut être placé dedans mode local avec le bouton local de mode sur le panneau plan du DXU dans le RBS ou près d'exécution de l'opération à distance qui nécessite plusieurs paramétrages. Importance Of Father Son Relationships! Tel que : La création du tableau du dialogue des IDBs cette opération nous permet de savoir l'interface de transmission à utiliser, d'installer ou effectuer le paramétrage des cabinets et des antennes du secteur. Etant donné que nous sommes dans le système européen, c'est le E1 qui est notre interface de transmission ; les arrangements de Cabinet sont montrés dans la boîte de liste d'installation de Cabinet. De Decorum Est! Il faut en Créer un autre Cabinet régler suivant le choix du nouveau.

Changer les arrangements de Cabinet par le choix de modifient ou supprimer un cabinet existant. The Ot Practice! Comme le dialogue de Cabinet : Cela nous montre le type de RBS à utiliser, le système de climatisation et le système d'alimentation. Dulce De Decorum! Lorsque cela est fait le tableau si après de vient : Ensuite Les arrangements du programme d'antenne sont montrés dans la boîte de liste. Pizarro Early! Créer un nouveau programme d'antenne. Dulce De Decorum Est! Changer l'installation du programme d'antenne par le choix modifier ou Supprimer. Schizophrenia! Comme le montre le tableau qui suit : Ce qui nous permet de choisir la fréquence, le type de CDU, le TMA et notre tableau de OMT devient alors. Ensuite, on de decorum, choisir le type de configuration physique (type de branchement) Un dialogue final de choix de configuration apparaît. Et c'est ainsi qu'est effectuer la configuration de la RBS. b) Configuration du Mini Link E. Cette configuration est faite à l'aide d'un logiciel appelé MSM (Mini Link Services Management) qui est installé dans un Laptop et qui est branché au niveau de la MMS.

Tout d'abord on of Security in North, observe cette interface au niveau du MSM : o On positionne la fréquence et la puissance pour pouvoir visionner la BTS et BSC comme l'indique le schéma qui suit : o On installe AM setup (Access Module) permet a la MMU de reconnaître sa position par rapport a l'AMM, le débit de RAU et d'identifier au la station lointaine (BSC) et la station BTS. o On introduit HOP setup (Le saut) présente la fréquence d'émission et de réception on dulce de decorum, à un tableau tel que : o On installe traffic setup : elle permet la configuration des E1. o Traffic performance ou Soak Test qui permet après avoir obtenu le bilan e liaison requis et demandé, de faire un reset c'est-à-dire une réinitialisation du système et vingt quatre heures après, si le bilan de liaison est le même, la transmission est bonne et si c'est pas le cas, on The Protocols Elders of Zion examples, la refait. Et on dulce de decorum, peut aussi à partir de la BTS s'introduire dans la BSC vérifier et configurer aussi le Mini Link. La maintenance est le faite d'entretenir la BTS après son installation. The Ot Practice! Elle est généralement fait par le service de maintenance de l'opérateur et ce gère à distance. Dulce Est! Elle existe sous deux formes : Ø Vérification de l'état des LED sur les différentes cartes. Ø Vérification de la bonne connexion des jarretières. Ø Vérification de la connectique entre les éléments. Ø Vérification de l'état de fonctionnement de la RBS et la BBS.

· acceptation des commandes. · rapatriements des alarmes externes. Ø Ajout / Retrait d'équipements. Ici les stations de bases ne sont différentes car pour construire le réseau GPRS on deja vecu, utilise le réseau GSM existant en y ajoutant trois modules SGSN qui est le noeud de service, le GGSN le noeud de passerelle et le BG qui joue un rôle supplémentaire de sécurité. De Decorum! Le service GPRS permet de considérer le réseau GSM comme un réseau à transmission de données par paquets avec un accès radio et des terminaux mobiles. Of Father! Des routeurs spécialisés SSGN et GGSN sont introduits sur le réseau.

La transmission par paquet sur la voie radio permet d'économiser la ressource radio : un terminal est susceptible de recevoir ou d'émettre des données à tout moment sans qu'un canal radio soit monopolisé en permanence comme c'est le cas en réseau GSM. De Decorum! Dans de tels réseaux, ces différents composants du réseau fonctionnent à travers des protocoles qui sont la liaison ou interface existant entre eux. Entre une BTS GSM et GPRS, les protocoles existants ne sont très différents, mais ils sont un peu plus nombreux dans le réseau GPRS car il est une évolution du réseau GSM. The Ot Practice! Voici un exemple de pile protocolaire du réseau GSM et GPRS : En effet, pour établir une voie de communication entre le terminal mobile et le GGSN, on est, utilise 2 protocoles : · le protocole LLC : entre le terminal et le SGSN. · le protocole GTP : entre le SGSN et le GGSN, GTP s'appuyant soit sur TCP (transport avec acquittement), soit sur UDP (transport sans acquittement). Au niveau applicatif, pour le réseau GSM, on and South Korea Essay, distingue les protocoles suivants qui, au travers de différents éléments du réseau, relient un mobile à un centre de communication. 1. Dulce Est! Le protocole Call Control (CC) prend en charge le traitement des appels tels que l'établissement, la terminaison et la supervision. 2. Of Security Sector Reforms In North! Le protocole Short Message Service (SMS) qui permet l'envoi de courts messages au départ d'un mobile. De Decorum! La longueur d'un SMS est limité à 160 caractères de 7 bits, soit 140 bytes. 3. Pizarro Early! Le protocole Supplementary Services (SS) prend en charge les compléments de services. Dulce Est! La liste de ces services est longue mais, à titre d'exemple, citons le Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP), le Calling Line Identification.

Restriction (CLIR) et le Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU). 4. Deja Vecu! Le protocole Mobility Management (MM) gère l'identi_cation, l'authentification sur le réseau et la localisation d'un terminal. De Decorum! Cette application se trouve dans le sous réseau de commutation (NSS) et dans le mobile car ils doivent tous deux connaître la position du mobile dans le réseau. Fig 5 pile protocolaire des différents sous système du réseau GSM. III.2 BTS GSM et CDMA ou UMTS. Le CDMA est technologie utilisée en téléphonie mobile comme fixe, c'est le cas de ADSL de CAMTEL au Cameroun et il a évolué vers des technologies plus performantes plus ouvertes tel que le WCDMA qui est utilisé par la technologie UMTS. The Ot Practice! C'est pour cette raison que nous associons « presque » le CDMA à l'UMTS. Le standard UMTS connaît deux modes d'exploitation: _ Le mode TDD (time division duplex): le transfert de données depuis l'appareil mobile vers la station de base (Uplink) s'effectue à la même fréquence qu'en sens inverse (Downlink). De Decorum! Les séquences Uplink et Downlink sont séparées dans le temps; _ Le mode FDD (Frequency division duplex): les liaisons Uplink et Downlink s'effectuent en même temps mais sur des fréquences différentes. The Protocols Elders Of Zion Essay Examples! Chacun des quatre opérateurs de réseau suisses dispose d'une bande de 5 MHz de large pour l'exploitation en TDD et de deux bandes de 15 MHz pour celle en FDD.

La présente recommandation traite donc uniquement la mesure du rayonnement UMTS dans le mode d'exploitation FDD. Une liaison UMTS en mode FDD nécessite deux fréquences porteuses avec une largeur de bande de 5 MHz, l'une pour l'Uplink et l'autre pour le Downlink. De Decorum Est! Un réseau UMTS peut être réalisé et exploité au moyen d'un seul de ces couples de fréquence, l'ensemble des antennes émettrices d'un réseau utilisant la même fréquence porteuse Downlink et les appareils mobiles la même fréquence porteuse Uplink. Childhood! Afin que plusieurs utilisateurs d'appareils mobiles puissent transmettre des données en même temps, celles-ci sont codées, superposées et transmises simultanément dans cette bande de 5 MHz de large. Alors que La norme GSM a connu une évolution. Dulce De Decorum Est! La première génération utilise la bande de fréquence des 900 MHz, alors que la 2ième génération utilise la bande des 1800 MHz. The Protocols Of The Elders Essay! Chaque canal radio comprend un couple de deux canaux (ou bandes de fréquences), l'un pour la transmission des signaux de la station de base vers les stations mobiles, le canal descendant, l'autre pour la transmission des signaux des stations mobiles vers la station de base, le canal montant. Dulce De Decorum Est! GSM exploite à la fois les techniques SDMA, FDMA et TDMA (espace, fréquence, temps). Technique d'accès multiple. Mode de duplexage.

Séparation entre porteuses (kHz) Spectres de fréquences (MHz) 1900-1920 (VM et VD) 2010-2025 (VM et VD) Type de modulation de données.

Périodicité du contrôle de puissance. Synchronisation entre stations de base. Tab2 : Tableaux Principales caractéristiques radio. The Ot Practice! (VM : voie montante, VD : voie descendante). L'UMTS est ainsi une extension du GPRS et fonctionne également en mode paquet. Dulce! La vitesse de transmission offerte par les réseaux UMTS atteint 2 Mb/s. The Ot Practice! L'infrastructure UMTS permet l'élargissement des fréquences ainsi que la modification du codage des données. De Decorum Est! Mais les investissements en architecture réseau sont conséquents puisque le mode de communication entre les terminaux 3G et les BTS (appelé Node B) est différent. Of Security Reforms Korea Essay! Les modifications matérielles sont très importantes. En somme, les communications à mobilité métropolitaine correspondent à toute forme de communication électronique permettant le transfert d'information entre deux ou plusieurs points sans l'utilisation d'un support physique quelconque.

Des ondes radioélectriques ou une lumière infrarouge sont utilisées pour transmettre un signal permettant d'établir la connexion entre les dispositifs de communication en déplacement ou non sur une distance de l'ordre d'une ville. Dulce De Decorum Est! Actuellement elles se subdivisent en deux catégorie : celles utilisant un accès TDMA/FDMA et celles utilisant un accès CDMA. Importance Of Father! Dans la première catégorie on dulce de decorum est, trouve le GSM, technologie très utilisé au Cameroun, utilisant une couverture cellulaire, c'est-à-dire il nécessite l'installation des antennes relais qui est une partie essentielle dans le système, car elles établissent la liaison entre les abonnés et la BSC, cette dernière au switch central (MSC) tous via les ondes radio. Of Father! le GPRS une technologie évoluer du GSM, c'est une technologie de deuxième génération et qui offre un débit un peu plus élevé ; le EDGE qui une technologie qui assure la transition entre celles de la deuxième génération et la troisième ; l'UMTS, technologie de 3G est un réseau qui se combine au réseau déjà existant, elle est beaucoup plus évoluer, permet le transfert de la voie, les données et les images (vidéo et fixe), elle offre aussi un débit plus élevé que les autres. Dulce Est! Elle est coûteuse et nécessite un remplacement des stations GSM/GPRS par des nodes. Importance Of Father! Elle est rependu en Europe et en Amérique sous différent nom ; UMTS, ITM 2000, etc. Dulce Est! et utilise une norme le WCDMA compatible avec le CDMA. The Ot Practice! . Dulce Est! ;;; A travers l'étude comparative des BTS GSM et des BTS CDMA, il ressort qu' un opérateur GSM peut évoluer vers un réseau CDMA mobile et ainsi élargir la quantité et la qualité des services offerts, en développant des passerelles lui permettant de greffer les équipements BTS CDMA sur les BTS GSM; de même un opérateur CDMA semi mobile peut facilement évoluer vers un réseau CDMA mobile vu du côté de l'accès car il possède déjà des BTS CDMA. The Protocols Elders! Toutefois il devra reconsidérer son coeur de réseau en lui dotant des entités capables d'assurer une mobilité totale. Dulce Est! Cette analyse suggère des possibilités de convergence entre les différents réseaux radio mobiles. The Protocols Essay Examples! La convergence des réseaux est aujourd'hui l'une des solutions efficaces au développement des réseaux multi services.

Ce mémoire à travers le thème qui y est développé est seulement une première base sur l'étude de la convergence des réseaux, sujet très vaste et nécessitent des analyses plus approfondies.

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What The Top Consulting Firms Look For in Resumes #038; CVs. Even if you have already secured your interviews, you should still read this article, because it explains why you were selected, what biases the firms have, and what areas of dulce, concerns the firms may have that they will likely test you on of the of Zion examples, during the dulce est, in-person interview. In other words, what follows is an the ot practice, explanation of how the consulting firms think about dulce de decorum recruiting new consultants. Once you understand this psychology, it makes everything the deja vecu, firms do very predictable . Keep in mind, these resume tips apply only to strategy consulting firms (as opposed to IT or HR consulting firms) such as McKinsey, Boston Consulting Group (BCG), Bain, AT Kearney, LEK, etc. In addition, my comments are largely true regardless of which level position you are applying to (analyst, associate, APD, experienced hire, etc..) To start, let me dispel one myth: Resume Format. Many people obsess over how the resume is formatted. The truth is the words on the resume matter more than font size, columns, or margins. Simple example, if I see a resume that has the wrong margins but the dulce, resume says, Harvard University, #1 in Class, Physics (okay, I'm not even sure if Harvard ranks or has a physics degree).

I will notice the resume. So the The Protocols Elders of Zion Essay examples, first big takeaway is this: WHAT you say matters more than how you FORMAT what you say. In screening resumes, I have seen dozens if not hundreds of formats. Many different formats can work. The most important thing is the major accomplishments are easy to read. Here is what the big firms are looking for:

1) Big Brand Name Employers or Schools. 2) Academic Performance (GPA) 3) High Standardized Test Scores in Math. 4) Evidence of de decorum, Leadership and People Skills. 5) High Achievement Career Experiences (Proportional to Length of Career) Keep in mind, these are resume criteria for ALL levels of deja vecu, consulting, not just post-college roles. Let me explain WHY each one is important.

1) Big Brand Name Employers or Schools. To be blunt, the top consulting firms are school snobs. They like big brand name educational institutions for the simple fact that it impresses clients. If you're an de decorum, Associate making $150,000 - $200,000 USD per year, your employer is probably billing you out to clients at $600,000 USD/year. That's $50,000 USD/month.

The client is going to want to francisco early life know what and who they are getting for that kind of money. When the answer is John or Jane Doe, who has a BS from Dartmouth, a MD from Yale and dulce de decorum est MBA from Harvard, clients respond with an Oh wow. that's impressive comment. It makes it easier to get new clients to say yes. Now plenty of people get into the ot practice the top firms (McKinsey included) that do not have such a perfect ivy pedigree. but if you got it, make sure it is de decorum OBVIOUS (it will help a lot). Let me explain the thought process of of father, some of these biases.

The thinking is that only super high achievers get into the top schools. and dulce est the top firms really like hiring super high achievers. This is not to say that the firms do not hire from non-target schools (they do), but they assume the highest achievers from non-target schools will work really hard to contact the firm (generally via networking) -- thus demonstrating their determination. (There is a lesson here. The Analysis Of Security Reforms. If you do not have a super pedigree, you'd better be super determined, as evidenced by the amount of effort you put into networking.) In addition, it is very expensive for the firms to do on dulce de decorum, campus recruiting. So they stick to schools where the offer rate vs. applicant ratio is high (high being defined as greater than 1%).

For example, Stanford (undergrad) is a target school and my year, 400 students applied for full time jobs, 6 offers were extended. and this was considered a very successful recruiting ratio by McKinsey). As a point of reference, when I was recruited by McKinsey, I heard a rumor that the francisco pizarro early, firm spent $100,000 USD in recruiting expense to hire ONE Business Analyst. This figure included all billable hours of interviewers and consultants who go to on campus recruiting events as well as hard costs for travel, renting conference rooms, hotels, etc. The recruiters or resume screeners also look for dulce de decorum recognizable employer names. It is easier to importance of father son relationships understand a candidate's accomplishment via the dulce, implied credibility of the childhood schizophrenia, employer name and it is de decorum est also easier to convey to clients. It is the same reason everyone wants to work for MBB - McKinsey, Bain or Boston Consulting Group -- it implies something on your resume that stays with you forever. To this day, I am known as a Stanford Grad and an Ex-McKinsey Guy. It is how I am introduced formally or informally when I give speeches. It stays with you for of the Elders of Zion a very long time.

Let me give you a personal example that helps illustrate the importance of the big brand name on your resume. When I applied for consulting internships in dulce, my junior year at Stanford, I got rejected across the board -- not a single interview. The following year, I got interviews with every major consulting firm that I applied to of Zion Essay -- with no exceptions. I got interviews at McKinsey, BCG, Bain, Booz, LEK, AT Kearney, Monitor (since acquired by Deloitte), Oliver Wyman (formerly Mercer), and dulce de decorum a few others. (I also got offers from every consulting firm I interviewed with except BCG where I got rejected in round 1, and Booz when I decided to The Protocols of the Essay examples cancel my final round.) So what did I do in dulce de decorum, the 12 months that made such a big difference? Well I looked at who got interviews (most were friends of son relationships, mine) and tried to figure out why they got interviews. Their GPAs were identical to de decorum est mine. Their areas of academic study were identical to mine. The only thing I noticed was many of them had worked for well known companies the prior summer, and I had not. I decided to focus on childhood, improving the de decorum, brand name factor on my resume in two ways.

First, I did an internship at Merrill Lynch during the deja vecu, school year. I worked in the evenings doing telemarketing cold calls to wealthy families in Silicon Valley selling tax free investment income opportunities (LOL. I still remember my phone script, I said it so many times). By the way, this was an unpaid internship. so I worked for about 4 months every other night making cold calls for dulce de decorum est Merrill. Examples. just so I could put Merrill Lynch on dulce est, my resume. This decision was very deliberate as almost nobody else my year did an internship during the academic year. Second, I was able to The Analysis of Security in North and South Essay get an internship with a big company (now called ATT) for that summer. So when I applied again my senior year, I now had two big brand name employers on my resume, whereas just 12 months earlier I had none.

As I mentioned earlier, the following year, I got interviews with every consulting firm I applied to, in large part because of the brand name employers on my resume (I was competing against 400 other Stanford students -- we all had the dulce, famous school on of the Essay examples, the resume so that was not a differentiator). Similarly as a resume screener, many of us would read resumes with a big red marker. All we would do for hours was skim resumes while circling certain brand names on the resume that jumped out as recognizable or impressive. 2) Academic Performance (GPA) The top firms want to know if you are smart. It helps to dulce de decorum est put your GPA on your resume. If you do not, they will either 1) ask you for it anyways and write it by hand on your resume after you submit it, or 2) assume it is low and assess your resume accordingly. If your school's grading system is not well understood by of father, others, you should explain the grading scale your school uses. Most US schools use a 4.0 GPA system - perfect marks is a 4.0 GPA out of a possible 4.0.

If yours is different or you are applying from one country to est an office in a different country, then you want to put on your resume some way for the reader to interpret your GPA (put your rank or put your %. like top 1% of class, something along those lines). For applicants coming out of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion Essay, college, many firms will ask for your transcript to de decorum see your specific grades on specific classes. Elders. In particular, they are looking for your grades in quantitative classes. Oftentimes your resume will be read by a recent graduate from your school. So if you went to Stanford and took Geology 101, the reader is going to dulce de decorum est know that you took Rocks for importance of father Jocks (the nickname for that class amongst Stanford students) and interpret your grades accordingly. Again there is not a cutoff and the standard will vary by school.

Amongst the top undergraduate institutions, a 3.5 GPA or higher is good enough to not get disqualified from the process purely because of dulce de decorum, GPA. The resume reader will most likely read the early, rest of your resume before deciding. My GPA at Stanford was 3.5 at de decorum est the time I applied to the major firms. so nowhere near perfect, but in hindsight it was good enough when combined with other factors to get many interviews. 3) High Standardized Test Scores in Math. Many firms will want to see a standardized test score of some sort - SAT, GRE, GMAT, MCAT, LSAT. Because it is sometimes hard to of father compare GPAs from one university to another, the standardized test score is an dulce, easy way to compare measure of one's math ability. Strong math skills do correlate strongly with the ability to think in a logical and of the of Zion examples analytical way -- the preferred thinking style that consulting firms favor enormously.

Since I applied coming out of college, I had only taken the SAT (the US standardized test high school students take to apply to US colleges) and dulce est I had a score of 800 on the math section (800 out of 800). It is not necessary to have a perfect score, but certainly the Elders examples, higher the better. There is no absolute cut-off as it depends on the impressiveness of the rest of your application. That being said, outperforming 95% of other test takers is de decorum est ideal if applying to the top 3 firms. The standard is not as high with other firms. 4) Evidence of Leadership People Skills. Being smart (factors #2 and #3 above) is not enough to do well as a consultant. You also need to be able to work with clients who sometimes do not like you or resent you. So one of the things most firms look for is some evidence of childhood schizophrenia, people skills or leadership skills.

The firms want to de decorum est know you can handle a difficult interpersonal situation -- especially any one involving high stress, deadlines, inter-personal conflicts. You will get asked about these kinds of deja vecu, leadership scenarios in your interview. They also look for dulce est it in The Protocols of Zion, your resume and consulting cover letters too. If you have these experiences, PUT IT IN THE RESUME. It is a big mistake if you do not. These experiences can include: * Specific experiences at a particular job (especially people-skill type accomplishments that might not normally be valued by other employers in that industry, but would be valued by consulting firms.)

The more technical your background, the more important it is to emphasize these leadership and people skills. If you have a PhD in dulce de decorum, Physics from MIT and have been published 10 times, this is no guarantee of an interview. Here's why. With a PhD in Physics from MIT, it is assumed you have the analytical skills to do the quantitative aspect of the consulting job. But now the firms want to know if you can work with people. or if you are a brilliant but arrogant ass. In your resume or CV, you want to deliberately emphasize team work opportunities, leadership experiences, public speaking experiences, conflict resolution, people management, and francisco early life team management type experiences. Now if you had a PhD in Physics but also did sales jobs to de decorum pay your bills during school and you were the top producing sales person, that would be intriguing. and clearly someone worth interviewing.

In other words, you need to be the OPPOSITE of the stereotype for your area of The Protocols Elders of Zion Essay, academic study. If you are an English major, the assumption will be you are good with people but lousy with numbers. On your resume, you need to prove the opposite to be true. 5) High Achievement Career Experiences (Proportional to dulce de decorum est Length of Career) For applicants of all types (undergrad, post-MBA, experienced hires), the firms are looking for an impressive (career trajectory vs. length of career) ratio. So if you've worked 1 year in of father son relationships, your career, they want to see 1 impressive year. If you've worked 10 years, they want to see 10 impressive years.

Things to emphasize in describing job experiences: * Emphasize OUTCOMES, not just responsibilities. * When possible, quantify your accomplishments with numbers. * Don't write everything you did on the job, focus on what is most relevant to de decorum est consulting firms. For example, if you have a very technical degree, really good math test scores, 4 years of work experience in a very technical field in a very technical role, it is a waste of space to early life spend too much time emphasizing your technical accomplishments. Use those bullets to emphasize business results (derived from your technical work), the financial impact, quantify the measurable change in behavior from your work (because of this new system I developed, 8,000 people now get their performance metrics through this system vs. 0 when I started, that sort of thing). If you have a liberal arts background, a liberal arts major, lots of extra-curricular activities where you showed you were a people person. in your job descriptions, emphasize how you built a statistical regression analysis and model to forecast prices of Gold in the commodities market.

Or became a self-taught software developer in a particular job. So the dulce de decorum, key message here is this: Pick your job description bullet points strategically . You don't have space to put everything you did, so you must focus on emphasizing those things you want to convey about each job to of Security Sector Reforms Essay round out your profile. Another way to de decorum balance out which points you choose to emphasize in deja vecu, the bullet points under each job description -- look for the unusual combo. I remember one classmate of mine who interned at est Bain. She was an deja vecu, English major, but took several advanced math classes -- well over my head as a Quantitative Economics Major -- and de decorum got perfect grades in each of life, them. That's an unusual combo.

Another way to think about est it is something one of my McKinsey colleagues said to me. We like to hire engineers with people skills. And we like to hire poets who can do math. If you have an unusual combination of skills, be sure that comes through in your resume. Bust the The Analysis of Security Reforms in North and South, stereotype that you might get type cast in. Thoughts on Resume Formatting.

Many different formats work, but a few general common sense rules of thumb apply: * Put your education experiences at dulce de decorum est the top. Importance. Make sure the de decorum est, name of the school you went to is easy to read. Whether you've never worked full time or have been in industry 10 years, put the schooling at the top -- it's what resume readers look for first, so don't bury it. (If it is Elders buried, it is assumed that the school name must not be impressive.) No matter how long you have been out of school, put a standardized test score in the education section of your resume. If it is de decorum missing, the assumption is it must be low (otherwise you would know to put it). * List your career experiences in chronological order (most recent job at the top, following education) -- make sure employer names are easy to read. * Keep the resume concise -- 1 page for anyone with little work experience, 2 pages max for experienced hires. * Use bullets to schizophrenia save space. Keep the de decorum, points short and to the point.

A good rule of the ot practice, thumb is 2 - 4 bullets per dulce de decorum job experience, ideally most bullets being 1 line long. * Make sure the the ot practice, font size is est easy to read. Deja Vecu. Since a size 11 font will vary depending on which font is used, just make sure the reader can read it. * Make sure to dulce de decorum est bold all school names and employer names. No need to bold your job titles. Recruiters look at employer name first, job title second. Emphasize the things that will catch a recruiter's eye first, draw them into reading the resume, and then discovering everything else you have to offer. If you worked for a no name employer, but all your clients were famous. list the of father son relationships, client names (possibly bold them too. might be a little over the top, but at least it will get seen).

So if you worked for John Doe Consultants. De Decorum Est. but the francisco early, client you worked with most was Bill Gates or the dulce de decorum, founders of Google, say that! This is not resume writing, it is childhood schizophrenia marketing! * Do NOT include everything you ever did in your life. The point of dulce de decorum est, a resume is NOT to write a personal biography. The point is to schizophrenia SELL YOU. The key to sales in any format (resume, cold call, powerpoint, sales meeting) is to just show what the customer, or in this case employer, cares about. * Use language and descriptions that the resume reader will understand. If you did your school work in Spain, but are applying for a job in dulce de decorum, Paris, do not assume the importance of father son relationships, recruiter in Paris will know what a 9.5 GPA is. explain it is a 9.5 (out of dulce de decorum est, 10.0) GPA. If you won an equivalent of childhood, a Nobel Prize in your field, say won XYZ Award - awarded to 1 person out of 10,000 applicants. These are phrases that any resume reader can understand. YOU MUST UNDERSTAND THE AUDIENCE before you write your resume.

Do NOT assume they have the sufficient background to de decorum appreciate your accomplishments, you need to explain them on francisco life, your resume. Good luck on your recruiting process. Also keep in dulce, mind that my website has over 500 articles, all on the topic of case interviews. If you are looking for more information on a specific topic, just go to: If you found this post useful, I suggest becoming a registered member (it's free) to francisco early life get access to the materials I used to dulce de decorum est pass 60 out of the ot practice, 61 case interviews, land 7 job offers, and end up working at McKinsey.

Members get access to 6 hours of video tutorials on case interviews, the actual frameworks I used to de decorum pass my interviews, and over the ot practice, 500 articles on case interviews. To get access to these free resources, just fill out the est, form below: Note: All registrations require you to confirm your email address. Please type your email address carefully, entering your email also subscribes you to my Case Secrets Email Newsletter. This article was great Victor!

The breakdown and examples were especially useful. I follow your site fervently and find your insights and advice really authentic. The Analysis Of Security Sector In North And South Korea Essay. I have a few questions if you would be able to dulce est give me some advice. I would absolutely love to work at Mckinsey (NYC office, because that is where I am from). The Ot Practice. I dont plan on applying anytime soon but am trying to steer my career strategy towards an eventual move into Consulting. I am currently working for a fortune 100 engineering company (Deere Co.) as a Product Engineer and am planning to get a Mba from one of the top 5 schools. My concern is if I do make it to the one of the schools and then apply for a spot at Mckinsey, would my company and Mba school be enough brand naming for de decorum est me to be considered? In regards to GPA, my undergraduate GPA was quite low although I still managed to importance acquire a job at Deere which is consistantly considered a top engineering company. Also I went to dulce a top 10 Engineering school (Purdue University), but not top 3 like MIT. The Analysis Of Security Sector Korea Essay. Would these things be detrimental to my future application?

I will have about 3 years of work experience by the time I am ready to start my Mba. I was hoping that if I can secure a high GPA at dulce de decorum the top Mba school, then I could use that for deja vecu my GPA on the resume. Lastly I feel that I have great social skills in addition to my analytical prowess due to dulce est me being an Engineer. Although I am quite technical I have a varying array of childhood, interests, ranging from quantum physics/mathematics to de decorum economics to immigrant identity in the western cultures to cultural/social processes of thought in eastern cultures compared to deja vecu western and the art of Comedy. De Decorum Est. Would any of this be relevant to the ot practice making me stand out as unique? Im sorry for the obnoxiously long comment lol, but I am hungry for some direction in my endeavor to get back home with the great prestige and dulce opportunity of working for Mckinsey and am trying to get the best strategy to do so. Thanks for all the help so far. Short answer: When you have a Harvard MBA, a lot is forgiven or forgotten. If you have a top 5 mba and do well, have a strong GMAT score, a less competitive pre-mba can be compensated for. Yes, it is noticed — but if the The Protocols Elders examples, overall trajectory of your resume is strongly upwards, it can be a compensating factor.

It might not be enough to get into the top 3 firms, but certainly the rest of the top 10 is a definite possibility. The GMAT score will be crucial for you. The interpretation you want the reader to have is 1) smart enough to have gone to harvard for undergrad, but for de decorum est whatever reason the opportunity didn’t exist for The Protocols Essay examples this person at dulce est that time. In terms of the low undegrad gpa at a non target school, the interpretation you hope for is the childhood, person was smart, but lazy as an undergrad… and for a variety of reasons, got serious and the more recent accomplishments and test scores reflect being smart with the work ethic. You don’t want the undergrad gpa to be interpreted as that was the best the person could have done.

The person worked as hard as possible and the maximum performance the de decorum est, person’s intellect was capable of was the low gpa. Now if that happens to be true, it will most likely be reflected in a gmat score in the ot practice, a range similar to the undergrad gpa. But if the GMAT score is substantially higher than the de decorum, undergrad GPA and the mba GPA is excellent, the francisco life, interpretation (which they will never public admit) is the dulce, person was smart but lazy in college. Francisco Early Life. (Or smart but suffered from illness while in college, or had some family tragedy, or some other non-intellect factor) Action Items: GMAT 720+, get into top 5 mba, graduate at dulce de decorum top 20% of of the Essay, your class. This is dulce de decorum est great! But do I have no real chance at the top three firms, even if I accomplish the said action items? I have become very keen on being able to pizarro early life work at Mckinsey and from many of the stories I have read on your site it seems that people who have not gone to target schools as undergrad were still able to work at de decorum est the top 3 firms.

I was under the impression that if I worked hard enough with all the material and advice you provide and also network well at one of the top 5 Mba programs, that I would have a fighting chance. I mean I know that nothing is definite, but your opinion as a former Mck interviewer is childhood schizophrenia obviously very potent and relevant. If my future application with all the things I am trying to dulce de decorum accomplish is still by the ot practice, your standards not up to par, I have to dulce respect that. I know you always say that anything could happen and to deja vecu find my own way is key but knowing your experience as a resume screener and interviewer, I can’t help but re-evaluate. De Decorum. Still, I do intend on trying and striving towards a spot at the top and pizarro early life if it doesn’t happen then I will still have all my accomplishments to fall back on. Anything you can give me so to bolster my future candidacy would be of immense worth and focus, this is the path I have set out and de decorum est my determination to go to Mck is absolute. Thanks Victor for the direction, I will fervently strive to one day be on your success stories section. Hi Victor! As an undergraduate student applying for Elders of Zion consulting internships for next summer, I found this article incredibly helpful. I have one question about the de decorum, standardized test scores – I have 5’s on both Calculus AP tests and both the The Analysis Reforms and South Korea Essay, language and literature AP tests.

These scores are better than my SAT scores in math and de decorum est critical reasoning – would it be acceptable to use my AP scores on my resume for the standardized test section? Hey Victor, I have been reading your articles all summer and deja vecu they are super insightful! Question: Would any of the firms hire someone with a B.A. Dulce De Decorum. majoring in Biology and francisco pizarro English who is medical school bound? I am going to medical school September 2015, and have a gap year. De Decorum. I ultimately want to The Analysis of Security Reforms Essay work in a place like McKinsey after pursuing an dulce de decorum est, MD and getting some clinical experience. How should I proceed? Do you have any advice on moving from IT/HR consulting to Strategy consulting? Outside of going back to get an of the Elders, MBA or other advanced degree, I’ve heard the est, paths are extremely limited. I have an the ot practice, undergrad degree in aeronautical engineering from an overseas university with a 7.00/10.00 GPA, and dulce de decorum I’m currently working on my Master’s in Aerospace Engineering at Penn State University. My GPA will only be around 3 when I’m done, however I have 710/800 in Quants and 700/800 in Verbal from my SAT in senior year of high school.

I also have 800/800 in schizophrenia, Quants and 740/800 in Verbal on the GRE when I applied to grad school. I have realized only after coming to grad school that engineering isn’t what I really want. I have pretty good critical thinking and analytical skills. And I have been told my communication skills are very good too. I have been thinking hard about consulting over dulce, the past several months and I think consulting would be a great fit for me. What do you think are my chances of getting a top 10 company to give me an the ot practice, interview shot with the above criteria? What else besides the GRE and dulce de decorum SAT scores would I need to offset that bad GPA? I’m looking to attack all other areas of my profile as much as possible so I would really appreciate your feedback on this. Thanks! Thank you for this great site too!

Helpful and insightful article. You have answered all my questions. I have fired blanks all the time with Consulting companies though I considered myself well suited – Executive management experience more than 15 years management and project management experiences, two masters degree – one cum laude from Elders of Zion Essay examples private college in my home country. Re-reading your article suggest, i have no chance in hell in landing that consulting career with a big consulting house. What a pity. Should post-college graduates abridge resume to 1 page? In terms of resume length, the rough rule of de decorum est, thumb is The Protocols of the of Zion examples one page per decade of post college work experience. I am working as a procurement research analyst in a start up company in India. The company I work for dulce is 8 years old but all our clients are billion dollar global companies including the fortune 500 companies. I have 3 years work experience after an of father, MBA from de decorum a state level top b-school.

I am aiming at the big 4. Childhood Schizophrenia. Do I have a chance? Resume might not be as impressive as Harvard but I will give my best in the interview. My question is am I even in est, the race? It’s hard to tell. The easiest test is to look at other graduates for your business school to see if any are working at the too 4 consulting firms. Just wanted to give you some Kudos for that helpful article. Greetings from Germany, I am a mech engineer with a Masters from francisco pizarro a top 15 school in the US and a bachelors from a top 10 (non-IIT) school in India.

I moved into IT through a scholarship by NIH and have been with a not-for-profit managing their entire IT department (13 million) since. I’ve been admitted in SBS (Oxford) for a MBA. What are my chances of working with one of the top three consulting firms? Does a not for dulce de decorum profit background and non-branded background rule me out as a candidate? Hey Victor, I’m an childhood, undergrad at berkeleys business school but the problem is I transferred from community college. Berkeleys undergrad biz school is super hard to get into, about 6% Acceptancce rate. If I do well at berkeley will any of the top consulting firms even give me a chance? Please feel free to be honest. Thanks. By itself, I don’t think it is a deal killer. But, you will have to do well at Cal and realistically better than you normally would if you went their directly from high school.

My college roommate at dulce de decorum Stanford was a community college transfer. He was a Stanford Computer Science major with a 4.0 GPA — needless to of father son relationships say nobody cared how he got into Stanford, only how he performed as he left. Incidentally, the “story” you want to imply (assuming it is true) is that you went to community college to save money (which most consider an acceptable reason to go) but were qualified to attend an elite university (and your high gpa at dulce the elite university is indicative of your ability to the ot practice perform at de decorum a high level). The “I couldn’t afford it” is deja vecu a much more acceptable “excuse” than “I wasn’t ‘smart’ enough to get in”. It would help to have a super high SAT, GMAT or GRE score too. Thank so much for the reply victor. For haas business there is dulce de decorum a curved GPA, do you think they will take that into of Zion examples consideration if I don’t have a 4.0? I think I should have a 3.75-3.8 is est that ok? That’s pretty good if it’s a STEM (science, technology, engineering or math) type major. Resumes get reviewed on the whole picture.

You don’t need everything to be perfect, but if one thing is low something else on schizophrenia, the resume needs to stand out dulce est, as a compensating factor. So a low GPA with a perfect GRE score might still get considered if a good explanation for the low GPA came along with it. A less prestigious school with a #1 rank amongst all students would often still get considered. My consulting resume toolkit includes a dozen or so resume grading calculators. You can find the link somewhere on the website, probably at deja vecu the top. If everything across the dulce de decorum, board is poor, that’s a deal breaker. If one thing is deja vecu poor, but the est, rest exceptional that’s a possibility. The Ot Practice. If everything is above average, that’s a possibility, etc… Numerous ways to get considered. Also have you ever heard of people getting a job at a top consulting firm (MBB) with a lower GPA?

3.5 or higher is the norm, under that would require exceptional circumstances. I am a mech engineer with a Masters from de decorum a top 15 school in the US and The Protocols examples a bachelors from de decorum est a top 10 (non-IIT) school in India. I moved into IT through a scholarship by NIH and the ot practice have been with a not-for-profit managing their entire IT department (13 million) since. I’ve been admitted in SBS (Oxford) for a MBA. What are my chances of working with one of the top three consulting firms? Does a not for profit background and non-branded background rule me out as a candidate? The non profit background does not rule you out. The lack of brand is an issue, but can be compensated for. Oxford is a target school so that is going to be of enormous help for you.

The lack of brand employers can be compensated in few different ways. If your prior work achievements were exceptional, that will help. Your performance at Oxford will be heavily scrutinized. I don’t know if they track and publish school rank, but if you were in the top 10% I think you would get interview opportunities. The final compensatory factor would be to network, meet people in dulce est, the firms you want to target, and get them to recommend to their recruiting departments to interview you. The above maximizes your chances of getting the The Protocols of the Elders Essay examples, interview. Dulce Est. Then you have to perform exceptionally well on the case. It can not just be an francisco pizarro early life, marginally acceptable performance (which someone with a stronger background might be able to dulce est get away with in the first round), in your case it really needs to be exceptional starting in round 1 to francisco early life offset the perceived risk of hiring someone without a brand employer background. From an de decorum est, interviewers point of view, it is extremely, extremely difficult to turn down a candidate in deja vecu, round 1 who did exceptionally well. It is VERY hard to do that.

If there is a resume issue, the dulce de decorum, thinking most interviews will do is they will struggle with the decision, and then decide to pass the deja vecu, decision to the round 2 interviewers. I should point out dulce de decorum est, I have received many emails from people with backgrounds with a perceived negative item or two (some much “worse” than yours). Deja Vecu. They have gotten into the top firms. BUT, and I can’t stress this enough, they were EXTREMELY motivated and probably put 100 – 200 (the highest I’ve ever seen is 300+ hours) hours into case prep and dulce de decorum several hundred hours into networking. Schizophrenia. It can be done, but the “worse” the dulce de decorum, resume (and I don’t consider your resume bad, the Oxford piece is quite the accomplishment but the lack of brand employers is The Protocols of the of Zion Essay examples a valid issue in the eyes of consulting firms) the est, harder you just worker AND very importantly the EARLIER you must start. If possible start 6 and preferably 12 months earlier than when you plan to interview.

That is one of the The Protocols of the Essay examples, common traits among those who got offers from the top 3 with some kind of disadvantaged resume. Flat out, they wanted the de decorum est, offer badly and were willing to put in of the Essay examples, the effort. Thank you for your reply. I am probably 7 months away from starting school and 14-15 months away from est interviewing. What do you recommend I do to get started? I am a slow learner but a hard worker so what should my first step be? Is there a course I can join or should I get started with your videos?

Also, I’ve heard the term “networking” thrown around a LOT since I got admitted. Francisco. Is there a good place to learn networking 101? What should I be doing now to get placed a year later? Thanks so much. Your reply was very helpful. Do you think regardless of de decorum est, your grades a referral/recommendation from a top employee within the firm can still get you a job within the deja vecu, company? No. It might be possible to get a case interview opportunity based solely on the relationship, but absolutely impossible to get the job offer at de decorum the top few firms without doing well on the case. From the firm’s point of view, there is deja vecu ENORMOUS risk in putting someone without certain skills in dulce de decorum est, front of a client.

The fear is that one mis-hire could ruin the reputation of the of Zion, entire firm by saying something really “stupid” (e.g., in the firms’ eyes that would be stating a conclusion that is logically and factually incorrect). When I was a McKinsey consultant, if I made a major error with a client, it will not be described as “Victor made a mistake”, it will be described by the client as “McKinsey screwed up”. THAT is why the firms are so intensely focused on dulce de decorum, the case interview. That are totally paranoid about the scenario I just described. Hey Victor, thanks for letting me know. What books do you recommend for case interviews? Or any tools that would help with acing case interviews? Thanks. I’m a bit biased on this one.

I recommend my own book Case Interview Secrets. For more advanced training, my Look Over my Shoulder program is very effective. It contains recordings of 20+ hours of actual case interviews with candidates with my real time analysis and deja vecu critique of the candidates performance. It also specifically compares the differences between poor, average,and exceptional case interview performance so you can see, hear and experience the de decorum est, differences between performance levels. Also if you do well in your interview (that is if you got an interview through an Korea Essay, employee) and dulce de decorum est your grades aren’t top notch, say maybe a. 3.4-3.5 can you still secure a job at one of the three (MBB)? Yes absolutely. Childhood Schizophrenia. I had a 3.5 GPA coming out of est, Stanford. I would really try to importance son relationships get or keep your GPA at 3.5 or higher. It also depends on dulce, the selectivity of of Security Reforms in North and South Korea, your school. So a person with a 3.5 GPA from an ivy would get looked at dulce de decorum and could get in if they did well on The Analysis of Security Sector Reforms in North Korea, the case.

Someone from a top 200 university would be expected to dulce de decorum have a higher GPA to of father son relationships compensate for lack of ivy. The same is true if the major is not technical or math oriented. An English major is dulce est expected to have a higher GPA than an engineer because the bias in consulting is that math oriented majors are harder than the liberal arts oriented one. Hi victor, I have an upcoming interview at Bain for a summer associate intern position but I’m struggling to The Protocols of the of Zion examples find the appropriate review and de decorum est prep materials. And South Essay. Do you think case in de decorum, point would be a good place to start? Or is it a bit advanced for a summer intern interview? Do you recommend any additional materials other than your videos (which are awesome btw!!) but I’m just stressing and want to be as prepared as possible. Thanks!! There is francisco early very little difference between undergrad intern and MBA level case interviews. The standard is high mainly because clients demand it regardless of whether a consultant is an de decorum est, intent, and undergrad, or a MBA.

Logic is logic. Examples. Math is dulce est math. The Ot Practice. Accurate conclusions are accurate conclusions. In terms of resources, I would recommend the following listed in increasing order of cost. My free videos and email newsletter.

My Look Over My Shoulder Program – recordings and analysis of 20+ case interviews with actual candidates Doing 1:1 practice with a case coach (a former Bain, BCG or McKinsey interviewer) In addition I would recommend up to 50 practice interviews with a practice partner. Dulce De Decorum Est. If you don’t have one locally you can search for one at I would recommend practicing with partners after LOMS and before using case coaching. Oh also sorry I forgot to mention I’m an undergraduate not an MBA student.

Thanks! Thank you for the helpful advice. I have sent an online application to Deloitte for francisco pizarro early life their NextGen Leaders program and their minimum GPA requirement is a 3.2 according to their website. I am currently a community college student that will be transferring to a CSU in the fall. I’m anticipating a 3.4 overall GPA at the time of transfer. Is that worthy for dulce de decorum a community college student that is prior military with no extra curricular work? Any advice or recommendations to help myself stand out?

Thank you. I am an undergraduate student at the University of of the of Zion Essay, Minnesota majoring in B.S Economics. I do have internship experiences in equity research, consulting and investment banking. My current GPA is 3.5. However, I do not think my school brand is dulce de decorum well know comparing to Elders of Zion Essay those Top schools. De Decorum. Also, two of the internship experiences that I had is from China which I think it’s not a big brand for of the Elders US employer. The other one that I am working ( Consulting Intern) is dulce de decorum a small consulting firm in importance of father, Minneapolis which it is not really well known big brand as well. 1.Is that mean I am in really disadvantage situation among those applicants 2. Do you have any recommendation for me to improve my chance of being accept into the firm ? Hi Victor, I have been working in de decorum, science research / project management for several years, but am now looking to switch into MC. Do you have any advice on additional ways to enhance my resume and childhood schizophrenia training prior to applying? My education background includes a Masters (science) from Cambridge. Dulce De Decorum. I have also previously started an entrepreneur business venture.

If I’ve had a total of 6-7 experiences (including pre-undergrad full time work and college internships). Importance. Is it necessary to dulce include everything in my resume? An interviewer (non-US, non-top 50) brought it up during an interview and childhood said I should, even if it means exceeding the dulce de decorum, recommended 1 page length. Also, say I am working for the ot practice a startup that isn’t doing that great and so decide to take another job (while still working for the startup), do I need to mention both as my current experience in de decorum est, my resume? What I am trying to the ot practice understand is if a resume is indeed just a marketing document where you provide only the most relavent information or if its mandatory to list every position you’ve ever held. Just for full disclosure, I always mention all my work experiences during the interview process itself (I am not really trying to hide anything). Thanks a ton. Really appreciate the help. I think most people are somewhat split on dulce de decorum est, this decision. Importance Son Relationships. I personally see the resume as a marketing document. Everything on there should be accurate, but I personally think it is fine to exclude things that aren’t relevant.

For example, I do some volunteer work at my kids school. Dulce Est. I helped them remove weeds from the garden next to the playground. One could argue it is of the a “job”. But it isn’t relevant to my reader. Depending on your experience level, it’s customary to dulce de decorum est include coursework you took in school – though not practical to list every course.

That’s my personal take. Again, a number of The Analysis of Security Sector Reforms in North and South Korea, people will disagree with this point of view. You should make your own decision on this based on what you are comfortable with. First of dulce est, all, I really appreciate everything you put on the website. All of it is very useful and immensely informative. I d0 have one question that I am curious about. My resume lists all of the of Security and South Korea, things you listed above: A high GPA while committing over 40 hours a week to coaching/volunteering with various organizations. A big brand name internship as a sophomore, where I did some pretty meaningful things (as meaningful as an intern can do). Plenty of leadership/team experience. I haven’t taken a GMAT/SAT ever (took ACT as a sophomore in est, HS), but feel confident about my ability to do well on them if I were needed to list them.

However, I go to The Ohio State University, which is not exactly prestigious (although it is climbing up the rankings every year… Go Bucks!). What’s the likelihood that my resume hits the trash folder because of the name of the importance son relationships, school at the top? Is there anything I can do to still get an dulce de decorum, interview opportunity despite my school not being top 10? Lots of networking, I presume? If I don’t get a job because I interview and perform worse than the schizophrenia, people they hire, I can sleep easy at night. Dulce. It’s going to pizarro early nag at me if I don’t even get a swing at de decorum the plate because of my school. Anything you’ve got would really be appreciated. Your assessment of the situation is fairly accurate. Importance Son Relationships. There is a huge bias against non target schools.

Networking is the key and also targeting in your case offices based in dulce est, Ohio. You will have an easier time get a chance (though still a long shot) from someone in an Ohio office than say New York or Boston. Other than, anticipate getting an deja vecu, informal case interview by dulce est, phone or over the ot practice, coffee (unannounced) to est determine if someone you meet wants to risk their reputation by recommending you for a real interview. Schizophrenia. You have to nail the case in the interview for the interview. You basically would have to blow them away with your case performance to provide the extra margin of comfort they would need to endorse you despite the non target school on your resume. Your article is very helpful. Dulce. So my path is a bit non-traditional since I was previously a pre-med and childhood schizophrenia graduated with a Neuroscience degree at UCLA.

However, after a year of deliberation, I have decided to pursue the consulting path, particularly healthcare consulting. I did get an 800 in de decorum est, the math portion of the the ot practice, SAT’s and my quantitative skills have always been very strong but I do not have much coursework at UCLA that further demonstrates that. While I am applying to jobs, I have been considering taking some math or analytical courses that will increase my marketability. Do you have any thoughts or suggestions about my approach? All of de decorum, this is of the Elders of Zion Essay examples very new to me but your website has been a huge help!

Thanks so much and dulce looking forward to your response, From a consulting firms point of view, if you got an 800 on the math SAT and presuming your in major gpa in a hard science was pretty good, it’s safe to say you can add, subtract, multiply, divide and calculate a percentage. (Truly that is 95% of the math used in consulting). If you’ve taken organic chemistry (at my school that was a weeder class for premed) or any of the core science classes that’s sufficient. No need to take math classes unless you want to deja vecu for your own knowledge sake. If you were going to take more for you own benefit, I would recommend an dulce de decorum est, intro statistics class and an intro economics class — both quite useful even outside of childhood schizophrenia, consulting.

Generally 800 math SAT is the end of the assessment as to whether or not this candidate do arithmetic. (at least at the resume screening portion of the dulce de decorum, process). If I were screening your resume, I would presume you could do math. I would be curious to see your gpa in neuroscience. Did you excel or did you just get by? UCLA may not be a target school for most firms, so to be considered it would really help if you had a very high gpa from ucla — 3.9 or above ideally. So the childhood schizophrenia, lack of ivy is a bigger constraint for your background than lack of a math class on your transcript. Pardon my choice of words (but it reflects how these resume screeners think), are you UCLA average? or are you UCLA exceptional? The former probably not going to get an interview, the latter is dulce a definite possibility. At the ivy’s the the ot practice, presumption is the talent pool is dulce est a higher caliber, so the firms will go lower on the gpa scale.

So a 3.5 Harvard is equal if not better than a 3.9 UCLA (as an illustrative example). A 4.0 UCLA in hard sciences, with 800 math SAT + a few interesting experiences with brand name employers on resume that’s worth a resume reader taking a closer look. Thanks so much for your helpful article! I just have a question after reading it: I’m a Stanford undergrad and have the great brand name, so now I’m wondering how to differentiate myself in of the Elders examples, my extracurriculars. What sorts of extracurriculars do you think would be impressive? I’m currently a chair in dulce de decorum, student council and am team lead in the Business Association of Stanford Entrepreneurial Students. Are there other areas you’d recommend I get involved in?

I’ve also competitively played the piano in high school (performed at deja vecu Carnegie Hall and dulce de decorum est won other awards), but I stopped playing in college because I thought that student council and deja vecu other leadership might be more relevant to dulce de decorum consulting recruiting, and that continued involvement with piano might not be as important for consulting. Is this true? Thank you so much! I think you are somewhat asking the wrong question. What extra curricular activities do you enjoy enough to be really good at? In general firms like activities that are demonstrate inter personal skills through actual achievement in the role. So a ground sounding extra curricular where you did nothing meaningful doesn’t help you much. If you landed a bunch of the ot practice, great extra curricular titles, but didn’t actually have to interact with anyone in those roles, it will be very obvious at the interview that your inter personal skills seem inconsistent with the interpersonal skills your resume would imply. So pursue meaningful opportunities that give you the opportunity to work with others and dulce get much practice doing so. It’s important to BE good, not just LOOK good.

Also to deja vecu me it is impressive you played at Carnegie Hall. It’s different. Is it directly relevant to de decorum consulting? No. The Analysis Sector In North And South. Does it stand out as different? Yes. Consulting firms like people who can achieve things that are hard for the general public to dulce est achieve.

It shows a track record of focus, commitment, discipline, etc… in many cases the specific field that achievement is in is less important than the fact that you achieved something difficult to achieve. If you won an Olympic medal, that too would be interesting even if not relevant. The hard part in the resume screening part of the process (see my consulting resume toolkit for more specific details and actual resume examples) is you need something that sticks out as different from the crowd. When I was at Stanford, 400 undegrads applied. My guess is 40 or so got 1st round interviews, 6 got offers. Keep in mind many of the 400 didn’t even know what a case interview was. My extra curriculars were being the Photo Editor of the Daily and later the yearbook. Hardly directly relevant to consulting, but it was what was interesting to me at the time, I worked 30 hours a week at it, and got to cover some breaking news events (riots/protests, vice presidential candidate announcements, etc..). The range of who gets interviews can be quite wide.

Try not to over think it and to game the system. Instead, focus on developing your skills in The Analysis Sector Reforms and South, your major as well as leadership / people skills that cross majors. Also it doesn’t hurt to do what you enjoy if it means you will put more effort into it and developed greater competence at it. On your resume, DEFINITELY put on the bottom that you played Carnegie Hall. It won’t get you the interview, but if you are borderline things like that can tip things in your favor. How would a MPP or a MA in dulce de decorum est, Regional Studies from francisco life Harvard compare to est MBA graduates if I am going into consulting after a number of years in government service from a country other than the US? (You mentioned earlier that HBS on the ot practice, resume will likely cause other factors to be forgotten, I assume other Harvard degrees are less prestigious?) Also, I am not sure if you are familiar with Japanese schools but how would you say Kyoto graduates compare with Tokyo grads or Keio grads vs Waseda grads? Are they on dulce de decorum, par on the prestige factor or are there differences?

The MPP ore regional studies from Harvard is less prestigious than the bschool. It also depends what country and office you apply to. If you apply for the Boston office, you have no differentiation. If you apply for the Moscow office, any Harvard is better than no Harvard. I’m not familiar with the the ot practice, Japanese universities and dulce est unfortunately would not be able to comment on that. I am currently an architecture student at one of the top ranked public schools in the US. I have recently come across the consulting industry, and, after a lot of research and thought, I have decided that consulting is an industry I would like to go into after graduation. I am wondering what I can do to be able to prepare myself so that my resume is attractive to The Protocols of the Elders the Big 3 so that I can secure an interview. I still have 3 years left at school (I am in a 5 year program) and switching majors is not an option at this point.

I have a 3.75 GPA, my math SAT was a 740, and I have held numerous leadership positions. I am currently the president of the School of Architecture council, and I represent our college at the University-wide level. I am also planning on founding a community service program related to dulce de decorum est architecture this fall. I have great people skills and was voted Class Favorite and Most Likely to deja vecu Succeed in high school senior year. What can I do to dulce de decorum become more appealing to consulting firm recruits?

I have no business background and I am afraid this will hurt me. I have looked up many websites to teach myself some business terminology and concepts. There is a business certificate that we can complete along with our major, and I am wondering if this would be worthwhile. Thank you so much, I look forward to hearing back from Sector Reforms you. If your university has a business school or campus clubs than span schools within the university, consider jointing some business or entrepreneurship oriented ones. Yes it hurts you to not have some indication of interest in business in your background. Certificates carry very little weight generally.

The issue is two fold: 1) looking like you have interest in a business career, and 2) actually understanding basic business concepts. The first helps you get the interview, the latter to dulce de decorum pass it. You can’t be googling every term you here in an interview. It’s just not practical. For the former, consider business oriented activities. For the latter, start reading Bloomberg Business Week and Fortune magazine. Of The Elders Of Zion. The first for short news articles, that latter for indepth profile articles that go into de decorum depth about the issues of schizophrenia, specific companies. Google any terms or concepts you do not understand. Other options. Take an intro to economics class as an elective, maybe a financial analysis class… Both to add to your knowledge and to indicate interest. Many free classes online on these topics as well.

Hello, I was recently accepted to dulce de decorum the No. 15 US News Business School (UT-Austin) for the Part-Time program. The Analysis Sector Reforms In North And South Essay. I have 4 years work experience, a 3.3 Undergrad GPA in Aerospace Engineering (Texas AM), currently work as a Software Engineer at Dell, and a 670 GMAT (44Q, 38V). I’ve taken the GMAT once before and scored a 560 (33Q, 34V), but this time, I really studied hard for the GMAT (Manhattan GMAT). I really want to enter the world of management consulting at one of the Big 4 (not MBB, but Deloitte, PwC, KPMG or EY), and plan to supplement my low GMAT with extracurricular activities (Graduate Consulting Club), networking, and est planning to of father son relationships switch career trajectories in dulce est, about a year to a hybrid engineering-finance role at Dell before I graduate. Should I retake GMAT given my profile?? It’s been weighing heavily on my mind..

Thanks in The Analysis Reforms in North, advance! For MBB you really need over 700 on the GMAT. Since your goal is dulce de decorum Big4, you’re probably in the range at 670. Whether or not to retake it depends on your opportunity cost and likelihood of improving the score by deja vecu, a significant enough amount to warrant the effort. My sense is retaking the GMAT is probably not a high return on est, investment activity especially since you said you already studied hard for it. Networking harder will probably be a better use of your time as well as rounding out your resume and skill set with more people-oriented activities. When I see your profile, through Big4 eyes, I can’t help but wonder if I could put you in front of a client. If a client says you are wrong and does so in an aggressive or slightly combative way, will you be able to confidently and respectfully disagree and persuade the client otherwise? If a group of junior clients on your team are bickering, do you have skills to smooth out the deja vecu, situation? These are the larger questions that pop into my mind based on your profile. I just completed my undergraduate in dulce est, Business with a top notch school in India( But I am afraid no one outside India would be aware of the prestige on my institution.) I wish to deja vecu work for 2-3 years, then apply for an ivy league school in USA, after which I aim to eventually get into MBB.

Now the problem is, in dulce de decorum, India undergraduates are generally not offered good roles. The big firms such as MBB or big 4 only give research related jobs at this stage. And I have a offer for an analyst at a small firm. Its a smaller name, but it is better work and it is easier to get noticed and deja vecu promoted. Now, in order to achieve my long term goal of top school + MBB, do you suggest I take the job at the smaller firm but better work, or should I look for a job in the bigger firm but bad work? For cross border careers, people with well known brand name employers on dulce est, their resume have a major advantage.

You have to the ot practice decide if the dulce est, benefit out weights the downside of potentially less interesting work. In addition, it helps to be at peace with your choice even if the second step of your career doesn’t work as planned. No easy answers on this one. I’m thinking of pursuing a masters degree in management science instead of an MBA; simply because an MBA is longer and I do not want to deja vecu work for 3 or 5 years before I do my masters. Would this affect my prospects of getting a consulting job at any of the MBB companies or any top consulting company? Thanks in advance. Yes. Most likely you would be slotted with the est, post undergrad candidates. Having a masters with no work experience doesn’t qualify you to lead teams of analysts and client teams consisting of Vice President level professionals.

It doesn’t negatively impact your ability to get into the top firms, just the level at which your enter. Does one page CV applies to UK office applicants (from UK university)? I wanted your opinion on a quick question. The Analysis Of Security Sector Reforms Korea Essay. If I am listing my SAT score on my resume, would it be sufficient to just include the math score? I got an 800 on the math but 650 in reading and 730 in writing and I’m not sure if the reading score in particular would raise any kind of red flag (if other applicants’ resumes have for instance very high Math and dulce de decorum est reading scores). You should list the full score and all the sub scores. If you only list one sub score, they will either send it back to you to pizarro early life complete or just reject the dulce de decorum, app assuming the others scores are too low. As an undergrad, I just wanted to The Analysis Reforms in North Korea ask if there was any real downside to dulce excluding the SAT score.

When I had a McKinsey consultant look into my resume (without the SAT score), he made no mention of francisco early, a SAT score. I actually just graduated from college after this summer semester, and was thinking it might not make sense given I took the test about de decorum est 4-5 years ago and have already graduated from college. What do you think? Thank you for all your help! Much appreciated! Best case, a recruiter will call you to ask you for your numbers. Worst case, they reject you out right assuming the scores must be poor.

The former is likely if everything else looks good on your resume, the latter if everything else isn’t strong. On the job analytical performance is extremely highly correlated with math SAT (GMAT, GRE) scores. Victor, I got already on my resume the big brand companies names but for The Analysis of Security Sector in North Korea a short period of time (less than a year). Would you still suggest to keep the de decorum, brand companies names on my resume? Generally speaking yes as it looks better than being unemployed.

If it is only for 3 months and The Protocols Elders of Zion examples it is not clearly an de decorum est, internship, then you might want to think twice. Hi. Francisco Pizarro Life. I am a PhD student at Cambridge University, UK. Dulce De Decorum. I focus on tropical ecology- this is a science based subject which uses extensive statistical modelling. Prior to this I completed an MPhil in Environmental Sciences from Oxford Uni (with a 2.1) and a General Engineering degree. I will finish my PhD in late 2016.

I would like to work in consulting and specifically target McKinsey. My background is pretty quantitative- perhap not as quantitative as aeronautical engineering but much more quant then liberal arts. I have not done internships ( owing to pizarro life visa issues) but I have done fieldwork all over SE Asia and built useful links. I have several peer reviewed publications to my name. Should I try to gun for McKinsey? Your background seems similar to dulce est the background of other McKinsey consultants coming out of a PhD in Europe. Childhood Schizophrenia. I don’t know the UK grading system, so I can’t comment on your marks. Everything else seems comparable and I would encourage you to de decorum est apply.

Also the level of of Security in North and South Korea Essay, math used in consulting 90% of the time involves adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, and de decorum calculating percentages. McK looks for quantitative backgrounds not because the math is difficult but rather because those with quantitative backgrounds think in a particular way that’s very useful in consulting. I first wanted to comment on the ot practice, the number of posts you have replied to. Dulce De Decorum Est. I’m really surprised you get back to Sector Essay so many people! That’s awesome and greatly appreciated.

My first question is whether or not accounting is dulce considered a quantitative enough background for consulting? I see most applicants are in engineering, science, economics, etc. I have excellent grades and a Master’s in early, Accounting but I wasn’t sure if this was an automatic deal breaker. Although I have high grades, leadership, and internship experience, the school I attend has a very clear reputation as a “party school” and is not a target of really any consulting firms (Syracuse University). Could work experience possibly compensate for est this and francisco life make me a more viable candidate in the future? Thank you so much for your help!

Your school will be a bigger issue than your major. Accounting isn’t considered an exceptionally quantifiable field from the consulting firms point of view. If you had strong standardized test scores, it would be fine. Networking can compensate for a non target school, a slightly below average GPA, or some other weakness is a candidates application, but it can’t compensate for dulce more than one weak spot in most cases. I’d say the top 3 would most likely be out of reach for you. Sector Reforms In North. The rest of the top 10 would be a stretch (depending on est, your overall application) if you networked a lot and did a ton of case prep (several hundred hours between the two activities).

My consulting resume toolkit has a resume scoring calculator to estimate the likelihood of Sector Reforms and South Korea, your resume getting an interview. For networking advice, do a search on est, the site for “networking” and “non-target school” as there are several success stories from others that you can learn from. Thanks for all the useful information. I am looking to the ot practice break away from dulce de decorum est science and start a career in consulting. Of Security Korea Essay. I have a BS in psychology from Michigan State with a 3.95 gpa, and de decorum est am currently working on a PhD in neuroscience from Penn State College of Medicine (3.5 gpa). 730/800 quantitative on gre (no sat – got started at community college). What are my options and what firms should I be targeting? Should I try for of Security Sector Reforms in North Essay an internship while I still have time?

I obtained a PhD from dulce est MIT Aerospace but my GRE was not the highest when I initially applied (Q700/800). How much do you think this will work against examples, me when applying to MBB? Should I re-take the GRE just for de decorum est boosting the pizarro early, numbers? Or should I just focus on polishing my well-earned analytical skills and networking? A PhD in Aerospace from MIT qualifies you do add, subtract, multiply, divide, and calculate percentages which is dulce de decorum est 90% of the math used in the ot practice, consulting. At this point, I wouldn’t worry about the GRE score. Make contacts via networking. If you are in a post doc, focus on publishing if that’s a possibility for you. The general rule of thumb is de decorum est firms want to see an upward sloping career trajectory.

You inspired me a lot. Thank you so much for providing very detailed information about the dos’ in a Resume. I am a Master’s student (Industrial Engineering) at UIUC. I am looking for summer internship in consulting firms. I graduated from Government College in Korea, India. I have couple of leadership experiences and internship experiences in non-consulting background.

My GRE quant score is dulce 159/160(78 percentile) and Analytical Writing Score is 4.5/6.0. In my undergrad, I was in the top 7% of the class. Importance Of Father Son Relationships. What can I do to have a career in consulting? Most of dulce de decorum, your articles mentioned consulting career for undergrads, MBA and PhD students. Of Security Sector Korea. What is the scope for a Master’s student like me? I recently got an email from our graduate coordinator about internship opportunities in dulce est, Mckinsey.

Could you please suggest the deja vecu, points I should emphasize in my Resume? Do I stand a chance to be considered for the internship? P. S: Thanks much for your book. De Decorum Est. I just got that and it is of the Elders awesome! Thanks for all the great comments. I’m wondering if MBB is a possibility for me- I graduated with a 3.3 gpa from Emory and majored in Economics/Math. I got a 720 on the GMAT and worked 3 years doing business analytics at de decorum est a top retailer with 1 promotion. The Analysis Sector Reforms In North And South. I just joined the Peace Corps to gain some international/volunteer experience and plan on attending a top 15 MBA program after. Dulce Est. For MBB I am concerned about my undergraduate GPA but would definitely welcome the opportunity to work in an international office if that helps my chances. Realistically, MBB is out of reach with that GPA especially from a non target school. The GPA expectations internationally are often higher, so unfortunately that doesn’t help either.

I would suggest targeting the next two tiers of firms. I will be attending either LBS/Insead/Kellogg for my MBA next fall and was wondering if you could help provide some feedback/guidance on getting into MBB. My background is: 700 gmat, 3.44/4.0 at francisco early life a US state school, 4 years working in sales marketing roles. De Decorum Est. Does MBB have minimum gmat requirements? Also if I am unable to secure a consulting internship, are there any other actions I can take to schizophrenia help transition into management consulting? Greatly appreciate any suggestions you have. Thanks. Thanks for your guidance. I am PhD candidate in dulce de decorum est, biotechnology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, GPA :3.9/4.

GRE: 800/800 in Quant. (May 2015, expected graduation) I have worked extensively with various teams, contributed toward 5 publications. Lead on 3 projects for first author publications in reputed peer-reviewed journal. Life. Filed 2 patent applications. Also won 2nd place in business plan event to commercialize our technology. But since my university is not as reputed as ivy league schools, I was not sure if I can make this transition to strategy consulting. Also I do not have an MBA or other formal business degree. Please advise if I should focus on the top firms or next tiers? Any suggestions from you would be highly helpful. Thanks a lot, Best Regards,Ruchir Mundra. Thank you for your great articles.

I am wondering if MBB is out of reach because I have not yet taken GRE or GMAT even though I have a high GPA and am finishing up my PhD at a top Canadian university. Not necessarily. The purpose of the GMAT and GRE is to have some numerical measure of analytical skills that can be compared across candidates. If your university and dulce program are well known, and its analytical rigor well understood, it may be sufficient. McKinsey may ask you to take the McKinsey Problem Solving Test — a kind of consulting version of the GMAT to test your quantitative abilities. If you have a high GPA and a school the francisco early, MBB firms recognize as a target school and your PhD is in de decorum est, a technical field, the lack of a GRE wouldn’t be a deal breaker. I’ve recently applied to MBB for summer internships and I didn’t even get an interview! I was pretty surprised because I thought I had most of what was required on the ot practice, this article. Dulce Est. I have a little under a 3.8 GPA from an The Analysis of Security Sector Reforms in North Korea, Ivy, and I’m a double major in de decorum, the hard sciences.

I have a 750+ Math SAT. I have extracurriculars on campus that show leadership. The particular one I’m in is very time consuming and maybe that wasn’t enough just to the ot practice have one? I have experience in est, a research lab and I networked with some people who I knew from the firm (some other people I know who had lower GPA didn’t network at all and still got an the ot practice, interview at one of the firms). I don’t know where I went wrong! Do you have any thoughts? It’s impossible to know for sure.

At the de decorum est, end of the of Security and South Korea Essay, day, a human being makes the est, decision and The Protocols of the Essay examples they are not 100% predictable. My best guess in dulce est, no particular order: 1) resume was not formatted in ideal way such that your vitals stats were actually noticed in the first 5 seconds / the bullet points didn’t use the optimal phrasing of your extra curricular or work experiences. 2) your cover letter looked just like everybody else / didn’t highlight your vitals in Elders Essay, the first paragraph / didn’t name drop any big brand names / didn’t reference people you met at dulce est the firm you applied to. 3) your networking wasn’t strong enough such that someone you met informally endorsed you behind the scenes. For what it’s worth, I didn’t get any internship interviews either my junior year. I have been using your resources (including Resume ToolKit) for some time found it very useful. Thanks for the ot practice the great service you are doing. I’m a PhD candidate in a Top Australian University and I’m planning to apply for BCG, Bain, and dulce de decorum est Accenture firms in Australia.

1. What are the differences (if there are any) in Resume and Cover letter preparation for Australian consulting firms compared to USA confirms ? 2. Can I mention about my PhD in francisco life, two sections of the Resume : Education section as an academic qualification and Experience section as a demonstration of problem solving and analytical skills. For a PhD you can use a full length academic PhD including all publications (no page limit on CV) or resume. In a resume, you can list it twice but avoid making it redundant. In experience you might focus on your research or teaching duties, in dulce est, education on dates of attendance relevant test scores in your country and the like. I am currently pursuing my Masters of Science degree in Information Technology from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. The Ot Practice. In the preceding to my enrollment at HKUST, I worked as a consultant analyst with IBM in India. Dulce. I am now planning to apply to a few management consulting firms (KPMG, Bain) since I graduate in a few months time. I have a weak GPA ( 3.5/4) and scored 320/340 on the GRE. What are my chances of landing an interview at francisco pizarro the aforementioned firms? Also, I will be applying to IBM for a management consulting post. Will my prior experience of working with them in de decorum est, India put me in a better position than other candidates inspite of my relatively inferior academic performance?

Hi Viktor, thanks for the great article. I agree that all these factors make the results quite predictable. On the other hand side a big plus is always personality; whenever you can transmit that it gives you a great impact… I loved your article!! I have a question though. You have advised us to put people and the ot practice leadership skills on our resume and said that skills related to conflict resolution and team management help. I have such experiences on-job, but don’t know how to put them on resume. I can’t exactly say that I resolved a conflict between A and B and thus helped the de decorum, project in X way. Please advice on how to put such experiences on resume. Use words like manager, work with colleagues, team member, etc… Use words that describe how you interact with people in general. This is childhood schizophrenia especially the case if your job title tends to imply you stare at a computer all day and dulce est don’t normally interact with people.

Hi Victor! I come from deja vecu a Canadian university studying undergrad Mathematics at a top university in Canada. My GPA system uses percentage. Dulce De Decorum. What does 3.5 translate to around? Of course it’s different everywhere but I was curious about the standards. I thought 3.5 was like a B+?

Anyways my program is schizophrenia very difficult, and I went through a rough year getting a 61% average. However in 2nd and de decorum est 3rd year, I’ve been getting a 90% average. Deja Vecu. My gpa currently is a high 70 and I’ve been doing various internships in the finance industry. Will I have a chance at MBB. Dulce De Decorum. I am sure if I get the interview I can make the cut, it’s just I’m worried about my GPA and don’t know how to schizophrenia compare since I am canadian student. I’d probably work in dulce de decorum, MBB firms in toronto if picked.

I’m wondering how realistic getting a job at a top consulting company would be for me. I’ll graduate from Clemson University in importance son relationships, May with a B.S. in Economics and a B.A. in French and est International Trade. I have a 3.63 GPA and schizophrenia a summer internship at VCE with their Business Process Group. I received a 720 on the math portion of the dulce est, SAT and was thinking of taking the GMAT in the ot practice, the fall. Do you think there’s hope? For a top 3 firm, I’d say no chance without a top 5 MBA. For the rest of the top 10, I’d says it’s a maybe. Best bet would be the de decorum, strategy arm of a former accounting firm with a local office near your school where alumni from francisco your school work there. If there are alumni there, it’s possible.

I suggest getting on linkedin and doing a search between your school and dulce de decorum those firms. If you find some, then you would want to network your way into those forms. I have a networking guide available somewhere on The Protocols of the Elders of Zion Essay examples, this site that explains how. With only a standard resume and est cover letter to the recruiting department, I think you application would not pass the keyword filter. Your strongest asset is the deja vecu, math SAT score. Dulce Est. A similar score on gmat would be confirmatory evidence. The issue is Clemson is not a target school for The Protocols Elders of Zion examples most firms. But if you can find an alum working there that will get your application considered, that would be enormously helpful. I think top 11-25 and dulce est boutiques would be your best bet. Boutiques are small 10-100 person firms usually started by Reforms Essay, a partner from a top 10 firm that went out on his or her own. They typically have one office, in only one city, and focus on a single industry.

I’m a PhD candidate at est Johns Hopkins University. My undergraduate gpa is 3.9 (from a good university in francisco early, China). But my graduate gpa is somehow low ( 3.3). Will this be a major burden when applying for consulting positions? I have a good list of publications, but not sure if it is important to the employers. Did you get an interview invite or the 3.3 GPS did not cut it? Hi, I am a prospect Oxford MBA candidate.

But my GMAT is slightly on the lower side (Q45 V35). I want to work in dulce est, Strategy consulting. What are my chances to break into firms such as LEK or AT Kearney or Deloitte? Do you think my GMAT is deja vecu still low for these firms? 1) You mentioned that having a big-name company on your resume greatly improves your chances of getting interviewed.

Is that the case even when the position you held has nothing to do with business or consulting? I’m a Computer Science major, currently pursuing my undergrad, and am aiming for a big-name tech company (Google, Apple, Facebook, etc.) internship next summer. Is an internship like that likely to dulce est help me in deja vecu, getting a consulting position post-graduation, or should I try to get some more business-related experience in instead? 2) Standardized Tests. De Decorum. Sometimes when I read about importance son relationships consulting I get confused on what’s expected of those applying post-undergrad, as it seems like most material is written for MBA’s. Do firms (specifically big 3 firms) look for de decorum est standardized tests from undergrads? If so, does it make a difference whether they take the GMAT or GRE? 1) Yes a big brand name employer in a non business role is desirable. It’s not your business experience they want. They can teach you that.

They want to hire someone who has been vetted by someone else and been determined to be exceptional in their field (regardless of the field). 2) More important you score high than which standardized test. The Ot Practice. GRE, GMAT, SAT, LSAT, or MCAT all fine. I have three years of work experience consulting for a non-profit and a year for de decorum the World Bank. I have MPhil in Econ from Sector Reforms in North and South Essay Cambridge, 3.96 CGPA in my undergrad and 800 on de decorum, my Math GRE score. Do you think my profile is Sector Reforms and South Korea strong enough for de decorum McKinsey? Short answer is: yes. I seem to the ot practice have different circumstances than most on here.

I was a cop in de decorum, the military for 12 years. I was in a leadership position, managing people and importance son relationships projects. Dulce Est. I earned a bachelor’s in Business Administration while I was in, with a GPA of 3.4, from of father a cheap online school. The military stressed a degree, but they didn’t care where from. Est. I’ve begun looking for schizophrenia a second career and have become obsessed with consulting. I don’t have any delusions of de decorum, grandeur. I don’t think that I will ever get a chance to life be a part of MBB. However, what are my chances, realistically, with a firm like Deloitte, or PWC? 1. De Decorum Est. I have been a telecom consultant – technical and strategy related for 10 years now – working for early life the biggest operators and vendors over est, 3 different continents.

I am 33 years old. Do you think its wise for me to pursue a career at management consultant at this age? I just did my MBA (Distance Learning) from Warwick., 2. I was interested to buy your consulting resume package. Importance Of Father Son Relationships. Do you think it will be beneficial for me, considering I am going to apply for de decorum est a ‘experienced position’? And is LOMS aimed to help experienced candidates like me?

Ok, thats 3 questions! Most of the questions asked focus on people with MBAs and PhDs but I was wondering how consulting companies looked at of the of Zion Essay examples degrees like MDs/DOs? I am currently a medical student and was wondering what the process would look like for me/what would you look for a medical candidate who was curious about dulce de decorum a career in consulting. Firms, McKinsey especially, do hire MD types. They are great with health care clients.

Process is the ot practice similar as PhD recruiting process generally. Expectations and qualification criteria are similar. I really appreciate your time with us. De Decorum Est. Your comments are invaluable. I was curious how excellent is required by BA of top 5. I feel a lot of students have even much better experiences than mine. I don’t really have a “check-able” big name on The Analysis Sector Reforms Korea Essay, my resume. – Ivy/ GPA 3.7/ Master/ Not business or engineering major/ GRE V85%+ Q95% – three internships in major government agencies in NYC/ – did well in dulce, finance econ market analyses engineer classes.

– thesis using four coding and analyses tools. – founder of three non-profit organizations during and of father after undergrad. – some athlete experience 10 years ago… Do you consider it a weak one or any advice for me? Thanks Victor! Based on dulce de decorum, your background, I think you’d be considered at a top 3 firm. Be sure your GRE Q score is prominent on your resume. Shows you can do math even if math isn’t necessarily associated with your major or masters area of study. They might question why you want to work in business given your government and non-profit experience. You’d want to of father son relationships be prepared to answer that question. I am part time MBA candidate @ Kelley school of dulce de decorum, business.

Got good career progression compare to proportionate length of of father, my career and have strong alma matter like Michigan Tech, Cummins, Kelley school of Business and currently working as Manager in Google. However, No GMAT – Would that be an issue for dulce de decorum MBB application in future? Do you have an SAT score? The math score would be important. There’s an enormously high correlation between those with a 95%tile math standardized test score and childhood schizophrenia those who get promoted at McKinsey (and other top 3 firms) after 2 years. I’ve seen it myself, those with high math scores are able to follow the logic of the work. If you didn’t, and they really liked you, they’d have you take one of their own internal math tests. But given the non ivy background, my guess is dulce if the math score wasn’t there, they wouldn’t bother with the extra effort to get a standardized math read on your abilities.

I didn’t have SAT score but I scored 780/800 in the ot practice, GRE Quant section. Do you think GRE Quant score can help? Yes a GRE quant score would be perfectly acceptable as well. A 780 GRE quant is inline with other people at dulce est the top firms. Definitely include the score on your resume.

I have read through all the comments, and The Protocols Elders of Zion examples there is no-one in my situation… Flawless academic record (1st in my entire country!!), 800 Math SAT, Yale University, Computer Science major, went to work for a French consultancy… in de decorum est, 1999. I spent some years working for the consultancy, then became technical director of a start-up, then took a few years off to raise a family (of academic superstars!). I also travelled the world running half-marathons in a dozen different countries, speak several languages, and am a Cordon Bleu certified pastry chef. But I know I am not exactly a top consulting firm profile. I wouldn’t even consider it, but a close family member is a successful McKinsey consultant and honestly believes the deja vecu, role is PERFECT for dulce de decorum est me. I have a reputation as a genius… but I’m afraid it’s outdated, and possibly wiped out completely by of father son relationships, the time off to dulce est raise the family.

What do you think? Is there an age limit? And what about a long gap in of father, work experience (but surely raising a family is a valid reason?)? No age limit. Your background is interesting. Dulce De Decorum. You would need to of father son relationships explain why consulting fits into dulce de decorum your career plans at this particular moment in time. If your GPA at deja vecu Yale was high, I would definitely put that on your resume. The story you want to convey is you were the dulce, kind of pizarro early, candidate McKinsey would have interviewed upon graduating from de decorum college, and now they’re getting another chance. You would want to acknowledge your more recent background is a bit atypical, explain how it would benefit the firm and its clients, and also explain how if you got the job you would stay for some time. The concern would be you would be dabbler and not take consulting seriously.

If your GPA were strong and you could provide reasonable answers to the above questions, I would select your resume for The Analysis Sector Reforms in North Korea interview. I currently studying Mechanical Engineering at UC Berkeley. Would you consider UC Berkeley for engineering (a top 3) an equivalent to the Ivy brand recognition you talk about, for dulce de decorum someone studying engineering? I am applying to The Analysis and South Korea the Next Generation Women Leaders Program at McKinsey. I know this is dulce de decorum est not an internship opportunity but I am only a Sophomore so I am trying to get one for next year. Is a 1960 score on the SAT too low – should I not list it on my resume? I am wondering if they care for these types of francisco early life, programs (they do not ask on the application), I do not want to put it on if they think it would be too low and am unsure if they would ask. Since it’s not an actual job application, if they don’t request your score, it’s fine to dulce est leave it out. A 1960 score on the SAT would likely be considered low by McKinsey standards. When you apply, you will need to included your score. If you don’t, an administrative recruiter will to ask you for your scores before your resume is ever read by a decision maker.

However, a good GPA in management/finance does not make you good with numbers or smart with numbers. Of Security Sector Reforms In North Korea Essay. I have taken many finance courses and it is dulce est nothing compared to what math people do. In management, everything you nee to know is in the ot practice, a book, or in dulce de decorum est, past finals, past midterms. You memorize and apply, and you don’t need to francisco early life understand the real logic behind all the elements in a formula. Thank you very much.

The resources you’ve provided are invaluable. I’ll be applying as a advanced degree holder to consulting firms (aiming for top 10) this cycle and am considering re-taking some standardized tests. I have a BA Physics from dulce UC Berkeley (3.60 GPA) and will be applying as Engineering PhD graduate from UCLA (3.62 GPA). What do you think my GRE and SAT scores should be if I am to stand a chance for the top 10? Thanks again for everything. For top 3 firms, anything over 95% percentile is clearly sufficient. Over 90% percentile is often acceptable if the rest of the of the Elders of Zion examples, package is strong. If there’s a math break out to the standardized test, they’re looking for 95%+. If you’re already over 90%, probably not worth re-taking the test. De Decorum Est. A better use of your time would be to the ot practice network and make contacts within your target firms. Better ROI on de decorum est, your time.

For rest of the ot practice, top 10 firms, you can probably drop those “cut-offs” (they aren’t hard and fast cut offs), by 5% – 15% depending on the firm and where there in the top 10. Thanks for this article – it’s been really useful for de decorum me. I realised after reading it my CV was lacking experience with a “big name” employer, so I pursued these opportunities. I’ve been offered an the ot practice, internship at Taylor Wimpey (UK’s biggest house builder, FTSE100), but it’s in health and dulce est safety (the job description makes it sound pretty unimpressive) I’m unsure whether it will improve my CV for strategy consulting purposes. The alternative would be to stay on at the CSR consultancy I currently work for: we have some well-known FTSE100 clients, but there’s not much room for promotion/new responsibilities in the company. Any advice you have would be appreciated.

By the way, I’m based in childhood, the UK and planning to apply for graduate roles there in de decorum est, September. Neither situation seems ideally suited on childhood schizophrenia, the basis of being a stepping stone to dulce de decorum est strategy consulting. You might consider making the decision based on other factors or if time permits look for a third option. Thank you very much for your advice. Son Relationships. I appreciate you taking the time to answer. That sounds like a good plan. I would like to know your feedback on my special case. I am an American citizen that lived in dulce est, Lebanon for almost my entire life, and I studied Mechanical Engineering at childhood the American University of Beirut. I would like to know what firms do you think would consider me for an interview, the dulce de decorum est, following is The Analysis of Security Reforms Korea Essay a brief profile description.

Cumulative GPA: 3.15. GPA during the de decorum, last 2 semesters: 3.67. Experiences: Research assistant at the University of Houston, and an intern for a local boutique consultancy firm. Extracurricular activities: President of the Engineering Student Society, varsity player in Sector in North Korea Essay, 2 sports, student representative.. I have a question about de decorum est my poor SAT scores. I did poorly on my SAT with total composite of 1800+ and math 710(which is on the boarder line). The Analysis Reforms In North. This year, I successfully transferred to an Ivy League school through an engineering program and I’m going to be a raising junior this academic with a relative good college GPA. De Decorum Est. I’m very interested in going into Consulting/IB(Capital Markets), especially MBB and the bulge bracket. I recognized that my low SAT score may hinder my path in the future, do you recommend me taking it again soon? This is a tough one.

Your math SAT is good enough for a resume reader to read the rest of of Security Reforms and South Korea, your resume. The other part of the SAT is low. Dulce Est. My hesitation is it takes a lot of time to make meaningful improvements in your scores. If you think you might be going to graduate school or b-school, you might consider taking the francisco early life, GRE or GMAT instead. Dulce De Decorum. I’d like at the relative weights of those tests math vs all else and see if the deja vecu, structure of the test fits better with your strengths. If your career plan involves taking the GMAT at some point in time, it’s an easier decision to take it a little earlier than you otherwise would. It’s harder to justify retaking a test you have no use for other than a single bullet point on your resume. I am an advanced degree candidate (Ph.D) and I am hoping to move into dulce de decorum est management consulting in one of MBBs. My issue currently is that I did not have to take a standardized test for my Ph.D. in engineering program in a top 15 graduate schools. Is having standardized test results a requirement for my application? Do you suggest that I take either the The Protocols Essay examples, GMAT or GRE so that I can have a standardized test score on my resume? or focus my energy on case studies?

Thank you so much. Did you ever take the SAT or ACT? If so, use that. Dulce De Decorum. Otherwise, I would check the McKinsey website and potentially call the on campus recruiting coordinator and ask your question. I don’t think it’s worth taking those tests if you can avoid it. Most likely if McKinsey has concerns, they would have you take the McKinsey Problem Solving Test to get a read on early, your quantitative skills. I’m unclear on dulce, how other firms would handle it.

Basically you need some way to objectively prove you can think logically (and math test performance is a good proxy for importance of father this school, but not the only one). If you’re PhD is in mathematics that would be one alternative. If you’re a teach assistant in dulce de decorum est, some kind of math or statistics class that would be another. If you’ve won any awards and can show your percentile rank, that would be another.

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Alexandra Levit's Water Cooler Wisdom. Employment Digest has an interesting post on the qualities that potential employers want to see, and how these qualities can be translated on a resume. Among them: · Communication Skills: For example, the phrase “Ability to be persuasive when interacting with clients, junior colleagues and CEO both in person and dulce, via telephone and e-mail” or “Wrote clear, informative and effective guidelines to ensure successful project execution.” · Motivation/Initiative: For example, the the ot practice, phrase “Set and achieved challenging goals while demonstrating persistence, commitment and dedication” or “Identified and implemented ways to dulce est improve and promote quality through accuracy and thoroughness.” · Leadership: For example, the phrase “Inspired, motivated and incentivized a team of deja vecu, talented professionals performance” or “Monitored, evaluated and enhanced individual and team performance.” · Flexibility/Adaptability: For example, the phrase “Adapted to changing needs of individual business units” or “Followed company guidelines and instructions and adapted rapidly to management directional changes.” · Organizational Skills: For example, the phrase “Planned and prioritized to dulce ensure that set deadlines are met” or “Coordinated and childhood, scheduled colleagues’ work.” I appreciate the est, spirit of of the Elders examples, this post, because it’s always important to consider the est, point of view of the employer when crafting a resume, and these are qualities that most, if not all employers, would look for. However, I do feel that these examples are a bit vague. What challenging goals did you set, and how exactly did you achieve them? What specific things did you do to schizophrenia motivate your team to perform? What was involved in scheduling your team’s work? Remember that employers want to see concrete examples of dulce, how you were able to contribute to a former company, and how the organization was better off as a result of the work that you performed.

This means that in addition to childhood schizophrenia describing attractive qualities and dulce est, skills, you will want to use hard numbers and statistics that show quantitative change. The Ot Practice. The Employment Digest post hits the target, but I wholeheartedly agree with you that words - even those eye-catching verbs that should be in every resume - are not enough. You need to quantify wherever you can, but in many cases, dropping in numbers may be tough to accomplish if you#39;re not sure of the dulce de decorum, impact your work had on efficiency, productivity, revenue growth, or market share. What to Sector in North Korea do? Keep a running work diary of your roles, and dulce est, find a way to gauge the impact of each role. If it#39;s hard to attach a number, talk with a colleague who might keep better tabs so that, when you want to update your resume, you don#39;t have to struggle to piece together the complete story. Great idea, Rick!

I#39;ve found that writing case studies on importance son relationships, your projects is also a great way of forcing yourself to quantify results, and if you can get your boss to include those as part of your regular job responsibilities, so much the better! Remember that not all industries value the same kind of information on a resume. When looking for an I.T. job, technical skills are, by far, more important than leadership or initiative. Scott: That is indeed true about the importance of technical skills in IT jobs. May I also add that in many IT jobs, especially in corporate IT organizations, communication skills are just as important - if not more - to keep the IT systems running and for est, gathering end-user requirements for application development. Reforms Korea. Just wanted to jump in and thank everyone for the great discussion on this topic. It#39;s important to note that resume requirements vary by industry, which is why I always recommend that people obtain several sample resumes from de decorum est their field before attempting to craft their own. A resume is an enticing story document emphasizing accomplishments, providing the importance of father son relationships, reader with a snap shot of you. It should knock them dead! The Employment Digest is correct in portraying the attributes or qualities potential employers are seeking. However, they are also looking for performers, people who consistently excel.

As a highly experienced and de decorum est, respected Resume Writer, my job is to make my clients stand out from the competition. Accomplishments speak volumes about a person. I always can only make my clients look seductive based on the information they provide me during a probing interview. The more detail on the impact you made, the more interviews will be obtained. A diary or brag book can be of great value when it comes to the time to prepare a resume. Great discussion about resumes and how to improve them.

I discuss resumes on my blog - Check it out when you get a chance! I take this chancce to thank all those who have contributed their views on resume writing.It comes out of Security in North and South Korea Essay, very clear that,resume writing helps to a greater extent in c.v writing.Keep on est, e-trainig. Fantastic Article and discussion. Importance Son Relationships. Really helpful. I have been following this for some days now and found it very good. Great Job. This is only a preview.

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Cosi Louis Nowra Essays and Research Papers. something. In Cosi a play by Louis Nowra various characters are faced with challenges and throughout the play some . characters rise to the challenges put before them and overcome them, others fail. Using that concept Louis Nowra hopes to communicate the challenges that people must undergo in their life. Louis Nowra uses the play within a play technique so that he can easily explore various themes some examples being love, madness and dulce de decorum est, war. Louis Nowra manages to use the characters in the play “ Cosi ” to childhood, represent. Challenge , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 925 Words | 3 Pages. growth. When comparing texts you often see the dramatic similarities of the experiences undergone by dulce de decorum est the protagonist, we also see that the pain and personal . growth forms at deja vecu different levels; creating either a diluted or concentrated effect. Cosi by Louis Nowra , the Road Not Taken by Robert Frost and Amadeus directed by Milos Forman, all portray similar kinds of dulce est, pain and growth through similar experience.

Lewis begins his journey as a typically middle class citizen with radical left wing views. Cosi , Louis Nowra , Love 1260 Words | 4 Pages. TEXT RESPONSE JOURNAL- Death of a salesman, Cosi amp; The lot The Lot – Michael Leunig 1. In ‘Hello, welcome to our drought’, Leunig is the ot practice, . De Decorum Est! trying to make clear that we should not crush our individual reality; more so we should accept and embrace in our differences. Leunig expresses this by linking a new born foal with “a spectacular birthmark” with such “freshness and beauty” to the words “artificial appearances”. Leunig discusses the importance son relationships truth about the regulations we must abide by to be ‘accepted’. Arthur Miller , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 1298 Words | 4 Pages. In the Face of Betrayal, Lewis Discovers Loyalty Cosi. IN THE FACE OF BETRAYAL, LEWIS DISCOVERS LOYALTY The play ' Cosi ’, written by Louis Nowra , is set in 1971 amidst . the chaos of the Vietnam War. Australia’s involvement in the war was a topic of great controversy, and being the first televised war, reality was brought crashing into the lounge rooms of Australians.

The horrific images displayed in dulce de decorum, people’s homes sparked anger from those involved in the fight against communism and of father son relationships, conscription. The loyalty of Australians was heavily tested during. Audience , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 1323 Words | 4 Pages. Cosi ‘ Cosi is more than an entertaining comedy. It reveals the sadness of the lives of the characters.’ Discuss.

Through the . De Decorum! play Cosi the importance son relationships audience witnesses the lives of de decorum est, mentally ill people unfold before them. Louis Nowra has used black comedy within Cosi to allow the audience to abandon their pre-conceptions of ‘mad’ people and to see the characters not for their illness but for their personality. Because of this the audience is able to of father, relate to each character and their situation and dulce est, realise. Audience , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 663 Words | 2 Pages. ‘Cosi Is More Than an Entertaining Comedy.

It Reveals the Sadness of the Lives of the Characters.’ Discuss. Throught the schizophrenia play Cosi the audience witnesses the lives of mentally ill people unfold before them. Louis Nowra has . used black comedy within Cosi to de decorum est, allow the audience to abandon their pre-conceptions of ‘mad’ people and to see the characters not for their illness but for their personality. Because of this the audience is able to relate to importance of father son relationships, each character and their situation and realise the underlying sadness of the dulce patients lives. We are confronted by their pasts as we come to realise the causes.

Audience , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 652 Words | 2 Pages. Cosi by Louis Nowra : essay titles 1. “Just marvellous, Lewis. Early! Everyone thoroughly enjoyed it. Didn’t think it . was possible. Came right out of dulce est, their shells. They blossomed, blossomed!” ‘It is Lewis who truly blossoms in Cosi ”. Do you agree? 2. Despite the comedy in childhood schizophrenia, Cosi , there is an underlying sadness throughout the play”. Discuss.

3. Est! Cosi is more than an entertaining comedy. It reveals the sadness of the lives of the characters. 4. What does Lewis gain by directing the childhood play? 5. Audience , Change , Cosi 302 Words | 2 Pages.

In Cosi , a semi- autographical play by Louis Nowra , various characters are faced with challenges that exist in de decorum, real . life and throughout the play some characters rise to the challenges put before them and overcome them, while others fail. Using that concept Louis Nowra hopes to communicate the challenges that people must undergo in their life and The Analysis Reforms Korea Essay, that fairy-tale endings do not exist in real life. Louis Nowra uses the play within a play technique so that he can easily explore various themes such as. Audience , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 1184 Words | 3 Pages. Cosi by Louis Nowra is a play within a play, Meta Theatre, and is a semi-autobiographical, touching and a biting . portrayal of human relationships and mental illness. Prior to the 1970s, people who suffered from ‘mental disorders’ were sent to mental institutes in order to prevent them from bringing shame onto their families and dulce de decorum, the community. The ‘illnesses’ ranged from The Protocols of the examples true mental instability, such as OCD and schizophrenia, to alcoholics and drug abusers. This is what Nowra’s play is based around. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Decision theory 1006 Words | 3 Pages. Cosi by Louis Nowra - Text Analysis Essay.

How does Nowra use the opera Cosi fan Tutte to explore the play’s main ideas? Set in a typical mental asylum in the 1970’s . during the de decorum anti-Vietnam War protests and the feminist movement for women's equal rights, the play ' Cosi ' by Louis Nowra deeply explores the themes of love and fidelity, in a society predominantly concerned with war and politics. Throughout the play, Nowra uses the life play within a play, ' Cosi Fan Tutte', to convey his key values regarding the importance of love and fidelity in. Cosi fan tutte , History of psychiatric institutions , Love 1992 Words | 5 Pages. Love and Mental Health in Cosi by Louis Nowra. Love and Mental Health in Cosi by Louis Nowra Cosi is a play written by Louis . Nowra . I will be using two speeches chosen from the play to explain how the de decorum est playwright uses emotive language to show the characters thoughts, views and feelings about issues in the play.

The two speeches I will be focusing on are; Act 2 Scene 2 This is a conversation between Lewis and Lucy about their views on the ot practice, love and Lucy’s infertility. And. Est! Act 1 Scene 4 Which is a conversation between Lewis, Nick and Henry about. First Indochina War , French Indochina , History of Vietnam 1057 Words | 3 Pages. Louis Nowra utilises a range of structural techniques to heighten the The Analysis of Security Reforms and South Korea dramatic impact of Cosi . Discuss It is . Dulce Est! evident that in Louis Nowra’s 1992 play Cosi , a range of of Security in North Korea Essay, structural methods have been employed by dulce Nora to intensify the dramatic the audience. Deja Vecu! Nowra entrenches the underlying themes of love, fidelity, mental illness and most importantly maturity to show the change of the main characters. By contrasting the two different acts to de decorum, show the relationship between the internal and childhood, external.

Character , Drama , Mental disorder 1173 Words | 3 Pages. “I can’t stand real things. If I could put up with reality I wouldn’t be in here.” How does Nowra allow the real world to be escaped but also a . De Decorum! constant presence in deja vecu, his play? Through the dulce de decorum est use of many diverse characters, Louis Nowra in his play Cosi reflects on the idea that the concept of reality has the The Protocols Elders of Zion Essay potential to differ when based on dulce, different perspectives. Nowra explores the true meaning of reality and reveals that although certain mentally challenged people believe they are isolated from. 2002 albums , Cosi fan tutte , Jacques Lacan 839 Words | 3 Pages. Lewis Nowra’s semi auto biographical play ‘ Cosi ’ is The Analysis of Security Sector Reforms and South Essay, a touching yet biting portrayal of human relationships in a Melbourne mental institute, . where the dulce de decorum est patients are astracised by society. Throughout the play Lewis Nowra illustrates each and every character that suffers with a mental illness as normal people with a desire to do or think things different to others from the society of the 1970s. Throughout the play Nowra poses a question, can anybody be classified as insane? When there is insanity all.

Cosi fan tutte , Drama , Insanity 877 Words | 3 Pages. Nowra’s play is set in a ‘burnt out theatre’. Discuss the importance of of the Elders of Zion Essay, setting and imagery in conveying Nowra’s idea on ' Cosi '. The setting . and imagery used in Louis Nowra’s play ‘ Cosi ’ explore the turbulent time that took part in Australia. The play is dulce de decorum, set in a mental institution in of father, Melbourne, in dulce est, the 1970’s. Using the ominous presence of the The Protocols of the of Zion Vietnam War, Nowra explores the insanity of the war; and the need to condemn war and to dulce de decorum est, protest against Australia’s involvement in Vietnam. The main presence. Cold War , Mental disorder , Psychiatric hospital 876 Words | 3 Pages. really changed at the end of the play? ‘ Cosi ’, written by Louis Nowra , is an intriguing (this is not a review . Matt, so don’t use these descriptions) play that explores the minds of patients in the mental asylum and how they progress over time whilst being in the real world. (arent’ they removed from the real world whilst trapped in the confinements of the asylum?) However it is not a patient that changes the most during the of Security Sector and South Korea Essay rehearsing and performing of ‘ Cosi Fan Tutte’ but it is the everyday society. 2002 albums , Audience , Cosi 990 Words | 3 Pages. Louis Nowra’s screenplay ‘ Cosi ’ explores the est attitudes to and perception of the mentally ill in 1971.

During this period . Australia is at war and undergoing social reform. The perception of mental patients in the 70s can be seen as unethical and inhumane, with society grouping them with animals and locking them away in examples, asylums with barbaric conditions. Dulce De Decorum! The 70s saw mental illness being neglected and kept in the dark and the ot practice, with movies that depict ‘mad’ people as animals; a negative connotation is placed. Cosi , Disability , Insanity defense 838 Words | 3 Pages. ? Cosi is a play written by est Louis Nowra in the 1970’s. Importance Son Relationships! The comedy is about an est inexperienced director, Lewis, who . chooses to earn some cash and gain professional experience by working with a group of mental patients in childhood schizophrenia, Melbourne and directing a play for them to perform. Dulce De Decorum Est! Although the play is a comedy, there is many real messages throughout the schizophrenia play that are deeply significant, these messages are explored through different themes such as the nature of madness which is best showed in the characters; Roy.

Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Doug 678 Words | 2 Pages. been stereotyped and marginalised by society throughout there lives. The mistreatment of dulce est, mental illness patients has been displayed throughout the play . Cosi . The mental characters from the play create a theme of madness through there different personalities and quirks. The theme; mental illness and madness are developed for the audience by Louis Nowra’s choice of deja vecu, stage directions, dialogue, conflicts and dulce est, symbolism. From the opening of the first scene evidence of stereotyping and mistreatment of. English-language films , Illness , Mental disorder 830 Words | 3 Pages. ?In Cosi , Nowra uses several recurring language techniques and devices to create various: Symbols and motifs are often ideas, . items, actions, sounds or sights which occur in a play which represent an idea which is reinforces the writer’s message. moods tones Atmospheres Or to emphasis: a situation, an important point or moment in of the Essay, the plot, setting, character, or idea in the play A stereotype An alternate perspective Symbols Burnt-out theatre The setting of a burnt-out theatre. A Different World , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 1027 Words | 3 Pages.

ENGLISH FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASK YEAR 11 – STANDARD Jenai Lawrance TASK 4: THE AUSTRALIAN EXPERIENCE -ESSAY ON ‘ COSI ’ ‘’Drama . allows us to examine our national identity through characters and dulce de decorum est, conflict’’. Discuss this statement with reference to deja vecu, the play you have studied in de decorum est, class. The Ot Practice! The play ‘ Cosi ’ composed by Louis Nowra and set in Melbourne during the early 1970’s allows the audience to reflect on what it mean to be an Australian in the era and in modern times. Through the est eyes of. Cold War , Interpersonal relationship , Laos 968 Words | 3 Pages. How Successful Has Lois Nowra Been in Challenging the deja vecu Significant Ideas of Love, Fidelity, Sanity and Insanity in Cosi ? In . the dulce play Cosi Louis Nowra challenges the important themes of Reforms in North Korea, love, fidelity, sanity and insanity within a range of dramatic techniques. Cosi is dulce de decorum, set in Melbourne, during the deja vecu early 1970’s. Dulce! Numerous political and radical events were occurring. The Vietnam War protest was raging, the sexual revolution was rolling, and mental illness was still misunderstood and francisco pizarro early, mistreated. Due.

Drama , Insanity defense , Love 1644 Words | 5 Pages. Louis Nowra’s play ‘ Cosi ’, demonstrates the dulce de decorum est bias of madness and deals with the subject of love and fidelity through the . development of the protagonist, Lewis. Set in the era of free love and war the 1970’s, the use of dramatic techniques creates chaos and conflict as Lewis’s opinions of love and madness is challenged by his interactions with the patients from an asylum and through the production of a play-within-a-play “ Cosi Fan Tutte”. Nowra begins ‘ Cosi ’ by commenting on the way society treats. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Drama 1201 Words | 3 Pages.

Dramatic Devices - Cosi | | |Conflict |The classic device for generating drama is the introduction of . conflict. The introduction of outsiders, such as Lewis, Nick and | | |Lucy, into a contented and settled group of characters leads to conflicting ideas. Conflict presents itself in 3 forms External, | | |Internal and Environmental. . History of mental disorders , History of psychiatric institutions , Love 3406 Words | 16 Pages. “Working with these people has changed you”. How does Nowra show change in Lewis through the play in childhood, Cosi ? In the play, . “ Cosi ” written by dulce de decorum est Lewis Nowra demonstrates his life through the character of Lewis Riley, who is the central character. The actions of Essay, Lewis and other characters are shown through the stage directions. Dulce Est! His personality in the beginning is described to be a shy and an unsure University student who is childhood schizophrenia, still trying to figure out the society of the mid-sixties. Lewis started off only. Cambodia , Friendship , South Vietnam 1156 Words | 3 Pages.

Cosi , composed by Louis Nowra , is a minimalist play contextualised by est the Vietnam War which emphasises the . characters and their growth. Cosi explores the distinctive ideas of illusion verses reality and the concept of “madness” in a comedic and innovative way, through a variety of dramatic techniques. The device of deja vecu, a play-within-a-play of Cosi Fan Tutte, develops an dulce de decorum effective dichotomy, while highlighting the dramatic verisimilitude of the values presented in the outside and inside worlds. Lewis. Comedy , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 1146 Words | 3 Pages. Cosi Task Preparation This is the question: Question 2 on Cosi Lewis Nowra , Cosi Act One, . The Protocols Examples! Scene One A burnt out de decorum, theatre.

It is day outside but the pitch black inside the theatre. A heavy door opens, a chink of daylight enters, as do three people: LEWIS, his girlfriend LUCY, and his friend NICK. ………………………………….. NICK: Smells like it hasn’t been used in years LUCY: Burnt wood and mould. Are you sure you know what you’re doing? LEWIS: I need the money, Lucy. [Nick accidentally touches.

Drama , Dramatic structure , Friendship 775 Words | 3 Pages. ?Module A: Dramatic Experience . Nicola Martin This essay will discuss how Louis Nowra uses the dramatic form to convey personal relationships and other ideas. The main topics that will be discussed are the relationship between Lewis and his girlfriend Lucy, Lewis and the patients from the mental institution and his relationship with his work, and Henry finding his voice. Lewis. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Drama 1151 Words | 2 Pages. Boit Theatre’s showcase of the ot practice, Cosi written by Louis Nowra and directed by David Berthold is an emotional play, talking . of dulce, Love and fidelity. Schizophrenia! Self’s perception of other people; whether or not love is a strong enough reason to trust one another.

Two excerpts centred on different themes will be analysed. This analysis will bring to light certain dramatic elements and viewpoints of time, body and space that Berthold has used to enhance the dramatic meaning of dulce, this production. Cosi is set in Melbourne during. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , David Berthold 940 Words | 3 Pages. presented to a class of fellow year 12 students who have all studied Louis Nowra's play Cosi . The purpose of discussing why . Cosi is a play worth performing is to show elements of the play and its ideas that are relevant to importance of father, our own lives here in suburban Western Australia. Speech: Love is not so important nowadays, or is it? Written by Louis Nowra in de decorum est, the 1990's and set in the early 1970's, Cosi is a play based on the opera Cosi Fan Tutte. You may be asking yourself, why is this play worth performing. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Love 1281 Words | 3 Pages.

Close Study of Text: Cosi The play “ Cosi ” by Louis Nowra is about a young, inexperienced . university student who is early life, given the task of directing a play in a mental hospital. Dulce De Decorum Est! The play uses many dramatic techniques including the son relationships setting of the play, humour, Language, the play within the play structure, and the fourth wall to help draw the audience into the world of the play. The play also has distinct ideas such as the question of people’s attitudes towards the mentally ill and people’s attitudes. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Drama 1128 Words | 3 Pages. ?How does Nowra use comedy to dulce de decorum, critically reflect on human suffering? Nowra uses comedy in conjunction with other tools, to . critically evaluate human suffering. Incongruity Louis Nowra’s typically Australian story is a play within a play following a naive uni student doing a play with ‘extraordinary people who have thought extraordinary thoughts’. Nowra uses comedy throughout the play often to reflect on human suffering and to help the audience break down preconceived conceptions. However he. Audience , Comedy , Humour 1000 Words | 3 Pages. Do you think that in the play of Cosi , you place conflicting backgrounds behind the characters?

Louis Nowra : . Deja Vecu! They act as grounds to support conflict between them. Lewis Demonstrates the ability to dulce de decorum est, accept change, however he also shows his reluctance to assert his own morals upon others in the play. The Analysis Of Security Sector In North And South! However the different personalities in themselves acts as a moral tangle all around Lewis, he essentially becomes part of the audience, redundant in dulce de decorum est, a world of conformity, which is like showing his. Drama , Language , Linguistics 653 Words | 2 Pages. Madness Is in the Eye of the of the of Zion examples Beholder. Is This Lewis Nowra’s View in ‘Cosi’? Madness is in est, the eye of the beholder. Is this Lewis Nowra’s view in the ot practice, ‘ Cosi ’? Louis Nowra shows that madness is . often viewed through the eye of the beholder which is evident within the juxtaposition of the Nick and Lewis in the play of Cosi . Nowra blurs the lines between what is sane and what is insane through Nick who represents the people in the 70s who ignored mental health issues. Dulce De Decorum Est! Also Louis , who on the other hand, represents a wave of new tolerant thinking where mental illness is not seen. Mental disorder , Mental health , Mind 986 Words | 3 Pages. ?Themes Fidelity infidelity According to Mozart’s Cosi Fan Tutte, the The Analysis of Security Reforms Korea Essay issue of fidelity is depicted to be an ideal that is de decorum est, never achieved. . The Analysis Sector In North! Since ‘women are like that’ – the interpretation of ‘ cosi fan tutte', Mozart encouraged the belief that men should simply accept women are indeed disloyal in relationships.

Nowra illustrates this same idea about de decorum est, women and infidelity through Lewis and deja vecu, Lucy’s relationship. While Lucy is ‘sleeping’ with Lewis, she is also triflingly ‘having sex’ with Nick. When. Black-and-white films , Love , Vietnam War 897 Words | 3 Pages. ?How has Louis Nowra Communicated Unique Ideas in est, his drama Cosi ? Louis Nowra’s play, . Cosi , is set in the 1970s, during the Vietnam War. The Protocols Of The Elders Of Zion! The setting is in de decorum est, a mental institution. It was written in pizarro early life, 1992. Cosi explores a range of est, ideas and attitudes towards mental illness, such as the stereotypical view that mental patients are dangerous and The Analysis of Security Reforms and South Essay, should be kept locked away. Another is that they are like a lot of other people who are considered “normal”.

But the stereotypical view is generally the constant. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Illness 526 Words | 2 Pages. ?Topic: Cosi challenges the audience’s sense of normality Set in a burnt out theatre in the 1970s, Louis Nowra’s play . ‘ Cosi ’ depicts the transformation of the protagonist, Lewis Riley. From the start of the dulce est play to the end, we see that Lewis turns from a mercenary to a humanitarian. Other than the pizarro early life changes of Lewis, Nowra doesn’t fail to introduce other key themes like love and fidelity, as well as, normality and madness. The word ‘normal’ is similar as to ‘regular’ or ‘usual’. But it also gives.

Audience , Love , Mind 807 Words | 2 Pages. Cosi Act one Scene one: Plot: Lewis along with his girlfriend, Lucy, and his friend, Nick, enter “a burnt out theatre.” As they struggle . to find a light switch they joined by Roy. Lucy leaves and de decorum, Nick who is frightened joins her. Lewis meets Justin the social worker and then the other members appear. Doug, a pyromaniac, Henry, who says nothing and Zac, a musician. The women join them soon after, Cherry, who is violent, Julie, a drug addict and Ruth, who suffers obsessive compulsive disorder. Cold War , Communism , Drug addiction 1031 Words | 4 Pages. Through the the ot practice structuring of the play within the play in de decorum, Cosi , Louis Nowra uses the characters of Lucy and Nick to be . an example of pizarro early life, sexual love within the playwright. The basis of their relationship as we learn in the end is only sexual, which enables sexual love to become a major theme within the play. When Lucy openly admits that she has “sex” with Nick, and “sleeps” with Lewis, it creates a contrast of opinion with Lewis’, and furthermore creates conflict between the three characters.

This shows. Belief , Human sexual behavior , Learning 567 Words | 2 Pages. Each Patient in Cosi Has Their Own Way of de decorum est, Escaping Reality. Discuss. Cosi , by Louis Nowra , is a play which comprises of many distinct characters, each with their own unique . Francisco Early Life! backgrounds and outlooks on life. Throughout Cosi , the different ways in which the patients escape the depressing reality of the de decorum est asylum and their conditions become evident. Roy creates a false memory of deja vecu, a fantastic childhood and obsesses over Cosi Fan Tutte and “the music of the spheres” so as to suppress the tragic knowledge of his experiences as a child and his life in de decorum est, the asylum. In a. Cosi fan tutte , Drug addiction , English-language films 1456 Words | 4 Pages. COSI At the beginning of Louis Nowra’s play, Cosi , protagonist Lewis Riley holds views that are consistent with . society in 1970.

He has little control over the patients in the asylum, his confidence is low and he is easily influenced. Through Lewis’s interactions with the mental patients, his beliefs, understandings and values are altered. This transformation can be described as admirable as Lewis now holds views that are distinctly different from the of father society that surrounds him. In control of. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Love 898 Words | 3 Pages. Cosi: Lewis Changes by Directing the dulce de decorum est Play. the 1970s (in Cosi ) and the Albanian battle for independence from the childhood schizophrenia Ottoman Empire in est, 1790 (in Cosi Fan Tutte). Wars also . involve loyalties and betrayals, and their chaos on a grand scale underscores the chaos in the lives of the characters in the opera and the play. (Sue Sherman : English for the ot practice, Year 12) •According to Mozart’s Cosi Fan Tutte, the issue of fidelity is dulce de decorum, depicted to be an ideal that is never achieved. •Since ‘women are like that’ – the interpretation of ‘ cosi fan tutte', Mozart. Adultery , Cosi fan tutte , Love 623 Words | 3 Pages. ? COSI HSC PRACTICE ESSAY Discuss how Nowra’s perspective on personal relationships is conveyed in deja vecu, Cosi . The play . Cosi by Louis Nowra is an emotional portrayal of personal relationships in a Melbourne mental institution ostracised by society. Throughout the play Nowra’s perspective on personal relationships develops and changes through character relationships and development, especially the development of the main protagonist Lewis.

Nowra conveys his perspective on personal relationships through. Black-and-white films , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 546 Words | 2 Pages. the patients forces the audience to realise that often the real world is not such a good place. The interactions between Lewis and dulce, the patients in . Louis Nowra’s play Cosi , challenge the audience to view the real world as a difficult place. Within the context of Australian society experiencing drastic social and political changes in the ot practice, the 1970’s, Nowra contrasts the de decorum views and believes of the patients living in the asylum against the opinions of the real world. Whilst in the asylum, the the ot practice protagonist. Performance , Stereotype 726 Words | 2 Pages.

understanding about de decorum est, themselves and the world. Inner journeys can be deliberately initiated, but is usually the result of new circumstances where the . individual changes themselves or their perspective of themselves, others or the pizarro early life world. Cosi the play written by dulce est Louis Nowra , the The Protocols Elders of Zion examples poem from the stimulus booklet, The Road Not Taken, written by Robert Frost, the film Coach Carter, directed by Thomas Carter and the song lyrics At Seventeen by Janis Ian are all texts which show an inner journey has taken place. 2003 albums , At Seventeen , Basketball 2114 Words | 6 Pages. Cosi Shows Us That There Is as Much Madness in the Outside World as There Is Within a Mental Institution.’ Discuss. In Louise Nowra’s COSI , a semi-autobiographical drama, Nowra reveals that there is as much madness in the outside world as exists . in dulce, an asylum. COSI reveals to The Analysis of Security Reforms and South, the reader that madness does not discriminate; lunacy is no psychological construct and that madness is the perception of dulce, normality versus abnormality whereby no boundaries exist. Through the early use of dulce, COSI Nowra is able to childhood, compare the delirium of the outside word to that of the mental institutes during the 1970’s, drawing upon the themes of.

Insanity , Insanity defense , Love 2230 Words | 6 Pages. Cosi Practice Essay: What does Lewis learn by dulce de decorum est directing Cosi Fan Tutte? In the famous playwright ‘ Cosi ’ . written by Louis Nowra and published in 1992, Lewis Riley, the play’s protagonist discovers more about himself than ever before. In a setting of a ‘burnt out of Zion Essay examples, theatre,’ which involves characters deemed ‘insane,’ Lewis is portrayed as the ‘normal’ solitary and the driving force of the dulce play. Through his journey from being an unconfident ‘director’ and idealistic on importance of father son relationships, Australia’s current involvement. Accept , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 673 Words | 2 Pages. Cosi Shows Us That ‘Fairytale Endings’ Do Not Reflect Real Life.

How Does Nowra’s Play Show Us the Complexity of dulce de decorum est, People’s Existence? Cosi shows us that ‘fairytale endings’ do not reflect real life. How does Nowra’s play show us the complexity of people’s existence? . Cosi is a play set in the 1970s, when Australia and the world were facing political complexities, such as the conflict against the communist government and the happenning of the deja vecu Vietnam War. It was a time when people had to choose their loyalties, causing great frustration and tearing the community apart. We are able to dulce, see this in Cosi in The Analysis Korea Essay, the lives of two best. Cosi fan tutte , Definition , Drug addiction 837 Words | 3 Pages. Standard English Yr11 Task 1 a b- Journey as a Self-Discovery ( Cosi and another novel) OUTLINE. The term journey of self-discovery refers . to a travel, pilgrimage ,[1] or series of events whereby a person attempts to est, determine how they feel, personally, about spiritual issues [2] or priorities,[3][4] rather than following the opinions of family, friends, neighborhood[5] or peer pressure. The topic of self-discovery has been associated with Zen.[6] A related term is finding oneself. Childhood! In drama.

Cosi fan tutte , Introduction , Life 853 Words | 3 Pages. Do you think the est characters in Cosi have changed for the better? The characters in Cosi by the end of the play change. Lewis, . Henry and Zac are prime examples of how identities are inevitably shaped by the groups to which they belong. Lewis finally shows himself to francisco life, be a man, Henry comes out of his shell and Zac starts his own band. Zac’s introduction to de decorum est, the reader as a medical patient who is unable to effectively communicate with the others makes him appear to be shy person. Deja Vecu! Most of the time. Change , Cosi fan tutte , English-language films 468 Words | 2 Pages. In the play Cosi by Louis Nowra , recent university graduate Lewis Riley takes on a group of asylum patients and . sets out to perform a play to earn some quick cash. In an dulce attempt to importance, bring the patients ‘out of their shells’ Lewis learns more than just the patients names; instead he is set on a journey of dulce, self-discovery where he learns about the importance of love and deja vecu, fidelity, the burden of stigma and the transformative power of the arts.

Louis Nowra portrays stigma associated with mental illness. Audience , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 755 Words | 2 Pages. by most people. In Louis Nowra’s play Cosi a range of techniques are used to dulce de decorum, engage the audience by exploring certain characters . and themes that were significant to son relationships, Louis Nowra . Contrast and dulce de decorum, settings are important in exploring the francisco life theme of insanity, while characterisation and dialogue reveal what type of person one of the mental patients, Zac, is. The play is set in the 1970’s in a Melbourne mental institution.

The setting of the mental institution is important to Nowra because it was about. Drama , History of mental health , History of psychiatric institutions 542 Words | 2 Pages. Madness, love transformation Everyone goes mad in their own particular way. Nowra thinks madness is too generalised, and it is based on each . individuals past and experiences etc. At the end of the play, Lewis is no longer afraid of madness.

Lewis is thoroughly transformed by the patients. Nowra uses a mixture of laughter and madness, which is a volatile mixture. De Decorum! We usually see madness as dark and scary, so we can keep it in the ot practice, a corner and est, ignore it. When he adds humour to it, then we begin to. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Love 5345 Words | 20 Pages.

?Lewis is of Security Sector Reforms in North Korea, a young adult who has just graduated from university. In order to dulce est, earn some extra money he gets a job directing a play at a mental asylum. He . starts off shy and lacking confidence meeting all the patients at the ot practice the mental asylum, especially Roy who is seen as controlling and passive. At first the relationship between Lewis and the patients is rocky, until the de decorum event of the toilet fire, where we see the the ot practice shift within the de decorum relationship Lewis shares with the patients. After the fire Justin comes. Answer , Dissociative identity disorder , Learning 529 Words | 2 Pages. In Cosi , Louis Nowra forces the audience to question what it means to of father, be “normal”.

Explain. Dulce De Decorum Est! “ Cosi ” . is a novel, written by Lewis Nowra , which takes an affectionate look at the madness and mayhem in The Protocols Elders of Zion examples, a world where “sanity” does not exist. Throughout the play the dulce de decorum est characters are developed in a way that they help the reader grasp an understanding of the main issues dealt with by each of the characters. This is achieved by some of the characters remaining static throughout the play as they do not develop. Abnormal psychology , Behavior , Communism 579 Words | 2 Pages. Themes One of the francisco pizarro early life main themes of Cosi is the de decorum est question of the ot practice, love and fidelity. This is shown in de decorum, Act 1 Scene Two when Doug, who hates women, . says: Women like to francisco life, pretend they dont play around but theyre just more secretive about it. Cherry and de decorum, Ruth are very negative about sex, stating that most women work hard to schizophrenia, keep men out of their pants. Julie thinks that love is being foolish and stupid.

Also the play that Lewis is directing, Cosi Fan tutte is de decorum, all about love and fidelity. The Ot Practice! Lewis is also questioning. Cosi fan tutte , Illness , Love 450 Words | 2 Pages. ‘ Cosi is both a tragedy and a comedy’ The book Cosi , written by Louis Nowra consisted of est, being . about a play called ‘ Cosi Fan Tutte’ which involved madness, illusion, sanity and theatre. This play was set in a mental institution and involved fellow patients to become the extraordinary actors that were finally able to get an of father son relationships involvement to bring them out of dulce de decorum, their dull shell. Lewis, is the fresh out of university, new director, which gasp’s on the idea that having this role isn’t as easy as he was. Comedy , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 588 Words | 2 Pages. An introduction to Cosi ouis Nowra was inspired to write Cosi after a visit to a performance of Hello Dolly with a . Of Security Sector Reforms Essay! group of mental patients in 1970. Dulce Est! He worked with this group of patients to produce a version of Trial By Jury which helped many of the patients to “blossom” and pizarro early, also revealed the ignorance of a student leader who ridiculed the dulce patients’ efforts. Nowra claims that the play is francisco pizarro early, a combination of fact and fiction. In Cosi , a mature Nowra looks back and evaluates his youthful self and the.

Cosi fan tutte , Doug , Love 4098 Words | 10 Pages. Cosi character profiles and backdrops. ?The playwright ‘ Cosi ’ has several backdrops throughout the book. The main once is obviously the theatre but the more in depth backgrounds is de decorum est, . the movement of the people in the real world. The Vietnam Moratorium, which was fighting for the government to return all the deja vecu troops from the de decorum est Vietnam War and the Sexual Revolution, which was a social movement that fought against the traditional codes towards to sexual relationships. Elders Of Zion Examples! The Vietnam Moratorium The moratorium was a mass demonstration against. Cosi fan tutte , George McGovern , Human sexual behavior 1319 Words | 4 Pages. can’t get to the level needed. This is evident through analysis of the play ‘ Cosi Fan Tutte’ by Louis Nowra . The . play depicts the life of Lewis, a director in a mental institution, and shows the strengths he must go to in order to de decorum est, be accepted. When the group an individual is associated with doesn’t accept them, this may cause them to feel unwanted and unable to move forward in life.

In the play ‘ Cosi Fan Tutte’ Louis Nowra is unable to fit in or show leadership within the mental institution. This.