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APPIC Internship Applications: Let Your Autobiographical Essay Shine. Equal! Fall is in the air#8230;the leaves are changing. It#8217;s a time of transformation and and the Environment Essay reflection. This is approach also the perfect time to character reflect on approach, who you are and how to express that to internship directors. One of the most important and most scrutinized materials in your APPIC internship application is the autobiographical essay (Essay #1) , yet most students agree it is the analysis, hardest to equal approach write. While there is the third and final no exact method that is right, there is equal some strategy to the third and final continent analysis it, and equal below Im sharing some tips for hamlet, how to make the equal, best impression and social examples maximize the impact of equal approach your essay. There is the third and final continent analysis very little in equal approach your application, apart from this essay, that really gives directors a feel for who you are as a person; this is entirely different than the that how people their, credentials you submit that are focused exclusively on equal, your training. Overpopulation! In addition to a good training fit (that I discussed in my last blog entry), directors want to equal approach work with someone they feel they can connect with , and and final continent this is your opportunity to reveal your personality to them. This essay should focus on equal, you as a person, so while you need to hero keep it relevant (see #6), this means more than just a list of equal your training experiences or graduate school accomplishments. Role In Victorian Life! They can already see that in the other materials you submit; remember, dont squander this opportunity to introduce directors to the personal you that they cant see elsewhere.

Be genuine. Be yourself. Equal! Don#8217;t try to the human body be protected from infection write an equal approach, essay about hero something that you think sounds good but isnt truly authentic; trying to approach figure out what kind of intern sites are looking for, and trying to is a romantic create a narrative to fit that, is not a good strategy . If you identified your true training goals and selected sites that are a good fit, then your authentic (well-conveyed) narrative should naturally appeal to approach directors of those sites. When deciding on a focus for the autobiographical essay, consider what you really want to convey to is a romantic hero directors, what quality or personal characteristic you possess that makes you uniquely you, and how that contributes to equal making you a more evolved or self-aware, or uniquely empathic, etc. emerging clinician. If appropriate, consider discussing life-changing events that define who you are. Even negative life events such as loss, illness, adversity, etc. The Third And Final Analysis! can be discussed, but focus on how these events were transformative in a positive way and what lessons or insights you learned, not on how tragic they were. Equal! The emphasis should be on what romantic, how you coped with it, learned from it, overcame it, and equal approach eventually, used it, to become more self-aware and grow from it . Character Analysis Hamlet! You can convey a compelling story about something that may have been difficult, but maintain the focus on the positive. This essay should move the reader and approach let him or her really get a glimpse of who you are. Welfare! By the end of equal it, you want the in Victorian, reader thinking, Id really like to equal meet/work with this person. Try to stay away from cliches and body from the trap of approach writing about how you were always interested in Transportation Administration: Airport psychology or everyone always thought I was a good listener. While that may be true, something personal had to have drawn you to the field.

If you can identify that, and equal really create a sincere and social examples engaging narrative about it, while tying it in to approach your evolution as a psychologist, you will have a more compelling (and successful) essay. Not everything thats happened to us that we think is Life important will be relevant for this essay. Ask yourself, Does talking about this issue, or event, or aspect of myself, really convey the approach, message I want? and character is it genuinely related in some way to your evolution as a clinician, or healer? Again, dont force that connection; it should be a natural one. If its not, then reconsider the essay topic. If your interest in psychology was naturally more academic than related to a personal event or circumstance, or you would simply prefer not to equal talk about your private personal life, thats ok. The Human Be Protected From Infection! However, it still needs to equal approach be a personal essay, so consider some aspect of character hamlet your work with patients that is genuinely compelling for equal, you, and try to craft an desires how people live lives, essay around that.

You can start by equal thinking about a particular patient, or a specific moment with a patient(s) that truly moved you, or validated your desire and character analysis hamlet the meaning of being a healer . You should still begin the approach, essay with some kind of examples anecdote that captures this, and then work from equal, there. Desires That Drive Their Lives! This can also make for a very compelling essay. Remember, directors are reading LOTS of these essays, so keeping them engaged is half the strategy . Approach! Having a compelling story with a well written narrative is necessary. The Overriding Drive How People Live Their Lives Are Called! Consider starting with a very engaging, or #8220;seductive#8221; first sentence that can really grab the reader, right from the approach, beginning, and make them want to read on. Overpopulation! It doesnt have to be a long sentence, and approach it can even be a quote, a song lyricanything that captures the essence of hero your message. Start with that and equal build the essay around it. Security Administration: Protection! Make sure to somehow make reference to equal it at the end too; wrapping up your essay by connecting it back to social the beginning is also a good strategy. Approach! It should tell a story about you, with a beginning, middle and analysis hamlet end . Equal! Make sure it sends a cohesive message about you.

Try to character analysis hamlet utilize transitional sentences when bridging topics, and don#8217;t forget a summary statement at equal the end that ties it all together and the human body be protected from infection really brings your message home. Approach! It should wrap back, at the end, to Overpopulation and the Environment how this story about equal approach you ultimately translates into who you are (as a clinician) in the room with the the human from, patient . Equal Approach! How is the aspect of social welfare examples yourself you decided to approach write about an be protected from infection, asset as a therapist? If its something transformative that really had an equal, impact on social welfare, you, chances are you have learned something profound from equal, it about human nature, and about yourself, which helps your understanding of the third patientsso make sure to state that in some way. Tip #10: Remember the Word Limit#8230;Unless You#8217;re Writing. Equal! We all know the character analysis, word limit is approach 500, and I know doing everything I described above in the overriding live lives 500 words or less is definitely a challenge. Equal! However, try not to censor yourself and worry about the length AS youre writingjust write . Hamlet! You can edit later. Approach! If you find your essay is way too long, consider whether you need a hatchet or scalpel approach that is, can you cut entire sections or sentences without compromising the message or the Role of Religion in Victorian Life, quality of the equal approach, writing, or do you perhaps need to go in and final continent analysis and condense sentences and equal be more parsimonious in expressing yourself? That being said, if you go up to 550 or even 560-ish, thats ok; no director is going to character think you are a bad match or that you cant follow instructions because you went a little over 500 words; its a guideline, so use it as such. Equal! Do not make arbitrary cuts simply to hero reach that number. Equal! As long as it fits onto a single page with 1-inch margins, it should be ok. Social Welfare Examples! Most directors just gauge the approach, length by drive live lives are called eyeballing it; no one is approach really counting words . If it looks the the overriding desires drive how people live their, average length, its fine, if you go over equal the word limit significantly, and its obvious, it probably wont matter by Security Administration: Airport Protection Essay how much at that pointthe (negative) impression has been made.

Tip #11: Don#8217;t Forget it#8217;s a Writing Sample! Make sure to show off your writing skills and always check for equal approach, typos, grammar and social welfare examples language. Equal! Have someone with good editing skills read it and comment on it, but be careful about taking advice about the content of the is a romantic, essay if your audience doesnt really have a context for knowing what directors are looking for. Equal Approach! Many people mean well, especially family and Role in Victorian Life friends, but they may not be the approach, best judges. If you do want lay peopleread: non-psychologists or those unconnected to the internship processreview it, then the Role in Victorian Life Essay, best way to equal make the most out of Role of Religion Essay it, rather than simply asking for approach, open-ended feedback, is to and the give them a lot of equal context for Essay, it, and explain a little bit about what you aim to convey BEFORE they read the essay. After theyve read it, see if they agree youve conveyed your message in equal a strong, positive, compelling fashion. Latest posts by the human be protected from infection Josephine Minardo, PsyD (see all) Ace Your Case Presentations #038; Vignettes in APPIC Internship Interviews - December 9, 2015 APPIC Internship Applications: Is it Really All About the equal approach, #8220;Match#8221;? - September 22, 2015 APPIC Internship Application Cover Letters - October 24, 2012. Very well written, with extremely pertinent and of Religion in Victorian Life valid points.

This was very well written indeed. Super helpful. Thank you!

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Part 8 - Examples of Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by example. Equal! The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. What Is A Hero! Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. In most cases, the names and dates from the approach essays have been changed to not compromise the subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). I have tried to categorize the errors as best as I could. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of life through these monads. The essay then goes on to discuss these monads in a Christian context.

Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the discussion of continent analysis religion would have been completely out of place, given the approach essay's topic. But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is relevant to mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic. For example, it is irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in how can from an essay about their discovery unless the equal approach race impacted the social welfare discovery. An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in proportionally higher numbers. If the approach same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph:

On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Although certainly not of humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology. Smith was brilliant in each of these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and logistics. This paper will not only shed light on the third analysis, some of Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in his life that made him the approach man that he was. This is the introduction to welfare examples a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. As such, the choice to equal approach begin with his date of birth is continent a good one.

The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied. The paper sets up an expectation for the reader of both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. The sentence structure is equal grammatically sound and flows well. In the continent late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to London , she then pulled him out of school with the intent to make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. The decade is the 1650s. The sentence is a run-on. Equal Approach! It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to and. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for hamlet them. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to encourage him to be a farmer. Smith invented the widgetiscope and paved the way for future widget watching.

All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to approach be part of a team working for the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence. The Human Body Be Protected Infection! The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation. The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to approach the development of the the third and final two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated. The comma is confusing and should be removed, and the semicolon should be a colon. Another of approach Smith's ideas was the method of differentiation. The university re-opened after the Overpopulation Environment plague in 1667.

Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, and equal approach awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the realization that Calculus was important, and was being recognized, a document to record all of the theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the document that contained the elements of the theory of differentiation, was created in 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in what hero two directions when it came to publishing his theories and making his work known. He felt a need for fame and fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of equal approach rejection. To the dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of criticism.

Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. There are far too many ideas in it, all of which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. Role Of Religion! I'll try to dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the equal entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the university re-opening after the plague Smith's ascension through the and final continent university ranks the need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and fears.

Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the equal corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an what romantic hero, aside to equal complement the topic, the hamlet return to the topic should be swift and approach easy to understand. Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done. Another problem: there doesn't seem to be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the university re-open in 1667, or was the plague in of Religion in Victorian Life Essay 1667? Is the equal approach student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to have all happened in and final continent analysis one year, though it is equal approach possible. The document was created in 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and is a romantic seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667?

It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith! The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the approach confusing date information. Here is how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to produce a document detailing all of his theories on the subject. Thus, when the romantic university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to equal a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. Hamlet! This dichotomy resulted in his failure to equal publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in the third analysis [insert year].

Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor. Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705 to be given the title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the approach title of Sir. Who else could be honoured for Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to be honored for what romantic hero scientific work. There probably should be a page number listed in the citation. Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry.

What does this mean? Does the student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by equal Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and social welfare examples is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the approach manuscript from Overpopulation and the which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope, are questions on which at this distance of approach time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to copy abstracts. This is a very awkward way of saying that the events in question happened so long ago that there is no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions. It would be better written: Questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is still a bit awkward. Role Of Religion In Victorian! It's best when broken up into approach, smaller sentences:

There are still questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope. Analysis! Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to equal try to persuade the Germans to attack the French due to romantic him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the approach means of his visiting Hamburg. Due to what is a him not agreeing with is approach a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the means of his visiting is a very awkward way of the human body from infection saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to understand, and simplified problems too complex to approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself. If the problems were too complex to approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns.

After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to the manor. A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of approach land, the manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from illness due to Overpopulation Environment Essay the shock of her husband's passing during the approach fall . The phrase after no sign of recovery is not properly attached to Smith's father. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something. A will does not include land, a house, etc. It states to whom such things are bequeathed. Examples! This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of approach land, the Overpopulation Environment Essay manor house, livestock and grain to equal [whomever]. I don't even understand how and Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence.

His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to Essay the antecedent Smith Senior. Equal Approach! Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son. The Third Continent! That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the student meant to equal approach say. They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to social them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the student had used first names during this part of the essay. Equal Approach! There is inconsistency in capitalization. It is Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time.

The he in he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent. Smith Senior was not premature. Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness.

The student suddenly introduces the phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained. The relationship is how can body from infection singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. Thus, the verb were should be singular as well, and changed to was. It was this century where many of the worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus. A century is not a place, it is equal approach a section of analysis time. Equal! Say it is a place where. Analysis! or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Adding an 's' without an apostrophe in this case is pluralization, not indicative of possession.

The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is plural, but obstacle and system are singular. It should be was. Tragically at equal the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at the age of six. The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of his discoveries. After the publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the angles of the projected colour, a new law of refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered.

To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to welfare alter physics. During the seventeenth century, the approach inhabitants of England did not realize the importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. Are we to understand that ALL of the people in England failed to realize the importance of welfare examples scientific advancement for an entire century? It would have been better if the student had said most people in England. At the current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in wave . The current time is the moment the reader is reading the approach sentence. The student meant to say that the belief was such during the the human body be protected from historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted.

The phrase in wave has an error. It should either be in waves or in a wave. Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out loud. Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to equal the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an Role in Victorian Essay, example of a student not knowing the equal proper meaning of the third and final continent a word. Impedance means opposition to approach the flow of electric current. It does not mean the same as to character hamlet impede, which is to be an obstacle. This could be an instance where a student used the thesaurus in a word processor to come up with a word without bothering to equal approach check if the word fit the Overpopulation and the Environment context. It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the word themselves.

Incidentally, a quick check of MS Word 97 shows synonyms to impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze. So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. Be diligent and look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in equal your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is aware of the two systems of and final continent widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either. This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. The sentence should read: In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish.

It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in equal approach the essay. Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to include it without attribution. Smith managed one friendship through this time and the value of that is always questioned.

Who is questioning the Life Essay value? There is no attribution to explain who questions it or to prove that it is equal questioned by the third and final analysis anyone other than the student. What precisely is being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the one friendship to Smith in equal particular? . which means that the Role of Religion cut in the # of points is approach equal to the degree of the analysis hamlet curve. Using the # symbol instead of the word number is equal a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for what hero a formal essay. Smith also helped to improve the scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community? It might improve the understanding of the equal subject in the community, but does that improve the community itself? This is social welfare a badly worded assertion.

If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the case. No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for equal approach the better. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach. At the end of the day John challenged the and the Essay boy to a fight. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the approach boy. Winning the romantic hero fight was still not enough. John applied himself in class, and soon became the approach top student in the school.

This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for the purpose of explaining what drove John to how can be protected become a better student. Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to equal approach mention the is a hero relationship between the anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. The relationship is implied and the reader can guess that John wished to beat the boy in more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to outrank the equal approach boy in the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is very choppy and the sentences do not flow well. The Human Body Infection! Read it out approach loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. Hero! He constructed the clock out approach of an how can the human be protected, old box. This is choppy. It could be easily combined into one sentence.

Jones became began to study motion. This error was probably due to a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed. If the student had read the essay out loud or given it to a friend to read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the equal Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is and the Essay another example of a simple error of omission that could have been caught if the student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to equal approach read. The word of should be between calculation and the. That one small error makes the analysis entire sentence awkward and confusing. If the instructor has to approach reread the sentence to try to understand its meaning, the flow of the essay is interrupted. If this happens often enough in the essay, it gives an overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of research.

More examples of errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to character analysis read their essay: One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to Smith in that it served as an important too in helping explain his branch of equal widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of them from the beginning. Admiration for Smith grew in the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out universe to be a gravitational system.

On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about light until the of Religion in Victorian Essay next century. Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the equal approach research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is hamlet a good idea to fully explain who did the proving when, and approach possibly even how they came to their conclusion. These sentences contradict each other. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the Role in Victorian Essay student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all?

Or was Jones correct about some things and not others? The use of Thus implies causality. Approach! How does the proof that Jones is incorrect and the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of his theory being correct? Regardless of what the examples student meant by the flip from incorrect to correct, there is nothing given to establish causality. It's disappointing to approach see such sloppiness as this in an essay. Social Welfare Examples! This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about their final product, and while the error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. That's inexcusable at the university level.

It was also during this time that he traveled to his uncle's place in Brunswick. Place is colloquial. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him. Smith's secretary is equal approach probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the 19th century. Continent! Therefore, they no longer claim anything.

It should be past tense. Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an approach, implication that perhaps the secretary is not dead and the student went so far as to interview the secretary personally. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation] Using bullets in a formal essay is rarely appropriate. It is preferable to write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. This student seems to have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of direct quotations into a formal essay structure. Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to character hamlet be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith?

There has only been one? The student means another, not other. Sloppy. The first page of the essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph. Equal! Clearly, the student stapled the pages out of order. What a sloppy mistake!

Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in proper order before binding the essay. If the instructor has to begin by figuring out what the hamlet heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of approach you. Jones was quite a busy man in that along with his position in the Court of Mainz, he also managed to serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and analysis hamlet most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is equal approach a bit colloquial. A busy man would do. The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the Role of Religion in Victorian Life Baron, he served the Baron. This may have been caught if the equal student had read their essay out loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in 1683. Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. Social Welfare! If this is the case, it is a quotation from a source and should be cited. Equal! If not, it is colloquial and should just say His friend Bill Jones.

Who should be whom in character hamlet this case. Equal Approach! A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. This isn't even a complete sentence. Smith was born prematurely and was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is redundant. Role Life Essay! Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents? Relatives?

Townsfolk? It is equal a pronoun without an antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the natural philosophical world around him. Has is the of Religion wrong word here because the equal essay is about a person who is now dead. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in the present, so the word should at least be had. But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote.

Discourse means to converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in a publication. It is written. This word should be omitted. Between denotes at least two participants, but Jones is the only one having the supposed discourse. This too should be omitted.

Natural philosophical world is confusing. Overpopulation Environment Essay! Does the student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and equal not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the body be protected from infection natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on approach, the answer to the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the be protected belief systems of the equal approach naturally philosophical world around him. He was home for approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the most predominant time period of is a his life.

This is a run-on sentence. It should either end between 18 months and equal according, or it should be rewritten to make it a proper sentence. 18 months is repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was. Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Most should be omitted. Predominant is not the best word in this case anyway. If the student means it was the most powerful time of Jones' life, they should be clear about that.

If they mean it was the most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. Jones was not that easy, the how can be protected two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and confusing. Jones was not that easy to what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent. This is a run-on sentence. It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Which two men?

Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones? The information on physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of equal mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of Overpopulation whom. Should be who. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and equal whom. There should not be a comma between arguably and his. There is no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics. Social Welfare Examples! This might be because it would be difficult to prove in the face of the importance of Newtonian physics. Advancements is probably the wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better. Newton's advancements are more likely to approach be funds paid in advance of publication.

The addition of most importantly is awkward. Particularly would have been a better word. Romantic! The use of greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to live on forever in the ever-changing world of science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an equal, impossible assertion to make.

Work, theories and studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. If the world is ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely? World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of examples science and one of mathematics. Equal! This conclusion reeks of hyperbole. (So does the phrase reeks of welfare hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.)

A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that. Ration is the wrong word. The student meant ratio. This is one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed. One man was proclaiming to be the equal approach inventor of the widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth? The main problem here is the Overpopulation Essay change in tense. You can't go from was to is if the subject remains fixed in time. Furthermore, it is incorrect to refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in the past.

Try to avoid using the passive form was proclaiming and instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the subject matter. The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to equal independently invent the widgetiscope, but the issue is who deserved the title for inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so. You must be careful not to libel people. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question.

A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the inventor of the third and final continent calculus, but only one could be given the credit. The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to come by which worked against Smith's favor. Jones had been considered the sole inventor of the equal widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to say that the duration of the argument caused Smith to lose.

But because the student failed to Overpopulation Essay put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of approach a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to come to a decision against Smith, meaning he won. Overpopulation! This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the argument took so long, Smith lost. But then, at the beginning of the next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to approach a definitive decision. This negates what the student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the social duration of the argument. This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is equal redundant. It was from the Greeks, where the underlying of social examples widgetry emerged and set the equal basis of welfare examples what widgetry has become.

The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the portion after the comma is equal approach a separate clause, as in: It was from the Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. Note that because the who is in Overpopulation and the Essay the separate clause, it should not be whom. Equal! The underlying what ? You can't just say the underlying of widgetry. It has to be the underlying something of widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc. Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an examples, icky, awkward phrase. Intellectual development would have been much better. Equal Approach! In going over this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. Analysis Hamlet! I checked the bibliography to confirm the name, and discovered that nothing by equal approach Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all. Had this gone noticed when the paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to the validity of the student's sources and bibliography.

Be sure to list all sources in your bibliography, and be sure to spell them correctly when citing! One motive of Role in Victorian Life Sumerian algebra was to impose on themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of approach irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. It should be written: One motive of the Overpopulation Essay Sumerians concerning their algebra was to equal impose on Essay, themselves. although that is still an awkward phrase. Concepts should not be plural. This is sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to read over his essay. The sentence should end after compute.

A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is just icky. I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to approach bring that idea out on its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in these elements and social examples refused to use real numbers and limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical. Be careful to ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them.

Don't use till when you mean until. Equal Approach! That's colloquial at best, and not really a proper use of the word at the human be protected infection all at worst. The proper phrase is have never been formed. To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form? Even though there is a citation for approach this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. Overpopulation And The Environment Essay! I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the equal advent of analysis calculus. Equal! Be careful that you don't paraphrase in the third analysis such a way as to equal approach claim a source said something that they did not. If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of Smith's word against a number of suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of Overpopulation a copy of part of one of equal approach Jones' manuscripts, on character analysis hamlet, more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78)

Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to equal use words like essentially and basically too often. Character Analysis Hamlet! It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to avoid it unless something is truly essential. A number of suspicious details pointing against him is an awkward way of saying: suspicions of his guilt. Approach! But what the student means is Overpopulation Environment not suspicions, but points of equal evidence. When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the analysis hamlet way to punctuate it is as follows (note the equal placement of the what hero colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to the main part of the sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say:

It is a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition: The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in the mathematical world , in approach that they only described fingleish widgetry, and failed to include an explanation of analysis hamlet fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to question a source, and at equal approach higher levels of education it might even be required. But if you're going to do it, be careful to do it well and with evidence. This just sounds presumptuous. Is A Hero! The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for equal approach its apparent lack of sufficient definition.

Saying the dictionary is famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. A cardinal sin is a sin of fundamental importance. What! In the Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in the dictionary, not in the mathematical world. The student meant against the mathematical world.

It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in approach their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Examples! Sentences like this are insulting and equal approach off-putting, and social welfare examples don't belong in a formal essay. Equal Approach! Such great minds requires an the third continent, example. Equal Approach! The word such should be omitted. Centuries upon centuries is Life redundant. Just say centuries and leave it at that. Jones' first object in Paris was to equal approach make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is a thing. The student means Jones' first objective.

This is a bad run-on. Welfare Examples! It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in equal approach Paris was to make contact with the French government, but while waiting for Role of Religion in Victorian Life an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one. Equal! Math is the colloquial version of mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only help our society? What about other societies? More technological in building things is a really awkward way of saying improved our technological aptitude.

Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Even if it is social true, the paper didn't demonstrate it because the paper didn't compare Smith to approach other great geniuses that have lived. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the geniuses that have ever lived. Social Welfare Examples! If you start from something, you go to or follow through to another something. The phrase starting from his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going. Furthermore, the paper does not start from Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. The student means, starting with his childhood and following through to equal his death. Role Of Religion Essay! That is still awkward, and the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and this paper will demonstrate that by equal approach examining his entire life. So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is colloquial and how can be protected from should be omitted. Equal Approach! This really should be cited.

John's address may be a matter of analysis public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the approach household imply research, and the student should give credit to the source. Really is colloquial, and should be omitted. While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to math . Who is Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is social examples not productive itself. A better way to equal approach write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication.

Math is colloquial. It should be mathematics. This information helps us to understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and do have an of Religion Life Essay, invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and it pushes back against us . This hand full of equal knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and Overpopulation their movement. Approach! It has also allowed scientist to delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the and final student is trying to make the science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of doing it. It is equal approach also something that seems to indicate an essay geared to the human body be protected from infection children. While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and equal intellectual peers. The description of the invisible force is very awkward.

A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in Environment Essay fact, weigh people down. The student's own definition of it earlier in the essay mentions this, and here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull. To add in the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory. The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is approach monumental to scientists. Both instances of scientist should be pluralized. One delves further into something, not in it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in each week they met to show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and awkward. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week.

The second part of how can body be protected from this is a separate sentence and should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions. Show off is colloquial. Demonstrate would be better. Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an equal, impact in all of our lives . He is recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to of Religion Essay further math along. This intellectual man has created something which has and will be used for years to come. Approach! This is an Essay, important part of history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man.

A great man is approach one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society. Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to declare it in romantic the conclusion. It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to one person may not for another. Centuries is the plural of century, not the possessive. The student means century's. But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean. Impacts are made on, not in.

If by all of us the student means everyone on the planet, this is incorrect. Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the life of someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society. Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. Equal Approach! While it is Overpopulation and the Environment Essay unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the student cannot effectively predict the future in equal this way. Some of these comments may seem nitpicky, but the fact of the matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and your essay.

No one is is a perfect, and approach an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. But an welfare, essay that is approach full of the errors listed above prevents the reader from understanding the social welfare examples content. If the equal instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in February 2005. Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. All rights reserved. This original work is available for distribution, provided the following: it is only distributed in this complete form, it contains my name and Overpopulation and the Environment Essay copyright, it is not altered during distribution without my consent, and it is not used to generate income for anyone without my consent. I would strongly appreciate knowing if anyone is equal distributing this in printed form.

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Free Downloadable Resume Templates. Free resume templates designed selected by RG professionals. Simply choose your favorite and get started. Just scroll down and find a Microsoft Word template that suits your work experience and sense of equal, design. Dont worry using a template is perfectly acceptable.

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Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Whether its entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to approach transfer on hero, a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of approach, templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career. Remember: You can download any of the third and final continent, these resume templates for free and add the equal, bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in romantic, minutes with Resume Genius renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. Approach! However, if youd still like to make the resume on what romantic, your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, dont forget to equal approach check out our professional cover letter examples.

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Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for approach, manufacturing careers. Best of luck! Ive worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to character analysis hamlet three years each. Approach! The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. Life Essay! I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for equal approach, your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. The Human! Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and equal coach.. can u suggest to character analysis hamlet me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for equal approach, 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on and the Environment Essay, my resume?

Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the approach, related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the Job Hopper or the Executive. They should able to fit all your jobs nicely.

Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of character, your professional experience. Equal Approach! ( Best of luck! We suggest using the Gatsby Template. Is A Romantic! Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our Professional template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format: Hope this helps! We suggest using our Entry-Level template. Good luck with the internship!

Good Day Resume Genius.Im a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for approach, 16 years in KSA. Im trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since Im from the medical profession, Im having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on is a, the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and equal approach my part time informal english lessons to Environment native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the Murray template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to approach highlight the how can the human body from, other things.

Thanks #128578; Take a look at equal, our Flight Attendant resume sample: You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: You can download them and how can input your own experience. Try using the Freeman template. Best of luck on approach, the promotion!

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Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the Entry-Level template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. Approach! What resume do you suggest?

Try the Job Hopper template. The Third Analysis! Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and approach interviewing is our project for how can body be protected from, the fourth quarter this year. I couldnt find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the Elegant 2.0 template.

Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the approach, View all Resume Designs button and the third and final continent analysis click the download link for equal, the template pack of and the Environment, your choice. If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out our How to Write a Resume guide to equal get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, its a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so its hard to continent go wrong with any of them it just depends on your preference. Good luck!

It really depends on equal, what job youre applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out Overpopulation and the this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to approach the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether youre qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain. If that doesnt seem to be a problem then go with the Life, functional resume for sure. Good luck on equal approach, the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume.

Our Classic template on this page should do the trick: Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out examples our internship resume sample page: Afterwards, feel free to choose any format just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Equal! Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and welfare examples easy export to MS Word and equal PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

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economics aqa essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 Economics Aqa - Ghost Writing Essays. This Answers book provides answers for the questions asked in the workbook. They are intended as a guide to give teachers and students feedback. The candidate responses supplied here for the longer essay-style questions are intended to give some idea about approach how the exam questions might be answered.

The examiner commentaries (underlined text) have been added to give you some sense of what is rewarded in the exam and which areas can be developed. Again, these are not the only ways to answer such questions but they can be treated as one way of approaching questions of these types. Topic 1 The firm: objectives, costs and revenues 1Both private and public companies are privately owned capitalist business enterprises. The difference stems from their ownership. Private companies are owned by private shareholders who can choose the how can from infection, buyer of their shares. Public company shares are listed on the stock market, which means that they have to comply with the approach, rules of the stock market and any member of the public can buy shares in Essay, the company. Approach. An excess of sales receipts over the spending of a business during a period of time, which can be calculated using the character, formula: profit = revenue costs. 3At any level of output, revenue is equal approach calculated by multiplying output by the price at which each unit of output is sold. In perfect competition, because it is character always possible to equal approach, increase sales revenue by selling more units of output, the revenue-maximising level of output does not exist. Is A Romantic. In other market structures, including monopoly and oligopoly, marginal revenue falls as more units of the good are sold.

Revenue maximisation occurs at equal the level f output at which marginal revenue is is a zero (MR = 0). By contrast, in all market structures, including perfect competition, profit maximisation occurs at approach the level of output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MR = MC). 4An entrepreneur decides on questions such as how, what, where, how much and when to produce. Entrepreneurs decide how to employ the factors of production, and they bear the businesss financial risks. In small businesses, the entrepreneur is often the founder of the firm, building the business by investing his/her own time and money. The entrepreneur directly manages the business and what is a romantic, takes the important decisions about its direction and equal, strategy.

5The management could control information and take decisions without the shareholders being able to influence the decision or even being aware of an issue. 6The key difference between the short run and the long run relates to whether factors of production are fixed or variable. In the short run, at least one factor of production (usually assumed to be capital) is welfare examples fixed. Labour is approach assumed to be variable. In the long run, all factors of production are variable and none is fixed. This question is the obverse of question 6. A fixed factor of production is one that cannot be increased in the short run, normally land and capital. Hamlet. A variable factor of equal production, normally labour, can be increased in character hamlet, the short run. 8The law of diminishing returns sets in equal approach, when units of a variable factor of production, such as labour, are added to is a, fixed factors of production. Eventually the extra output (marginal returns) produced by the marginal worker falls to be less than the marginal product of the previous worker added to equal approach, the labour force. (i)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a more than proportionate increase in continent analysis, output. (ii)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a proportionate increase in output. (iii)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a less than proportionate increase in output. 10 [pic] 11Average variable costs are total variable costs divided by the size of output. Average total costs are total costs divided by the size of output.

A firms average total costs can also be calculated by adding its average fixed costs to its average variable costs. Equal. 2Technical economies of scale occur when a firms production methods benefit significantly from increasing to analysis, a larger scale. The productivity increases experienced by a firm in traditional economic theory stem from the larger scale of production allowing for a greater division of labour and improved specialisation. Hence the firm experiences a technical improvement in approach, production and more than proportionate output gains. An example is provided by Henry Fords adoption of assembly-line production in his car factories in the early years of the 20th century. A bulk-buying economy of scale occurs when a firm gets a discount as a result of in Victorian Essay buying raw materials or capital goods in bulk. For example, a school may be able to buy 100 computers at ? 300 each, whereas a single computer would be priced at ? 600. 13(i) If a firm in a perfectly competitive market sets its price above P1, the ruling market price, it will not sell any of its products. This is because its products are identical to those of its competitors, and buyers who possess perfect market information and will buy from the cheaper rival firms selling at the ruling market price. ii) If the firm sets its price below P1 it will sell all of its output, but it will not be maximising profit.

There is no sense in equal, doing this, given that an analysis hamlet, infinite number of customers are willing to equal approach, buy the good at the higher price of P1. Is A Romantic Hero. 14You can understand this question by referring back to approach, the answer to question 3. As long as marginal revenue is positive (at all levels of output below Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling more. But when marginal revenue is negative (at all levels of character analysis output above Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling less. Exam-style answers (essay) 01The laws of diminishing returns and returns to scale are both parts of production theory. (The law of diminishing returns is also known as the law of diminishing marginal productivity. ) Production theory explains the relationship between inputs into approach, the production process and the output of social welfare goods or services that results. The inputs are the services of the factors of production that the firm employs. The basic nature of production is shown in the diagram below. [pic] Production theory divides into short-run production theory and long-run production theory. The law of diminishing returns is a short-run economic law, whereas returns to scale occur in the long run. The law of diminishing returns has the status of an economic law, because in the short run at least one of the factors of production (usually assumed to equal approach, be capital) is the human body be protected from infection held fixed. This means that the only way a firm can increase output in the short run is by adding more variable factors, e. g. labour, to equal approach, fixed capital. What Is A. Eventually, as labour is added to equal, fixed capital, an extra worker (the marginal worker) gets in the way of the already existing labour force and the additional output attributable to the marginal worker begins to fall.

This is and final continent when the law of diminishing returns has set in. Returns to equal approach, scale by analysis hamlet, contrast occur in equal approach, the long run when all the Overpopulation Environment, factors of production increase. The firm increases its scale or size of operation. If a doubling of all the inputs (factors of production) leads to a less than doubling of output, decreasing returns to scale have set in. (Other possibilities are increasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale. Equal. ) To understand the relationship between the law of diminishing returns and short-run cost curves, consider the diagram on the next page. The upper panel of the diagram shows the is a romantic hero, marginal and average returns (or productivity) of labour. Diminishing marginal returns begin at point A. Approach. Increasing marginal productivity of labour (or increasing marginal returns) is shown by the positive (or rising) slope of the marginal product curve, while diminishing marginal returns are represented, beyond point A, by the curves negative (or falling) slope. But once the law of diminishing returns has set in, short-run marginal costs begin to rise. This is shown by the upward-sloping section of the MC curve in the lower panel of the diagram.

And as soon as MC rises through the average variable cost (AVC) curve (and later the average total cost (ATC) curve), the two average cost curves begin to rise. This means that the AVC and the ATC curves are U-shaped. [pic] Just as short-run cost curves are derived from the and the Environment Essay, short-run law of diminishing returns, so long-run cost curves result from the nature of returns to scale. When a firm changes the scale of all the factors of equal approach production in the economic long run, it is usual to assume that to what is a romantic hero, start with it benefits from increasing returns to scale but that eventually decreasing returns to scale set in. Given this assumption, the equal, firms long-run average cost (LRAC) curve is U-shaped, as shown in the diagram below. However, other assumptions about the impact of returns to scale on long-run production would lead to different possible shapes of the LRAC curve. [pic] The mark scheme for the first part of an essay question is issue based. The mark scheme sets out is a hero all the issues deemed to be relevant to the question and indicates the maximum marks that can be awarded for each issue. When added up, the approach, total available mark is usually higher than 15 (the maximum mark for the first part of an essay question). When an the human from infection, answer scores more than 15 marks, the actual mark awarded is constrained to the maximum of 15. This is the case with this answer. All four parts of the question are addressed accurately, earning well over 15 marks. The maximum mark of 15 is awarded.

02Large firms are sometimes and perhaps often better than small firms, but they are not always better. The main reason why large firms can be better than small firms stems from the fact that in many industries, e. . mass car production, firms benefit from increasing returns to scale as the size or scale of the firm increases. Equal. As the final diagram in the answer to question 01 indicates, increasing returns to scale translate into the human from infection, economies of scale when measured in terms of long-run average costs of production. Economies of equal scale are defined as falling long-run average costs of what is a romantic hero production, whereas diseconomies of scale are rising long-run average costs of approach production. Increasing returns to scale mean that as plant size increases, a firm can combine its inputs in a technically more efficient way. As a result average costs of production fall.

This means that large firms, particularly in manufacturing, can benefit from technical economies of Overpopulation and the Essay scale. Many types of plant or machinery are indivisible, in the sense that there is a certain minimum size below which they cannot operate efficiently. Equal Approach. A firm requiring only a small level of output must therefore choose between installing plant or machinery that it will be unable to use continuously, or using a different but less efficient method to produce the and the, smaller level of equal output required. Large firms can also benefit from volume economies of scale. With many types of capital equipment (for example, metal smelters, transport containers, storage tanks and warehouses), costs increase less rapidly than capacity. The Third. When a storage tank or boiler is equal doubled in dimension, its storage capacity actually increases eightfold.

Since heat loss depends on welfare the area of the containers walls (which will only have increased fourfold) and not upon volume, a large smelter or boiler is technically more efficient than a small one. Volume economies are thus important in industries such as transport, storage and warehousing, as well as in metal and chemical industries, where an increase in the scale of plant provides scope for the conservation of heat and energy. When there are substantial economies of scale available to a firm, its LRAC curve will look like the one in diagram (a) of the following: [pic] When firms can benefit from substantial economies of scale (and economies of large-scale production), this will benefit firms. The gain in productive efficiency achieved from approach a large scale of operation means that profits will be larger for large firms than for small firms. However, the opposite will be true if diseconomies of scale set in and final continent analysis, early on as a firm increases its size. Economies of equal approach small-scale production (as depicted in diagram (b)) show that small firms producing at Q1 are more productively efficient than large firms. This is likely to be the situation in personal service industries such as building customised furniture for clients. A range of other issues are also relevant to this question. Firms may grow large in order to exploit the monopoly power that large size often gives to firms. The firms may benefit from monopoly profit, but their consumers suffer from unnecessarily high prices, restricted choice and general consumer exploitation.

The large profit and market power that large firms often enjoy may be used to finance innovation and the benefits of dynamic efficiency which, if passed on welfare examples to consumers, means that they also benefit. On the other hand, this might not happen; large firms may simply enjoy an approach, easy life, content with a degree of Overpopulation and the Environment Essay X-inefficiency (unnecessary costs of equal approach production). In conclusion, the answer to the question depends on the assumptions made about whether economies of scale are possible, the motives of firms, and the extent to which they can exploit monopoly power to the detriment of consumers. Role Life Essay. It is useful to divide large firms with monopoly power into those that are fully unified and technically integrated firms and those that are not. A fully unified or technically integrated firm is one that grows because it organises production in a productively efficient way in order to reduce average costs and increase profits. If monopoly power results, it is equal almost by accident. Providing it behaves itself when large size gives it monopoly power, the character analysis hamlet, firm, consumers and equal approach, the public interest all benefit.

By contrast, if a firm grows (usually by takeover rather than through organic growth), its main motive may be to and the Environment, exploit consumers. Clearly such firms are not best. Equal. The mark scheme for the second part of an essay question is and the Essay level of skill based. Having read the whole answer, the approach, examiner places the and final analysis, answer in one of five levels. These are: Level 1 very weak Level 2 weak with some understanding Level 3 reasonable including some correct analysis but very limited evaluation Level 4 good analysis but limited evaluation or reasonable analysis and reasonable evaluation Level 5 good analysis and good evaluation This answer has been awarded a mark at the top of level 4 in the AQA mark scheme. The levels descriptors in the mark scheme are used for the second parts of all essay questions (and also all part 03 and 06 context data response questions at A2).

The level 4 descriptor is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and equal, |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 4 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Limited but showing some | |1721 marks |with few errors and social welfare examples, |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |appreciation of alternative | |(mid-point 19) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning |points of view | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis but limited | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | |Some good application to |economic issues | | | | |issues |Largely relevant and well |Reasonable, showing an | |or |Good throughout much of the |Where appropriate, some good|organised with reasonable |appreciation of alternative | |Reasonable analysis and |answer with few errors and |use of data to approach, support |logic and coherence |points of view | |reasonable evaluation |weaknesses |answer |There is some awareness of | | | | | |the interrelatedness of | | | | | |economic issues | | The answer displays both good analysis and is a romantic hero, good evaluation, but does not quite reach level 5. Although analysis of economies and diseconomies of scale is equal excellent, the analysis on Overpopulation and the Environment Essay monopoly is equal too thin, based on assertion rather than rigorous development and application of economic theory. Hence the answer is what romantic hero placed at equal approach the top of level 4 rather than level 5. Topic 2 Competitive markets 1It is impossible for human beings to possess perfect information about what is happening in a market. With the possible exceptions of currency and share markets, it is unrealistic to assume that all goods and services are identical, uniform or homogeneous. 2Motorists can research similar car models in analysis hamlet, trade magazines and on the internet to get a picture of the price of cars depending on age, mileage, condition and equal approach, availability. 3Whenever marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (MR gt; MC), selling an analysis, extra unit of output always increases total profit. The extra unit adds more to revenue than it does to costs. But whenever marginal revenue is less than marginal cost (MR lt; MC), selling an extra unit of output always reduces total profit. The extra unit adds more to costs than it does to equal, revenue. It follows that only when marginal revenue equals marginal costs (MR = MC) are profits maximised.

Normal profit is the is a romantic hero, level of profit made by a firm that provides just sufficient incentive to stay in equal, the market. As a profit level, it is not high enough to attract new firms into character, the industry to compete with existing firms, or low enough to force firms out of the market. Supernormal profit is excess profit over approach, and above normal profit. If there are no significant barriers to and the Essay, market entry, supernormal profit will attract new firms to enter the market and compete for equal approach, customers. This should drive prices down until surviving firms make normal profit only. Social Examples. 5When the price of a good is greater than the marginal cost of production, the result is allocative inefficiency because the price charged by firms will be greater than the cost of making the last unit. This indicates that the firm is over-charging consumers. Hence not enough of the good is approach demanded and societys scarce resources are not properly allocated between competing uses. Allocative inefficiency occurs when P gt; MC or P lt; MC.

For any given employment of resources and any initial distribution of income and wealth among the population, total consumer welfare can increase if resources are re-allocated from markets where P lt; MC into the third and final continent, those where P gt; MC, until allocative efficiency is achieved when P = MC in all markets. 6Price competition occurs when firms seek to reduce costs and equal approach, gain customers by offering products at the lowest possible price. By offering the good at a low price they hope to create an incentive for of Religion in Victorian, the consumer to buy the product. Quality competition is when a firm seeks to sell a product to consumers on the grounds that it is superior quality when compared to approach, rival products. In this case the firms product may be more expensive than rival goods but the hamlet, firms business strategy aims to equal, attract consumers by offering better quality, whether this be in design, materials, service and/or build quality. 7The internet breaks down geographical frontiers, which enables buyers and sellers to engage in national and international markets. This has made some markets bigger and helped fulfil the assumption that there are a large number of buyers and sellers.

Internet search engines and comparisons have allowed both business and consumers to move closer to the perfect information assumption. Consumers can more easily compare prices and welfare examples, this has helped to approach, increase competition, although human decision making is is a still bounded by limited time and constraints on the level of detail that comparison websites provide. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Perfect competition is a market that meets all the six conditions that define the market structure. These are: (i) a very large number of buyers and sellers; (ii) each with perfect market information; (iii) each able to buy or sell as much as it wishes at approach the ruling market price determined in he market as a whole; (iv) individual buyers and sellers unable to influence the ruling market price through their own actions; (v) a uniform or identical product; and (vi) an character hamlet, absence of barriers to entry into and exit from the market in the long run, i. e. complete freedom of entry and exit. A barrier to entry prevents new firms from entering a market. Taken together, these conditions tell us that a perfectly competitive firm, whose AR and MR curves are depicted in panel (a) of the diagram below, faces a perfectly elastic demand curve for its product. The demand curve facing the firm is equal approach located at the ruling market price, P1, which itself is determined through the interaction of market demand and market supply in the market as a whole, which is illustrated in panel (b) of the diagram. [pic] The assumption that a perfectly competitive firm can sell whatever quantity it wishes at the ruling market price P1, but that it cannot influence the ruling market price by its own action, means that the firm is analysis a passive price-taker.

Condition (iii) of the conditions of perfect competition tells us that a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wishes at the markets ruling price. But, given that it can sell as much as it desires at the markets ruling price, how much will it actually wish to produce and sell? Providing we assume that each firms business objective is equal approach solely to maximise profit, the answer is shown in panel (a) of the next diagram: [pic] Panel (a) in the third analysis, the diagram above adds the perfectly competitive firms average total cost (ATC) curve and its marginal cost (MC) curve to the revenue curves shown in the earlier diagram. Point A in panel (a) (at which MR = MC) locates the profit-maximising level of output Q1. At this level of equal approach output, total sales revenue is shown by the area OQ1AP1. Be Protected From. Total cost is shown by the area OQ1BC1. Supernormal profits (measured by subtracting the total cost rectangle from the total revenue rectangle) are shown by the shaded area C1BAP1. Referring back again to the list of the conditions of perfect competition, we can see that although firms cannot enter or leave the market in the short run, they can do so in the long run (condition (vi)). Suppose that in the short run, firms make supernormal profit.

In this situation, the ruling market price signals to firms outside the market that an incentive exists for new firms to enter the market. The next diagram shows what might then happen: [pic] Initially, too many new firms enter the market, causing the supply curve to shift to the right to S2 in approach, panel (b) of the diagram. This causes the price line to fall to how can the human be protected from infection, P2, which lies below each firms ATC curve. When this happens, firms make a loss (or subnormal profit). But just as supernormal profit creates the equal approach, incentive for new firms to enter the market, subnormal profit provides the incentive for Role in Victorian, marginal firms to leave the market. In panel (b) the market supply curve shifts to the left and the market price rises. Approach. Eventually, long-run equilibrium occurs when firms make normal profit only. For the market as a whole, this is shown at output Q/// and price P3.

This answer is similar to the answer written for the Topic 1 exam-style essay question in that it includes more than enough coverage of issues to earn all the available 15 marks. The candidate starts the answer with a list of the conditions of perfect competition. Weak answers frequently go no further than this. However this answer uses the how can the human be protected, conditions as prompts for developing the analysis required of a good answer to this question. Further good points are devoting more or less equal space to both the whole market and to equal approach, one firm within the market, and to the use of relevant and accurate diagrams to illustrate the analysis. The maximum 15 marks are awarded. 02In economics the word efficiency has several meanings. For example: Technical efficiency.

A production process is technically efficient if it maximises the output produced from the available inputs or factors of production. Productive efficiency or cost efficiency. To achieve productive efficiency, a firm must use the techniques and factors of production that are available, at lowest possible cost per unit of the human body be protected infection output. In the short run, the lowest point on the relevant short-run average total cost curve locates the most productively efficient level of output for the particular scale of operation. Approach. X-efficiency. This occurs when a firm has eliminated all unnecessary costs of production, which means that it must be producing on and not above its average cost curve. Allocative efficiency.

This occurs when it is impossible to improve overall economic welfare by reallocating resources between industries or markets (assuming an initial fairness in the distribution of income and wealth among the population). For resource allocation in the third continent, the whole economy to be allocatively efficient, price must equal marginal cost (P = MC) in equal approach, each and every market in the economy. Dynamic efficiency. All the forms of efficiency mentioned above are examples of static efficiency, i. e. efficiency measured at a particular point in the third and final, time. Approach. By contrast, dynamic efficiency measures improvements in technical and productive efficiency that occur over time. Improvements in dynamic efficiency result from the introduction of better methods of producing existing products (including firms ability to benefit to a greater extent from economies of be protected scale), and also from developing and marketing completely new products.

The diagram below shows that a perfectly competitive firm achieves both productive and allocative efficiency in the long run, but only equal approach under the assumption that there are no economies of scale. The firm is productively efficient because it produces the optimum output at the lowest point on the ATC curve, and it is allocatively efficient because P = MC. Hero. In long run or true equilibrium, a perfectly competitive firm must also be X-efficient. The reason is simple. If the equal approach, firm is X-inefficient, producing at a level of unit costs above its ATC curve, in the long run the firm could not make normal profits. What Is A Romantic Hero. In a perfectly competitive market, to survive and make normal profits, a firm has to eliminate organisational slack or X-inefficiency. [pic] The first sentence in the previous paragraph asserted that perfect competition is approach efficient provided there are no economies of scale.

Consider now a situation, shown in Role of Religion in Victorian Life, the final diagram below, in which the market is too small to allow a large number of equal approach firms each to achieve all the economies of character hamlet scale that are possible. [pic] For a firm to benefit from economies of equal approach scale to the full, and hence to be productively efficient in the long run as well as in the short run, its short-run cost curve would have to be positioned at SRATCN, or indeed further to the right than this. The problem is that the market is too small to allow both full economies of scale and the large number of firms required for perfect competition to be achieved. Long-run productive efficiency requires a monopoly market structure (natural monopoly). By contrast, perfect competition requires each of a very large number of firms to be producing on a short-run average cost curve such as SRATC1. On such a curve, the perfectly competitive firm is indeed productively efficient in the sense that it achieves short-run productive efficiency, but it is producing way below the level of output that is productively efficient in the long run when scale economies are benefited from to the full. In conclusion, a perfectly competitive firm can be efficient when judged against the criteria of productive, X, and allocative efficiency, but only in the short run. Unlike a monopoly, a perfectly competitive firm cannot achieve long-run productive efficiency through the pursuit of economies of scale. Finally there is social examples another argument, so far not considered, which may mean that perfectly competitive firms fail to produce the equal, allocatively efficient level of output. True allocative efficiency requires that the price charged for a good by a firm should equal the marginal social cost of production and not the marginal private cost incurred by the firm, i. e. P = MSC and not P = MPC.

This means that when externalities, negative or positive, are generated in the course of production, a perfectly competitive firm will not produce an allocatively efficient level of output. Nor will the whole market. This is clearly a level 5 answer which earns full marks. The level descriptors for how can the human, level 5 are: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and approach, terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 5 |Good throughout the character analysis hamlet, answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Good with a clear final | |2225 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |judgement | |(mid-point 24) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning | | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis and good | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | | |economic issues | | The question focuses solely on efficiency criteria and not on equal welfare criteria, namely the consumer surplus members of households enjoy in perfectly competitive markets. Pleasingly, the answer starts with relevant definitions but while a couple of analysis hamlet marks are available for definitions, this list is really too long. Equal Approach. Note that the concept of X-efficiency is not in the Unit 3 specification, though good answers frequently make use of the Role in Victorian Life Essay, concept. Topic 3 Concentrated markets Water companies such as Thames Water are pure monopolies in the supply of tap water since their customers have no other companies from which they can buy tap water. The supermarket industry is oligopolistic because over 90% of market share is approach controlled by four large firms. How Can Be Protected From Infection. 2The John Lewis Partnership is a firm that has grown primarily through organic growth.

Halifax Bank of Scotland (HBOS), which is now owned by the Lloyds Banking Group, is a firm that primarily grew through takeover and approach, merger. 3British Gas and Thames Water. Natural monopoly occurs when there is only room in the market for one firm benefiting to the full from economies of scale. In the past, utility industries such as water, gas, electricity and the telephone industries were regarded as natural monopolies. Overpopulation And The Essay. Because of the nature of their product, utility industries experience a particular marketing problem. The industries produce a service that is delivered through a distribution network or grid of approach pipes and cables into millions of separate businesses and homes. Competition in the provision of Role in Victorian distribution grids is extremely wasteful, since it requires the duplication of equal fixed capacity, therefore causing each supplier to incur unnecessarily high fixed costs.

Until quite recently, utility industries were generally monopolies. High barriers to entry prevent new firms from entering the market and competing for profits with the monopoly. Barriers to entry will often take the form of high sunk costs, i. e. billions of the third pounds of capital investment which enable the firm to operate at the bottom of the long-run average cost (LRAC) curve. Monopoly firms can also be protected by legal restrictions imposed by approach, the government. For many decades, but no longer today, the Royal Mail enjoyed a privileged position in the delivery of mail.

Patent and copyright law protects intellectual property rights. 5A cartel or price ring is an informal agreement between firms in a market to keep prices artificially high. This allows firms to exert monopoly power through collusion and make supernormal profits by overcharging consumers. Character. This allows poorly managed and approach, inefficient firms to continue to make profits and deprives consumers of the lower prices that could be offered by and final continent analysis, more efficient firms that have more innovative production methods and are less wasteful. Under UK, EU and US law, cartels are often illegal and can be punished with large fines and, in the USA, by imprisonment of company directors. Cartels can, however, provide benefits to the public.

If a cartel can protect firms from the approach, pressures of competition and allow firms to invest in research and development to invent new products, it can be extremely beneficial to the public. Large pharmaceutical companies, for example, have argued that pricing agreements have allowed them to raise finance to character, invest in expensive scientific research and drug development which they could not do if they were constantly fighting aggressive price wars with rivals. 6Cartels are usually illegal because their behaviour results in higher prices for consumers and they allow members of the cartel to operate inefficiently. Approach. In the case of the cement industry cartel broken up by the European Union competition authorities, firms were able to is a hero, charge customers artificially high prices for cement, which pushed up the approach, costs of production for the construction and character hamlet, building industry. This meant that government contractors had to spend more of their taxpayers money to purchase cement for equal, investment projects such as school buildings, hospitals and roads. Private sector companies also had to romantic hero, pass on higher prices to businesses and households, which depleted levels of household disposable income and reduced households ability to spend on other goods and services. Most cartel members benefited significantly from the equal, supernormal profits they made. Managers and the owners of the businesses would have benefited, but not the general public. Furthermore, the supernormal profit did not encourage managers to look for efficiency savings, invent new products or innovate new production methods. As a result, prices remained high as consumers paid too much for products. These market distortions resulted in consumers facing wrong prices signals, which in turn led to a misallocation of scarce resources.

7In the original prisoners dilemma, two prisoners are jointly charged with a serious crime such as armed robbery and are held in isolation from each other. The prosecutor, hoping to have his task simplified, knows that a confession from one will convict the other, but he also knows that the available evidence is insufficient to ensure a conviction. If both prisoners plead not guilty, they are likely to go free. Hoping to ensure two guilty pleas, the social examples, prosecutor visits each prisoner in his cell and offers a deal. The prosecutor informs each prisoner that he will receive one of equal approach two possible outcomes, depending on how he pleads: (i) if both prisoners plead guilty, each will go to prison for one year; and (ii) if one prisoner pleads guilty and the other not guilty, the prisoner pleading guilty will be freed and receive a reward if he gives evidence to convict the other prisoner whilst the other prisoner gets a five-year jail sentence.

Each prisoner faces the Role of Religion in Victorian Life, dilemma that if he pleads not guilty but the other prisoner pleads guilty and shops him, he will get the worse possible outcome, namely being banged up for five years. Shuddering at this possibility, both prisoners plead guilty and get the second best outcome: one year in jail. Approach. However, the best outcome for each prisoner, namely going free and possibly earning a reward, is not achieved. The prisoners dilemma scenario can be used to model the behaviour of what competitive duopolists, for equal approach, example those in and final continent analysis, the arms industry. Equal. A British and a French company are competing to secure an arms deal to sell a billion pounds worth of weapons to Iraq. By paying bribes of $100 million to government ministers in Iraq, the British company believes it will get the whole deal. However, earning ? 1 billion depends on the actions of the French company, the only other likely supplier of the from infection, arms. If both companies bribe Iraqi ministers, the equal approach, deal is likely to be shared between the two suppliers. How Can The Human Body From Infection. The British companys profits will then be much less than if it alone pays bribes and gets all the business. The chief executive officer of the British company thinks it a pity to equal, pay out $100 million, but if they did not and the French company did, the French would get all the business and the UK company would make zero profit. In the absence of collusion, there are two strategies available to the third and final, each firm: (a)Pay the bribe, while the other firm does not bribe.

Outcome: (i)for the firm paying the bribe: a net income of $900 million (ii)for the equal, firm refusing to bribe: nothing (b)Both pay the bribe. Outcome: The sale is welfare shared: each firm nets $400 million. To avoid losing all the business and making zero profit, both rivals decide to pay the bribe. In this scenario, paying the equal approach, bribe is each firms dominant strategy, i. e. the strategy to be pursued whatever rival firms do. Paying the bribe makes the British company better off, whatever the French do, and vice versa. 8When natural barriers to market entry are low or non-existent, incumbent firms (i. e. firms already in how can the human from, the market) may set low prices, known as limit prices, to deter new firms from entering the market. Incumbent firms do this because they fear increased competition and loss of equal approach market power. With limit pricing, firms already in the market sacrifice short-run profit maximisation in what hero, order to maximise long-run profits, achieved through deterring the approach, entry of new firms. By contrast, predatory pricing occurs when a firm cuts the price of its product to a loss-making level in order to force a rival firm out of business. This strategy is normally used by large firms that can subsidise losses using profits from another part of their business empire to force smaller rivals out the human body be protected of the market. 9Firms undertake price discrimination in order to maximise profits.

This arises when different customers have different elasticities of demand at different prices. Equal. If one customer has a highly inelastic demand and another an how can body, elastic demand, the equal, firm will be able to continent analysis, sell them the same product but at different prices. Train companies will typically price discriminate by charging different fares to equal approach, different customers and also varying the price of a ticket at different times of the day to send price signals and create incentives and disincentives to travel. Price discrimination occurs when firms charge different prices to different customers based on differences in the customers ability and Overpopulation, willingness to pay. Those customers who are prepared to pay more are charged a higher price than those who are only equal approach willing to pay a lower price. Price discrimination allows firms to what romantic hero, increase profit by taking consumer surplus away from consumers and converting it into extra monopoly profit or supernormal profit. Providing the equal approach, increase in sales revenue resulting from price discrimination is greater than the extra costs incurred when charging different prices to different customers, it is in firms interest to indulge in this form of pricing.

10The gamers consumer surplus is ? 0, being the difference between the maximum price he was prepared to pay and Overpopulation and the Environment Essay, the actual price he paid. The store owners producer surplus is ? 2, being the difference between the lowest price he was prepared to accept and equal approach, the actual price paid. Of Religion. 11Expensive capital equipment and sunk costs, and patent and copyright laws. 12A patent is the legal protection given to an inventor or producer which grants exclusive rights to a product for up to 20 years. This legal protection allows firms to make supernormal profits because they are effectively monopoly producers. Patent protection creates a strong incentive for firms to invent new products and create new technologies or pharmaceutical products which significantly improve social welfare.

Thus patent protection drives dynamic efficiency. Equal Approach. Invention and in Victorian Life, new product design frequently require high levels of research and development which burden firms with significant sunk costs and risk bankruptcy if the new product fails. Equal. Hence the incentive of making supernormal profits over a 20-year period encourages firms to welfare, invent, seek dynamic efficiencies and take risks. Exam-style answers (data response) Competition and monopoly in the EU airline industry 01Air France enjoys a domestic market share of 80%, whereas the domestic market share of Flybe is just under 30%. There is thus a difference of just over equal, 50% between the social examples, domestic market shares of the two airlines. A significant feature of the data is that only one airline, SAS, leads the domestic market in more than one country. SASs market share in Norway is about 43% while its market share in Sweden is about 37%. The first part of the equal approach, context data response question in Overpopulation and the Environment, ECON 3 and in ECON4 will usually be in two parts. Equal. The first part requires a calculation (often a percentage calculation). The second part asks for identification of one other significant point of comparison, or in this question where there is only one data series in Extract A, one other significant feature of the Role in Victorian Life, data.

Some future exam papers may revert to asking for two significant points of equal approach comparison (or features), without a preliminary calculation. For this question, the answer picks up 3 marks for the calculation and 3 marks for welfare, identifying a significant feature in the data, constrained to the maximum mark of 5 available for approach, the question. Character. 02The term monopoly power does not mean quite the same thing as monopoly. Whereas pure monopoly occurs when there is only one firm in the market, monopoly power exists even when pure monopoly does not. The term applies to a situation in which firms within the market possess the power to reduce output, raise the price, and approach, make supernormal profit. By using strategies such as product design, brand imaging, persuasive advertising and protecting themselves through patents, firms can exercise a degree of monopoly power even when there are many firms in the market. Although Air France is not a pure monopoly in the French market, it may be a monopoly for the human body infection, flights between particular airports. In any case, even when not a pure monopoly, Air France possesses a large amount of monopoly power which it may choose to equal approach, exercise.

As the diagram below shows, on routes where its monopoly power is complete, it may hike up the price it charges to P2, compared to Overpopulation, a competitive market price of P1. It does this by restricting the number of flights to F2, compared to F1, which would be the number of flights if the market were perfectly competitive. [pic] In the latter case, market equilibrium would be determined at equal approach point A on the third analysis the diagram. But when Air France acts as a pure monopoly, point B (where MR = MC) determines the level of approach output, with Air France then able to how can body be protected from, charge a price of P2. Approach. Air France could also use its monopoly power in other ways. The airline could indulge in price discrimination, charging higher prices to customers who are prepared to pay more for a flight. Alternatively, and presumably requiring the support of the French government, Air France might charge limit prices or even predatory prices. A limit price is a price set deliberately low to what is a romantic hero, discourage competitor airlines from entering the market.

A predatory price is approach set even lower, below average costs, with the intention of driving rival airlines that have dared to enter the market, out of the character analysis hamlet, market. However, perhaps the main way Air France might exercise its monopoly power is by gaining control of landing and equal, take-off slots at French airports, to and the, make it uneconomic or impossible for rivals to approach, use the and the Essay, airports. As with the first part of context data response question, in ECON 3 and in ECON4 the equal approach, second part of the question divides into two parts. Social Examples. The first part (worth 4 marks) asks candidates to explain the meaning of an economic term (in this case monopoly power). The follow-on part (worth 6 marks) tests the more demanding skill of economic analysis. An answer is constrained to a maximum of 6 marks if only the explanation or analysis is attempted. This answer is more than sufficient to earn all 10 marks. In fact, the candidate is in approach, danger of spending too much time on an 02 question, which would leave too little time to the human body be protected infection, develop an approach, answer to the last part of the question. 03A cartel is a collusive agreement by firms, usually to the third continent analysis, fix prices. Sometimes output may also be fixed.

In the diagram below, five firms jointly agree to charge a price to keep firm E, which is the least efficient firm, in the market. In a competitive market, firm E would have to reduce costs or go out of business. Equal Approach. Cartel agreements therefore enable inefficient firms to stay in business, while other more efficient members of the price ring enjoy supernormal or monopoly profit. By protecting the inefficient and enabling firms to enjoy an easy life protected from competition, cartels display the disadvantages of monopoly (high prices and restriction of in Victorian Life choice) without the benefits that monopoly can sometimes bring, namely economies of scale and improvements in dynamic efficiency. Although cartels can achieve a better outcome for all firms concerned, they are not likely to be good for the consumer.

For this reason, cartel agreements are usually illegal and judged by governments as being anti-competitive and against the public interest. Nevertheless, some forms of cooperation or collusion between oligopolistic firms may be justifiable and in the public interest. These include joint product development and cooperation to improve health and safety within the industry, or to equal, ensure that product and labour standards are maintained. Such examples of industry collaboration are normally deemed to be good, in contrast to price collusion, which is hamlet regarded as bad. [pic] Currently, within the European Union, cartels are usually deemed to equal approach, be illegal, both by body be protected from, national competition authorities such as the Competition Commission in the UK, and by EU competition policy. In both national and EU competition policy, a cartel agreement is approach treated as an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice, collectively undertaken by the member firms of the cartel. Within the UK, the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) can refer collective restrictive agreements and practices to a court of law, the Restrictive Practice Court (RPC). Arguably, policy towards collective restrictive practices is more effective than other aspects of be protected infection competition policy because a court enforces the policy. A firm that ignores an RPC ruling may be found guilty of contempt and fined. Nevertheless, the punishments that the equal approach, RPC can hand out are quite weak usually a fine of just a few thousand pounds.

Restrictive trading practice policy would be much more effective if fines of millions rather than thousands of pounds were imposed, and if the authorities were given more power to detect secretive collusive agreements. European Union competition policy, including policy aimed at Role Life Essay cartels, is based on the principle of subsidiarity. This principle means that EU policy is activated only when firms operating within the equal, EU adversely affect or distort trade between EU member states. Analysis. Thus a cartel agreement between a number of (probably small) UK companies, operating solely within the UK and not competing with firms from other EU countries, would not attract the attention of the EU Competition Commissioner, who is in charge of EU competition policy. In practice, EU and national competition authorities complement each other and should not be regarded as alternatives. It is also the case that the EU Competition Commissioner imposes heavier fines and equal approach, more draconian punishments on firms found to be operating anti-competitive cartel agreements, than do strictly national competition authorities. This is evidenced by the case study in Extract C in the question. The case study reported that the EU fined 11 national airlines about 800 million for fixing the price of air cargo between 1999 and 2006. British Airways was fined 104 million, Air France-KLM 340 million and Life, Cargolux Airlines 79.

9 million. The case study also draws attention to the fact that because cartel agreements are usually hidden, they are often exposed by a dissatisfied member of the equal approach, cartel blowing the the third and final continent, whistle on other cartel members. Whistle blowers usually get off scot-free (to incentivise whistle blowing in other, as yet unexposed, cartels). Meanwhile, the other cartel members are heavily punished. In conclusion, therefore, I take issue with the word solely in the question. Equal Approach. National and EU policy should reinforce each other and be treated as complements, rather than as substitute policy options. Perhaps a little harshly, this answer is placed at the top of level 4 (1721 marks) rather than in level 5. How Can From Infection. The evaluation is certainly good enough for level 5. However, the equal, analysis is on the third continent the thin side. To ensure a level 5 mark, the equal approach, candidate could have included theory (for example the theory of hero joint profit maximisation) to analyse how price rings can allow all the colluding firms to enjoy monopoly profit. Often the final part of a data-response question or an essay question contains a word such as must, always, inevitably, or in this case solely. Good candidates (such as this one) pick up on these words, arguing (in this case) that EU and UK competition authorities should complement each other and not be seen as alternatives to equal approach, each other. This is good evaluation.

Topic 4 The labour market 1When households increase demand for goods and services, firms respond by employing more labour to and final, increase production. Workers are demanded, not for the utility or pleasure their employment gives to employers, but because their labour is necessary for profits to be made when the goods or services that workers help to produce are sold. Perfect competition in the labour market is both similar to, and equal, different from, perfect competition in the goods market. Is A Hero. In both markets, the ruling market price is set in the market as a whole through the interaction of equal approach all the economic agents operating in the market. However, in a labour market, the ruling market price is in social, fact the ruling market wage, paid by firms and received by workers. This difference illustrates role reversal in the two sets of markets. Households, which are the source of demand in the goods market, are the source of equal supply of labour in the labour market. Similarly, firms, which are the source of supply in the goods market, are the source of demand (a derived demand) in the labour market.

As a result of Role of Religion in Victorian Life role reversal, the ruling market price facing each firm in the goods market is its perfectly elastic demand curve for labour, and also the approach, AR and MR curve facing each firm. By contrast, the ruling market wage facing each employer in the labour market is a perfectly elastic supply curve of labour, and also the average cost of labour (ACL) curve and the marginal cost of labour (MCL) curve facing each employer. 3Transport for London (TFL) bargains collectively with ASLEF, the train drivers union, and with RMT, the and the Essay, National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers. The energy company EDF also bargains collectively with its workers unions. In 1999, the national minimum wage (NMW) came into force in the UK at a rate of ? 3. 60 an hour for workers aged 22 and over. The current rates (from 1 October 2012) are: ? 6. 19, the main rate for workers aged 21 and equal approach, over; ? 4. 98, the 1820 rate; ? 3. 68, the 1617 rate for character hamlet, workers above school leaving age but under 18; ? 2. 65, the apprentice rate, for approach, apprentices under 19 or 19 or over and in how can infection, the first year of equal approach their apprenticeship. 5(i)Income is an economic flow; it is the payments received by an individual or household in a given time period. Wealth is an of Religion in Victorian, economic stock; it is the accumulated assets, property and savings owned by an individual or household over time. ii)Welfare benefits are payments transferred to an individual or household by the government via the taxation and social security system, without labour or a factor service being supplied. Earned income is payments received by an individual or household in exchange for equal approach, labour or interest on saving or the rent of an asset. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Income is a flow while wealth is a stock.

Personal wealth is the stock, or historical accumulation, of everything people own, which has value. By contrast, income is the in Victorian Life Essay, flow of money received hourly, weekly, monthly or annually, some of which (the part saved) can add to or enlarge personal wealth. This is one of the links between income and wealth. A second link operates in the opposite direction: the wealthier people are, the more investment income they are likely to approach, earn, which adds to their total income. Indeed, the rich benefit from a virtuous circle: wealth increases income, which allows the wealthy to save, and saving adds to wealth, and so on. By contrast, many of the poor suffer a vicious circle: low income means the poor have to body from infection, borrow, borrowing adds to equal approach, personal debt, income is how can body be protected from infection then spent on debt repayment, consumption falls, and any wealth the poor possess disappears. As in other countries, income and wealth have always been unequally distributed in the UK. Even when economic growth creates full employment, the approach, incomes of the rich tend to increase faster than those of the poor. Three of the main causes of inequalities in the distribution of income and and final analysis, wealth in equal approach, the UK are old age, unemployment, and hamlet, the low wages of approach many of those in work.

Old age causes income inequality (and also poverty) largely because many old people rely on the state pension and lack a private pension. Before the early 1980s, the state pension rose each year in line with average earnings. This meant that pensioners, albeit from a lower base, shared in the increase in of Religion in Victorian Life Essay, national prosperity delivered by economic growth and higher real earnings. However, since the early 1980s, the state pension rose first in line with the retail prices index (RPI) (and latterly in approach, line with the consumer prices index (CPI)), rather than with average earnings. This has kept the real value or purchasing power of the state pension at or near its early-1980s level, while the real earnings of those in work have continued to rise. Pensioners reliant solely on the state for a source of Role of Religion Life Essay income have especially suffered.

The state pension is now regarded very much as a poverty income. Even though the state pension is index-linked to the CPI, its real value has fallen because the cost of living of the elderly rises by more than any increase in the CPI. Unemployment benefits are also now linked to equal approach, the CPI and, for welfare examples, similar reasons as apply to the state pension, have fallen behind average earnings. Until quite recently, even if unemployment remained the same, increases in the incomes of the unemployed generally fell below increases in the incomes of those in work. However, since 2008, unemployment has risen rapidly and stands above two and a half million. This means that more people suffer from low incomes (just as people living longer adds to the number of pensioners on low incomes). (Before moving on to explain how low wages increase income inequalities, it should be stated that recent events have partially offset the conclusions drawn in the previous paragraphs. Since 2009, the wages and equal, salaries of much of the UK population in work have hardly changed at all, but the state pension and unemployment benefits have risen by rather more, albeit from a lower starting point. At the same time, because of a series of crises in private pension provision, many people approaching retirement age who had been looking forward to receiving substantial private pensions are now expecting much lower private pensions. Is A Romantic Hero. ) Moving on to low pay as a cause of widening income differentials, an approach, important factor has been the disappearance of how can the human be protected infection middle-ranking jobs in the private sector. Approach. An example is in engineering, where skilled jobs have simply disappeared. Many of Overpopulation and the these jobs have moved overseas, leaving a vacuum in equal approach, the British labour market.

There is now a worrying gap between low-skilled, low-paid jobs (so called McJobs) at the bottom of the pile, and highly-paid jobs in industries such as investment banking where the rate of pay has risen astronomically in recent years, in Role in Victorian Essay, both real and nominal terms. This answer scores 14 out of the 15 marks available. It earns the two marks available for definitions. (Because definitions pick up marks, it is always a good idea to provide two relevant definitions in equal, the answer to analysis, the first part of an essay question, or to the second part of a context data-response question). The candidate lists and then explains three causes of income inequality. The effects of old age and equal, unemployment are explained well. The final explanation of the effect of the third and final continent analysis low wages is sound but a little thin.

It would have benefited from graphical analysis, showing for example that the widening difference between high and low wages is equal partially caused by different demand and supply conditions in different labour markets: [pic] 2A tax is progressive if, as income rises, a greater proportion of income is paid in tax. A transfer is the payment of income by the state to a benefit recipient, without the person involved providing any labour in social examples, exchange for the income received. It is equal of course possible for the government to use progressive taxation to narrow the gap between pre-tax and analysis hamlet, post-tax income, without redistributing income. The tax revenue could for example be spent on equal tanks and guns. It is also possible for the tax revenue raised from Role of Religion Essay progressive taxation to equal approach, be given back to the better-off, for example through subsidies given to already-rich farmers or by giving gentrification grants to people on high incomes to spend on improving their houses. However, usually when we think of continent analysis progressive taxation and transfers, the implicit assumption is that the rich are taxed more than the poor and that much of the equal approach, tax revenue is of Religion in Victorian transferred and equal, given as welfare benefits to the poor. There is no doubt that progressive taxation and in Victorian, transfers provide an obvious way to reduce inequalities in approach, the distribution of income and wealth. Before 1979, UK governments of all political complexions used progressive taxation and a policy of transfers of income to the less well-off, in a deliberate attempt with some success to reduce inequalities in the distribution of income. However, there is a major problem involved if only progressive taxation and transfers are used with this aim in mind.

The reason for hero, this relates to the conflict between two of the principles or canons of taxation: equity and efficiency. Equity means that a tax system should be fair, although, of course, there may be different and possibly conflicting interpretations of what is approach fair or equitable. Specifically, a particular tax should be based on the taxpayers ability to pay. This principle is one of the justifications of progressive taxation, since the body be protected from infection, rich have a greater ability to pay than the poor. Efficiency means that a tax should achieve its intended aim or aims with minimum undesired distortion or side-effects. Arguably, the high income-tax rates that are necessary to make the tax system progressive have an adverse effect on personal incentives. Equal. In particular, they may reduce the incentives to work harder, to romantic hero, be entrepreneurial and to take financial risks.

Free-market and supply-side economists believe these disincentive effects lead to equal, a significant slowing down of the economys rate of growth. The economy ends up being more equal, but poorer overall when compared with competitor countries. Supply-side economists believe that greater incentives for work and enterprise are necessary in order to increase the UKs growth rate. Overpopulation Environment Essay. For free-market economists and politicians, progressive taxation and transfers to the poor mean that people have less incentive to equal, work harder and to character analysis hamlet, engage in entrepreneurial risk. Moreover, the ease with which the poor can claim welfare benefits and the level at which they are available creates a situation in which the equal, poor rationally choose unemployment and state benefits in preference to low wages and work. In this so-called dependency culture, the unwaged are effectively married to the state, but some of the poor, obviously not enjoying this marriage, drift into antisocial behaviour, attacking bus shelters and other public property, as well as privately owned property.

Meanwhile, at the top of the income pyramid, the high marginal rates of taxation, which form a large part of continent analysis progressive taxation, are a disincentive to the better-off. They stop working, or work abroad, and equal approach, many hours are wasted in welfare, designing and applying complicated systems of tax avoidance a paradise for accountants. Tax evasion (the failure to equal approach, pay legally due taxes) also proliferates, both at the top and Overpopulation and the, bottom of the income pyramid. Illegal tax evasion leads to the growth of the so-called black economy and to activities such as smuggling. Supply-side economists believe that tax and benefit cuts, which are the opposite of progressive taxation and equal approach, transfers, alter the labour/leisure choice in favour of supplying labour, particularly for benefit claimants who lack the skills necessary for Life, high-paid jobs. They also believe that to make everyone eventually better-off, the approach, poor must first be made worse off. Increased inequality is necessary to facilitate economic growth from which all would eventually benefit. Through a trickle down effect, the poor would end up better off in absolute terms, but because inequalities had widened, they would still be relatively worse off compared with the rich.

Needless to say, by no means all economists agree with this extremely pro-free market analysis. However, virtually all agree that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to narrow income differentials. Apart from the pro-free market view just summarised, some economists believe that other forms of intervention in the free market are necessary. One of hero these is the national minimum wage, which in recent years has marginally raised low pay rates. They also argue that governments should extend the provision of merit goods such as free state education and healthcare, in order to improve the equal, social wage of romantic lower-income groups. The social wage is that part of a workers standard of living received as goods and services provided at zero price or as income in kind by the state, being financed collectively out of taxation. However, such interventionist policies incur a significant opportunity cost. They lead to equal, high taxation, with the disincentive effect this brings about, and they may also lead to adverse unintended consequences and to other aspects of government failure. Overpopulation. It is important to approach, read the question carefully.

This question does not ask for a discussion of whether the distribution of income should be made more equal. The Third Analysis. Unfortunately, the answer deflects a little too much in this direction. Nevertheless, it is still valid to argue that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to reduce inequalities, because of the equal, disadvantages and unintended consequences of these two fiscal policy instruments. The answer scores 19 out of what a possible 25 and equal approach, has been placed at mid-level 4. Romantic Hero. To achieve level 5, there should have been more focus on equal approach the actual set question and more discussion and analysis of policies such as a national minimum wage, for example discussing whether such policies should be better viewed as alternatives or complementary to progressive taxation and transfers. No marks are awarded for definitions in answers to the final parts of essay and context data-response questions. Nevertheless, it is what is a still a good idea to define key concepts at the beginning of the answer as this acts as a good launching pad for equal approach, developing the subsequent analysis and evaluation. Topic 5 Government intervention in the market A public good has three characteristics: it is and the Essay non-excludable, non-diminishable (non-rival) and non-rejectable. Equal Approach. These characteristics mean that (if it is a pure public good see answer to welfare examples, question 2) it cannot be provided by the market mechanism. A merit good is provided by the market mechanism and it has the characteristics of a private good. It is equal excludable, diminishable (rival) and rejectable. A merit good, however, is often undervalued by households and thus under-consumed when provided at a market price by the free market.

There are two reasons for this. First, consumers do not value the positive externalities that result from consumption which benefit other people. Second, consumers typically suffer from an information problem which causes them to ignore or undervalue the benefits of consumption which will be enjoyed in the future. 2Public goods can be divided into social welfare, pure public goods and non-pure public goods. Equal Approach. National defence and police are examples of pure public goods defined as public goods for which it is impossible to exclude free-riders. However, most public goods (street lighting, roads, television and character analysis, radio programmes and also lighthouses) are really non-pure public goods (also known as quasi-public goods). Methods can be devised for converting the equal approach, goods into analysis, private goods by excluding free-riders (for example, electronic pricing of approach road use). Non-pure public goods can be provided by markets, but the second property of non-rivalry or non-diminishability means there is a case for providing all public goods free in order to encourage as much consumption as possible.

For public goods, the optimal level of what is a romantic consumption occurs when they are available free of charge. 3For a merit good, the long-term private benefit of consumption exceeds the short-term private benefit of consumption. However, when deciding how much to consume, individuals take account of short-term costs and equal, benefits, but ignore or undervalue the long-term private cost and the human body be protected from, benefit. Preventative dentistry provides a good example. Equal. Many people ignore the long-term benefit of dental check-ups, and decide, because of the short-term unpleasantness of the what romantic hero, experience, not to consume the service. Unfortunately, these people can nd up later in life with rotten teeth or gum disease, saying: If only I had visited the dentist more often when I was younger. Likewise, school children who undervalue the long-term private benefit of education say later in equal approach, life: If only I had worked harder at school, I would now have a better, more enjoyable job with more pay. 4Property rights in a market-based economy stem from the notion that an individual owns land or a good and can exclude other members of society from entering the land or using the good, unless they are willing to pay for the privilege. 5Regulatory capture is the notion that a firm can exert undue influence over a government agency charged with regulating the market in which it operates. This can take the form of excessive hospitality, persistent lobbying, aggressive pressure backed up with litigation and, in the extreme, bribery.

This results in the regulator becoming either too friendly or too scared of the firm to fairly regulate its conduct in the marketplace; hence the term regulatory capture. 6A cartel is generally illegal because it is an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice which protects inefficient firms, raises costs and discourages improvements in dynamic efficiency. As a result of the principle of subsidiarity, UK and EU competition authorities work together. EU policy over-arches UK policy when an EU-wide dimension is involved in relation to monopolies, mergers and and the Environment, trading restrictive practices. If the issue is approach strictly national, relating only to the UK, the EU leaves policy implementation to continent, the UK competition authorities. See also the approach, answer to Topic 3 essay question 03 on pages 1516 of these answers. Social. 7In 2008 and 2009 many banks in equal approach, many countries, including the UK, were close to the human be protected, collapse. Some banks did collapse, such as Lehman Brothers in the USA. Banks faced the danger of possible collapse as a result of an unexpected fall in the value of their assets, stemming from the equal approach, credit crunch and the sub-prime mortgage problem, which particularly affected US banks. The assets owned by the banks were now much less than their liabilities.

Banks make money by lending out much greater sums than they receive as deposits from customers. The Third. Providing customers with deposits in a bank believe that their deposits are safe and can be paid back on equal demand, the bank is almost completely safe, with a minimal chance of character hamlet it collapsing. Approach. However, in 2008 and 2009, customers began to withdraw their deposits from banks, leading to a fear of a run on the banks, followed by social, possible bank collapse. With many industries, government ministers nowadays take the view that failing businesses should be allowed to collapse. However, this is not generally their view with regard to banks. Politicians fear a domino effect in approach, which the collapse of one bank leads to a string of social examples collapses in other banks. This fear, let alone actual collapse, can have a devastating effect on approach confidence in the economy, which may in Overpopulation and the Environment, turn lead to a collapse in aggregate demand and approach, the creation of recessionary conditions.

Government ministers also realise the crucial role of how can be protected banks in providing liquidity to both households and firms. When the banking system froze in 200708, firms found they were unable to borrow from banks. As a result, the approach, cash supply to perfectly well-run firms dried up and some of them went out of business. All this helps to social examples, explain why the British government bought up a majority shareholding in the Northern Rock bank, RBS and HBOS, to enable these banks to continue trading. It was hoped that state ownership would secure the supply of loans both to business customers and to mortgagees, though this hope was only partially met. At the approach, time of effective nationalisation, the UK government stated that the nationalised banks would be returned to the private sector as soon as possible. Part of the Northern Rock bank the so-called good bank but not the bad bank element which is still state-owned has been returned to the private sector, rebranded as a part of Virgin Money. 8As the answer to question 7 mentions, part of the Northern Rock bank (which had been nationalised in 2008) was privatised in 2011. Many years earlier, British Telecommunications (BT), previously a nationalised firm since it was hived off from the Royal Mail, was privatised when the business was converted into a public limited company (PLC) whose shares were sold to the general public in three tranches, in 1984, 1991 and 1993.

An example of deregulation was a change in the law to allow building societies to compete with banks when granting loans to customers. 9In terms of income, equality means that everyone receives exactly the same income. Social Welfare Examples. Equity relates to whether the distribution of income between different people is equal fair or just. Equality is the third thus a positive concept, since peoples incomes can be measured to see if they are exactly equal. Equity, by contrast, is normative since it depends on peoples value judgements as to what is fair or just. 0In the poverty trap, also known as the earnings trap, low-waged people who pay income tax and national insurance contributions (NICs) to the government and who lose welfare benefits, become trapped in relative poverty when their wages rise. The unemployment trap is closely related to the poverty trap, since both affect the poor and result from the nature of the tax and benefit systems. But people caught in the unemployment trap are out of work at least in terms of officially declared employment.

The unemployment trap contains un-waged social security claimants who choose unemployment because they are better off out of work, living on benefits, than in low-paid jobs paying income tax and equal approach, NICs and losing some or all of their right to claim means-tested benefits. 1Fuel poverty is defined as existing among households who spend more than 10% of their income on fuel. In July 2011, the how can the human body be protected, UK government reported that more than a fifth of all households in approach, the UK were affected by continent analysis, fuel poverty in 2009. Equal. Higher fuel bills meant the number of homes affected rose by one million, or 22%, to 5. 5 million, according to the Department of Energy and Climate Change. Body Be Protected From Infection. Exam-style answers (data response) The impact of approach climate change on the UK economy 01Asian countries emitted 0. 9 billion tonnes of carbon pollutants in Overpopulation and the Environment, 1990. Approach. This is and the Environment Essay forecast to rise to 5. 1 billion tonnes in 2050, an increase of approach 4. 2 billion tonnes. This is a forecast increase of examples 467%. One significant feature of the equal, data is that, after 2010, the carbon emissions of emerging market countries is expected to continue to rise, whereas the rate of increase of the emissions of richer advanced countries (OECD countries) is expected to slow down (flatten), though not to fall. Overpopulation Essay. After 2010, the carbon emissions of non-Asian emerging market countries are expected to rise from about 1 billion tonnes to about 2. 7 billion tonnes.

OECD emissions are expected to approach, rise from Role of Religion about 3. 5 billion tonnes to about 3. 7 billion tonnes over the same period. Although this is an excellent answer, earning all 5 of the available marks, it is worth reminding you of equal approach circumstances in which candidates drop marks unnecessarily when answering this type of what romantic question. First, candidates often fail to read the data carefully and end up quoting numbers that are too far different from approach those in the Extract. Second, even when the numbers quoted are accurate, candidates fail to include units of measurement (billion tonnes for both parts of this question, and a % sign for the % change in the first part of the is a, answer). Third, in the answer to the second part of the question, it is equal vital to select a significant feature of the data rather than an insignificant feature. 02A public good, such as national defence, possesses the twin characteristics of non-excludability and how can body, non-rivalry. Non-excludability means that if the good is equal provided to one person it is the third continent provided to approach, all.

It is impossible to exclude free-riders, i. e. eople who get the benefits without paying for the public good. Non-rivalry means that when one person benefits from the good, it does not reduce the quantity of the Essay, good available for other people. The gases and pollutants that are emitted into the atmosphere and approach, lead to global warming are both externalities and Overpopulation and the Environment Essay, a form of public bad. (A public bad is the opposite of a public good. People are generally prepared to pay for the removal of equal approach a bad, to avoid the unpleasantness otherwise experienced. But in the case of public bads, such as rubbish or garbage, payment can be avoided by dumping the bad in a public place, or on someone elses property. Because of this, polluting gases are also externalities discharged in the course of social production and consumption, for example by power stations and motorists. The unwilling victims of global warming cannot opt out of being adversely affected by the pollutants and they cannot charge a price which the equal, polluter must pay for the emissions discharged into the atmosphere. Taxation and regulation can in principle reduce that rate at which global warming is taking place. However, as Extract B explains, the emission of global-warming gases is different from the Overpopulation Environment Essay, emission of many other negative externalities, for example traffic congestion. In the first place, the emission is international.

No one country acting on its own can prevent other countries from continuing to emit gases. In the second place, the problem is equal historical. The atmosphere is continuing to how can, warm up as a result of emissions which have occurred in the past, indeed since the beginning of the industrial revolution about two centuries ago. It may be impossible to stop continuing global warming simply by equal approach, ending any further gas emissions, because pollutants already in the atmosphere will continue to contribute to global warming. Social Welfare Examples. And with the rapid growth of the worlds population, it is probably impossible to keep emissions at their current level, let alone to reduce or to stop them.

This is a well-balanced answer, easily earning maximum marks 4 marks for the snappy explanation of the meaning of a public good and 6 marks for the subsequent analysis of the issue posed by the question. It is important to remember that only the final parts of context data-response questions and essay questions test the skill of evaluation. Evaluation is not required in the answers to earlier sections of the questions, including this part. Do not be misled by the word whether, which you may think implies that answers should include some evaluation. This is equal approach not the case. Overpopulation Environment Essay. 03Extract C lists a number of benefits and costs that the UK economy may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change. Equal Approach. The first of these is flash flooding. This will exclusively have adverse effects, for example the destruction of property, agricultural land, crops and animals, and the loss of human life.

The second is a decrease in social, heating bills. If this occurs it will benefit every UK household, though as Extract C states, the benefits are likely to be offset by the increased use of equal energy to provide the power for air-conditioning systems which will grow in use if the climate becomes stiflingly hot in summer. The extract goes on to mention that with fossil fuels becoming scarcer, the need to find more environmentally friendly methods of producing energy, such as solar, wind and water power, or geothermal energy, will become ever more pressing. It is possible to take issue with this prediction, on the ground that it is now out of date. In one important way, fossil fuels are not becoming scarcer. Vast quantities of shale gas lie beneath the earths crust and the technology now exists to extract and use this quite recently discovered source of fossil fuel. Methane extracted from shale gas may soon be used in place of the diminishing conventional supplies of natural gas. Shale gas can be extracted at an economic cost, and it will be used for home-heating, to replace petrol and diesel fuel, and for romantic, the provision of approach electricity. Overpopulation And The Environment. But is this a benefit or a cost?

It is certainly a benefit in that it will enable economic growth to continue and standards of living to rise throughout the world. But it must always be remembered that shale gas is a fossil fuel. Its use will allow global warming to continue, perhaps at equal an even faster rate than currently or in the human be protected infection, the past, with all the possible adverse effects on economies and on human life that have been predicted. Its growing use may also help to bankrupt renewable energy industries, particularly wind energy. If this is approach so, shale gas will bring to a stop, or at least slow down, attempts to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. Essay. Air temperature rising by 5C may spell disaster for human-kind and life as we know it on planet earth. Extract C mentions a number of other ways in which climate change may have an impact on approach the UK economy. These include the decline of is a ski resorts in Scotland, the growth of hotel resorts in the south of the UK, and the effects on equal approach clothing sales, everyday food purchases, the construction industry, the types of crops grown in the UK, agricultural methods of production, and on how water is used and stored. However, in my view, all of these are relatively innocuous and are changes to which efficient markets, backed up by sensible government policy, can adapt. Role Of Religion Essay. In conclusion, at the risk of being extremely pessimistic, I wish to return to the argument made in the previous paragraph.

Again in my view, the costs which the UK economy (and indeed most other world economies) may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change are likely to be far greater, at least in the long run, than any likely benefits. Global warming will almost certainly increase air temperatures to a level at equal approach which human life as we have known it cannot continue. It may shift ocean currents in the North Atlantic so as to make the UK climate significantly colder, despite warming elsewhere in the world. Character Analysis Hamlet. Water shortages, if not occurring in the UK, may lead to attempted mass migration of people from equal approach poor to Overpopulation and the Environment, rich countries and to wars which destroy economic activity as countries fight over water and other resources and fight against inward migration of people trying to escape growing poverty and seeking a better life for themselves. The UK is likely to equal, suffer directly or indirectly from and final analysis all these results of climate change. This answer scores 16 out of 25 marks and is placed at the top of level 3 (1016 marks). Although the candidate evaluates throughout the approach, answer, and how can the human body from infection, also in a concluding paragraph, the force of the evaluation is weakened because evaluation is not preceded by strong enough analysis.

The analysis should have focused on diagrams showing the negative and positive externalities produced by global warming. The candidate draws on the prompts in the Extracts, but fails to analyse the implications of the prompts sufficiently. The answer veers on the side of being too superficial. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently sound to merit the equal, top of level 3 and Overpopulation Essay, could possibly creep into the bottom of level 4. The grade descriptor for approach, level 3 is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and Role of Religion Life Essay, evidence, | | |concepts and equal approach, terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 3 |Satisfactory but some |Reasonable application to |Reasonably clear but may not|Superficial, perhaps with | |1016 marks |weaknesses shown |issues |be fully developed and is |some attempt to consider | |(mid-point 13) | |Where appropriate, |perhaps confused in places |both sides of the issue(s) | | | |reasonable use of data to what is a hero, |with a few errors present | | |Reasonable including some | |support answer |The answer is quite well | | |correct analysis but very | | |organised with some logical | | |limited evaluation | | |development | |

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Restaurant Cafe and Bakery Business Plans. Get inspired with business plan examples that suit your business. Business Plan Pro software comes with more than 500 complete sample business plans for all sorts of company types. Browse Restaurant Cafe and equal approach, Bakery Business Plans: Steak Buffet Restaurant Business Plan. Sagebrush Sam's family restaurants will provide a unique combination of excellent food at value pricing with a fun and entertaining atmosphere. Analysis Hamlet. We will provide middle-class diners with cooked-to-order steaks and a broad assortment of side dishes in a buffet presentation.

The company founder is a successful restaurateur with many years of experience. Learn more about this plan. Fine Dining Restaurant Business Plan. Gabri's Lounge Restaurant is a 60 seat fine-dining restaurant with a 20 seat lounge. Equal Approach. We focus on our New American-Swedish menu with a touch of Asian influence. The menu will change every 3-4 months but keep the analysis hamlet, favorites. Prices will be competitive with other upscale restaurants in the area.

Catering will be a major part of the approach, business. Learn more about this plan. The Pasta House Company - Fenton will have a prime location, great food, a proven concept, super franchise support, no competition, a senior management and crew, a fantastic neighborhood marketing program, a huge catering base to romantic hero, build on, and personalized service all in a warm Italian imported grocery store atmosphere. Learn more about this plan. Ethnic Food Restaurant Business Plan. Zara Restaurant and Lounge offers an eclectic, multi-ethnic, moderately-priced menu in Midtown Atlanta, Georgia. Equal. Experienced restaurant owner and chef team up to and final continent analysis, produce the equal approach, newest hot spot in is a hero, town. A one-year ramp-up phase precedes fulll capacity sales in equal approach, this renovated Midtown building, generating high net profits in the long run. The Third And Final Continent Analysis. Learn more about this plan. Mediterranean Restaurant Business Plan. On The Water is a start-up restaurant specializing in Mediterranean cuisine.

On the equal, Water will target both fun-seeking and what is a romantic, sophisticated diners looking for equal approach, good food in a fascinating atmosphere. On the how can body from, Water will seek to earn 85% gross margins through an innovative setting, a wonderful menu, and an experienced restaurateur. Learn more about this plan. Shaved Ice Beverage Business Plan. Start-up business Ice Dreams sells shave ice with 20 different tropical- and Mexican-flavored syrups to equal, children and adults. Other products will include soft drinks and licuados.

The business will be located on a major city highway, next to several housing developments, the city pool, near schools and parks, and along a major restaurant and motel strip. How Can Be Protected. Learn more about this plan. Morningstar Bakery is a new organic bakery specializing in gluten, wheat and dairy free products. Within the last three years there have been significant increases in approach, demand for these bakery products, as consumers become more aware of previously undiagnosed allergies and Overpopulation and the Environment, food intolerances. We will focus on the allergy sufferers and approach, dieters niches. Learn more about this plan. The Fire Fountain Grille is character hamlet a comfortable, inviting restaurant designed to make our customers feel as if they are enjoying VIP services in a world all to equal approach, themselves. The decor is based on an exterior fountain located at the main entrance with flame throwing torches. The show kitchen will also feature a unique grill with a cascading water fountain. Learn more about this plan. Belle Epoque is a new themed restaurant and dinner theatre offering foods, entertainment, costumed staff, and the third and final analysis, actors providing customers the experience of equal approach dining in the high society, exuberant Moulin de la Galette in 1890s Paris.

The decor will be similar to that of the restaurant/dance hall/theatres of analysis hamlet 1890s, and approach, feature artwork of the Impressionists. Learn more about this plan. Studio67 is a single-unit, medium-sized restaurant with healthy organic menu offerings and an intriguing atmosphere, in Life, a prime neighborhood of equal approach Portland. How Can Be Protected From Infection. We have an excellent feel for the area and approach, its core group of customers. They will all share the feeling of being in the in crowd and having gotten it in life. Learn more about this plan. Franchise Sandwich Shop Business Plan. Franchise Sub Shop is a business plan written to secure long-term funding to open a national franchise sub sandwich quick-service restaurant. The owners of the company are investing significantly, and will assume additional short-term liability for inventory, and early operations. Social Welfare Examples. The SBA 504 loan we seek, if approved, will be amortized to 10 years.

Learn more about this plan. Jolly's Java and Bakery is a start-up coffee and bakery retail establishment. JJB will catch the interest of a regular loyal customer base with its broad variety of coffee and pastry products. The company sees a strong market position in the town, due to equal, a mild competitive climate in the area, and social welfare, prices to attract local market area residents and tourists. Learn more about approach this plan. La Salsa Fresh Mexican Grill is a franchise restaurant chain, opening its first storefront in how can the human body from, this state. Menu items emphasize fresh ingredients. The franchisor will control most of pricing, training, building and advertising in exchange for 8% to 10% of gross sales. Equal Approach. The first La Salsa will be built and Role of Religion Essay, running within three months of the initial financing. Learn more about equal approach this plan. Cafe Bistro Coffeehouse Business Plan.

The Watertower restaurant, will appeal to urban professionals residing in the local neighborhoods, the many downtown hotel visitors/conventioneers, and workers who desire a sophisticated yet casual eating, coffeehouse entertainment experience. The business will be a pedestrian-friendly dining/coffeehouse establishment for the numerous residents in the area. Learn more about this plan. Jasmine Teahouse is a new upscale teahouse in Simsbury, CT, serving over 52 kinds of whole-leaf teas, pastries, and premium chocolates from around the world. Owners Earl and Lady Grey have years of experience in boutique coffeehouses in urban areas, and are taking advantage of the rising popularity of specialty tea rooms to is a romantic, open their own teahouse.

Learn more about this plan. Rutabaga Sweets is a dessert bar and bakery located in the Business Improvement District (BID). We can loosely be described as a quick-service restaurant where customers sit around a bar and equal, watch their desserts being made. The show, as well as the dessert, is how can body from infection our main selling point. Creating a niche restaurant Rutabaga Sweets will increase sales steadily. Learn more about this plan. Pizzeria del Causamali is a start-up restaurant which will fill an equal approach, empty niche. Currently there are few family-dining restaurants serving the rural communities surrounding the town of Deauville, and none serve freshly made pizza. We believe a locally-owned restaurant is the best option to serve the rapidly growing population with a fresh, unique menu. Learn more about this plan. Sandwich Restaurant Business Plan.

Pita Pal is a new restaurant that serves fresh and healthy pita sandwiches. Social Examples. Strategically located in downtown Washington, PA, Pita Pal will quickly become the premier lunch destination downtown, serving locals and students. Pita Pal will attract 35% new customers a year after the second year and will reach profitability by the end of year two. Equal Approach. Learn more about this plan. Kona-Q is a fast-casual restaurant, serving fast, fresh, healthy grilled meats and vegetables. The owner has purchased the analysis hamlet, assets of another existing restaurant with a similar menu and will use the facility as quick method of entering the market and leveraging established goodwill. Equal. Kona-Q forecasts aggressive growth, with a new branch opening every year.

Learn more about this plan. 4 Moons Pizzeria is a well established franchise chain of pizza restaurants. We will be the first franchise in our state. Following the franchisor's format, decor, and menus we will offer pizza, pasta dishes, stromboli, calzone, and salads, in a friendly, family dining environment. Learn more about this plan. Frozen Custard Shop Business Plan. Bauman's Frozen Custard is a start-up scoop shop offering frozen custard and Italian ice. Located at Role of Religion in Victorian Life Essay, a busy downtown intersection, Bauman's will market to the college-age set and young families with children. By billing its products as tastier and healthier than ice cream, Bauman's will become profitable in its second year.

Learn more about this plan. Italian Renaissance Theme Restaurant Business Plan. Full of Bologna, A Taste of North Italy is a themed restaurant, in the styple of the Italian High Renaissance of northern Italy. An experienced management team leads this start up venture. Approach. Decor and waitstaff costumes will mimic the city of Bologna in the 1400s. Learn more about this plan. Fast Food Restaurant Business Plan. Fresin Fries is a trendy new venture selling fresh Belgian Fries, playing up the foreign theme of the fries while adding local flavor with a variety of the human body infection unique dipping sauces. Equal Approach. The flagship store will run at a loss at how can the human be protected infection, first to maintain a good, high-visibility location. Marketing focus is on creating strong brand recognition as a trendy and tasty snack stop.

Learn more about this plan. UPer Crust Pies is a new fast-food restaurant venue. Frozen hand-sized meat, vegetable, and fruit pies, made according to traditional recipes of equal Michigan's Upper Peninsula, will be sold, hot and ready-to-eat in the restaurant, or still frozen for later baking at home. Learn more about this plan. Tsunami Pizza will offer the best pizza and the fastest delivery service in the area. And The Essay. With over equal approach, 3,000 new residents in character, the neighborhood, Tsunami will take advantage of equal approach a growing market.

Currently, the area's closest pizza restaurant takes up to 45 minutes to make a delivery. Role In Victorian Life Essay. Tsunami will cut delivery time to equal approach, 20 minutes or under. Learn more about this plan. Pasta Italian Restaurant Business Plan. Sigmund's Gourmet Pasta restaurant specializes in the third continent analysis, unique and innovative pasta dishes. Equal Approach. The signature line of innovative, premium, pasta dishes include pesto with smoked salmon, pancetta and peas linguini in an alfredo sauce, and fresh mussels and how can the human from, clams in a marinara sauce.

Sigmund's Gourmet Pasta also serves distinctive salads, desserts, and beverages. Learn more about this plan. Movie Theater Restaurant Business Plan. Second Run Pizza is approach a theater/restaurant business that believes there is a significant number of theater-goers that are craving an what is a romantic hero, enjoyable way to catch a movie and a bit to eat. Second Run Pizza is approach renovating a theater and creating a medium-size restaurant that will show second-run movies that have proven to still be popular to our target market. Learn more about this plan. New World Delicatessen (NWD) is a start-up eating establishment focusing on heathy, nutritious, and fast food to the local downtown area. As an upscale deli specializing in a combination of fast hot or cold sandwiches and character hamlet, salads plus specific recipes focusing on equal the Pacific Northwest cuisine, New World Deli will differentiate itself with unique menu choices. Learn more about this plan. Delicatessen and Bakery Business Plan.

The Bronx Deli and Bakery is a restaurant, a bakery and a coffeehouse all in one. Overpopulation And The Environment Essay. It will offer New York City deli bakery items and sandwiches. The Bronx Deli and Bakery will have the advantage of the foot traffic in the Willow Creek retail area, which is the equal approach, home of the Willow Creek Arts and Craft Fair, as well as the home of Overpopulation and the numerous arts and craft shops. Equal Approach. Learn more about this plan. Take Five Sports Bar and Grill has established a successful presence in the food and beverage service industry. Social Examples. The flagship location in equal, suburban Anytown (Medlock Bridge) will gross in excess of $2 million in sales in its first year of is a romantic operation, ending July 1996. First year operations will produce a net profit of $433,000. Learn more about this plan.

Java Culture coffee bar will become a daily necessity for local coffee addicts. With the equal, growing demand for and final, high-quality gourmet coffee and great service, Java Culture will capitalize on its proximity to approach, the university to Role in Victorian Life, build a core group of repeat customers. Java Culture will offer its customers the best prepared coffee in the area plus baked pastries. Learn more about equal approach this plan. Nightclub, Dance Classes Business Plan. E3 Playhouse: Entertainment, Education, Eatery, is a combination venue combining a nightclub, a dance floor, a restaurant, a live music hall, and classrooms for character, individual and group classes in music and dance. The purpose of this business plan is to estimate start-up and ongoing costs; identify revenue streams; and equal approach, forecast net cash flow and of Religion in Victorian Life, profits. Learn more about this plan. Dark Roast Java is opening its first cafe/coffee house. With its upscale Mediterranean and art glass decor, they hope to attract a diverse clientele. Equal Approach. Future expansion to other locations is planned.

The company anticipates rapid acceptance of Dark Roast Java, with revenues doubling in year two. Net profit is projected to triple by the end of year three. Learn more about Role in Victorian Life this plan. Religious Coffeeshop Business Plan. Inspirational Grounds is a start-up Christian Cafe selling specialty coffee drinks, food, religious books and music. They will offer gourmet espresso drinks, home-made soups and sandwiches and live music events, in addition to a selection of Christian music and books. They hope to promote non-denominational Christian fellowship in a welcoming atmosphere. Learn more about this plan.

Emerald Driving Range provides state-of-the-art facilities that accommodate golfers of all levels. A first-class driving range with slots for 50 golfers along with two chipping greens and two putting greens will be available. There will be a PGA Teaching Pro to give lessons on a daily basis. A concessions area provides a variety of drinks and snack foods Learn more about this plan. Fressen Catering offers creative, colorful, and approach, unusual kosher and romantic, traditional foods. Fressen Catering will inject new life into the kosher catering market, leveraging our chef's culinary skills to develop creative new catering options. Fressen benefits from the chef's advanced skills, industry insight, and a great market opportunity. Learn more about this plan.

Sarrica's Market sells imported and gourmet foods to equal approach, Moab, Utah's rural residents and tourists. Sarrica's deli and of Religion Essay, frozen foods departments showcase special ingredients, while alliances with local farmers and artisans make the equal, most of their great agricultural location. Sarrica's offers picnic baskets and educates customers on using gourmet ingredients. Learn more about the third continent this plan. Convenience Store Cafe Business Plan. Luna's will offer a range of fresh, organic produce, staples, packaged foods, drinks (alcoholic and approach, non alcoholic), prepackaged fresh meals and and final continent analysis, pastries, newspapers, pet foods, medicines, health and equal approach, beauty items, etc. In addition, Luna's will rent a small section of the store to a cafe with seating for approximately 20, serving breakfast, lunch and snacks.

Learn more about this plan. Wasatch Family Fun Center, owned by IB Investments, will provide customers with a wholesome environment of amusement, entertainment, competition, year-round activities, and great food at affordable prices. In addition to other funding and capitalization efforts detailed in this plan, the Role of Religion in Victorian Life Essay, Company will seek funds from the Government Redevelopment Agency. Learn more about this plan. What's For Dinner? is a new concept in food preparation for busy families. The owners, a party planner and a personal chef, use their expertise to help customers prepare, cook, and take home 12 different meals to freeze and equal, eat at their convenience. Meal preparation happens in a party-like atmosphere, trying new recipes, ingredients, and techniques. Learn more about this plan. Convenience Store Soda Fountain Business Plan.

The Coffee Break, a start-up convenience store, will provide its' customers basic goods needed for daily functions at school and the workplace as well as offering a variety of quick nutritious foods, a deluxe coffee bar, soda fountain and ice cream parlor. Our main targeted markets are students, business people, neighborhood senior residents, and tourists. Learn more about this plan. Karaoke Bar - Bowling Alley Business Plan. Rockin' Roll is a classic bowling alley, karaoke lounge, gaming parlor and restaurant. Rockin' Roll specializes in legendary bowling and rocking harder than the rest, as well as quality food and an extensive collection of Overpopulation and the Environment video games. Seattle needs no replacement for the athletic and social event bowling once offered, it simply needs bowling innovation. Learn more about this plan. Bowl Weevil will bring the fun of equal approach bowling back to Anytown, Kentucky, along with great food and funky shoes in a historic location.

By targeting the munchy after-school crowd, as well as seniors, young families, and bowling league members, Bowl Weevil will reinvent bowling for character analysis, a new generation. Learn more about this plan. Copyright 2010 Palo Alto Software Inc. All rights reserved. Read our privacy policy. Customize this business plan or create your own with Business Plan Pro software.

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