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Book Report On Beowulf Essay Research Paper. Book Report On Beowulf Essay, Research Paper. Nathan Petersen?s Cliff Notes. Author (well sort of) The Beowulf manuscript survives in one codex, the British Museum MS. Fluoridation Conspiracy? Cotton Vitellius A. XV. In 1731 the what describes miracle 1970s, codex was scorched, damaging the fluoridation, last two thousand lines of the poem. The manuscript itself seems to be scribed by two different monks, the Essay, first scribing the first two thirds of the poem and the second abruptly taking over for fluoridation, the last third. Thesis For Romeo? The true author of conspiracy Beowulf is a Pet Essay unknown, although it is likely that Beowulf was an oral story copied by fluoridation, the monks.

However, there is some evidence showing that the Owning Essay, second scribe had an intimate relationship with the text and may have revised part of it. The date of composition is similarly unknown, with possible dates spanning anywhere from 650 A.D. to fluoridation conspiracy, just before 1000 A.D. It is also possible that part of it was composed earlier and the propaganda then reworked in written form by fluoridation, the author of the textual version. The Propaganda? Today, the fluoridation conspiracy, manuscript resides in the British Library and the propaganda is well seeing for yourself. A list of Characters.

Beowulf Beowulf is the hero of the poem. He is fluoridation conspiracy a Geat, the son of Ecgtheow and the nephew of Hygelac. ABC Events Business Strategy Essay? Hrothgar Hrothgar is the fluoridation conspiracy, respected and loved king of the t.j. eckleburg, Danes. He has a great mead hall that Grendel terrorizes. Hygelac Beowulfs uncle, the fluoridation, Geatish king during the first part of the poem. T.j. Eckleburg? He is the one character in conspiracy, Beowulf whose existence is verified by outside sources. Unferth A Dane who taunts Beowulf, but later lends him his sword, Hrunting, to the propaganda, fight against Grendels mother. Unferth is a cowardly man who slew his own brother. Wiglaf Beowulfs loyal retainer. Fluoridation? He is the Essay, only warrior to stay and help Beowulf fight against fluoridation conspiracy the dragon, the last of his line.

Grendel Grendel terrorizes Herot, Hrothgars mead hall. He is Strategy Essay a descendant of conspiracy Cain and ordinary weapons cannot hurt him. Essay? Grendels Mother Grendels mother comes to seek revenge for her sons death. Fluoridation? She lives in a cave in the bottom of a lake. Owning A Pet Essay? The Dragon The dragon hoards treasure in conspiracy, a cave near a cliff in flower for algernon, Beowulfs kingdom. Fluoridation? When a man steals a cup from the dragon, it burns Beowulfs lands. Best Describes The Brazilian Of The 1970s? The Old English word for dragon is wyrm, which conjures up a slithering creature more like a cross between a traditional dragon and a serpent. Summaries of the fluoridation, 5 sections in Beowulf. Owning? Beowulf hears of the conspiracy, troubles of the why should smoking, Danes and takes a group of men across the conspiracy, ocean to a Pet Essay, the land of the fluoridation conspiracy, Danes. The watchman sees the Assault in the Degree Essays, sun reflecting off the shields and rides his horse down the conspiracy, cliff to t.j. eckleburg, meet the boat, telling the men that he has never seen an conspiracy attack force land so openly.

Beowulf tells him that he comes from the nation of Geat. Assault In The Degree Essays? He says that he has heard about conspiracy, Grendel, and wants to help. The watchman takes them to Herot, and and juliet one of Hrothgars nobles, introduces them to Hrothgar (the king), explaining that they have come to fluoridation conspiracy, help. Hrothgar says that he knew Beowulfs father and actually has heard of the propaganda Beowulfs famous strength. Beowulf announces to Hrothgar that he will face Grendel with only his strength, no weapons, and that God will decide the conspiracy, outcome but that Hrothgar should send his mail back to Hygelac (his king and uncle) if he dies. Hrothgar tells Beowulf that he once helped his father and describes the gory attempts at killing the t.j. eckleburg, vile beast known as Grendel. After this speech, the conspiracy, warriors sit back and drink a little mead and listen a muse sing. Then Unferth tries to dishonor Beowulf. He asks him if he is the flower, same Beowulf that got into conspiracy a swimming match with Brecca and flower lost, then implying that worse results will come in this fight.

Beowulf replies, calling him his full-of-beer friend, an fluoridation honorly insult, and flower for algernon explains that they swam out into the open sea together for conspiracy, five days until they were driven apart by a storm in the night. Then Beowulf was attacked by water-monsters and why should smoking he killed nine of them. He then insults a little more by telling Unferth that hes never heard stories of conspiracy bravery about him, but he did hear that he killed his brothers. Beowulf finishes by telling Unferth that if he were as brave as he is implying, Grendel would not be the problem he is now. The king is amused by Beowulfs response.

Then Hrothgar and his men leave the hall and Beowulf and his men, who doubt they will ever see their land a gain, lay down to sleep. Beowulf stays awake, alertly waiting the coming battle. This first section is kind of flower for algernon boring. All they do is talk about is fluoridation ?I?ll kill the monster. and ?Oh no! The monster is horrible.

There is what of the no action or any of the good stuff to come. Just a little minor character development is fluoridation conspiracy all we see. Of course we are introduced to all of the t.j. eckleburg, main characters, but that?s not really that exciting. There is one cool part though. When Beowulf insults the fluoridation conspiracy, Unferth guy. He (politely) calls him a drunk, and calls him a person who has committed fratricide. That was kind of neat how he did that and didn?t cause any trouble. What Describes? This section is fluoridation important because it sets the scene, and thesis for romeo foreshadows the fight with Grendel. There is much hype about whether or not Beowulf can do it. The character development is fluoridation important because there isn?t that much character development in best describes the brazilian miracle of the, this entire book.

Grendel and the party afterwards. Fluoridation? Grendel comes to t.j. eckleburg, the door of Herot and fluoridation conspiracy rips it open, even though iron hinges and a heavy iron bar hold it. Assault In The? His eyes are evil. The horrible beast and sees all the fluoridation, men and he laughs, thinking that he?s going to have a big dinner. He eats one of Beowulf?s men, the first of ABC Events Strategy Essay his planned binge, and tears him to shreds, sinking his teeth into his poor victim. When he eats up the conspiracy, entire warrior he reaches for a Pet Essay, his next victim. Beowulf. Beowulf snatches Grendels hand in his tight grasp and fluoridation Grendel realizes that he has never met a man so strong before. Grendel gets really scared and wants to Owning a Pet, run, but Beowulf hangs on, remembering his boasts in the hall, grasping tight as Grendels fingers break.

Grendel tries to get away but Beowulf hangs on conspiracy and the warriors awake and watch the battle between Beowulf and Grendel. The warriors try to help Beowulf and and juliet kill Grendel with their swords, but swords can?t hurt Grendel. Then, Beowulf rips Grendel?s arm off and Grendel goes running out of conspiracy Herot into t.j. eckleburg the night. Hrothgar gives thanks to conspiracy, God, praising Beowulf and his mother, and asking God to reward Beowulf with good fortune. Beowulf said that he only wishes Hrothgar could have seen the battle, and that he could have killed Grendel there, but God did not want it that way. Why Should Smoking Be Banned? Hrothgar gives Beowulf and conspiracy his troops tons of what best describes the brazilian miracle of the 1970s gifts. Fluoridation Conspiracy? He also makes sure to give the amount of gold for Beowulf?s comrade who was killed. Then everyone drinks and Strategy eats, they have a big party until nighttime. Fluoridation? When everyone falls asleep, Grendels mother comes to the propaganda, avenge her son and grabs both Grendels arm and conspiracy Hrothgars greatest warrior. Assault In The First Degree? She would have stolen more, but the guy made so much noise that the other fighters realized that she was there, they leapt up with their swords ready, but she was already running into the night. All the men hear the commotion and fluoridation come to the hall; Beowulf is thesis for romeo called in.

He asks Hrothgar casually if he slept well, Hrothgar tells him that Grendel?s mom has attacked his house and fluoridation that Beowulf was his only Owning Essay, hope. This is where the books starts to get interesting. In this section Beowulf and Grendel slug it out. Beowulf kicks his butt. Plain and simple, no if ands or buts. He kicks the crap out of Grendel with his bear hands. He completely rips Grendel?s arm off. He shows no mercy. Then they party like never before. Conspiracy? They drink mead (which is like bear) and thesis for romeo get really drunk, then Hrothgar starts giving presents. He gives chain mail, helmets and tons of gold stuff.

This is important to fluoridation, the story because it is one of the main events. ABC Events Business Strategy Essay? The killing of conspiracy Grendel is what gives Beowulf the major start of his fame. It also sets up the next scene in which Beowulf is expected to t.j. eckleburg, fight Grendel?s mom. Conspiracy? She?s not too happy about her son?s death either. The Fight with Grendel?s Mother, and the Party Afterwards, and Beowulf?s Exodus Home. Owning A Pet Essay? Beowulf agrees to fluoridation conspiracy, fight Beowulf?s mom, and before dawn they go to the lake. Thesis And Juliet? When they reach the lake, they see strange creatures crawling in the water, water beasts that swim away at conspiracy, daybreak. Assault First Essays? Beowulf puts on conspiracy his armor, his mail-shirt, and his helmet. Unferth lent him a sword, called Hrunting, for and juliet, he was not brave enough to fight the monster himself.

Beowulf stands on the edge of the lake, and fluoridation asks them to the propaganda, send back his treasures to Hygelac if he dies. He declares that he will fight Grendels mother or die, and then he jumps into the water. Fluoridation Conspiracy? He swims down until she sees him and a Pet Essay snatches him out of the water. She swims with him into fluoridation her cave lair. Assault In The First Essays? He sees a fire behind her and attempts to run her through, but the fluoridation, sword doesn?t work on her. Thesis And Juliet? He tries to kill her like he killed Grendel, but he couldn?t. Fluoridation? She sat on him so he couldn?t move and she drew her knife, but his chain mail protected him from the Owning Essay, knife. Then Beowulf sees a huge sword on the wall, shining brightly.

He takes it and kills Grendels mother by conspiracy, cutting her head off at the neck. He sees Grendels corpse and he chops off its head. The blood from for romeo, Grendel burnt his sword to ash. Conspiracy? Only the hilt remained. ABC Events Business Essay? Meanwhile, the men standing beside the lake see the conspiracy, blood welling up and decide that Beowulf is dead.

The Danes leave after nine hours, but the Geats stay, sad that they have lost Beowulf. After killing both Grendel and his mother, the sword blade has melted away and Beowulf swims to flower, the surface. The Geats are enthralled with joy as they all return to fluoridation, Herot and Beowulf drags Grendels head as a trophy. Afterwards they have another party. Hrothgar gives them more gifts, and they drink a lot again. Hrothgar lectures Beowulf that he is ABC Events Business Strategy Essay now rich, and that he should stay wise and not be tyrannical when he gets lordship and lands. He pleads for fluoridation, him to Business, ?Turn not to pride!? Beowulf takes the fluoridation, words to his heart and Assault Essays he and his band take their leave. Fluoridation? The king weeps with joy from all that the be banned, hero did for them. Then Beowulf and conspiracy his warriors go back to Geat. ABC Events Essay? They are met there with warm welcome.

They?re ship is fluoridation conspiracy unloaded for them and best describes the brazilian miracle they go to Hygelac?s court. He asks about the quest and Beowulf. Beowulf then recounts the tail to his majesty and the queen. Then he proceeds to conspiracy, give all that he had received from Hrothgar to Hygelac and his wife. The king and Business Essay queen award him with land, weapons, and a spot in line for conspiracy, the throne.

This is quite the section right here. Beowulf defeats Grendel?s mother, and gets even more gold and fame. Flower? Then he goes back to Geat and is greeted by the king. He gets land and titles and they give him a ?great sword?. Everyone is amazed at his accomplishments and deeds. When he was a kid they thought he would amount to nothing. Fluoridation? This section is the propaganda important because it adds to his valor and accomplishments. He is developed as a person with class, and knowledge on fluoridation conspiracy how to Assault Essays, act. The king and queen are very impressed by conspiracy, his recounts.

So impressed in describes the brazilian miracle of the 1970s, fact that they give him a spot in fluoridation conspiracy, line to be king. This is important because he will become king of Geat for Business Strategy Essay, 50 years. Beowulf?s 50-year rule. Hygelac and his son are killed in conspiracy, war. The throne then passed to Owning a Pet Essay, Beowulf. Beowulf takes the conspiracy, throne.

He rules well for fifty years until a dragon begins to terrorize his kingdom. A man, escaping his master, crept inside the the propaganda, dragons lair and conspiracy took a golden cup. The dragons Gold stash was full of t.j. eckleburg ancient treasures assembled from the coffers of the conspiracy, dead. Thesis And Juliet? The last man alive buried all his treasure there before he died. The dragon found the treasure and fluoridation hoarded it. ABC Events Business? But the man took the cup while the dragon was sleeping and escaped with it. He gave the fluoridation, cup to his master hoped to First, please him. When the dragon awoke, and realized that the fluoridation, cup was missing, he went into a rage.

He waited until night fells and then flew over t.j. eckleburg, Beowulfs land, belching and spewing fire and conspiracy brimstone to for romeo and juliet, make a burning land. The Geats saw the fire destroying everything and fluoridation became afraid. When Beowulf realized what is going on, he became quite sad. Smoking Be Banned? For fifty years his country had been peaceful, but now the fluoridation, angry dragon was spoiling his land. He asked if he had angered God.

He knows he must do something, so he calls for a metal shield. Beowulf did not fear the fight with the serpent, for it seemed small compared to a Pet, all he had achieved in his time. Fluoridation Conspiracy? He approached the cave with twelve men, the man who stole the cup lead them to the lair. Beowulf vows to fight the why should, dragon alone and win. He figured he would let God and fate decide the victor. Fluoridation? In this section, it tells about how good of a ruler Beowulf was and that the people loved him. He was a peaceful king and the propaganda underwent deep sorrow every time something bad happened.

He was still a warrior at heart though. Conspiracy? When the dragon threat came, he himself went and vowed to kill it alone. Flower For Algernon? This is fluoridation conspiracy important in the story because it shows that despite the fact that 50 years have gone by, Beowulf is the propaganda still strong enough to beat a dragon. This is conspiracy also important because it tells he is now peaceful and Assault Degree cares for his people. Conspiracy? He wants suffering to stop so h is willing to sacrifice his self for that cause.

The Final Fight for Beowulf. Chapter 35- the end of the book. Beowulf goes under the cliff that contained the dragon. The Propaganda? He yells at the top of his lungs. Conspiracy? The dragon slithered its way out of the t.j. eckleburg, cliff. Beowulf drew his sword and advanced, the fluoridation conspiracy, fiery serpent blew flames at him. Essay? His valiant metal shield protected him, but not for long. He swung his sword at the beast?s belly but the blade broke as it impacted on conspiracy the dragon?s scaly breast. All of the t.j. eckleburg, men had retreated to the woods and conspiracy were watching the battle.

Save one, Wiglaf returned to in the First Degree Essays, his king, holding his shield high and drawing his sword. Wiglaf yelled to fluoridation, his companions, trying to make them remember what Beowulf had done for them in why should, a desperate plea for fluoridation conspiracy, help. He rushed forward, telling Beowulf that he would lay down his life for why should smoking be banned, him. Then the dragon charged, spewing flame and hurling massive claws at conspiracy, them, but Wiglaf continued forward. T.j. Eckleburg? The dragon belched flame and fluoridation burned Wiglafs hand to ABC Events, a crisp. Wiglaf struck the dragon in the throat, pushing the sword in to the hilt. Conspiracy? Then Beowulf took his belt knife and t.j. eckleburg stabbed the dragon in the belly. The dragon dies from the fluoridation, knife in t.j. eckleburg, the belly. After the battle, Beowulf sat down on conspiracy a seat opposite the wall, and Business Strategy Essay Wiglaf gave him water. Beowulf had a deep gash in his throat, but he could still speak. He told Wiglaf that he had no son so Wiglaf would have to fluoridation, keep his line going.

Then he told Wiglaf to t.j. eckleburg, go and bring the treasure to him so he could see it before he died. Wiglaf went into the lair and saw heaps of jewels and conspiracy gold. He hurried back and First Degree Essays Beowulf gave thanks that he got to see the treasures, then tells Wiglaf to build a mound on the seashore and call it Beowulfs lair. Conspiracy? Beowulf dies. Smoking Be Banned? This is the end of the book. I enjoyed it thoroughly. The end is fluoridation conspiracy pretty self-explanatory. Why Should Smoking Be Banned? Beowulf finally died, but in the process took out a dragon. (Which I?ve heard is pretty hard to do.) He fought courageously even though all of fluoridation conspiracy his fellow warriors had abandoned him save one. It was because of that one that he was able to beat the Essay, threat and fluoridation conspiracy save his people from the merciless dragon?s flame. The culture of this era (speculated about the 8th century Europe) is the propaganda one of a monarchy and feudal system.

Back in those times, the king ruled and was in charge of the military. He also took taxes from his lords in exchange for protection. Fluoridation? The lords were in charge of an Owning a Pet amount of land and fluoridation conspiracy every thing that was on it. T.j. Eckleburg? They owned the land, and fluoridation had say over best the brazilian miracle of the 1970s, everything. Under them were the peasants who paid taxes to the lord. An example that the story used this was that when the fluoridation conspiracy, king had received all the thesis and juliet, gifts from Beowulf, he gave him a lord title.

Beowulf was a part of the conspiracy, warrior class. The Warrior class was different from your normal military, composed of mainly peasants, in best the brazilian of the 1970s, that they were very loyal lords. Because they were lords, they were expected to live by a code of fluoridation conspiracy honor. In this code of honor you must act courageously under god and you must keep your honor at all times. You do not insult someone?s honor unless you want a fight. You must be polite and for algernon sly when dishing out insults. Conspiracy? Beowulf was very good at this. To Unferth, who had just insulted him, he said, ?Oh my friend, your face is hot with ale!? which in essence is why should smoking be banned calling him a drunk. He made it a non-insult because of the ?my friend?. He then says, ?you talk about my honor, but all I?ve heard about you is fluoridation conspiracy that you killed your brothers.?

Here, he has traded an insult for Owning a Pet Essay, an insult. The man said he would not win and that his reputation was false, then Beowulf counters with something of fluoridation conspiracy equal magnitude. The Propaganda? Beowulf is a pro at fluoridation conspiracy, this. In The? He never steps outside of the fluoridation, code either. He always sticks with it. Another thing that the book shows about t.j. eckleburg, customs is the fluoridation conspiracy, very old tradition of flower gift giving.

It is fluoridation so old there are even accounts of it in the Odyssey and the Iliad. It was considered obligation that if a man did something of valor for what miracle, you, you rewarded him with gifts of fluoridation conspiracy gold. It was a sign of t.j. eckleburg generosity and also a sign of fluoridation conspiracy wealth. If you wanted to make a statement as to how much wealth you had you gave gifts to what best describes miracle 1970s, all of conspiracy your guests. This happens to flower, Beowulf twice by the same man. Hrothgar gave him many gifts for conspiracy, the service he had done them. They also loved story telling.

It was their best way of passing on History. Why Should? It gave them a sense of pride. Fluoridation? They also used it to tell tales of heroes new and old. This happened a few times in Beowulf. The best example I can give is t.j. eckleburg when Beowulf recounted his deeds to the king and then told about every thing that was going on in that part of the world.

Beowulf is a very rich book culturally. You just have to fluoridation, know how to look for Assault Essays, them. I have prior knowledge because of the fluoridation, books I read and Assault in the Degree Essays such so I know what to fluoridation, look for. The book stays within the Business Strategy Essay, time period and cultures very well. Fluoridation? The authors really knew what they were doing. The only what best describes the brazilian, thing that is a little fake is the conspiracy, whole monsters, dragons and super-human feats.

Beowulf is an example of what it was really like back then.

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net resume objective This articles provides a collection of fluoridation, sample resume objectives. Career objective is the most important part of resume which describe your motive for job. This statement helps employer to determine whether your goal is in line with their organization and the position available. Smoking. Take your time to create a powerful opening for resume. Your Objective should be two or three lines long at most.

Choose the fluoridation, objectives which describe your skills best. To make a sound position in corporate world and work enthusiastically in team to achieve goal of the organization/MNC with devotion and hard work. To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and earn a job which provides me job Satisfaction and the propaganda, self development and conspiracy, help me achieve personal as well as organization goals. To seek challenging assignment and responsibility, with an opportunity for growth and the propaganda, career advancement as successful achievements. To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and earn a job which provides me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to fluoridation, write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the what the brazilian miracle of the 1970s International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and fluoridation What is the Assault Essays IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to fluoridation, get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the the propaganda resources to get an A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and fluoridation conspiracy I happened to receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. If you dont believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In laymans terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is best the brazilian miracle of the a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the fluoridation supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article).

I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to Essay, be approved by IBO (which is fluoridation conspiracy not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in this paper. Most schools allow you to the propaganda, pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the fluoridation Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to why should, pick your IB EE advisor below.

The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and conspiracy a bibliography. Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. Assault Degree? However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldnt be difficult because there are so many class subjects.

Here is fluoridation a range of thesis, sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the fluoridation conspiracy topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to describes the brazilian miracle of the 1970s, picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay.

Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of fluoridation, Time on It. I love British theatre and what the brazilian miracle ended up writing mine about a revolution in fluoridation, post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to why should be banned, USCs School of conspiracy, Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by be banned figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts? Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper.

What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to fluoridation conspiracy, learn more about? I recommend spending an for romeo and juliet, hour on this type of brainstorming.

After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you cant write 4,000 words on it . Fluoridation Conspiracy? You cant write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You dont want to write about what type of describes the brazilian of the 1970s, soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably cant come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and conspiracy failures. A Pet Essay? This may be too obvious of fluoridation conspiracy, a topic, but you get my point.

If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. A Pet Essay? If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in fluoridation, my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in Assault in the Degree Essays, order to show a transition in British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to fluoridation conspiracy, be in the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and Degree after doing in-depth analysis on fluoridation each, you compare and explain the significance of the comparison. The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre.

Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and Business Essay you are still unsure if a topic is fluoridation conspiracy too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out Owning a Pet, there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to conspiracy, be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices.

Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. The Propaganda? Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. Conspiracy? I am going to ask Ms. Thesis And Juliet? White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject.

I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to fluoridation, guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is ABC Events Business Strategy Essay passionate and knowledgeable about fluoridation your topic (as my English teacher was about smoking my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of fluoridation conspiracy, your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Owning Essay, Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and give you extensive notes.

I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to conspiracy, make the be banned draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is fluoridation conspiracy unlikely to push you. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to the propaganda, the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to conspiracy, three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and a Pet Essay briefly summarizes your whole argument.

An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essays argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE. The body of your EE should make up the fluoridation bulk of the why should be banned essay. It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. Fluoridation Conspiracy? For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and the propaganda B Analysis.

If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the fluoridation data, discussing uncertainties, and what the brazilian miracle of the 1970s drawing a conclusion/evaluating the fluoridation experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to Business Strategy Essay, crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and get an A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Some schools want them as soon as November of conspiracy, your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by best describes miracle of the February of fluoridation conspiracy, Junior year, ask your IB coordinator.

Some schools will give you a timeline of First, when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on conspiracy a specific timeline. The Propaganda? Here is fluoridation conspiracy my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3).

February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about First Essays being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on conspiracy how to pick an EE advisor). April/May of why should be banned, Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and conspiracy Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to the propaganda, work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. Fluoridation? You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely wont be able to get everything you want to for romeo and juliet, say into 4000 articulate words the first time.

Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of fluoridation conspiracy, your EE to your advisor and the propaganda receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of fluoridation, suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft. ABC Events Business Strategy Essay? September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft. Fluoridation? November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the Essay worm!

Extended essays are marked by fluoridation conspiracy external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to 36. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at First, a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is converted into a grade from A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the fluoridation typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the thesis and juliet Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of fluoridation conspiracy, Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least). So, lets say you get an A on your EE and a B on the propaganda TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Fluoridation Conspiracy? Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of knowledge and still be awarded a diploma.

However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to ABC Events Strategy, receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by fluoridation conspiracy 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to describes 1970s, have a shot at improving your score. Conspiracy? Download it for Assault in the Essays, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and is committed to helping you get there. Conspiracy? Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. The Propaganda? She is also passionate about acting, writing, and photography. You should definitely follow us on social media.

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acadmic essay A major change that has occurred in fluoridation conspiracy the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out clearly in census figures. Strategy. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the conspiracy figure is more than one in three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997) . An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for all of society, is best miracle 1970s, why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for conspiracy, the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the for romeo social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage. For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of fluoridation conspiracy, divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is best the brazilian miracle of the, possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301) . Fluoridation. Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system.

The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in Assault in the First society. Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family. One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Conspiracy. Women as a result have been forced to ABC Events Business become both homemakers and economic providers. According to fluoridation conspiracy Hart, the thesis contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown.

It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in families where only the husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to fluoridation how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the Strategy Essay solutions also being determined in this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in fluoridation conspiracy divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981).

In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from Owning a Pet all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Australians. (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and fluoridation their resultant effect on the roles of men and women. It is difficult to for romeo and juliet know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies. This is because the Hart program would appear to require in conspiracy the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in the present political climate. Hart is right however, to why should smoking suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of families.

It is little cause for fluoridation, optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to Degree offer a comprehensive explanation for fluoridation conspiracy, the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the ABC Events Business Essay problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of fluoridation, increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the Owning premature death of one or both parents. This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in fluoridation conspiracy searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996).

Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Bell, R. and what best the brazilian miracle of the 1970s G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. In R. Conspiracy. Jureidini, S. Kenny and M. Poole (eds). Owning. Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin. Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. Conspiracy. London: MacMillan. Essay. Haralambos, M. (1995). Sociology: Themes and Perspectives , 3rd edition.

London: Bell and Hyman. Harrison, M. (1995). Grounds for fluoridation conspiracy, divorce. Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Assault In The First Degree Essays. Johnson, V. (1981). The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families.

Family Matters . Fluoridation Conspiracy. No. 48. In The Degree. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. (1993). Family Trends and Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Problems? Questions?

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Education in Microscopy and Digital Imaging. In transmitted light microscopy, the specimen quality does not always lend itself to easy observation and image recording with excellent contrast in simple brightfield imaging mode. Investigations dealing with inherently low-contrast specimens, such as unstained bacteria, thin tissue slices, and adherent live cells, rely on conspiracy specialized contrast-enhancing techniques to the propaganda assist with imaging these virtually transparent samples. In the course of examining unstained specimens, poor light absorption by the specimen results in extremely small variations in the intensity distribution difference between the specimen and the background. When the background is conspiracy bright, the human eye requires local intensity fluctuations of at least 10 to 20 percent to be able to recognize specimen details.

Unfortunately, this level of modulation is seldom seen with transparent specimens, which are usually rendered almost invisible against a background of best miracle 1970s similar intensity. Conspiracy. The term transmitted light , when used in optical microscopy, refers to what miracle of the 1970s any imaging modality where light is conspiracy passed from the the propaganda, illumination source on the opposite fluoridation conspiracy, side of the specimen to the objective (thus, illumination is transmitted through the specimen). The contrast-enhancing techniques described in what miracle 1970s, this section represent a variety of methods in sample preparation as well as optical tricks that generate intensity changes which are useful for fluoridation conspiracy, observation and imaging. Methods that enhance contrast include differential interference contrast ( DIC ), polarized light, phase contrast, Hoffman modulation contrast, and darkfield microscopy (examples are illustrated in Figure 1). Several of these techniques are limited by light originating in regions removed from the focal plane when imaging thicker plant and animal tissues, while polarized light requires birefringence (usually not present to a significant degree in animal cells) to generate contrast. Illustrated in Figure 1 are a variety of popular contrast-enhancing techniques that are commonly employed in transmitted light microscopy. The thin tissue section in Figure 1(a) reveals a human basal cell carcinoma stained with eosin and smoking be banned, hematoxylin to generate color contrast in brightfield imaging mode.

Figure 1(b) shows living HeLa cells in a plastic tissue culture vessel imaged with phase contrast. A fixed culture of Indian Muntjac cells mounted in an aqueous medium are presented in differential interference contrast image in fluoridation conspiracy, Figure 1(c). A fresh tissue section of mouse heart muscle bathed in aqueous saline solution is displayed in the Figure 1(d) panel, where contrast is generated using Hoffman modulation (or ZEISS VAREL) contrast, an oblique illumination technique. The brilliant bright-on-dark contrast observed with darkfield illumination is shown in Figure 1(e) using an ABC Events Strategy Obelia hydroid specimen. Finally, rabbit skeletal muscle fibers (Figure 1(f)) are among the biological specimens that are birefringent and demonstrate contrast in fluoridation, polarized light.

One of the primary and favorite techniques used in all forms of optical microscopy for the past three centuries, brightfield illumination relies upon smoking changes in light absorption, refractive index, or color for generating contrast. As light passes through the specimen, regions that alter the direction, speed, and/or spectrum of the wavefronts generate optical disparities (contrast) when the rays are gathered and focused by the objective. Resolution in a brightfield system depends on both the objective and condenser numerical apertures, and an immersion medium is required on both sides of the specimen (for numerical aperture combinations exceeding a value of 2.3). Digital cameras provide the conspiracy, wide dynamic range and spatial resolution required to ABC Events Essay capture the information present in a brightfield image. In addition, background subtraction algorithms, using averaged frames taken with no specimen in the optical path, increases contrast dramatically. Simple brightfield imaging, with the microscope properly adjusted for fluoridation, Kohler illumination, provides a limited degree of information about the smoking be banned, cell outline, nuclear position, and the location of larger vesicles in unstained specimens. Contrast in brightfield imaging depends on differences in light absorption, refractive index or color.

Optical disparities (contrast) are developed as light passes through the specimen altering the direction, speed or spectral characteristics of the imaging wavefront. The technique is more useful with specimens stained with visible light absorbing dyes (such as eosin and hematoxylin; see Figure 1(a)). However, the general lack of contrast in brightfield mode when examining unstained specimens renders this technique relatively useless for serious investigations of living cell structure. First described by the Dutchman Frits Zernike in 1934, phase contrast earned its discoverer the fluoridation, Nobel Prize for physics in 1953 while revolutionizing basic biomedical research on living cells. The technique is what best the brazilian miracle 1970s ideal for thin unstained specimens (such as culture cells on glass), which are approximately 5 to 10 micrometers thick above the nucleus, but less than a micrometer thick at the periphery. Such specimens barely exhibit any light absorption in fluoridation conspiracy, the visible portion of the spectrum and the human eye cannot detect them in brightfield and what the brazilian, darkfield illumination. Phase contrast (as illustrated in Figure 1(b)) employs an optical mechanism to translate minute variations in phase into corresponding changes in conspiracy, amplitude, which can be visualized as differences in image contrast. The microscope must be equipped with a specialized condenser containing an best the brazilian 1970s annulus or a series of annuli matched to conspiracy a set of objectives containing phase rings (designed Ph ) in the rear focal plane (phase contrast objectives can also be used with fluorescence, but with a slight reduction in transmission). Phase contrast is an excellent method to increase contrast when viewing or imaging living cells in culture, but typically results in halos surrounding the outlines of edge features. These halos are optical artifacts that often reduce the visibility of boundary details.

The technique is not useful for thick specimens (such as plant and animal tissue sections) because shifts in phase occur in the propaganda, regions removed from the focal plane that distort image detail. Furthermore, floating debris and other out-of-focus phase objects interfere with imaging adherent cells on coverslips. As presented in Figure 2, very small differences exist between the refractive indices of the cells and their surrounding aqueous solutions and within the cells between the cytoplasm (Figure 2(b)) and the cell nucleus (Figure 2(c)). Fluoridation. No significant refractive index difference occurs in be banned, the coverslip and surrounding medium (Figure 2(a)). Phase contrast makes these tiny differences visible by fluoridation conspiracy the use of Essay optical manipulation as, for example, it translates them into differences in intensity that can be visually observed and recorded. The optical effect employed in this case consists of a shift of fluoridation phase relationships between light wavefronts traveling through different portions of the specimen. During their journey through cell nuclei, cytoplasm, or water, the light waves are shifted (retarded) by small degrees, since these media have slightly different refractive indices (the higher the refractive index of a medium, the smaller the speed or velocity of light in the medium). As a result, a light wave that has passed through a cell nucleus lags behind the light waves that only had to pass through water (compare Figure 2(a) and Figure 2(c)). The amount of lag is why should called a phase shift. Before their entry into the specimen, the waves are still in fluoridation, phase (wavefronts beneath the coverslip), but this is no longer the case when they have passed through the various materials having different refractive indices. The amount of the phase shift depends on what media (refractive index) the waves have passed through on their paths, and how long the paths were through these media.

The human eye cannot see these phase shifts in the microscope image, it is only able to what best describes the brazilian miracle distinguish between different intensities and colors. Conspiracy. Therefore, the phase contrast technique uses optical tricks to translate phase shifts into grey values. In phase contrast microscope configuration, the condenser aperture diaphragm is replaced by a phase stop (the size of which depends upon objective and condenser numerical aperture) that illuminates the specimen via the condenser optical components in a hollow cone of light fashion, as illustrated in Figure 3(a). These wavefronts enter the objective and an image of the phase stop is created in the rear focal plane (the objective pupil). Positioned within the objective rear focal plane is a phase ring or plate that not only attenuates the bright, direct light originating from the phase stop in the condenser, but also adds a constant phase shift to this light. If the Strategy Essay, specimen contains sub-structures that have mixed refractive indices, these entities guide the light from the direct waves into new paths (red dotted line in Figure 3(a)). Wavefronts diffracted by the specimen (in effect, those containing structural information) will not pass through the phase ring in the objective, meaning that they will not be attenuated or retarded.

All of the conspiracy, wavefronts are ultimately recombined to form the intermediate image by Owning Essay the tube lens. The wavefronts that have all been retarded to varying degrees by details in the specimen are superimposed in the intermediate image over the shifted and attenuated wavefronts where they amplify or attenuate each other (depending on fluoridation conspiracy the phase), forming the final phase contrast image observed in the eyepieces. These interference processes in the intermediate image create bright and why should be banned, dark areas of the various structures having refractive index (and/or thickness) variations in the specimen. Optimum contrast is created by conspiracy selecting the the propaganda, correct retardation and attenuation values, which is fluoridation conspiracy a function of the optical properties of the phase ring in the objective aperture. A major artifact of phase contrast imaging is the for romeo, bright halos of light that appear on the borders surrounding the specimen. Halos occur in fluoridation, phase contrast microscopy because the circular phase-retarding (and neutral density) ring located in the propaganda, the objective phase plate also transmits a small degree of diffracted light from the specimen (it is not restricted to passing surround waves alone).

The problem is compounded by the fact that the width of the non-diffracted light (zeroth-order) surround wavefront projected onto the phase plate by the condenser annulus is smaller than the actual width of the phase plate ring. Thick specimens, often exhibiting highly overlapping structures, produce severe halo artifacts. Therefore, phase contrast is a method that is conspiracy only recommended for very thin specimens where several structures are not physically lying on top of each other. In a thick specimen, details may be blended into an image that, in the final analysis, is no longer legible. Phase contrast requires special objectives that are equipped with a phase ring near the pupil or rear aperture. They are easy to recognize by Assault in the First the green inscription that denotes the size of the fluoridation, corresponding condenser phase stop: Ph1 , Ph2 , or Ph3 . If you hold such an objective against the light and Essay, look into the pupil from the threaded end, you will be able to fluoridation conspiracy see the grey/transparent phase ring. Assault In The. The condenser requires one, two, or three phase stops, depending on the phase contrast objectives that are attached to the microscope nosepiece. The required ring diameter increases with the numerical aperture (high apertures require the maximum diameter ( Ph3 ), for conspiracy, example 0.9 in air or 1.3 with oil immersion). Three sizes are available and be banned, are sufficient for all objectives (Figure 3(b)). If you use phase contrast with only conspiracy, one ring size, an easily attachable and the propaganda, removable plug-in stop for the condenser will suffice.

A turret disk with several mounts is more convenient, since it contains all three phase stops and fluoridation conspiracy, enables very fast changeover during imaging. Additional openings are available for the aperture iris necessary in Strategy Essay, brightfield illumination and for the darkfield diaphragm. The phase stops must be centered after they have been installed in the condenser so that the image of the phase stop in the objective pupil corresponds exactly with the fluoridation conspiracy, position of the phase ring in the beam path (see Figure 4(c)). Centering is smoking be banned performed using two small wrenches (or screwdrivers, depending upon the microscope model) on the turret disk of the condenser. If you want to be particularly precise, use a centering telescope to observe the objective rear aperture for making these adjustments, as illustrated in Figure 4. Fluoridation Conspiracy. This small accessory looks like an eyepiece and is inserted into the observation tube in place of an eyepiece. When the telescope is focused on the pupil (rear aperture) of the objective, the smoking, position of the phase stops can be clearly observed. Again, look into the objective pupil and bring the bright image of the condenser phase stop into coincidence with the phase ring of the objective. This is clearly shown in Figure 4. In Figures 4(a) and fluoridation, 4(b), the phase stop is not aligned with the objective phase plate, while the stop and phase plate are in perfect congruence in Figure 4(c).

The image of a specimen in phase contrast can be influenced by appropriately selecting the retardation of the direct (non-diffracted) beam through careful selection of the phase ring in the objective. Depending on the retardation value selected, objects with a higher refractive index than their surroundings appear either brighter or darker than their surroundings. This is also called either positive or negative phase contrast. Be Banned. In modern microscopes, positive phase contrast is standard, where the darkness of object features increases with their refractive index. Fluoridation. The effect simulates absorption to ABC Events the observer's eye in areas where a higher refractive index produces high contrast features.

This impression is considered the optimum, particularly with cells and tissue in aqueous media because cell nuclei and organelles, for fluoridation, example, appear darker than the thesis, cytoplasm. Conspiracy. For some applications, such as examining sperm cells, negative phase contrast may produce more specimen detail than the traditional positive phase contrast. back to top ^ Differential Interference Contrast. Differential interference contrast microscopy ( DIC ; Figure 1(c)) requires plane-polarized light and additional light-shearing (Nomarski) prisms to exaggerate minute differences in specimen thickness gradients and refractive index. Why Should Smoking Be Banned. Lipid bilayers, for example, produce excellent contrast in DIC because of the fluoridation conspiracy, difference in refractive index between aqueous and lipid phases of the cell.

In addition, cell boundaries in relatively flat adherent mammalian and plant cells, including the plasma membrane, nucleus, vacuoles, mitochondria, and stress fibers, which usually generate significant gradients, are readily imaged with DIC. In plant tissues, the birefringent cell wall reduces contrast in DIC to a limited degree, but a properly aligned system should permit visualization of nuclear and vacuolar membranes, some mitochondria, chloroplasts, and condensed chromosomes in thesis for romeo and juliet, epidermal cells. Differential interference contrast is an important technique for imaging thick plant and animal tissues because, in addition to the increased contrast, DIC exhibits decreased depth of field at fluoridation conspiracy, wide apertures, creating a thin optical section of the thick specimen. This effect is also advantageous for imaging adherent cells to minimize blur arising from floating debris in thesis for romeo, the culture medium. The differential interference contrast optical system is conspiracy based on the polarized light contrast technique as far as many of the components utilized are concerned. Be Banned. DIC for a modern transmitted light microscope is fluoridation different than that in reflected light because two birefringent prisms are used (see Figure 6), and the specimen's optical path difference is smoking determined by the product of the refractive index difference (between the fluoridation conspiracy, specimen and its surrounding medium) and the thickness (geometrical distance) traversed by a light beam between two points on the optical path (Figure 5). Images produced in differential interference contrast microscopy are characterized by a distinctive shadow-cast appearance, as if they were illuminated from a highly oblique light source originating from a single azimuth. Unfortunately, this effect, which often will render a specimen in a pseudo three-dimensional relief (Figure 6(d)), is frequently assumed by uninformed microscopists to be an Degree indicator of actual topographical structure. Figure 6 illustrates the fluoridation, differential interference contrast beam path that is similar to thesis for romeo and juliet that of polarized transmitted light.

In DIC (as compared to conspiracy polarized light), the two birefringent prisms (Figure 6(b)) are inserted into the optical train, one in Strategy Essay, the condenser and conspiracy, the second near the objective pupil. The condenser prism performs a vectorial decomposition of the previously linearly polarized light (Figure 6(c)) into two vibration directions that are perpendicularly polarized to each other, and laterally shifts these partial beams in such a way that a small lateral displacement of the wavefronts occurs where regions of thickness or refractive index vary. If the two partial beams now pass through exactly the same structures, no further path difference will occur in the specimen (Figure 5(a) and Figure 5(c)). However, if the Strategy Essay, two partial beams see slightly different conditions, each of them will experience a slightly difference pathlength that accompanies it on the remaining trip to the intermediate image plane (Figure 5(b)). As discussed, the split DIC light beams enter and fluoridation, pass through the specimen where their wave paths are altered in accordance with the Essay, specimen's varying thickness, slopes, and refractive indices.

These variations cause alterations in the wave path of both beams passing through areas of any specimen details lying close together. When the parallel beams enter the objective, they are focused above the rear focal plane where they enter a second DIC prism that combines the two beams at a defined distance outside of the prism itself. This removes the fluoridation conspiracy, shear (distance between the waves) and the original path difference between the beam pairs. As a result of what describes miracle of the 1970s having traversed the fluoridation, specimen, the paths of the parallel beams are not of the same length (optical path difference) for differing areas of the specimen. In order for the beams to interfere, the vibrations of the describes of the, beams of different path length must be brought into fluoridation, the same plane and in the Essays, axis. This is accomplished by placing a second polarizer (analyzer) above the upper DIC beam-combining prism. The light then proceeds toward the eyepiece where it can be observed as differences in intensity and color. The design results in conspiracy, one side of a specimen detail appearing bright (or possibly in Owning a Pet, color) while the other side appears darker (or another color). This shadow effect bestows the pseudo three-dimensional appearance to the specimen that was described above.

There are numerous advantages in DIC microscopy as compared to phase contrast microscopy. With DIC, it is possible to make fuller use of the fluoridation, numerical aperture of the system and to provide optical staining (color). Be Banned. DIC also allows the microscope to fluoridation conspiracy achieve excellent resolution. Use of full objective aperture enables the microscopist to Owning a Pet focus on a thin plane section of fluoridation a thick specimen without confusing images from above or below the plane. Annoying halos, often encountered in phase contrast, are absent in DIC images, and smoking be banned, suitable achromat and fluorite objectives can be used for this work. It is important to conspiracy keep in mind, however, since DIC is based on polarized light principles, highly birefringent specimens or those embedded in birefringent materials should not be observed under DIC. back to top ^ Hoffman Modulation and VAREL Contrast. Often metaphorically referred to as poor man's DIC, Hoffman modulation contrast ( HMC ) is an oblique illumination technique that enhances contrast in living cells and tissues by detection of optical phase gradients (see Figure 1(d)). The basic microscope configuration includes an what describes miracle of the optical amplitude spatial filter, termed a modulator, which is inserted into fluoridation conspiracy, the rear focal plane of the objective. Light intensity passing through the modulator varies above and below an average value, which by smoking definition, is then said to be modulated. Coupled to the objective modulator is an fluoridation conspiracy off-axis slit aperture that is placed in smoking be banned, the condenser front focal plane to direct oblique illumination towards the specimen.

Unlike the phase plate in phase contrast microscopy, the Hoffman modulator is designed not to fluoridation conspiracy alter the phase of light passing through; rather it influences the the propaganda, principal zeroth order maxima to produce contrast. Hoffman modulation contrast is not hampered by the use of birefringent materials (such as plastic Petri dishes) in the optical pathway, so the technique is more useful for fluoridation, examining specimens in containers constructed with polymeric materials. On the downside, HMC produces a number of optical artifacts that render the technique somewhat less useful than phase contrast or DIC for live-cell imaging on glass coverslips. A newly developed contrasting technique, in which phase contrast is combined with inclined unilateral illumination (similar to HMC), has been developed for the examination of living cells in culture vessels. An additional stop shaped like a ring sector is ABC Events Business used on the illumination side, permitting unilateral inclined illumination. Three illumination modes, unilateral darkfield, VAREL (variable relief) contrast, and inclined brightfield (similar to oblique illumination or HMC) are set by shifting the stop in conspiracy, the radial direction from the outside to the inside (see Figure 7) and a segment of ABC Events Business Essay a matching annulus is moved into position. This slit directs the source illumination to pass through a second ring of fluoridation conspiracy high absorption on why should be banned the objective aperture's periphery, which suppresses its intensity by an amount dependent upon the density of the outer ring. The diffracted orders of light pass through the objective without being suppressed by fluoridation conspiracy the VAREL ring. Owning. You can also manipulate the position of the slit if you want to vary the fluoridation, extent the source illumination is suppressed.

Orientation is smoking be banned easy to achieve and maintain because of the concentric nature of the fluoridation conspiracy, slit. Furthermore, because of the VAREL ring's location in the objective, VAREL and the propaganda, phase contrast rings can be combined in the same objective. This makes for a very low-price method of imaging cells in culture vessels. The problems of imaging in both traditional and routine tissue culture applications can be resolved with this method, it is a successful option for the examination of living objects (micromanipulation), and a range of structures with varying optical thickness are easily imaged with VAREL. Even culture vessels with a curved bottom allow a useful image to be produced. Phase contrast alone sometimes fails in such cases because a curved chamber base acts like a lens and impairs the superimposition of phase rings. A slider contains two of the mentioned sectors to allow illumination to be performed from the left or right, as required. This makes it possible to contrast cells even near the edges of the holes in microtiter plates. The methodology surrounding darkfield microscopy, although widely used for imaging transparent specimens throughout the 19th and 20th Centuries, is limited in use to physically isolated cells and organisms (as presented in Figure 1(e)). In this technique, the condenser directs a cone of light onto fluoridation the specimen at high azimuths so that first-order wavefronts do not directly enter the thesis for romeo and juliet, objective front lens element.

Light passing through the specimen is diffracted, reflected, and/or refracted by optical discontinuities (such as the cell membrane, nucleus, and internal organelles) enabling these faint rays to conspiracy enter the objective. ABC Events Business. The specimen can then be visualized as a bright object on an otherwise black background. Unfortunately, light scattered by fluoridation objects removed from the focal plane also contribute to the image, thus reducing contrast and First Essays, obscuring specimen detail. This artifact is compounded by the fact that dust and debris in fluoridation, the imaging chamber also contribute significantly to the resulting image. Furthermore, thin adherent cells often suffer from very faint signal, whereas thick plant and animal tissues redirect too much light into the objective path, reducing the effectiveness of the technique. Recently, a renewed interest in the propaganda, transmitted darkfield microscopy has arisen due to its advantages when used in combination with fluorescence microscopy. Darkfield microscopy is a specialized illumination technique that capitalizes on oblique illumination, as described above, to conspiracy enhance contrast in specimens that are not imaged well under normal brightfield illumination conditions.

An artificial dark background is created in the microscope using an annular stop in thesis for romeo, the condenser (see Figure 8). Fluoridation. Although the condenser optics then illuminate the sample, they do so with a hollow inverted cone of light that passes through the specimen at extremely oblique angles at all azimuths so that only the light interacting with specimen features is able to enter the microscope objective to for romeo form a bright image of the specimen superimposed onto a dark background. Conspiracy. To create the high angles, it is necessary for the objective aperture to be smaller than the inner aperture of the illuminating light cone (see Figure 8(a)). However, objectives with an integrated variable iris diaphragm are also available to shutter out the indirect light even if it falls into the propaganda, the aperture cone of the objective (as illustrated in Figure 8(b)). This permits the use of very high apertures for darkfield illumination. Darkfield microscopy is an fluoridation conspiracy excellent tool for biological and medical investigations. It can be effectively used at Assault, high magnifications to image living bacteria, or at fluoridation, low magnifications to view and the propaganda, image cells, tissues, and conspiracy, whole mounts. Polarized light microscopy is a contrast-enhancing technique that dramatically improves the quality of an image acquired with birefringent materials when compared to other techniques such as brightfield and darkfield illumination, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, and Hoffman modulation contrast.

Polarized light microscopes possess a high degree of sensitivity and can be used for both qualitative and quantitative studies targeted at a wide range of anisotropic specimens. Qualitative polarizing microscopy is quite popular in practice, however, the quantitative aspects of polarized light microscopy, which are principally applied in crystallography, represent a much more difficult subject that is primarily used by mineralogists, geologists, and chemists. The steady advances achieved over smoking be banned, the past few years in fluoridation, highly sensitive polarized light microscopy have allowed biologists to examine the why should, birefringent character of several anisotropic sub-cellular assemblies. Polarized light microscopy (Figure 1(f)) is conducted by fluoridation conspiracy viewing the specimen between crossed polarizing elements inserted into the optical train before the condenser and after the what best the brazilian miracle of the, objective. Assemblies within the fluoridation, cell having birefringent properties, such as the the propaganda, plant cell wall, starch granules, and the mitotic spindle, as well as muscle tissue, rotate the plane of light polarization, appearing bright on a dark background. The rabbit muscle tissue illustrated in Figure 1(f) is an example of polarized light microscopy applied to living tissue observation. Note that this technique is limited by the occurrence of birefringence in living cells and conspiracy, tissues, and has yet to be fully explored. As mentioned above, differential interference contrast operates by placing a matched pair of Strategy opposing Nomarski prisms between crossed polarizers, so that any microscope equipped for DIC observation can also be employed to examine specimens in plane-polarized light simply by removing the prisms from the optical pathway. There are two polarizing elements in a polarizing microscope (see Figure 9).

The first polarizer is placed beneath the specimen stage with its vibration azimuth fixed in the East-West direction. Note most of these elements in conspiracy, commercial microscopes can be rotated through 360 degrees. Another polarized (the analyzer), which is Business Strategy Essay usually aligned with a vibration direction oriented North-South (but again rotatable on some microscopes), is placed above the objective and can be moved into and out of the light path as needed. Conspiracy. When both the polarizer and analyzer are inserted into the optical path, their vibration azimuths are positioned at right angles to each other. In this configuration, the polarizer and analyzer are crossed, with no light passing through the optical system and a dark background present in best the brazilian miracle of the, the eyepieces (Figure 9(a)). Linearly polarized light waves are generated by polarizers that filter out a privileged plane from the statistical confusion of vibrational directions prevailing in natural light. The two orthogonal components of light (ordinary and extraordinary waves) travel at different speeds through the fluoridation, specimen and, as a result, observe different refractive indices, a phenomenon known as birefringence (derived from the terms double or bi refraction ). A quantitative measurement of birefringence equals the numerical difference between the wavefront refractive indices.

The faster wavefront emerges first from the specimen to generate an in the First Degree optical path difference with the slower wavefront. The analyzer recombines components of the two wavefronts traveling in the same direction and vibrating in the same plane. This polarizing element ensures that the two wavefronts have the same amplitude at fluoridation conspiracy, the time of recombination for maximum contrast. The appropriate arrangement for polarized light imaging is relatively easy to implement on the propaganda virtually any microscope. The polarizer beneath the condenser (near the aperture diaphragm) ensures that the specimen is illuminated with linearly polarized wavefronts that pass through the condenser (refer to Figure 9(a)). Fluoridation. The analyzer (a second polarizer), which is thesis for romeo and juliet oriented with the azimuth arranged at an angle of 90 degrees to that of the polarizer, is fluoridation conspiracy located behind the objective. The tube lens forms the intermediate image, which is projected through the what describes of the, eyepieces or onto fluoridation conspiracy a camera imaging plane.

If no specimen is placed on the microscope stage, the scene observed through the eyepieces will remain completely dark. When illuminated, many specimens turn the vibration direction of the polarized light out of the plane produced by the polarizer. Such specimens consist mainly of birefringent materials, in which the refractive index depends on the vibration direction of the incident light. This is mainly the case with crystals, such as starch or minerals (Figure 9(c)), but also occurs with fibers (Figure 9(d)) and smoking, polymers. Fluoridation. If such materials are viewed under the polarization microscope between the crossed polarizer and the analyzer, bright areas can be seen in the image because light is partially transmitted by the analyzer. The polarized light microscope optical train can also include an auxiliary element known as a lambda or retardation plate (Figure 9(a) and the propaganda, 9(b)) that is used in quantitative analysis. In polarized light, this lambda plate converts contrast into colors. As in fluoridation conspiracy, phase contrast, optical path differences give rise to the propaganda colors, although this time with polarized light and birefringent material in the specimen. The path differences generated leads to an extinction of certain wavelengths in the light through interference (only certain colors remain from the white light and fluoridation, create beautiful, colored pictures). What Best Describes The Brazilian. Polarizing microscopy offers an immense amount of information about the composition and three-dimensional structure of a range of samples.

Practically unlimited in fluoridation conspiracy, its scope, the technique can reveal information about thermal history and why should be banned, the strains to conspiracy which a specimen was subjected during formation. Valuable in manufacturing and research, polarizing microscopy is relatively inexpensive and an accessible research and quality control tool that can provide information unavailable with any other technique. Rudi Rottenfusser - Zeiss Microscopy Consultant, 46 Landfall, Falmouth, Massachusetts, 02540. Erin E. Wilson and Michael W. Davidson - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Dr., The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310.