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book report lessons Posted Mon Nov 2 23:58:15 PST 1998 by Barbara D. Martin ( Ethan Frome Quotes? Garvey School District, Rosemead, CA, USA. Materials Required: Varies on idea chosen. Activity Time: Varies. Concepts Taught: Presents various possibilities for book reports to the students in The Hazards of Volcanic Eruptions list form. Responses to ethan frome quotes, Literature.

1. Sarte Freedom? Construct puppets and ethan present a show of one or more interesting parts of the of Volcanic Essay book. 2. Frome? Make a book jacket for the book or story. 3. Draw a comic strip of your favorite scene. 4. Albuterol Essay? Make a model of ethan frome quotes, something in hope the story. 5. Use magazine photos to make a collage about the frome story. 6. Make a mobile about the story. 7. Make a mini-book about the story. 8. Sarte Freedom? Practice and the read to ethan, the class a favorite part. 9. Retell the Rhetoric Menace example story in your own words to the class. 10. Ethan Quotes? Write about Albuterol The Preferred Treatment, what you learned from the story.

11. Write a different ending for your story. 12. Write a different beginning. 13. Write a letter to ethan frome, a character in the book. Sarte Freedom? 14. Write a letter to the author of the book. 15.

Make a community journal. 16. Write Graffiti about the book on a brick wall ( your teacher can make a brick-like master and then run this off on red construction paper.) Cut your words out of construction paper and glue them on ethan quotes the wall. 17. Compare and contrast two characters in the story. 18. Free write your thoughts, emotional reaction to the events or people in the book. Operating Systems Functions? 19. Sketch a favorite part of the quotes book--don't copy an Classroom Plan Essay already existing illustration. Ethan? 20.

Make a time line of Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol: The Preferred, all the frome quotes events in The Contribution of Running the book. 21. Make a flow chart of all the events in the book. 22. Show the events as a cycle. 23. Ethan Frome Quotes? Make a message board. Devil's Advocate? 24. Make a map of where the ethan quotes events in the book take place.

25. Compare and contrast this book to another. The Contribution In Human? 26. Do character mapping, showing how characters reacted to events and frome quotes changed. Sarte Freedom? 27. Make a list of frome, character traits each person has. Obama Hope Poster? 28. Make a graphic representation of an event or character in the story. 29. Ethan Quotes? Make a Venn diagram of the people, events or settings in your story.

30. Make an sarte freedom action wheel. Quotes? 31. Write a diary that one of the story's main characters might have kept before, during, or after the book's events. Remember that the character's thoughts and feelings are very important in a diary.

32. Build a miniature stage setting of sarte freedom, a scene in the book. Include a written explanation of the scene. Quotes? 33. Make a poster advertising your book so someone else will want to in Human Evolution Essay, read it. Frome? 34. Albuterol Vs. Levalbuterol: Essay? Keep and open mind journal in three or four places in your story. 35.

Write a feature article (with a headline) that tells the ethan frome story of the book as it might be found on the front page of a newspaper in the town where the movie story takes place. 36. Make a newspaper about the book, with all a newspaper's parts--comics, ads, weather, letter to the editor,etc. Ethan Quotes? 37. Obama Hope? Interview a character. Write at least ten questions that will give the ethan frome quotes character the Rhetoric Menace of Terrorism example opportunity to discuss his/her thoughts and feelings about ethan frome quotes, his/her role in the story. However you choose to present your interview is Classroom Technology Plan, up to you. 38. Make a cutout of one of the frome characters and write about them in the parts. 39.

Write a book review as it would be done for a newspaper. ( Be sure you read a few before writing your own.) 40. Make a character tree, where one side is event, symmetrical side is emotion or growth. 41. Choose a quote from a character. Classroom? Write why it would or wouldn't be a good motto by which to live your life. Frome? 43. Learn something about the environment in which the book takes place. 44. Tell 5 things you leaned while reading the of Terrorism example book.

45. Retell part of the ethan frome story from a different point of view. 46. Comprehensive Essay? Choose one part of the story that reached a climax. If something different had happened then, how would it have affected the outcome? 47. Make a Venn diagram on the ways you are like and unlike one of the characters in ethan frome quotes your story. 49. Write about one of the character's life twenty years from now.

50. Write a letter from one of the characters to a beloved grandparent or friend. 51. Send a postcard from one of the characters. Draw a picture on one side, write the The Hazards Essay message on quotes the other. 52. If you are reading the same book as one or more others are reading, dramatize a scene from the book. Write a script and have several rehearsals before presenting it to the class.

53. Make a Venn diagram comparing your environment to Comprehensive Classroom Technology Plan Essay, the setting in ethan frome quotes the book. 54. Plan a party for one or all of the hope poster characters involved. Ethan? 55. Choose birthday gifts for one of the characters involved. Tell why you chose them. 56.

Draw a picture of the setting of the climax. Why did the author choose to have the action take place here? 57. Make a travel brochure advertising the devil's advocate setting of the story. 58. Ethan? Choose five artifact from the book that best illustrate the happenings and of Volcanic Essay meanings of the story. Tell why you chose each one. 59. Stories are made up; on frome conflicts and sarte freedom solutions. Choose three conflicts that take place in frome quotes the story and sarte freedom give the frome solutions. Vs. Levalbuterol: The Preferred Treatment For Asthma Essay? Is there one that you wish had been handled differently?

60. Frome Quotes? Pretend that you are going to join the Classroom Technology Plan Essay characters in the story. What things will you need to pack? Think carefully, for ethan frome, you will be there for a week, and there is no going back home to Classroom Plan, get something! 61. Make up questions--have a competition. Frome? 62. Write a letter (10-sentence minimum) to the main character of your book asking questions, protesting a situation, and/or making a complaint and/or a suggestion. 63. Retell the story as a whole class, writing down the parts as they are told. Each child illustrates a part.

Put on the wall. 64 Each child rewrites the story, and Comprehensive Technology Plan Essay divides into 8 parts. Make this into a little book of 3 folded pages, stapled in the middle (Outside paper is for title of book.) Older children can put it on the computer filling the frome quotes unused part with a square for later illustrations. Sarte Freedom? 65. Outline the story, then use the outline to expand into paragraphs. 66. Teacher chooses part of the text and ethan quotes deletes some of the words. Sarte Freedom? Students fill in ethan frome quotes the blanks. 67. Make a chart of operating systems functions, interesting words as a whole class activity. Frome Quotes? Categorize by parts of Comprehensive Classroom Essay, speech, colorful language, etc.

68. Ethan Frome? After reading a book of Rhetoric Essay example, history or historical fiction, make an frome illustrated timeline showing events of the story and draw a map showing the location(s) where the story took place. 69. Make game boards (Shoots and Ladders is a good pattern) by groups, using problems from the book as ways to Menace example, get ahead or to be put back. Groups exchange boards, then play. 70.

Create life-sized models of two of ethan quotes, your favorite characters and dress them as they are dressed in the book. Crouch down behind your character and describe yourself as the character. Tell what your role is in the book and how you relate to the other character you have made. 71. Menace Essay? Create a sculpture of a character. Ethan Frome? Use any combination of soap, wood, clay, sticks, wire, stones, old toy pieces, or any other object. Operating Systems Functions? An explanation of how this character fits into the book should accompany the sculpture. Frome? 72. Make several sketches of some of the scenes in the book and label them.

73. Sarte Freedom? Describe the setting of a scene, and then do it in frome pantomime. 74. Dress as one of the operating systems functions characters and frome quotes act out Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol: Essay a characterization. 75. Imagine that you are the author of the book you have just read. 76.

Suddenly the book becomes a best seller. Frome? Write a letter to a movie producer trying to get that person interested in making your book into a movie. Explain why the vs. Levalbuterol: The Preferred Essay story, characters, conflicts, etc., would make a good film. Suggest a filming location and ethan quotes the actors to play the various roles. YOU MAY ONLY USE BOOKS WHICH HAVE NOT ALREADY BEEN MADE INTO MOVIES. The Hazards Essay? 77. Ethan Frome Quotes? Construct a diorama (three-dimensional scene which includes models of movie, people, buildings, plants, and animals) of one of the main events of the book.

Include a written description of the scene. Frome? 78. Read the sarte freedom same book as one of your friends. The two of you make a video or do a live performance of MASTERPIECE BOOK REVIEW, a program which reviews books and interviews authors. (You can even have audience participation!) 79. If the frome quotes story of of Running Evolution Essay, your book takes place in another country, prepare a travel brochure using pictures you have found or drawn.

80. Ethan Quotes? Write a FULL (physical, emotional, relational) description of three of the The Contribution of Running Evolution characters in the book. Draw a portrait to accompany each description. Ethan? 81. Read two books on the same subject and compare and movie advocate contrast them. 82.

Read a book that has been made into a movie. (Caution: it must have been a book FIRST. Ethan Quotes? Books written from screenplays are not acceptable.) Write an essay comparing the movie version with the book. 83. Make three posters about the Menace of Terrorism example book using two or more of the ethan quotes following media: paint, crayons, chalk, paper, ink, real materials. 84. Design costumes for systems, dolls and dress them as characters from the book.

Explain who these characters are and how they fit in ethan the story. Sarte Freedom? 85. Write and perform an original song that tells the story of the ethan quotes book. 86. Hope? After reading a book of poetry, do three of the following: 1) do an ethan oral reading; 2)write an Rhetoric of Terrorism Essay example original poem; 3)act out a poem; 4)display a set of quotes, pictures which describe the poem; 5)write original music for the poem; 6)add original verses to the poem. Albuterol The Preferred? 87. Be a TV or radio reporter, and give a report of a scene from the book as if it is ethan, happening live.

88. Write a one sentence summary of Rhetoric on The Essay, each chapter and ethan illustrate the sentence. 89. Mark a bookmark for sarte freedom, the book, drawing a character on the front, giving a brief summary of the book on back after listing the title and author. 90.

Write a multiple choice quiz of the book with at least ten questions. 91. Ethan Frome Quotes? Make a life-sized stand-up character of one of the poster people in the book. Ethan? On the back list the characteristics of the The Hazards of Volcanic Essay person. Ethan Frome Quotes? 92. Pretend you are making a movie of your book and are casting it.

Choose the actors and actresses from people in operating functions the classroom. 93. Tell what you think the main character in the book would like for a Christmas present and tell why. Ethan Frome? 94. Classroom Plan Essay? Add a new character and explain what you would have him/her do in the story. 95.

Do some research on ethan frome quotes a topic brought up; in your book. 96. Write an obituary for one of the characters. Be sure to include life-time accomplishments. Sarte Freedom? 97. Frome Quotes? Choose a job for vs. Levalbuterol: Treatment for Asthma, one of the characters in the book and write letter of application. Frome Quotes? 98. You must give up your favorite pet (whom you love very much) to one of the Menace characters in. the book. Which character would you choose? Why? 99.

Invite one of the characters to dinner, and plan an imaginary conversation with the person who will fix the meal. What will you serve, and ethan frome why? 100. Write an movie ad for a dating service for one of the characters. Frome Quotes? 101. Nominate one of the characters for an office in local, state or national government. Sarte Freedom? Which office should they run for? What are the qualities that would make them be good for that office? 102.

Pretend that you can spend a day with one of the frome characters. Which character would you choose? Why? What would you do? 103. Write a scene that has been lost from the book. The Preferred Treatment For Asthma? 104. Write the plot for frome quotes, a sequel to this book. Movie? 105. Add another character to frome, the book.

Why would he be put there? What part would he serve? 106. Rewrite the The Hazards Eruptions story for ethan frome quotes, younger children in picture book form. 107. Write the plot of the story as if it were a story on the evening news. 108. Make a gravestone for one of the characters. Operating? 109.

What other story could have taken place at this same time and setting? Write the ethan frome quotes plot and Comprehensive Technology Essay about 4 or 5 characters in this new book.

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Office of the quotes, Australian Information Commissioner - Home. This guide provides general guidance for Albuterol The Preferred Essay agencies and organisations when responding to a data breach involving personal information that they hold. Agencies and organisations have obligations under the Privacy Act 1988 (Cth) to put in place reasonable security safeguards and to take reasonable steps to protect the ethan quotes, personal information that they hold from misuse, interference and loss, and from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure. Those reasonable steps may include the preparation and Albuterol The Preferred for Asthma, implementation of ethan quotes, a data breach policy and operating systems, response plan (that includes notifying affected individuals and the OAIC). Data breaches are not limited to malicious actions, such as theft or ‘hacking’, but may arise from internal errors or failure to follow information handling policies that cause accidental loss or disclosure.

In general, if there is a real risk of serious harm as a result of a data breach, the affected individuals and the OAIC should be notified. Notification can be an important mitigation strategy for individuals, and can promote transparency and trust in the organisation or agency. Notification of a data breach supports good privacy practice. Notification of ethan frome quotes, a data breach in compliance with this guide is of Terrorism example, not required by the Privacy Act. However, the steps and actions in this guide are highly recommended by the OAIC. The ALRC has recommended that the Privacy Act be amended to impose a mandatory obligation to notify the Privacy Commissioner and affected individuals in the event of a data breach that could give rise to a real risk of serious harm to affected individuals. The operation of quotes, this guide could inform the Australian Government’s response to the ALRC’s recommendation that mandatory breach notification be introduced into The Hazards, law.

ALRC means the ethan, Australian Law Reform Commission. APPs means the vs. Levalbuterol: The Preferred, Australian Privacy Principles set out Schedule 1 to ethan quotes, the Privacy Act, which apply to APP entities. APP entity has the meaning set out in s6 of the Privacy Act, and systems functions, means an agency or organisation for the purpose of the Privacy Act. Agency has the ethan frome, meaning set out in s6 of the Treatment for Asthma Essay, Privacy Act and frome, includes most Australian Government and Norfolk Island departments, agencies and Ministers. Personal information has the meaning as set out in operating s6 of the Privacy Act: personal information means information or an frome quotes, opinion about an identified individual, or an poster, individual who is reasonably identifiable: whether the information or opinion is true or not; and whether the ethan quotes, information or opinion is recorded in a material form or not. Data breach means, for the purpose of this guide, when personal information held by an agency or organisation is lost or subjected to unauthorised access, modification, disclosure, or other misuse or interference. Note : The Privacy Act regulates the handling of personal information, and does not generally refer to ‘data’. As such, in the interest of The Hazards Eruptions, consistency with the Act, the previous edition of this guide used the term ‘personal information security breach’. However, the term ‘data breach’ has since entered into common usage in quotes Australia and in various other jurisdictions.

Accordingly, in the interests of clarity and simplicity, this guide uses the The Preferred Essay, term ‘data breach’ rather than ‘personal information security breach’. OAIC means the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner. Organisation has the meaning set out in s6C of the ethan, Privacy Act and, in general, includes all businesses and non-government organisations with an annual turnover of more than $3 million, all health service providers and a limited range of small businesses (see ss6D and 6E of the Privacy Act). TFN means Tax File Number. Obama Poster? The Privacy Act includes provisions relating to TFNs in Part III. The OAIC has issued rules under s17 of the Privacy Act to regulate the frome quotes, use of TFNs.

This guide was developed to assist agencies and operating functions, organisations to respond effectively to data breaches. The OAIC developed this guide in August 2008 in response to requests for advice from ethan quotes, agencies and organisations, and in recognition of the global trends relating to data breach notification. The Hazards? In July 2011, the OAIC revised this guide to keep pace with the changing attitudes and ethan, approaches to data breach management. In August 2014, the OAIC revised this guide again to take account of vs. Levalbuterol: for Asthma, amendments to the Privacy Act, including the introduction of the APPs. In its 2008 report titled ‘For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice’ [2] (Report 108), the quotes, ALRC recommended that the poster, Privacy Act be amended to impose a mandatory obligation to notify the Privacy Commissioner and affected individuals in the event of a data breach that could give rise to ethan frome, a ‘real risk of serious harm’ to the affected individuals (recommendation 51-1). The Hazards? The OAIC strongly supports that recommendation. Accordingly, this guide is ethan frome quotes, aimed, in part, at of Volcanic Eruptions Essay, encouraging agencies and organisations to voluntarily put in place reasonable measures to deal with data breaches (including notification of ethan, affected individuals and the OAIC), while legislative change is sarte freedom, considered by the Australian Government. Data breach notification is an important option in responding to a data breach. However, a key challenge in responding to a data breach is ethan quotes, determining if and when notification is an appropriate response. This guide provides general guidance on key steps and factors for agencies and organisations to consider when responding to Albuterol for Asthma, a data breach, including notification of breaches. This guide encourages a risk-analysis approach.

Agencies and organisations should evaluate data breaches on a case-by-case basis and frome, make decisions on actions to take according to their own assessment of The Hazards, risks and responsibilities in their particular circumstances. This guide also highlights the frome, importance of preventative measures as part of a comprehensive information security plan (which may include a data breach response plan). It is The Contribution of Running in Human Evolution Essay, not intended that the advice in this guide be limited to data breaches that are breaches of the APPs.[3] Rather, the guide is ethan frome, intended to Essay, apply to ethan frome, any situation where personal information has been compromised. While establishing appropriate thresholds and processes for data breach notification is good privacy practice, the steps and systems, actions outlined in this guide are not specifically required under the Privacy Act. Therefore, while the OAIC strongly recommends compliance with this guide, compliance is not mandatory. This guide has been developed for use by quotes Australian Government and Norfolk Island agencies, and private sector organisations, that handle personal information and are covered by the Privacy Act. State and territory government agencies, as well as private sector entities not covered by sarte freedom the Privacy Act, may find the guide helpful in frome quotes outlining good privacy practice. However, the OAIC would not have a role in example receiving notifications about data breaches experienced by those entities, other than for ACT Government agencies.

State and territory government agencies should also consider the quotes, role of relevant Privacy or Information Commissioners (or applicable privacy schemes) in their own jurisdictions (listed at the end of this guide). Data breaches occur in a number of ways. Some examples include: lost or stolen laptops, removable storage devices, or paper records containing personal information. hard disk drives and other digital storage media (integrated in other devices, for example, multifunction printers, or otherwise) being disposed of or returned to equipment lessors without the contents first being erased. databases containing personal information being ‘hacked’ into or otherwise illegally accessed by individuals outside of the agency or organisation. employees accessing or disclosing personal information outside the requirements or authorisation of their employment. paper records stolen from insecure recycling or garbage bins. an agency or organisation mistakenly providing personal information to the wrong person, for example by sending details out to the wrong address, and. an individual deceiving an agency or organisation into improperly releasing the personal information of another person. Preventing data breaches — obligations under the sarte freedom, Privacy Act. Security is a basic element of information privacy.[4] In Australia, this principle is reflected in the Privacy Act in the APPs.

Agencies and organisations are required to take reasonable steps to frome, protect the Rhetoric of Terrorism, personal information they hold from misuse, interference and ethan, loss, and from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure. This requirement is set out in obama APP 11[5] (see Appendix A for APP 11). Sections 20Q and 21S of the Privacy Act imposes equivalent obligations on credit reporting agencies and all credit providers. Similarly, guideline 6.1 of the ethan frome quotes, statutory TFN guidelines[6] requires TFN recipients to protect TFN information by such security safeguards as are reasonable in the circumstances. Depending on the circumstances, those reasonable steps may include the Rhetoric Essay, preparation and implementation of a data breach policy and response plan. Frome? Notification of the individuals who are or may be affected by a data breach, and the OAIC, may also be a reasonable step (see page 9). Many agencies are subject to agency-specific legislative requirements that add further protections for personal information (such as secrecy provisions), as well as legislative and other requirements which apply more generally across government. Rhetoric On The Menace Essay? These other requirements can include the Australian Government’s Protective Security Policy Framework [7] and the Information Security Manual .[8] Organisations may also be subject to frome quotes, additional obligations through sector-specific legislation in respect of particular information they hold. For example, Part 13 of the Telecommunications Act 1997 (Cth)[9] sets out obligations on the telecommunications industry in relation to the handling of sarte freedom, certain telecommunications-related personal information. Some organisations may also have common law duties relating to ethan, the confidentiality of particular information.

These additional obligations need to be considered by agencies and Albuterol The Preferred for Asthma Essay, organisations when taking steps to prevent or respond to data breaches. Considerations for keeping information secure. Note : Some of the information in Step 4 of this guide ( Prevent future breaches : see page 30) could equally be used by agencies or organisations as a way of assessing what security measures are necessary to prevent data breaches. What are the reasonable steps (as required by APP 11) necessary to secure personal information will depend on context, including (but not limited to): the sensitivity (having regard to the affected individual(s)) of the personal information held by ethan the agency or organisation. the harm that is sarte freedom, likely to result to individuals if there is a data breach involving their personal information. the potential for harm (in terms of reputational or other damage) to the agency or organisation if their personal information holdings are breached, and. how the agency or organisation stores, processes and transmits the personal information (for example, paper-based or electronic records, or by using a third party service provider).

Appropriate security safeguards for personal information need to be considered across a range of areas. This could include maintaining physical security, computer and network security, communications security and personnel security. Quotes? To meet their information security obligations, agencies and organisations should consider the following steps: Risk assessment – Identifying the security risks to personal information held by the organisation and the consequences of a breach of security. Privacy impact assessments – Evaluating, in a systemic way, the degree to which proposed or existing information systems align with good privacy practice and legal obligations.[10] Policy development – Developing a policy or range of policies that implement measures, practices and procedures to reduce the identified risks to operating systems, information security.

Staff training – Training staff and managers in security and fraud awareness, practices and procedures and frome, codes of conduct. The appointment of a responsible person or position – Creating a designated position within the agency or organisation to deal with data breaches. This position could have responsibility for on The Menace Essay establishing policy and procedures, training staff, coordinating reviews and audits and investigating and responding to breaches.[11] Technology – Implementing privacy enhancing technologies to secure personal information held by the agency or organisation, including through such measures as access control, copy protection, intrusion detection, and robust encryption. Monitoring and review – Monitoring compliance with the security policy, periodic assessments of ethan frome, new security risks and Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol: Treatment for Asthma, the adequacy of existing security measures, and ensuring that effective complaint handling procedures are in ethan place. Standards – Measuring performance against relevant Australian and international standards as a guide.[12] Appropriate contract management – Conducting appropriate due diligencewhere services (especially data storage services) are contracted, particularly in terms of the IT security policies and practices that the service provider has in place, and then monitoring compliance with these policies through periodic audits.[13] Further, in seeking to prevent data breaches, agencies and organisations should consider their other privacy obligations under the APPs. Eruptions? Some breaches or risks of harm can be avoided or minimised by not collecting particular types of personal information or only keeping it for as long as necessary. Consider the following:

What personal information is it necessary to quotes, collect? – Personal information that is never collected, cannot be mishandled. The Hazards Eruptions Essay? APP 3 requires that APP entities must not collect personal information unless it is reasonably necessary, or directly related to, one or more of their functions or activities. Ethan Frome Quotes? Additional restrictions apply to Rhetoric on The Menace Essay example, the collection of sensitive information (see APP 3.3). How long does the personal information need to be kept? – APPs 4.3 and 11.2 require APP entities organisations to take reasonable steps to destroy information, on ensure that it is de-identified, if that information is no longer needed for any purpose permitted under the APPs. Agencies have record-keeping obligations with respect to Commonwealth records – this is reflected in APP 11.2(c). Accordingly, agencies should carefully consider retention practices, subject to record keeping requirements such as those contained in the Archives Act 1983 (Cth)[14] (including their Records Disposal Authorities)[15] or other legislation. Why data breach notification is good privacy practice. Notifying individuals when a data breach involves their personal information supports good privacy practice, for the following reasons: Notification as a reasonable security safeguard – As part of the obligation to keep personal information secure, notification may, in frome some circumstances, may be a reasonable step in the protection of personal information from misuse, interference and loss, and from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure (as required by APP 11).

Notification as openness about privacy practices – Being open and transparent with individuals about how personal information may be handled is recognised as a fundamental privacy principle.[16] Part of being open about the Evolution Essay, handling of personal information may include telling individuals when something goes wrong and explaining what has been done to try to avoid or remedy any actual or potential harm.[17] Notification as restoring control over ethan frome quotes personal information – Where personal information has been compromised, notification can be essential in helping individuals to regain control of that information. Vs. Levalbuterol: Treatment Essay? For example, where an individual’s identity details have been stolen, once notified, the frome, individual can take steps to regain control of their identity information by changing passwords or account numbers, or requesting the reissue of obama, identifiers. Notification as a means of rebuilding public trust – Notification can be a way of demonstrating to the public that an ethan, agency or organisation takes the security of personal information seriously, and Menace example, is working to protect affected individuals from the harms that could result from a data breach. Customers may be reassured to know that an agency or organisation’s data breach response plan includes notifying them, the quotes, OAIC, and relevant third parties. The OAIC strongly encourages notification in appropriate circumstances as part of good privacy practice, and in the interest of maintaining a community in obama hope which privacy is valued and respected. The role of the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner. A data breach may constitute a breach of information security obligations under the Privacy Act; for example, the obligations imposed by the APPs, the quotes, TFN guidelines, or the credit reporting provisions of the Act. Obama Hope? In those circumstances, the breach will be an interference with an individual’s privacy.[18] Individuals can complain about such interferences to the OAIC. The OAIC has the function of investigating possible breaches of the Privacy Act. It also has the function of providing guidance and ethan quotes, advice to agencies and The Contribution of Running in Human Evolution, organisations on ethan quotes the operation of the Albuterol Treatment for Asthma, Privacy Act.[19] As such, the frome, OAIC may provide general information on how to respond to a data breach.

Step 3(d) of this guide provides guidance on when it may be appropriate to notify the OAIC of a data breach. Consistent with its statutory functions, the of Running in Human Essay, OAIC may consider whether it needs to investigate the conduct. However, the OAIC cannot make a decision on whether there has been a breach of the Privacy Act until it has conducted an investigation. If an individual thinks an agency or organisation covered by the Privacy Act has interfered with his or her privacy, and frome quotes, they have been unable to resolve the matter directly with the sarte freedom, agency or organisation, they can complain to ethan, the OAIC.[20] The OAIC may investigate[21] and of Running in Human, may attempt to resolve the ethan frome quotes, matter by of Volcanic Eruptions conciliation between the parties. The Commissioner also has the frome quotes, power to Rhetoric on The Menace of Terrorism, initiate an frome, investigation on their own initiative in appropriate circumstances without first receiving a complaint.[22] The Commissioner has a range of enforcement powers, including the power to: make a determination requiring the payment of compensation for damages or other remedies,[23] such as the provision of access or the issuance of an The Hazards, apology (enforceable by the Federal Court or Federal Magistrates Court) accept an enforceable undertakings,[24] seek civil penalties of up to or apply for ethan civil penalty orders of up to Evolution Essay, $340,000 for ethan quotes individuals and up to $1.7 million for companies,[25] and. seek an injunction regarding conduct that would contravene the Privacy Act.[26]

Contraventions of some of the credit reporting provisions in obama hope poster Part IIIA of the Privacy Act carry specific penalties. Agencies should also be aware that, under s28B(1)(b) of the ethan, Privacy Act, the Information Commissioner can inform the Minister responsible for the Privacy Act of action that needs to be taken by an agency in order to comply with the APPs. In general, the OAIC will publish the outcomes of its investigations (in consultation with the subject agency or organisation). In some circumstances, consistent with its roles of education and enforcement, the OAIC may publicise information about the information management practices of an agency or organisation. Responding to data breaches: four key steps. Data breaches can be caused or exacerbated by a variety of factors, affect different types of personal information and give rise to a range of actual or potential harms to individuals, agencies and organisations. As such, there is no single way of responding to a data breach. Each breach will need to be dealt with on a case-by-case basis, undertaking an assessment of the risks involved, and using that risk assessment as the basis for deciding what actions to take in the circumstances.

There are four key steps to of Volcanic Eruptions, consider when responding to a breach or suspected breach: Step 1: Contain the breach and do a preliminary assessment. Step 2: Evaluate the ethan frome quotes, risks associated with the breach. Step 4: Prevent future breaches. Each of the steps is set out in further detail below. A chart summarising the Essay, data breach response process is set out at page 40. Frome Quotes? Agencies and organisations may wish to consider distributing this chart to staff as a data breach response resource.

Be sure to take each situation seriously and move immediately to contain and assess the suspected breach. Breaches that may initially seem immaterial may be significant when their full implications are assessed. Agencies and organisations should undertake steps 1, 2 and 3 either simultaneously or in quick succession. In some cases it may be appropriate to notify individuals immediately, before containment or assessment of the breach occurs . The decision on obama hope how to respond should be made on a case-by-case basis. Depending on the breach, not all steps may be necessary, or some steps may be combined. In some cases, agencies and organisations may choose to take additional steps that are specific to the nature of the ethan quotes, breach. Step 1: Contain the The Contribution of Running Evolution Essay, breach and ethan, do a preliminary assessment. Once an agency or organisation has discovered or suspects that a data breach has occurred, it should take immediate common sense steps to The Hazards of Volcanic Eruptions Essay, limit the breach.

These may include the following: Take whatever steps possible to immediately contain the breach. For example, stop the unauthorised practice, recover the records, or shut down the quotes, system that was breached. Systems Functions? If it is not practical to shut down the system, or if it would result in loss of frome quotes, evidence, then revoke or change computer access privileges or address weaknesses in physical or electronic security. Assess whether steps can be taken to mitigate the harm an individual may suffer as a result of a breach.

For example, if it is detected that a customer’s bank account has been compromised, can the The Hazards Eruptions, affected account be immediately frozen and the funds transferred to frome quotes, a new account? Initiate a preliminary assessment. Move quickly to appoint someone to lead the initial assessment. On The Menace Of Terrorism Essay? This person should have sufficient authority to conduct the ethan frome, initial investigation, gather any necessary information and make initial recommendations. If necessary, a more detailed evaluation may subsequently be required. Determine whether there is a need to assemble a team that could include representatives from appropriate parts of the agency or organisation. Consider the following preliminary questions: What personal information does the sarte freedom, breach involve? What was the cause of the breach?

What is the extent of the breach? What are the ethan frome quotes, harms (to affected individuals) that could potentially be caused by the breach? How can the breach be contained? Consider who needs to sarte freedom, be notified immediately. Determine who needs to be made aware of the breach (internally, and potentially externally) at this preliminary stage. In some cases it may be appropriate to ethan quotes, notify the affected individuals immediately (for example, where there is a high level of risk of serious harm to affected individuals). Escalate the matter internally as appropriate, including informing the person or group within the hope poster, agency or organisation responsible for privacy compliance. It may also be appropriate to report such breaches to relevant internal investigation units. If the ethan frome quotes, breach appears to involve theft or other criminal activity, it will generally be appropriate to notify the sarte freedom, police.

If the data breach is likely to involve a real risk of serious harm to individuals, or receive a high level of media attention, inform the OAIC. The OAIC may be able to provide guidance and assistance. For more information on frome quotes what the OAIC can and cannot do, see page 37. Where a law enforcement agency is operating systems, investigating the breach, consult the frome, investigating agency before making details of the breach public. Be careful not to destroy evidence that may be valuable in determining the cause or would allow the agency or organisation to take appropriate corrective action.

Ensure appropriate records of the suspected breach are maintained, including the steps taken to rectify the Rhetoric Menace of Terrorism, situation and the decisions made. An example of breach containment and preliminary assessment. An online recruitment agency accepts resumes from jobseekers and makes these available to recruiters and employers on a password protected website. Jane, a jobseeker whose resume is on the website, receives an email which she suspects is frome, a ‘phishing’ email. The email is personalised and contains information from her resume. It contains a number of spelling mistakes and offers her a job.

The email claims that all Jane has to do to secure the job is to provide her bank account details so she can be paid. Sarte Freedom? Jane advises the recruitment agency of her suspicions, and forwards a copy of the email to ethan frome quotes, the recruitment agency. The recruitment agency assigns a member from its IT team to undertake a preliminary assessment. It is found that the email is Rhetoric of Terrorism, indeed a phishing email. It claims to be from a recruiter and directs the recipient to a website which asks them to enter further information. It also installs spyware on the recipient’s computer. The recruitment agency attempts to establish how phishers came to have the resume details of the jobseeker. The recruitment agency’s preliminary assessment reveals that the phishers have stolen legitimate user names and passwords from recruiters who use the agency’s website and have fraudulently accessed jobseeker information.

The IT team escalates the issue internally by informing senior staff members and quickly contains the breach by disabling the compromised recruiter accounts. Based on the IT team’s preliminary assessment, senior staff move to evaluate risks associated with the breach and consider what actions should be taken to mitigate any potential harm. Step 2: Evaluate the risks associated with the breach. To determine what other steps are immediately necessary, agencies and organisations should assess the risks associated with the breach. Consider the following factors in assessing the risks: The type of personal information involved. The context of the affected information and the breach. The cause and extent of the ethan frome, breach.

The risk of Rhetoric of Terrorism Essay example, serious harm to the affected individuals. The risk of ethan frome quotes, other harms. a) Consider the type of personal information involved. Does the type of personal information that has been compromised create a greater risk of harm? Some information is more likely to cause an The Hazards Eruptions Essay, individual harm if it is compromised, whether that harm is physical, financial or psychological. For example, government-issued identifiers such as Medicare numbers, driver’s licence and health care numbers, health information, and ethan frome, financial account numbers such as credit or debit card numbers might pose a greater risk of The Preferred Treatment for Asthma, harm to an individual than their name or address. Also, a combination of personal information typically creates a greater risk of harm than a single piece of ethan frome quotes, personal information.

It may also matter whether the in Human Evolution, information is ethan frome quotes, permanent or temporary. Permanent information, such as someone’s name place and date of birth, or medical history cannot be ‘re-issued’. The permanence of the Menace of Terrorism example, information may be more significant if it is protected by encryption – over time, encryption algorithms may be broken, so such information may be at greater longer term risk of being compromised. On the ethan frome quotes, other hand, temporary information may have changed by the time it has been decrypted. Employees, contractors, the public, clients, service providers, other agencies or organisations? Remember that certain people may be particularly at risk of harm. A data breach involving name and address of Rhetoric Essay, a person might not always be considered high risk.

However, a breach to a women’s refuge database containing name and frome quotes, address information may expose women who attend the refuge to a violent family member. There may be less risk if the breach only relates to businesses that service the in Human Evolution, refuge. b) Determine the frome, context of the The Hazards of Volcanic Essay, affected information and the breach. What is the context of the personal information involved? For example, a list of customers on a newspaper carrier’s route may not be sensitive information.

However, the same information about customers who have requested service interruption while on ethan frome vacation may be more sensitive. The sensitivity of Rhetoric on The Menace, personal information that may also publicly available information (such as the type found in a public telephone directory) also depends on ethan frome quotes context. For example, what might be the implications of someone’s name and phone number or address being associated with the services offered, or the professional association represented? What parties have gained unauthorised access to the affected information? To whom was the information exposed? Employee records containing information about employment history such as performance and disciplinary matters or a co-worker’s mental health might be particularly sensitive if exposed to other employees in the workplace and could result in an individual being the subject of humiliation or workplace bullying.

Have there been other breaches that could have a cumulative effect? A number of small, seemingly insignificant, breaches could have a cumulative effect. Separate breaches that might not, by themselves, be assessed as representing a real risk of serious harm to an affected individual, may meet this threshold when the cumulative effect of the breaches is considered. This could involve incremental breaches of the same agency or organisation’s database. The Contribution Of Running? It could also include known breaches from a number of different sources. How could the personal information be used? Could the information be used for fraudulent or otherwise harmful purposes, such as to cause significant embarrassment to the affected individual? Could the compromised information be easily combined either with other compromised information or with publicly available information to create a greater risk of ethan frome, harm to The Contribution Evolution, the individual? c) Establish the cause and extent of the breach. Is there a risk of ongoing breaches or further exposure of the information? What was the extent of the unauthorised access to or collection, use or disclosure of ethan frome quotes, personal information, including the sarte freedom, number and nature of likely recipients and ethan frome, the risk of further access, use or disclosure, including via mass media or online?

Is there evidence that suggests theft, and was the information the target? For example, where a laptop is stolen, can it be determined whether the obama hope poster, thief specifically wanted the frome, information on the laptop, or the laptop hardware itself? Evidence of theft could suggest a greater intention to Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol: Treatment, do harm and heighten the need to provide notification to the individual, as well as law enforcement. Is the personal information adequately encrypted, anonymised or otherwise not easily accessible? Is the information rendered unreadable by ethan security measures that protect the stored information? Is the personal information displayed or stored in such a way so that it cannot be used if breached? For example, if a laptop containing adequately encrypted information is sarte freedom, stolen, but is subsequently recovered and quotes, investigations show that the information was not accessed, copied or otherwise tampered with, notification to affected individuals may not be necessary. What was the source of the breach? For example, did it involve external or internal malicious behaviour, or was it an internal processing error?

Does the information seem to have been lost or misplaced? The risk of harm to the individual may be less where the breach is unintentional or accidental, rather than intentional or malicious. For example, the client may have a common surname which leads a staff member to accidentally access the wrong client record. Essay Example? The access records show that the quotes, staff member immediately closed the client record once they became aware of their mistake. The risk of harm will be less in operating systems this case than in the case where a staff member intentionally and deliberately opens a client’s record to browse the record, or to use or disclose that information without a legitimate business reason for doing so. Has the frome quotes, personal information been recovered?

For example, has a lost laptop been found or returned? If the information has been recovered, are there any signs that it has been accessed, copied or otherwise tampered with? What steps have already been taken to mitigate the hope, harm? Has the agency or organisation contained the breach? For example, have compromised security measures such as passwords been replaced? Has the full extent of the ethan frome, breach been assessed? Are further steps required? Is this a systemic problem or an isolated incident? When checking the source of the breach, it is important to check whether any similar breaches have occurred in the past. Sometimes, a breach can signal a deeper problem with system security.

This may also reveal that more information has been affected than initially thought, potentially heightening the awareness of the The Contribution in Human Evolution, risk posed. How many individuals are affected by the breach? If the breach is frome quotes, a result of a systemic problem, there may be more people affected than first anticipated. Even where the breach involves accidental and unintentional misuse of information, if the breach affects many individuals, the scale of the breach may create greater risks that the information will be misused. Sarte Freedom? The agency or organisation’s response should be proportionate. While the number of affected individuals can help gauge the severity of the breach, it is frome quotes, important to remember that even a breach involving the personal information of one or two people can be serious, depending on sarte freedom the information involved. d) Assess the risk of quotes, harm to the affected individuals. Who is the recipient of the Albuterol The Preferred Treatment for Asthma, information? Is there likely to ethan frome, be any relationship between the unauthorised recipients and the affected individuals? For example, was the disclosure to an unknown party or to a party suspected of being involved in criminal activity where there is a potential risk of misuse? Was the disclosure to a person against whom the individual has a restraining order, or to co-workers who have no need to have the information?

Or was the recipient a trusted, known entity or person that would reasonably be expected to return or destroy the information without disclosing or using it? For example, was the information sent to the individual’s lawyer instead of being sent to them, or to on The Menace of Terrorism Essay, another party bound by ethan professional duties of confidentiality or ethical standards? What harm to on The example, individuals could result from the breach? identity theft financial loss threat to physical safety threat to frome quotes, emotional wellbeing loss of business or employment opportunities humiliation, damage to reputation or relationships, or workplace or social bullying or marginalisation. Other possible harms, including to the agency or organisation that suffered the breach. the loss of public trust in the agency, government program, or organisation reputational damage loss of assets (e.g., stolen computers or storage devices) financial exposure (e.g., if bank account details are compromised) regulatory penalties (e.g., for breaches of the Privacy Act) extortion legal liability, and breach of secrecy provisions in applicable legislation. An example of evaluating the risks associated with the breach. A newspaper publisher receives a call from a newsagent that sells its newspapers. The newsagent says that the address labels on the bundles of newspapers delivered to his shop appear to show subscriber information printed on The Preferred Treatment Essay the other side.

The information includes names, addresses and credit card details. Following a preliminary investigation, the newspaper publisher confirms that some labels have been inadvertently printed on ethan frome quotes the back of subscriber lists. As a first step to containing the breach, the publisher attempts to contact newsagencies that have received the newspapers and asks them to check the Rhetoric Essay, labels on the bundles and frome quotes, securely destroy any that show subscriber details on the back. With these first steps completed, the newspaper publisher begins to evaluate the risks associated with the breach. The information that was involved in sarte freedom the breach was name, address and credit card information. The newspaper has a large number of subscribers. Further investigations into the breach are unable to reveal how many subscribers’ details have been exposed. The bundles of newspapers displaying subscriber information have been delivered to ethan frome quotes, newsagencies in the early hours of the Albuterol The Preferred Treatment for Asthma Essay, morning. The newspaper publisher notes that the subscriber information was therefore at risk of unauthorised access during the time between delivery and when the newsagents arrived to open shop. Further investigations reveal that many newsagencies have already discarded the labels before checking could be carried out as to whether they contained subscriber information. This means that, in many cases, the ethan frome, subscriber lists may not have been securely destroyed.

The newspaper publisher concludes that the exposure of this information could present a real risk of serious harm (in this case, financial harm) to many individuals. Based on The Hazards of Volcanic the conclusion that this is a serious breach, the ethan frome, publisher moves to notify subscribers. Given the large number of potentially affected individuals and on The Menace, the risk of serious financial harm, the publisher also notifies the OAIC, particularly as there is ethan quotes, a real possibility that individuals may complain about the breach. An example of The Hazards of Volcanic Eruptions, evaluating the ethan frome quotes, risks associated with the discovery of routine breaches. An Australian Government agency undertakes a periodic audit of user access records. The audit reveals an unusual pattern of client account enquiries in one branch of the agency. The client records contain address information, financial information, and sarte freedom, other details. The enquiries have occurred over a 12 month period. After some investigation, which includes interviewing the relevant staff, managers and the department head, it is determined that a specific staff member, John, has been browsing the frome, client accounts of his family and friends without any legitimate business purpose (and therefore without authorisation). There is no evidence that client information has been disclosed to any third party.

The agency recognises that some of the information in the client accounts (the financial information in particular) is sarte freedom, sensitive information that is not readily available. The agency considers that there is real risk of ethan quotes, embarrassment or other harms from the release of that information, especially to a person such as John, who has a personal relationship with the affected individuals and operating, could combine the information with the details about the individuals that he already knows. On that basis, the agency decides to notify the individuals affected by the unauthorised access. It also takes measures to prevent unauthorised access to client accounts by staff, and to ensure that all staff are aware of ethan, their obligations to act appropriately. The agency considers that, having regard to the sensitivity of the operating, information and the context of the breach, the breach is ethan frome, sufficiently serious to warrant notification to the OAIC. Agencies and organisations should consider the functions, particular circumstances of the breach, and: decide whether to notify affected individuals, and, if so consider when and ethan frome quotes, how notification should occur, who should make the operating, notification, and who should be notified consider what information should be included in quotes the notification, and consider who else (other than the affected individuals) should be notified. Notification can be an important mitigation strategy that has the potential to benefit both the agency or organisation and Essay, the individuals affected by a data breach. The challenge is to determine when notification is appropriate. While notification is an important mitigation strategy, it will not always be an appropriate response to a breach. Providing notification about ethan quotes low risk breaches can cause undue anxiety and de-sensitise individuals to notice.

Each incident needs to be considered on a case-by-case basis to determine whether breach notification is obama hope poster, required. In general, if a data breach creates a real risk of serious harm to the individual, the affected individuals should be notified. Prompt notification to individuals in these cases can help them mitigate the damage by taking steps to protect themselves. Agencies and organisations should: take into account the ability of the individual to take specific steps to mitigate any such harm, and. consider whether it is frome, appropriate to inform other third parties such as the OAIC, the police, or other regulators or professional bodies about the data breach. a) Deciding whether to notify affected individuals. Agencies and organisations should consider whether their obligations under APP11 require them to notify affected individuals and the OAIC[27] (as a ‘reasonable step’ to ensure the security of personal information that they hold). The key consideration is whether notification is necessary to avoid or mitigate serious harm to an affected individual. Agencies and Rhetoric Essay example, organisations should consider the following factors when deciding whether notification is required:

What is the risk of serious harm to frome quotes, the individual as determined by step 2? What is the ability of the individual to avoid or mitigate possible harm if notified of a breach (in addition to The Hazards, steps taken by the agency or organisation)? For example, would an individual be able to have a new bank account number issued to avoid potential financial harm resulting from frome quotes, a breach? Would steps such as monitoring bank statements or exercising greater vigilance over their credit reporting records assist in mitigating risks of financial or credit fraud? Even if the individual would not be able to take steps to fix the situation, is the information that has been compromised sensitive, or likely to operating, cause humiliation or embarrassment for the individual? What are the legal and contractual obligations to notify, and what are the consequences of notification? There may be adverse consequences if an frome, agency or organisation does not notify affected individuals.

For example, if the public, including the affected individuals, subsequently find out about the breach through the media, there may be loss of public trust in the agency or organisation (which, in turn, could have its own costs). At this stage, the organisation or agency should have as complete a set of facts as possible and have completed the on The, risk assessment to determine whether to notify individuals. The following tables set out some of the frome, considerations in Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol: the notification process. Sometimes the ethan frome quotes, urgency or seriousness of the breach dictates that notification should happen immediately, before having all the relevant facts. In general, individuals affected by the breach should be notified as soon as reasonably possible. If law enforcement authorities are involved, check with those authorities whether notification should be delayed to The Contribution Essay, ensure that the investigation is not compromised. Delaying the disclosure of details about a breach of security or information systems may also be appropriate until that system has been repaired and tested or the quotes, breach contained in some other way. In general, the recommended method of notification is direct – by phone, letter, email or in person – to the affected individuals.

Indirect notification, either by website information, posted notices, media, should generallyonly occur where direct notification could cause further harm, is for Asthma Essay, cost-prohibitive, or the frome, contact information for affected individuals is not known. Preferably, notification should be ‘standalone’ and should not be ‘bundled’ with other material unrelated to the breach, as it may confuse recipients and affect the The Hazards of Volcanic Essay, impact of the breach notification. In certain cases, it may be appropriate to use multiple methods of notification. Agencies and organisations should also consider whether the method and content of notification might increase the risk of harm, such as by alerting the person who stole the laptop of the value of the information on frome the laptop, if it would not otherwise be apparent. To avoid being confused with ‘phishing’ emails, email notifications may require special care. For example, only communicate basic information about the breach, leaving more detailed advice to other forms of communication. Typically, the agency or organisation that has a direct relationship with the customer, client or employee should notify the affected individuals.

This includes where a breach may have involved handling of personal information by a third party service provider, contractor or related body corporate. Joint and third party relationships can raise complex issues. For example, the breach may occur at a retail merchant but involve credit card details from numerous financial institutions, or the card promoter may not be the card issuer (for example, many airlines, department stores and other retailers have credit cards that display their brand, though the cards are issued by a bank or credit card company). Or the breach may involve information held by a third party ‘cloud’ data storage provider, based outside of Australia. The issues in play in hope each situation will vary. Organisations and agencies will have to consider what is ethan frome quotes, best on a case by case basis.

However some relevant considerations might include: Where did the The Hazards of Volcanic Eruptions Essay, breach occur? Who does the individual identify as their ’relationship’ manager? Does the agency or organisation that suffered the ethan frome quotes, breach have contact details for the affected individuals? Are they able to obtain them easily? Or could they draft and sign off the notification, for the lead organisation to send? Is trust important to the organisation’s or agency’s activities? Generally, it should be the individual(s) affected by the breach. Vs. Levalbuterol: The Preferred Treatment? However, in frome some cases it may be appropriate to notify the individual’s guardian or authorised representative on their behalf. There may be circumstances where carers or authorised representatives should be notified as well as, or instead of, the individual. Where appropriate, clinical judgement may be required where notification may exacerbate health conditions, such as acute paranoia.

c) What should be included in the notification? The content of notifications will vary depending on the particular breach and the notification method. In general, the information in of Terrorism example the notice should help the individual to reduce or prevent the frome, harm that could be caused by sarte freedom the breach. Notifications should include the types of information detailed below: Incident Description — Information about the incident and its timing in general terms. The notice should not include information that would reveal specific system vulnerabilities.

Type of ethan frome, personal information involved — A description of the type of personal information involved in the breach. Systems Functions? Be careful not to include personal information in the notification, to avoid possible further unauthorised disclosure. Response to the breach — A general account of what the agency or organisation has done to control or reduce the harm, and proposed future steps that are planned. Assistance offered to affected individuals — What the agency or organisation will do to assist individuals and what steps the individual can take to avoid or reduce the ethan, risk of harm or to further protect themselves. For example, whether the agency or organisation can arrange for credit monitoring or other fraud prevention tools, or provide information on how to obama hope poster, change government issued identification numbers (such as a driver’s licence number). Other information sources — Sources of information designed to assist individuals in protecting against identity theft or interferences with privacy. For example, guidance on the OAIC’s website and frome quotes, the Attorney-General’s Department website at Identity security. Agency/ Organisation contact details — Contact information of areas or personnel within the agency or organisation that can answer questions, provide further information or address specific privacy concerns.

Where it is decided that a third party will notify of the breach, a clear explanation should be given as to sarte freedom, how that third party fits into frome quotes, the process and who the individual should contact if they have further questions. Whether breach notified to regulator or other external contact(s) — Indicate whether the agency or organisation has notified the OAIC or other parties listed in the table at 3(d). Legal implications — The precise wording of the notice may have legal implications; organisations and agencies should consider whether they should seek legal advice. Sarte Freedom? The legal implications could include secrecy obligations that apply to agencies. How individuals can lodge a complaint with the agency or organisation — Provide information on internal dispute resolution processes and how the frome, individual can make a complaint to the agency or organisation or industry complaint handling bodies.[28]

How individuals can lodge a complaint with the OAIC — If the agency or organisation is covered by the Privacy Act, explain that if individuals are not satisfied with the sarte freedom, response by the agency or organisation to resolve the issue, they can make a complaint to the OAIC. The OAIC’s contact details are set out at page 38. In general, notifying the OAIC, or other authorities or regulators should not be a substitute for notifying affected individuals. However, in some circumstances it may be appropriate to notify these third parties: OAIC — The OAIC strongly encourages agencies and frome, organisations to operating systems functions, report serious data breaches to the OAIC. The potential benefits of notifying the ethan quotes, OAIC, together with what it can and cannot do about a notification, are set out at page 37.

Police — If theft or other crime is suspected. The Australian Federal Police should also be contacted if the breach may constitute a threat to national security. Insurers or others — If required by contractual obligations. Credit card companies, financial institutions or credit reporting agencies — If their assistance is necessary for contacting individuals or assisting with mitigating harm. Professional or other regulatory bodies — If professional or regulatory standards require notification of these bodies. For example, other regulatory bodies, such as the Australian Securities and Investments Commission, the The Contribution Evolution Essay, Australian Competition and frome, Consumer Commission, and obama hope, the Australian Communications and Media Authority have their own requirements in the event of a breach. Other internal or external parties not already notified — Agencies and ethan quotes, organisations should consider the potential impact that the breach and notification to individuals may have on third parties, and take action accordingly. Operating Functions? For example, third parties may be affected if individuals cancel their credit cards, or if financial institutions issue new cards.

third party contractors or other parties who may be affected internal business units not previously advised of the breach, (for example, communications and media relations, senior management), or union or other employee representatives. Agencies that have a direct relationship with the information lost/stolen — Agencies and organisations should consider whether an incident compromises Australian Government agency identifiers such as TFNs or Medicare numbers. Notifying agencies such as the Australian Taxation Office for frome TFNs or Medicare Australia for Medicare card numbers may enable those agencies to provide appropriate information and assistance to affected individuals, and to take steps to protect the integrity of sarte freedom, identifiers that may be used in identity theft or other fraud. An example of notification of affected individuals. A bank customer, Margaret, receives mail from her bank. When she opens the envelope she notices that correspondence intended for another customer – Diego – has been included in the same envelope. The correspondence includes Diego’s name, address and account details. Margaret contacts the bank to report the incident. The bank asks that she return the mail intended for ethan frome quotes Diego to functions, them.

The bank then contacts Diego by phone to notify him of the breach, apologises to him, and advises that it will be investigating the matter to determine how the incident occurred and quotes, how to prevent it from reoccurring. The bank also offers to restore the security of Diego’s customer information by closing his existing account and opening a new account. In addition, the sarte freedom, bank agrees to frome, discuss with Diego any further action he considers should be taken to resolve the matter to his satisfaction and provides a contact name and number that Diego can use for any further enquiries. The bank investigates the matter, including getting reports from the mailing house it uses to sarte freedom, generate and despatch customer correspondence. While the mailing house has a number of compliance measures in place to manage the process flow, it appears that an isolated error on one production line meant that two customer statements were included in one envelope. Following its assessment of the breach, the bank is satisfied that this is an ethan frome, isolated incident. Obama Hope? However, it reviews the compliance measures taken by the mailing house has in place to ensure they are sufficient to protect customer information from unintentional disclosure through production errors. The bank writes to Diego and informs him of the outcome of its investigation.

An example of notification of affected individuals and the OAIC. A memory stick containing the employee records of 200 employees of an Australian Government Department goes missing. Extensive searches fail to locate the ethan, whereabouts of the hope, memory stick. The information contained in the employee records includes the names, salary information, TFNs, home addresses, phone numbers, birth dates and in some cases health information (including disability information) of quotes, current staff. The data on Eruptions the memory stick is not encrypted. Due to the sensitivity of the unencrypted information – not only the extent and frome, variety of the sarte freedom, information, but also the inclusion of health and disability information in ethan the records – the Department decides to Eruptions Essay, notify employees of the breach. Anticipating that individuals may, at frome quotes, some point, complain, it also notifies the sarte freedom, OAIC of the breach and explains what steps it is taking to resolve the situation. A senior staff member emails the affected staff to ethan, notify them of the breach. In the notification she offers staff an apology for systems the breach, explains what types of quotes, information were involved, notes that the OAIC has been informed of the The Hazards of Volcanic Eruptions Essay, breach, and explains what steps have been put in place to frome quotes, prevent this type of obama, a breach occurring in the future.

The senior staff member also provides staff with details about how they can have a new TFN issued, and informs staff that they can make a complaint to the OAIC if they are unhappy with the steps the frome, agency has taken. An example of Albuterol Essay, notification of frome quotes, affected individuals, OAIC and police. FunOnline, a popular online gaming service provider, sells access to its gaming network on a subscription basis. FunOnline collects and holds a range of personal information from its customers in systems functions order to create a user account and deal with subscription payments, including names, dates of birth, email addresses, postal addresses, and credit card numbers. During a routine security check, FunOnline discovers through the use of intrusion detection software that the server containing its account information has been compromised, and quotes, the account information of over 500,000 customers has been accessed without authorisation and, most likely, copied. FunOnline takes immediate steps to contain the breach (including temporarily shutting down its servers) and notifies the OAIC. Based on its belief that criminal activity has been involved, FunOnline also contacts the police.

The police investigate, during which time they ask FunOnline not to release any information about the breach. FunOnline uses this period to engage a technology security firm to enhance the security of its accounts systems. As soon as the police are satisfied it will not compromise their investigation, FunOnline notifies the affected customers. FunOnline explains exactly what happened and when, that the police have been investigating, and that the OAIC has been notified. FunOnline also suggests that affected customers monitor their credit card accounts and contact their financial institution if they have any concerns. In contravention of policy, a staff member at an Australian Government Department takes a memory stick out of the office so that he can work on some files at home. At some point between leaving work and obama hope, arriving at ethan, home, the staff member loses the memory stick.

He reports it missing the next day. Despite the assistance of the transport authority, the Department is unable to in Human, locate the memory stick. The Department conducts a preliminary assessment of the ethan, breach, then evaluates the The Contribution in Human, risks associated with the frome, loss of the hope, memory stick. First, the Department assesses what (if any) personal information may have been lost.. While the memory stick did not contain client records, it did contain the names, phone numbers and business email addresses of about 120 external stakeholders involved in a project lead by the Department, along with email correspondence from these stakeholders.

Further evaluation reveals that data held on the stick is protected by high level encryption technology. The Department consults with its IT team to confirm that the encryption on the memory stick is adequately secure and, following confirmation by that team, decides that notification of individuals whose personal information was held on the memory stick is unnecessary. In contravention of policy, a staff member at an Australian Government Department takes a memory stick out of the office so that he can work on some files at home. At some point between leaving work and arriving at frome, home, the staff member loses the memory stick. He reports it missing the next day. Despite the assistance of the transport authority, the Department is unable to locate the memory stick. The Department conducts a preliminary assessment of the operating systems functions, breach, then evaluates the risks associated with the loss of the memory stick.

First, the Department assesses what (if any) personal information may have been lost.. Ethan Frome? While the The Hazards of Volcanic Eruptions Essay, memory stick did not contain client records, it did contain the names, phone numbers and business email addresses of ethan frome quotes, about 120 external stakeholders involved in a project lead by the Department, along with email correspondence from these stakeholders. Further evaluation reveals that data held on sarte freedom the stick is protected by high level encryption technology. The Department consults with its IT team to confirm that the encryption on frome quotes the memory stick is adequately secure and, following confirmation by Albuterol The Preferred Treatment that team, decides that notification of individuals whose personal information was held on the memory stick is unnecessary. A pathologist receives a phone call from a GP, Dr Jones, with whom he has a professional relationship. Dr Jones advises the pathologist that she has just received a fax from the ethan frome, pathologist’s office disclosing test results for an individual that is not her patient. When the pathologist checks his records, he discovers that the test results were intended for a different GP. The pathologist asks Dr Jones to destroy the Evolution, test results and considers whether notification of the patient is warranted. The pathologist recognises that Dr Jones is bound by ethical duties, and is familiar with principles of confidentiality and privacy.

Accordingly, the pathologist is ethan frome quotes, confident that Dr Jones can be relied upon not to mishandle the information contained in the test results and obama, the disclosure is unlikely to pose a serious risk to the privacy of the patient. The pathologist decides not to notify the patient, but he reviews his practices to avoid a similar breach occurring in the future. The pathologist ensures that administrative staff are trained to exercise care in checking that fax numbers are accurate. The pathologist also begins to routinely phone recipients to tell them that results are being faxed. This reduces the risk that any fax, whether misdirected or not, will be left unattended on the machine for long periods of time. It also allows the intended recipient to ethan frome, let the systems functions, sender know if it a fax not received. Once the immediate steps are taken to mitigate the risks associated with the breach, agencies and organisations need to take the time to investigate the cause and consider whether to review the existing prevention plan or, if there is no plan in place, develop one. A prevention plan should suggest actions that are proportionate to frome quotes, the significance of the breach, and whether it was a systemic breach or an of Running Evolution Essay, isolated event. This plan may include: a security audit of both physical and technical security a review of ethan, policies and procedures and any changes to reflect the lessons learned from the obama, investigation, and regular reviews after that (for example, security, record retention and quotes, collection policies) a review of employee selection and training practices, and a review of service delivery partners (for example, offsite data storage providers). The plan may include a requirement for an audit at the end of the obama hope poster, process to ensure that the prevention plan has been fully implemented.

Suggested preparations for responding to a data breach include the following: Develop a breach response plan — While the aim should be to ethan quotes, prevent breaches, having a breach response plan may assist in ensuring a quick response to breaches, and greater potential for sarte freedom mitigating harm. The plan could set out contact details for ethan appropriate staff to be notified, clarify the roles and responsibilities of staff, and document processes which will assist the agency or organisation to contain breaches, coordinate investigations and breach notifications, and cooperate with external investigations. Establish a breach response team — Depending on the size of the in Human Essay, agency or organisation, consider establishing a management team responsible for responding to personal information breaches. The team could include representatives from frome quotes, relevant areas that may be needed to The Hazards of Volcanic Essay, investigate an incident, conduct risk assessments and make appropriate decisions (for example, privacy, senior management, IT, public affairs, legal). The team could convene periodically to review the breach response plan, discuss new risks and frome, practices, or consider incidents that have occurred in The Preferred Treatment for Asthma Essay other agencies or organisations. It may also be helpful to conduct ‘scenario’ training with team members to ethan quotes, allow them to develop a feel for an actual breach response. Key issues to test in of Volcanic such training would be identifying when notification is an appropriate response, and the timing of that notification.

Identify relevant service providers — Consider researching and identifying external service providers that could assist in the event of a data breach, such as forensics firms, public relations firms, call center providers and notification delivery services. The contact details of the service providers could be set out in frome quotes the breach response plan. This could save time and assist in responding efficiently and effectively to a data breach. Enhance internal communication and training — Ensure staff have been trained to respond to data breaches effectively, and are aware of the relevant policies and procedures. Staff should understand how to Rhetoric on The of Terrorism Essay, identify and report a potential data breach to the appropriate manager(s).

Enhance transparency — Include information in the agency or organisation’s privacy policy about how it responds to breaches. This could include letting individuals know when and how they are likely to be notified in the event of a breach, and whether the agency or organisation would ask them to verify any contact details or other information. This would make clear to individuals how their personal contact information is used in ethan frome the event of a breach, and may also assist individuals to avoid ‘phishing’ scam emails involving fake breach notifications and requests that recipients verify their account details, passwords and other personal information. Tips for Albuterol Treatment for Asthma Essay preventing future breaches. Some of the measures that have resulted from real-life data breaches include: the creation of a senior position in the agency or organisation with specific responsibility for data security[29] the institution of a ban on bulk transfers of data onto removable media without adequate security protection (such as encryption) disabling the download function on computers in use across the agency or organisation, to ethan frome quotes, prevent the download of Rhetoric on The of Terrorism Essay, data onto removable media. the institution of a ban on the removal of unencrypted laptops and other portable devices from government buildings. the institution of a policy requiring the erasing of hard disk drives and other digital storage media (including digital storage integrated in frome other devices such as multifunction printers or photocopiers) prior to being disposed of Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol: Treatment Essay, or returning to quotes, the equipment lessor. the use of secure couriers and appropriate tamper proof packaging when transporting bulk data, and. the upgrading of passwords (for example, an increase from 6 to 8 characters, including numbers and punctuation), and the institution of a policy requiring passwords to Rhetoric Menace example, be changed every 8 weeks. Technological advances allow increasingly larger amounts of information to be stored on increasingly smaller devices.

This creates a greater risk of frome, data breaches due to the size and portability of these devices, which can be lost or misplaced more easily when taken outside of the office. There is vs. Levalbuterol: The Preferred Treatment Essay, also a risk of theft because of the quotes, value of the devices themselves (regardless of the information they contain). Preventative steps that agencies and organisations can take include conducting risk assessments to determine: whether and in what circumstances (and by Albuterol Treatment Essay which staff), personal information is permitted to be removed from the ethan quotes, office, whether it is removed in electronic form on DVDs, USB storage devices such as memory sticks, portable computing devices such as laptops, or in operating functions paper files,[30] and. whether their stored data, both in the office and when removed from the office, requires security measures such as encryption and ethan quotes, password protection. Responding to a large scale data breach: An illustration of how to work through the The Contribution of Running Evolution, Four Key Steps.

A health insurer discovers that a backup tape containing customer details and ethan, other data has been lost. The information on the tape was not encrypted. The insurer routinely creates two copies of each backup tape. On The? One tape is stored on site; the other tape is stored securely off-site. Frome? The lost backup tape was the copy stored on-site and included data collected during the previous month. Step 1 — Containing the breach and the preliminary assessment. The Chief Executive Officer nominates the Risk Compliance Manager to lead an investigation.

The Risk Manager’s initial assessment suggests that the tapes were lost when the insurer’s IT department moved some records between floors. The Risk Manager interviews the staff involved in moving the records, reviews the relocation plan and arranges for the building to be searched. Despite these efforts, the example, tape cannot be found. The Risk Manager moves on ethan frome to assessing the breach. She thinks that the breach was most likely the The Hazards Eruptions Essay, result of ethan frome, poor practices and sloppy handling. However, while there is no evidence that the Rhetoric Essay example, tape was stolen, theft cannot be ruled out. The type of information that has been lost and how it could be used is an important part of the risk assessment.

Step 2 — Evaluate the risks associated with the breach. The evaluation shows that the information on ethan quotes the tapes falls into 3 main groups: Type of information — Enquiry information collected via the website to provide quotes. Only included state, date of birth and gender and was retained for statistical marketing purposes. Identity apparent or ascertainable? — No. The information is aggregated statistical data only. How could the information be used? — The information is The Contribution in Human, likely to frome quotes, be of little or no use other than for statistical purposes. Source — Probably unintentional and accidental.

But theft is also a possibility. As the source of the breach is unclear, and obama hope, given the sensitivity of ethan frome, much of the information, the insurer decides to assume a worst case scenario. Severity — The information was not encrypted or recovered. The large number of records involved and the sensitivity of the many of the The Contribution Evolution Essay, records (health and financial information, as well as identifying information), make this a serious breach. A real risk of ethan quotes, serious harm? — No. Current contact details held? — No.

Type of information — Application information, including full name, address, contact details, and date of birth. Also includes Medicare card number, and credit card details. Identity apparent or ascertainable? — Yes. Sensitivity — Substantial identifying information, Medicare card number and financial details. How could the The Hazards of Volcanic Eruptions, information be used? — The information could be used for identity theft and financial fraud. There is a lesser possibility that it could be used to frome, attempt fraud against the Medicare and PBS systems. Source — Probably unintentional and accidental. But theft is The Contribution in Human Essay, also a possibility. As the source of the ethan frome quotes, breach is unclear, and Albuterol The Preferred Treatment Essay, given the sensitivity of much of the information, the insurer decides to assume a worst case scenario.

Severity — The information was not encrypted or recovered. The large number of records involved and the sensitivity of the many of the records (health and financial information, as well as identifying information), make this a serious breach. A real risk of serious harm? — Yes. The information could be used to cause serious harm to individuals, including identity theft, financial fraud, and fraud against the Medicare and PBS systems. Possibly health fraud. Current contact details held? — Yes, from current member list and quotes, external sources. Type of information — Claims information, including full name, member number, contact details, and clinical information about the treatment being claimed. Identity apparent or ascertainable? — Yes. Sensitivity — Substantial identifying information, as well as information about the individual’s health condition. How could the information be used? — The information could be used for identity theft, as well as being potentially embarrassing or stigmatising to the individual. Source — Probably unintentional and accidental.

But theft is obama hope poster, also a possibility. As the source of the breach is unclear, and given the ethan, sensitivity of The Hazards Eruptions Essay, much of the information, the insurer decides to assume a worst case scenario. Severity — The information was not encrypted or recovered. The large number of ethan, records involved and the sensitivity of the Eruptions, many of the records (health and financial information, as well as identifying information), make this a serious breach. A real risk of serious harm? — Yes. If misused, the identification information could be used for identity theft. Serious harm could also arise from misuse of the frome, health information, including stigma, embarrassment, discrimination or disadvantage or, in extreme cases, blackmail.

Current contact details held? — Yes, from current member list and external sources. The evaluation shows that there is a real risk of serious harm for Group 2 and 3 individuals, and that the information in Group 1 is not personal information. The evaluation indicates that Group 2 and 3 individuals should be notified about the breach, and that there is a real risk of serious harm to their interests. If notified, individuals could take steps to mitigate the Rhetoric example, risks of identity theft and quotes, financial fraud. This could include changing credit card details or monitoring their credit reports. While there may be limited steps that can be taken to mitigate the risks of their health information being mishandled, individuals should still be informed given the heightened sensitivities of this information. The Risk Manager also considered whether notification would cause harm by leading to unfounded concern or alarm.

Taking all these factors and systems functions, the evaluation into quotes, account, it is decided that individuals in Groups 2 and Albuterol The Preferred Treatment, 3 should be notified. Separate letters are drawn up for each group, outlining the frome, general types of information that are affected. The Risk Manager also arranges for the notification letters to include: a general description of the operating systems, type of information that has been lost for each group what individuals can do to mitigate the harm caused by the breach, and who they can call to get further information or assistance. For example, the notification to individuals in Group 2 tells them that the information they provided on their application form, including their Medicare number and credit card details, may have been compromised. If an individual is concerned about either, they are advised to contact Medicare Australia or their financial institution so as to ethan frome quotes, change their registration and account details.

Group 3 individuals are told that a record containing their claims information has been lost, including the clinical details held on vs. Levalbuterol: Treatment Essay their file. Both letters explain that there is no evidence of ethan frome quotes, theft, and that the company is notifying the individuals as a precautionary measure only. The notifications also include contact details for the insurer’s customer care area and the OAIC, and suggest that individuals should check their credit card account statements and credit reports for sarte freedom any unusual activity. The Risk Manager also notes that some claimants had an authorised representative acting for them. These records are separately assessed to determine whether notification should be made to the authorised representative rather than the member. Staff in the insurer’s customer care area are briefed about the breach and given instructions about how to help customers responding to ethan quotes, a notification. Given the large number of individuals affected, and the sensitive nature of the information, the systems functions, insurer notifies the OAIC. The insurer explains what steps it has taken to address the breach. It also advises the OAIC of the ethan quotes, contact details for the insurer’s customer care area, so that customers contacting the OAIC can be redirected to the insurer if appropriate. Step 4 – Preventing Future Breaches. Once immediate steps have been taken to respond to the breach, the Chief Information Officer (CIO) carries out an obama, audit of the security policies for storage and transfer of backup tapes and frome quotes, reviews the access of Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol: Essay, staff in the area.

The CIO also makes some amendments to the compliance program to frome quotes, ensure non-compliance with IT Security policies will be detected and reported in the future. Reporting a data breach to systems, the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner. Agencies and organisations are strongly encouraged to notify the OAIC of a data breach where the circumstances indicate that it is appropriate to do so, as set out in ethan frome Step 3(d). The potential benefits of notifying the OAIC of a data breach may include the following: An agency or organisation’s decision to notify the Albuterol Essay, OAIC on ethan quotes its own initiative is likely to obama, be viewed by the public as a positive action.

It demonstrates to clients and the public that the agency or organisation views the ethan frome quotes, protection of on The of Terrorism, personal information as an important and serious matter, and may therefore enhance client/public confidence in the agency or organisation. It can assist the OAIC in responding to inquiries made by the public and frome, managing any complaints that may be received as a result of the breach. If the agency or organisation provides the OAIC with details of the matter and any action taken to address it, and prevents future occurrences, then, based on that information, any complaints received may be able to be dealt with more quickly. In those circumstances, consideration will need to be given to whether an individual complainant can demonstrate that they have suffered loss or damage, and whether some additional resolution is required. Alternatively, the OAIC may consider that the steps taken have adequately dealt with the matter.

Note : Reporting a breach does not preclude the OAIC from Evolution Essay, receiving complaints and conducting an investigation of the incident (whether in response to a complaint or on the Commissioner’s initiative). If the agency or organisation decides to quotes, report a data breach to the OAIC, the Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol: The Preferred Treatment Essay, following provides an indication of frome, what the OAIC can and Rhetoric Menace example, cannot do: Provide general information about obligations under the Privacy Act, factors to consider in responding to a data breach, and steps to take to prevent similar future incidents. Respond to community enquiries about the breach and explain possible steps that individuals can take to protect their personal information. Provide detailed advice about ethan quotes how to respond to a breach, or approve a particular proposed course of action. Agencies and organisations will need to seek their own legal or other specialist advice.

Agree not to investigate (either using the Commissioner’s power to investigate on their own initiative, or if a complaint is made to the OAIC) if the OAIC is notified of a breach. When the OAIC receives a complaint about an alleged breach of the Act, in most cases, the OAIC must investigate. As set out The Contribution of Running in Human Essay, above, the OAIC may also investigate an act or practice in the absence of a complaint on the Commissioner’s initiative. The OAIC uses risk assessment criteria to determine whether to commence a ‘Commissioner’s initiative investigation’. Frome Quotes? Those criteria include: whether a large number of people have been, or are likely to be affected, and the consequences for those individuals.

the sensitivity of the personal information involved. the progress of an agency or organisation’s own investigation into sarte freedom, the matter. the likelihood that the acts or practices involve systemic or widespread interferences with privacy. what actions have been taken to minimise the harm to frome, individuals arising from the breach, such as notifying them and/or offering to re-secure their information, and. whether another body, such as the The Contribution in Human, police, is investigating. These factors are similar to those included in ethan the risk assessment criteria for responding to a data breach. What to put in obama a notification to the OAIC. Any notice provided to the OAIC should contain similar content to that provided to individuals (see page 24).

It should not include personal information about the quotes, affected individuals. Rhetoric? It may be appropriate to include: a description of the breach the type of personal information involved in the breach what response the agency or organisation has made to the breach what assistance has been offered to affected individuals the name and contact details of the appropriate contact person, and whether the frome, breach has been notified to hope, other external contact(s). 1300 363 992 (local call cost, but calls from mobile and payphones may incur higher charges) 1800 620 241 (this number is dedicated for ethan frome the hearing impaired only, no voice calls) Sydney NSW 2001.

Maintain information security—APP 11. Protect information from misuse, interference and loss, and on The Essay example, from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure. To comply with their obligations under the APPs, agencies and organisations should consider: the sensitivity of the personal information the harm likely to flow from a security breach developing a compliance and monitoring plan, and regularly reviewing their information security measures. Personal information is lost or subjected to unauthorised access, modification, use or disclosure, or other misuse or interference. Key steps in responding to frome, a data breach. Contain the breach and make a preliminary assessment. Take immediate steps to contain breach Designate person/team to coordinate response. Evaluate the risks for individuals associated with the breach. Consider what personal information is involved Determine whether the context of the information is important Establish the cause and extent of the operating systems, breach Identify what is the risk of harm. Consider breach notification.

Risk analysis on a case-by-case basis Not all breaches necessarily warrant notification. Should affected individuals be notified? Where there is a real risk of serious harm , notification may enable individuals to ethan frome quotes, take steps to avoid or mitigate harm. Consider: Legal/contractual obligations to notify Risk of harm to individuals (identity crime, physical harm, humiliation, damage to reputation, loss of systems, business or employment opportunities. When? - as soon as possible How? - direct contact preferred (mail/phone) Who? - entity with the direct relationship with the affected individual What? - description of breach, type of personal information involved, steps to frome, help mitigate, contact details for Essay information and assistance.

Should others be notified? Office of the Australian Information Commissioner Police/Law Enforcement Professional or Regulatory Bodies Other agencies or organisations affected by the breach or contractually required to notify. Review the incident and take action to prevent future breaches. Fully investigate the cause of the breach Consider developing a prevention plan Option of audit to ensure plan implemented Update security/ response plan Make appropriate changes to policies and procedures Revise staff training practices. Australian Privacy Principle 11 – security of personal information. 11.1 If an APP entity holds personal information, the entity must take such steps as are reasonable in the circumstances to protect the information: from misuse, interference and loss; and from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure. an APP entity holds personal information about an individual; and the entity no longer needs the ethan frome quotes, information for any purpose for Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol: Treatment Essay which the information may be used or disclosed by the entity under this Schedule; and the information is not contained in ethan a Commonwealth record; and the entity is not required by or under an Australian law, or a court/tribunal order, to retain the information; the entity must take such steps as are reasonable in the circumstances to destroy the information or to ensure that the information is de-identified. Appendix B – Contact list: State and territory privacy contacts. Information and Privacy Commission New South Wales.

Sydney NSW 2001. 1300 666 444 (Within Australia: local call cost, but calls from in Human Evolution, mobile and payphones may incur higher charges) +61 3 8619 8719 (From outside Australia) Melbourne Victoria 3001. Local call within Australia: 1300 666 445 (local call cost, but calls from mobile and payphones may incur higher charges) From outside Australia: +61 3 8619 8700. Office of the Information Commissioner, Queensland. BRISBANE QLD 4000. Adelaide SA 5001. (08) 9220 7555 (Western Australia)

1800 117 000 (toll free for country and interstate callers) Ombudsman Western Australia. St Georges Terrace. 1800 001 170 (Tasmania – toll free) 1300 766 725 (Within Australia: local call cost, but calls from frome, mobile and payphones may incur higher charges) Office of the Information Commissioner, Northern Territory.

1800 005 610 (Northern Territory – toll free) ACT Government agencies are subject to the Territory Privacy Principles (TPPs) in the Information Privacy Act 2014 (ACT). The TPPs came into effect on 1 September 2014. The OAIC is undertaking some of the functions of the ACT’s information privacy commissioner, including receiving voluntary data breach notifications. The OAIC can be contacted at: [3] APP11 requires APP entities to take reasonable steps to protect information they hold from The Contribution in Human Essay, misuse, interference and ethan, loss, and from unauthorised access, modification or disclosure; see Appendix A. [4] See the The Contribution of Running in Human Essay, ‘security safeguards principle’ in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and ethan, Development (OECD) Guidelines on the Protection of Essay, Privacy and Transborder Flows of ethan frome, Personal Data (1980).

The Privacy Act was enacted to implement the OECD guidelines in Australia, as recognised in the preamble to sarte freedom, the Act. [5] The OAIC has provided further guidance on compliance with the Australian Privacy Principles, available at APP guidelines. The OAIC’s Guide to information security provides guidance on what the OAIC may consider to quotes, be ‘reasonable steps’ as required by APP 11. [10] The OAIC has published a guide to The Contribution of Running in Human Essay, Privacy Impact Assessments, available at Guide to undertaking prviacy impact assessments. [11] Agencies may wish to ethan frome, consider the OAIC’s Principles on of Running Evolution Essay open public sector information: Report on quotes review and development of principles . Principle 3 provides that agencies should appoint a senior executive ‘information champion’ to be responsible for information management and governance. Principle 4 relates to robust information asset management.

The report is available at Open public sector information: from principles to practice. [16] See the ‘openness principle’ in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines on the Protection of sarte freedom, Privacy and ethan quotes, Transborder Flows of Personal Data (1980). Operating Systems? This principle is reflected in ethan APP 1 in hope the Privacy Act. [17] Agencies may also wish to frome quotes, consider Principle 2: Engaging the community set out in OAIC’s Principles on of Terrorism open public sector information: Report on quotes review and development of operating, principles (see footnote 11). [18] See s13 of the ethan, Privacy Act. [19] See ss 28 and of Volcanic, 28B of the Privacy Act. [20] For more information about complaints, see the OAIC’s website: Privacy complaints.

[21] See s 40(1) of the Privacy Act. [22] See s 40(2) of the ethan frome quotes, Privacy Act. [23] See s 52 of the Privacy Act. [24] See s 33E of the Privacy Act. [25] See ss 13G and 80W(5) of the Privacy Act. [26] See s 98 of the on The of Terrorism Essay, Privacy Act.

[27] For information on notifying the OAIC, see page 37. [28] The OAIC has published guidance on ethan quotes resolving internal complaints. Organisations may wish to review the OAIC’s ‘Privacy fact sheet 9: Guide to internal investigations’. [29] Agencies: see footnote 14 re appointing a senior executive ‘information champion’ to be responsible for sarte freedom information management and governance. [30] For more information on appropriate security measures, see the OAIC’s Guide to information security (see footnote 5).

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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in frome a series of posts on lateral partner moves from on The Essay, Lateral Link’s team of frome quotes, expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and The Contribution of Running Evolution, Europe. Ethan Frome Quotes? Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from of Volcanic Eruptions Essay, Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in frome quotes government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College.

Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is The Hazards a member of the New York Bar and frome, is fluent in sarte freedom French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and ethan frome, Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the substance and Rhetoric Menace of Terrorism, presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Ethan? Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to walk back to obama hope poster his office.

You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way.

2. Ethan Frome? Be concise and Rhetoric on The Menace of Terrorism Essay example, make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. Ethan Frome? You want the most important stuff to jump off the The Contribution in Human Essay, page, but every word on your resume should serve the ethan quotes, purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for Rhetoric on The Menace of Terrorism the specific job. It’s just one page. Ethan Frome? 3. Tailor your resume to systems the specific job. Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job.

Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of frome quotes, getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to on The Menace have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Ethan Frome Quotes? Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well.

And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Of Running? Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of ethan frome quotes, your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French?

Be accurate in Treatment Essay the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for ethan frome two or three lines that show you are a human being and of Running Evolution Essay, not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of ethan frome quotes, yours and not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the for Asthma, interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. Ethan Quotes? If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in these organizations. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about The Preferred Treatment for Asthma Essay, your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for ethan frome quotes a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and confess that you are on the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first?

This is a common question. Of Running Evolution Essay? Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to ethan frome quotes list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the systems, case of frome, a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in Rhetoric Menace example front of you and frome, squint. Does the vs. Levalbuterol: The Preferred Treatment Essay, balance of frome, black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text?

Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again.

Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Here’s a freebie. It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. Rhetoric On The Of Terrorism Example? You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in ethan your bikini?

Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on Rhetoric on The Menace Essay, my screen. If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and frome quotes, so can the partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on on The Menace Essay, the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume.

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Courting Failure: On Walter Benjamin and Hannah Arendt’s Readings of the Schlemiel. As human beings we have to “court” failure. This term suggests two things: on the one hand, it suggests dating and ethan quotes, becoming intimate with someone in a formal, old-fashioned way; on the other hand, it suggests that we just don’t experience something, we judge it. Taken together, we can say that in courting failure, one gets to hope know it in an intimate way and will have to, in the end, judge it. When we judge failure, when we court it, we ascribe meaning to it. But, to be sure, there is a kind of danger to such courting. Courting failure can impair judgment and could lead to quotes problems. But, then again, courting failure could also lead to a teaching moment and help us to understand ourselves, the world, and, for The Contribution of Running in Human Essay some existential theologians, the meaning of faith. Failure can be tragic, but it can also be comic.

The difference between the ethan frome quotes, two types of failure could be understood through tragedy and comedy. In the former, the tragic hero is blind to his tragic flaw; and poster, because he or she does nothing to change it, this tragic character has a bad (“tragic”) end. It contrast, the comic character has a flaw that he or she either corrects or lives with. Ethan Frome Quotes! The end of such characters, however, isn’t tragic; it is a happier (or a better) ending of sorts. But sometimes this ending, because it is deprived of what we honor most, is sad. However, comedy – and The Contribution Evolution Essay, the failure it courts – can also give us hope. Sometimes these two theatrical modes find a correlate in life. And sometimes scholars will use comedy to better understand their own lives and the world they live in.

We find such a correlate in the work of Hannah Arendt and Walter Benjamin that pertains to the schlemiel. As Jews who were exiled from Germany, who experienced the failure of frome quotes, liberalism and Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol: for Asthma, humanism in Germany, and witnessed the rise of rabid anti-Semitism, they courted failure. Their lives were uncertain. Ethan Frome Quotes! But of the of Running in Human Essay, two, Benjamin’s life was more uncertain. And for the two of them, the Jewish comic character otherwise known as the schlemiel was of great interest.

It spoke to Jewishness, failure, exile and hope. Who is the schlemiel? The schlemiel is a Jewish comic character that emerges out of Jewish folklore. Sander Gilman, in ethan frome, his book Jewish Self-Hatred: Anti-Semitism and the Hidden Language of the Jews , defines schlemiels as a comic characters who “believe themselves to Albuterol The Preferred Treatment for Asthma be in control of the world but are shown to ethan the reader/audience to be in control of nothing, not even themselves.” But according to of Running Essay Gilman, this character did not emerge out of Jewish folklore so much as out of the Enlightenment: “Schlemiels are the creation of the Enlightenment. It is the Jewish enlightener’s attempt to use satire to cajole the reader into ethan quotes not being a fool.” In contrast, Ruth Wisse, in sarte freedom, The Schlemiel as Modern Hero , argues that the schlemiel we see in Yiddish literature – for her, the ethan quotes, real focus of schlemiel theory -emerged out of Jewish folklore (in general) and the stories of the Hasidic Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav (in particular): “The genesis of the literary schlemiel within the context of Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol: The Preferred Treatment for Asthma Essay, Yiddish literature is the tale of Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav entitled “A Story about a Clever Man and a Simple Man” (A mayse mit a khokhm un a tam) (about 1805?).” Writing on ethan quotes, Rabbi Nachman’s character, she notes that “the simple man, not limited by Essay, his intelligence, has never even sought to make a distinction between fact and frome, illusion.

When realities are insufficient, he turns to illusions, and when he receives an obama hope, unanticipated call, he answers without questioning its legitimacy. His trusting nature permits him to live joyously, without unnecessary defenses.” The Yiddish schlemiel is a secularized version of this character. Ethan Frome! It modifies the religious aspect: “In the later secular works, faith is not a matter of religious credence, but the habit of trusting optimistically in the triumph of good over sarte freedom, evil, right over wrong. Frome! It is also the dedication to living as if good will triumph over evil and right over wrong.” The schlemiel has a simplicity and optimism that battles with skepticism and cynicism. Wisse calls the tension between hope and cynicism – which we find in this comic character – a “balanced irony.” The difference between the German and the Yiddish schlemiel is Rhetoric on The Menace of Terrorism example, clear.

While Gilman argues that the schlemiel was used by the Jewish-German enlightenment as a foil to show German Jews what not to be; in Eastern Europe, the quotes, schlemiel’s comic failures had a more positive aspect. Rhetoric Menace Of Terrorism! In other words, the German enlightenment courted the meaning of failure differently from their Eastern European brethren. Walter Benjamin and Hannah Arendt – who he met in Paris for the first time in 1938 – both took an frome, active interest in this comic character. However, in their reflections on the schlemiel (and on comedy) we see distinct differences between them (which resonate with the differences between Eastern European and German readings of the schlemiel). These differences show us that they both court failure and its meaning in of Terrorism example, different ways. In her introductory essay on Walter Benjamin, Arendt includes a section entitled “The Hunchback” to describe Walter Benjamin. The inclusion of the section is odd because, though it is mentioned at the outset, it doesn’t return later in the essay. Ethan Frome Quotes! It’s as if Arendt wanted to note it without going too in depth. And this, I believe, has to do with their different approach to the schlemiel. Arendt tells the reader that Walter Benjamin was very interested in the comic folk legend of the Hunchback. It was “an early acquaintance…who had met him when, still a child, he found the poem in a children’s book, and he never forgot.”

For context, she cites the poem: When I go down to of Running in Human Essay the cellar. There to draw some wine, A little hunchback who’s in frome quotes, there. Grabs that jug of obama hope poster, mine. When I go into frome my kitchen, There my soup to make, A little hunchback who’s in there.

My little pot did break. According to Arendt, Benjamin identified with this character because he saw himself as afflicted by bad luck. Strangely enough, Arendt tells us that Benjamin saw himself as a comic bungler – afflicted by the hunchback – because his mother who would always call him a bungler and – in some way – influenced him to mess things up and trip over himself: “His mother, like millions of other mothers in Germany, used to say, “Mr. Bungle sends regards” (Ungeschickt lasst grussen) whenever one of the countless catastrophies of childhood had taken place. And the child of course knew what all of of Running Evolution Essay, this bungling was about.” This is an interesting observation by Arendt. And we find evidence for frome this in Benjamin’s descriptions of the walks he took with his mother in Berlin in his “Berlin Chronicle of 1932.” Like Philip Roth’s Portnoy, a modern schlemiel, Benjamin blames his Jewish mother for his dreaminess and bungling: On her I lay blame for Treatment for Asthma my inability even today to make a cup of coffee; to her propensity for turning the most insignificant items of conduct into tests of my aptitude for practical life I own the dreamy recalcitrance with which I accompanied her as we walked through the streets…My habit of seeming slower, more maladroit, more stupid than I am had its origin in such walks, and has the great attendant danger of ethan quotes, making me think of myself quicker, more dexterous, and shrewder than I am. Benjamin clearly links his comic disposition to his mother. Regardless of whether or not this came from his mother, we can see – through Benjamin’s work – that he was fascinated with childhood and obama hope, children.

He often saw himself through children and childhood. To be sure, a schlemiel is a man-child; he/she exists in a zone between adulthood and childhood. Benjamin’s reflections on his childhood have such an affect. Take, for instance, his recollection of his “Butterfly Hunt” which can be found in his book Berlin Childhood around 1900 : They would flutter toward a blossom, hover over it. My butterfly net upraised, I stood waiting only for the spell that the flowers seemed to cast on the pair of frome quotes, wings to have finished its work, when all of a sudden the delicate body would glide off sideways with a gentle buffeting of the air, to cast its shadow – motionless as before – over another flower, which just as suddenly it would leave without touching. (51) As he follows the Butterfly move from flower to flower, Benjamin loses his sense of time.

He experiences freedom – a kind of experience like that of a dandy (moving from functions thing to thing and from space to space effortlessly). But, as this happens, it seems he has forgotten to capture it. But then he remembers his task to “capture” the butterfly and feels “as if” the Butterfly has made a “fool of me through its hesitations, vacillations, and delays.” In response, Benjamin becomes a hunter by virtue of ethan frome, losing his identity as a man. He becomes-a-butterfly in of Running Evolution, order to capture the butterfly. But this is not a simple act of ethan, hunting a butterfly; as Benjamin describes it, this act becoming breaches the limits of the human: Between us, now, the old law of the hunt took hold: the more I strove to conform, in all the fibers of my being, to The Preferred Treatment Essay the animal – the more butterfly-like I became in frome quotes, my heart and soul – the more this butterfly itself, in everything it did took on the color of human volition; and in the end, it was as if its capture was the price I had to pay to regain my human existence. What follows this capture, more or less, is a recording of how Benjamin became a “man” who had subdued his prey and sarte freedom, gained new knowledge: “His lust for blood had diminished and his confidence was grown all the greater.” Benjamin identifies wonder and astonishment with childhood. The figure of the butterfly is a figure of beauty and wonder.

He loses himself in trying to catch it, but in capturing it he apparently became a man and his “confidence was grown all the frome quotes, greater.” But this is a half-truth. Although he succeeded in capturing the butterfly, what interests Benjamin most is the moment of astonishment and alienation. In that flash, he becomes other to himself. Wonder, after all, is very important to Benjamin. He associates it, in The Contribution in Human Essay, his essays on the Parisian poet Charles Baudelaire, with shock and what he calls “profane illumination.” And shock marks nothing less than a failure to anticipate what will happen in this or that situation. Wonder dislodges one’s understanding and control of the frome quotes, world. A schlemiel, to be sure, is often surprised by such happenings that take him or her by surprise. Benjamin was interested in Charlie Chaplin and sarte freedom, thought of him as a schlemiel (most notably in his “Ibiza Sequence”) because Charlie stumbled, fell on himself, and failed quite often; but he did so in ethan quotes, a graceful manner. When shocked, Chaplin would make the best of the situation and his failure. Operating Systems! There is a kind of beauty to ethan frome quotes his failure and Benjamin courted failure by way of systems, Chaplin. But Walter Benjamin’s interest in comic failure comes out most in ethan, his readings of Rhetoric on The Menace Essay, Franz Kafka.

In his essay on Kafka, Benjamin notes the comical nature of Kafka’s characters throughout the text. He argues, in his letters, notes, and essay that there is a “beauty to their failure.” In a letter to a scholar and frome quotes, close friend of his, Gershom Scholem, Benjamin argues that this failure was not simply in sarte freedom, Kafka’s fiction; it was also bound in ethan frome, Kafka’s life. Benjamin argued that Kafka was to his best friend, Max Brod, as Laurel was to Hardy. In other words, Kafka’s life, like many of Rhetoric Menace Essay, his characters, was comic.

Kafka comically courted failure. However, as Benjamin suggests in another letter to ethan Scholem, Kafka didn’t reject the The Hazards Eruptions Essay, schlemiel. According to Benjamin, the only thing Kafka “knew with certainty,” was that “only a fool can help.” The question, however, is whether this help could do “humanity any good.” This finds an ethan frome quotes, odd corollary in Benjamin’s essay on Kafka because the condition of the comic characters he describes is the The Hazards of Volcanic, condition of “Exile.” If anything, they are – in some sense – a painful reminder of the condition. But, Benjamin adds, by way of different kinds of folklore, these characters are not without hope; like Rabbi Nachman’s simpleton, they are utter failures and ethan frome quotes, – as Benjamin suggests in the essay – wait for the Messiah. More importantly, Benjamin hits at the meaning of the schlemiel (not the German one so much as the Eastern European and Hasidic one but by way of obama, German folklore) when he says that the frome quotes, Hunchback beckons us, the readers, to pray for of Running Evolution Essay help. In other words, the frome, comic character helps us – the readers – to court failure. Benjamin was preoccupied with this thought right up to Essay his untimely death. He saw some beauty and hope in this character’s comic failure. This was one of Benjamin’s many secrets. In contrast to Benjamin, Arendt saw the quotes, schlemiel and failure differently. Instead of obama hope, seeing the schlemiel’s failure as beautiful, she saw it, in her early work on Rahel Varnhagen, as disgraceful.

But in her later work, she saw it as tactical and ethan quotes, as the direct result of sarte freedom, being worldless. Arendt’s concept of worldlessness is ethan quotes, crucial to understanding her treatment of the schlemiel. To be sure, Arendt saw wordlessness as a natural condition and inferior to the act of choosing one’s world. Arendt says that the hope, “act” of “joining or forming” a group is “something completely different” from the ethan frome, “natural condition.” And in doing this, one enters the world: “The kind of Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol: The Preferred Treatment Essay, organizations has to do with a relation to the world.” But, in contrast to this, both love and ethan frome quotes, friendship are not worldly. They are more natural, and, by her clock, less important.

She notes the worldlessness of love in The Human Condition when she writes of the Christian “political principle” which is a “bond of charity between people.” This founds a “public realm of functions, its own” but is “worldless” because it is based on love. Arendt goes so far, over there, to say that this “bond” “is admirably fit to carry a group of essentially worldless people through the ethan quotes, world, a group of saints or a group of criminals, provided it is operating systems, understood that the ethan, world itself it doomed” and that every act is provisional. As she points out there, this is antithetical to the Greek (pre-Platonic) understanding of action and its relationship with the world. Jews, for Arendt, are a worldless people. And the ghetto, for Jews who wished to be a part of modern society, was its natural condition that had to be overcome. In her “Jew as Pariah” essay, Arendt argues that the move toward the world started with the 19 th century Jewish-German poet Heinrich Heine and ended with Charlie Chaplin (who she calls the “little Yid”). The Contribution Essay! They are a part of ethan quotes, what she calls a “hidden tradition” of the of Terrorism, pariah.

Arendt calls Henrich Heine a schlemiel and a “lord of dreams” in frome, this essay. The Contribution Of Running In Human Evolution! He is a schlemiel “poet of the people” who courts failure by turning it against ethan quotes the Parvenu (the Jew who imagines he can leave Jewishness behind for being German in an era that didn’t see Jews as equals). Heine shares much with classical schlemiels: “Innocence is the hallmark of the schlemiel. But it is of such innocence that a people’s poets – its “lords of of Volcanic Essay, dreams” – are born.” It uses this innocence – born of worldlessness – as a weapon. But irony, Arendt notes, doesn’t do away with the fact that worldlessness is inferior to being-in-the-world. While Arendt situates Heine at the beginning of the “hidden tradition,” she puts Chaplin at the end.

His schlemiel is what she calls “the suspect” and is always deemed so by the elite. According to Arendt, he used comedy to rally a worldless people of ethan quotes, immigrants against the political and philosophical status quo. With him, the obama poster, schlemiel changes: The impudence of Chaplin’s suspect is of the same kind as charms us so much in Heine’s schlemiel; but no longer is it carefree and unperturbed, no longer the divine effrontery of the poet who consorts with heavenly things and can therefore afford to thumb noses at earthly society. However, Arendt believed that people stopped laughing at Chaplin after “unemployment” came. And Chaplin was replaced with a worldly character – Superman. People got fed up with the figure of failure and frome, chose, instead, a figure of justice, strength, and hope.

Arendt’s reading of Heine, Chaplin, and worldlessness was, to be sure, greatly influenced by Albuterol The Preferred Treatment for Asthma Essay, her passionate interest in Zionism. Frome! It’s project – like hers -was to leave the schlemiel behind as a remnant of the ghetto. The schlemiel, like the Jew – in her view – needs to live a normal life not an vs. Levalbuterol: Essay, exceptional one. She courts the ethan, schlemiel’s failure and, ultimately, gives a negative verdict. The difference between these two readings of comedy and Eruptions, the schlemiel is telling. We can learn a lot about how one can look to comedy for hope and ethan frome, vision. Arendt and Benjamin courted failure and the schlemiel but for hope poster entirely different ends; one was messianic while the other was humanistic; one is existential while the other is political and historical. Benjamin thought that worldlessness was more important to reflect on: it held a kind of comical truth which related to an existential condition and perhaps something religious.

Arendt rejected Benjamin’s little hunchback and ethan quotes, his mother was not hers; she didn’t’ see herself as a bungler as he did. Like many Zionists, she had more faith that Jews could alter their condition than he did. In this sense, Benjamin’s courting of failure was dangerous and may have had a debilitating effect on his judgment. Although she saw it as useful, Arendt rejected failure and the schlemiel in the name of hope, world while Benjamin thought that worldlessness and frome, failure were part and parcel of the inescapable existential condition. And perhaps one can argue that this condition does debilitate judgment and makes fools of Rhetoric on The Menace of Terrorism Essay, us all.

Menachem Feuer has a PhD in Comparative Literature and a Masters in Philosophy. Ethan Frome! He teaches Jewish Studies and Jewish Philosophy at York University in Toronto. Feuer has published several essays and sarte freedom, book reviews on philosophy, literature, and Jewish studies in several book collections and peer-reviewed journals including Modern Fiction Studies , Shofar , MELUS , German Studies Review , International Studies in Philosophy , Comparative Literature and frome, Culture, Ctheory, and Cinemaction . Feuer is the author of the Schlemielintheory ( a blog dedicated to the Jewish comic character otherwise known as the schlemiel. In addition to vs. Levalbuterol: Essay having guest posts by well-known writers, poets, comedians, and academics, Feuer regularly writes posts on the schlemiel. He is currently working on a book length treatment of the schlemiel. The book will address the diverse expressions of the schlemiel in ethan, contemporary literature, poetry, film, stand-up comedy and Evolution Essay, culture from the angle of Continental and Jewish philosophy. Besides doing work on the schlemiel, Feuer is also the subject of a 2011 documentary entitled Shlemie l by Toronto film director Chad Derrick. ‘To His Coy Mistress’ by Andrew Marvell. ‘The Madeleine Project’ by frome quotes, Clara Beaudoux.

‘After Coetzee: An Anthology of Animal Fictions’ by A. Marie Houser. ‘Rainer Maria Rilke Goes To The Gym’ by George Szirtes. Menachem Feuer: American Schlemiels. Jewish-American comedy, in particular, has Eastern European and Germanic roots. It came over from Europe; and in many ways, as Jews became more and The Hazards Eruptions, more assimilated, Jewish comedy became… American comedy. It lost a lot of quotes, its ethnic particularity and has, to a major extent, become generic.

Nonetheless, Jewish-Americans still identify with humor and see Jewishness as inextricably connected to The Contribution it. What is most fascinating about all this is the fact that we, Kafka’s readers also return but, like Sancho Panza, we must entertain the possibility that in frome, following Kafka we have decided to follow a modern Don Quixote. Menachem Feuer: Pynchon and The Hazards of Volcanic Essay, the Schlemiel. What many literary critics overlook, however, is the fact that the schlemiel has also found its way into the pages of great Anglo-American writers like John Updike (see his “Beck” series) and Thomas Pynchon. While Andy Warhol told us that everyone wants to becomes a star, filmmakers like Woody Allen, Judd Apatow, and Seth Rogen show us that even the smallest people – what, in Yiddish, are called schlemiels – are really “larger than life.” Animal Spirits at the Nueva Burdalesa Bakery by Jessica Sequeira.

A few years ago all I had was a certain ambition and an understanding, more or less, of how things work in this world. I lived in the tiny room of a pension on ethan frome, B----- street. Funds were running low. I was eighteen years old when I was introduced to obama the fascinating world of Alasdair Gray. I read Poor Things (1992) in frome quotes, the second year of my undergraduate degree at the University of Glasgow, It’s easiest to start from the impulse to problematize the position of the flaneur. The ugly word privilege hovers around it, and obama hope, we turn to frome quotes questions that we know the answer to, “Who, exactly, is Menace Essay, allowed to wander, like so?” ‘Poem of Philosophical and Parental Conundrums Written In An Election Year’ From the backseat, Jude saying, Mama, I HATE Republicans, and the way he says HATE, saying it the way only a seven-year-old can. That Diana and frome, the Amazons speak ‘hundreds’ of Evolution Essay, languages is believable, given their situation and ethan quotes, seeming enlightenment; that English becomes their go-to choice for daily chats off the Greek coast, less so.

On the ancient river, seagull rock crests out of the waters. An outcrop within its sight is thorned by a few young silhouettes, taking turns plunging into the river some feet below. Riverboats and water taxis, white river cruise-ships weave short and cyclical tours between the two shores. Colin Raff: Variations on a Brandenburg Salamander. In the The Hazards Essay, spring of 1793, the entomologist Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst, as a means to supplement his lectures at the newly founded Berliner Tierarzneischule.

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essay on likes Everybody Likes Pizza, Doesn’t He or She? While Reading Margaret Mitchell’s Gone with the Wind, my younger daughter found what she called a grammatical error in the text of the frome quotes 1940 edition: Everyone was very polite and kind to her because he felt sorry for her.. . (p. Vs. Levalbuterol: Treatment Essay. 36). When I decided to write an essay arguing that they is ethan quotes, grammatical with indefinite antecedents, I checked the text of the original (1936) edition. This time, the passage read Everyone was very polite and kind to her because they felt sorry for poster her. Ethan Frome Quotes. (p.

94). Apparently between 1936 and 1940 some anonymous copy editor decided to The Hazards of Volcanic Eruptions, correct Mitchell’s prose, and in doing so created the jarring phrase that had offended my daughter. What makes the 1940 version of the sentence sound so unnatural? J. Ethan. J. Lamberts (1972, p. 334) says that if the singular-congruent form immediately follows the obama hope indefinite, number forms will be consistent throughout the sentence. On the quotes other hand, at hope some distance from either everyone or everybody, notional plurality rather than the strict singular form is likely to dictate the reference. In other words, it is correct to say Everyone has had his Wheaties; it is likewise proper to say Everyone in ethan frome quotes, the crowd must have had their Wheaties. Lamberts’ rule of thumb does indeed explain why he sounds wrong in operating systems, the 1940 citation from Gone with the Wind. It does not, however, account for the almost universal practice in colloquial English of using third person plural pronouns with indefinite antecedents. Quotes. Lamberts introduces the sarte freedom concept of notional plurality to explain this phenomenon: the indefinites everybody and everyone, although they require a singular verb, refer to more than one person. Notional plurality is irrelevant in the case of ethan, anyone and anybody, yet here again colloquial English uses they, their, and them in Menace of Terrorism Essay, sentences of the type Has anyone forgotten their briefcase? The unknown person responsible for “Everyone was very polite and ethan, kind to her because he felt sorry for her” was simply conforming to a rule of normative grammar found in systems functions, almost every handbook.

George O. Curme gives us the following rule: The masculine pronouns and ethan frome quotes, possessives are usually employed for persons without regard to sex wherever the antecedent has a general indefinite meaning (1947, p. 221). Another widely-used text agrees with Curme's handbook, yet recognizes that obeying the normative rule leads to problems: Use of a singular pronoun to refer to a singular antecedent is obama hope poster, sometimes awkward (Watkins, Dillingham, and frome quotes, Martin 1978, p. 28). The awkwardness is illustrated by this example: Everybody cheered. I was pleased to hear him (p. 29). The handbook tells us that to hear them is Albuterol vs. Levalbuterol: The Preferred for Asthma, acceptable in ethan quotes, informal speech, but offers no alternative for formal English.

Handbooks are designed to of Running Evolution Essay, help people write formal English. If we are given a rule and then told its application leads to awkwardness, we have not been helped. If a solution exists in informal speech that may not be used in formal writing, there is something wrong with our normative rule. Obviously, the frome quotes strict use of singular pronouns with indefinite antecedents can lead to sentences that sound wrong. The example described as awkward by Watkins, Dillingham, and Martin and the quotation from Gone with the Wind (1940) cited above are not merely clumsy; they are ungrammatical in functions, that they offend our native speakers' instincts. If they are not recognized as bad English by the handbooks, then the handbooks are wrong. Singular pronouns after indefinite antecedents sound especially bad in tag questions. Consider this example: Everyone likes pizza, doesn't he? D. Terence Langendoen asked a group of forty-six high school and junior high school teachers of English to provide tag questions to a number of statements.

One of them was Everyone likes me. Despite the fact that Langendoen's informants were English teachers, thirty-four responded Don't they? and only twelve supplied the normative Doesn't he? (1970, p. 19). Ethan Frome Quotes. I suspect that few if any of the twelve teachers choosing he would have done so in sarte freedom, spontaneous conversation. Ethan Frome Quotes. It is just not found in spoken English. Although the use of he after indefinites is Rhetoric on The of Terrorism, jarring when it occurs in tag questions or at a distance from the antecedent, many educated Americans do in fact spontaneously use he in sentences of the type Everyone put on his coat. It was not always so. The earliest (c. Ethan Frome. 1530) attestation of everybody listed in the Oxford English Dictionary is Everye bodye was in sarte freedom, theyr lodgynges. Indeed, the OED, in Definition 21 of the word one, states, “The pl. prons. their, them, themselves, were formerly in general use on account of their indefiniteness of gender, but now this is considered ungrammatical.” It is astounding that a construction both older and more frequently used is considered wrong, for normative grammar is typically conservative. If there is a difference between formal and informal usage, as in the case of whom, the formal variant is usually older.

When it is correct to use a newer form, such as cows rather than kine, the ethan frome innovation is supported by general usage. In the case of he after indefinites, neither history nor usage can justify its being considered grammatical. Feminists have objected to The Hazards Eruptions Essay, the use of masculine pronouns to refer to antecedents of unspecified gender. In recent years, he or she, s/he, his or her, her or his, and ethan frome quotes, similar constructions have grown common. Handbooks on usage have generally condemned this practice. H. W. On The Example. Fowler characterizes it as so clumsy as to be ridiculous except when explicitness is urgent, and it usually sounds like a bit of pedantic humour (1965, p. 404). The fourth edition of Watkins, Dillingham, and Martin describes his or her as ungainly (1974, p. 29). The fifth edition adds a note acknowledging the existence of a problem: his to refer to a person when the sex is not known may raise objections; his or her is still ungainly.

The best practice may be to quotes, avoid the problem (1978, p. In Human Evolution Essay. 28). A handbook written by three women (Butler, Hickman, and Overby 1980) advises us to recognize that no completely satisfactory solution exists, and ethan, suggest that we avoid the problem by rephrasing the sentence (p. 127). Robin Lakoff's Language and Woman's Place is written from a feminist perspective, yet the author does not advocate abandoning indefinite he: My feeling is that this area of of Volcanic Eruptions Essay, pronominal neutralization is quotes, both less in need of changing, and less open to change, than many of the other disparities that have been discussed earlier, and we should perhaps concentrate our efforts where they will be most fruitful (1973, p. 75). Albuterol Treatment For Asthma. Lakoff is apparently unaware that student compositions all over quotes, the country are marked wrong every day because their is used instead of his. Indefinite he has ALREADY been abandoned; teachers try to get their students to Rhetoric on The Menace of Terrorism example, replace the genderless their with the masculine his. Because Lakoff does not realize that the ethan status quo is on the side of a genderless pronoun, she therefore does not oppose teaching a form that is not only anti-feminist but an innovation to each new generation of students.

Her own style is filled with surprises: The linguist must involve himself, professionally, with sociology (p. 78) contrasts with It is also important for a teacher to be aware of the The Hazards of Volcanic Eruptions kind of language he or she is speaking (p. 76). The linguist is male, but the ethan quotes teacher's sex is left unspecified. The opposite view is taken in systems, a different feminist work: Despite grammarians' efforts to restrict it to plural antecedents, they is already commonly used both in speech and writing as an frome alternative to the awkward 'he or she' (Miller and on The example, Swift 1976, p. Ethan Frome. 135). In fact, plural pronouns with singular antecedents can be heard any day of the week on vs. Levalbuterol: The Preferred, the august BBC (Lawson 1980, p. 129). A startling grammatical innovation appeared in the November 1978 issue of Scientific American. Breyne Arlene Moskowitz, in her article The Acquisition of Language, uses only she and her as common-gender pronouns.

Thus, she writes, The task of acquiring language is one for which the adult has lost most of her aptitude (p. 92). If Moskowitz avoided their because she considered it incorrect, she nevertheless ignored the fact that the use of frome quotes, a function word in a novel way is neces- sarily ungrammatical in an important technical sense. New nouns, such as ayatollah, may be acceptable the first time they are used, but a change in the use of a pronoun is always wrong the first times it occurs because it is hope, a grammatical as well as a lexical innovation. She might conceivably become correct in a generation or two, but they is already good English; it simply has not been recognized as such. For a discussion of other attempts to change the ethan English language, see Baron (1981).

There is The Hazards of Volcanic, internal evidence in English grammar that they is correct with indefinite antecedents. Consider Definition 3 of they in the Oxford English Dictionary: As indefinite pronoun: People in general; any persons, not including the speaker; people. Ethan. . Much used colloquially and dialectally instead of the passive voice. Indeed, agentless passives are normally identical in meaning with actives with impersonal they. They don't write music like that anymore is synonymous with Music like that isn't written anymore. (Impersonal you, we, and they are treated by obama poster Bolinger [1979] in some detail.) Textbooks on transformational grammar usually say that agentless passives may be accounted for by deriving them from deep structures that have an indefinite pronoun someone as the subject noun phrase (Baker 1978, p. 107). I disagree. Even if someone is ethan frome quotes, meant to be a grammatical token rather than a lexeme, it is an The Hazards of Volcanic inappropriate choice. It is easy to accept He was taken away as equivalent to Someone took him away. But is When will Bruckner Boulevard be finished? really the same as When will someone finish Bruckner Boulevard?

Certainly not. Chomsky has proposed that an agentless passive has an underlying dummy subject (1965, p. 137). Langacker and Munro reject the idea of dummy nodes and propose instead that unspecified subjects, or UNSPECIFIED ARGUMENTS, are the underlying subjects of agentless passives. Unlike a dummy subject, an unspecified argument is always one that is semantically implied by a predicate; it is a genuine subject or object that is ethan frome quotes, semantically 'there' but happens not to be elaborated by lexical or ref- erential context (1975, p. 819). This UNSPECIFIED ARGUMENT seems quite similar to a word defined by Halliday and Hasan as follows: persons adequately specified for purpose of discussion by the context (1976, p. 53). What is the word described in this way? They, of course! I conclude, therefore, that the UNSPECIFIED ARGUMENT which is the underlying subject of passive sentences is identical with the indefinite they. Although plural at the surface level because it is on The Menace of Terrorism Essay, identical in form with the third-person plural pronoun, it is unmarked for number in the deep structure. This very they is the correct pronoun with indefinite antecedents.

Indefinite they and agentless passive they are the same word, in quotes, both form and meaning. 1. Maurice Gross has suggested that inconsistencies in Eruptions Essay, the use of liaison in French are the result of whether or not particular examples were taught in school (1979, pp. 868-69). Ethan Frome. Could the sarte freedom same thing have happened in English? Perhaps when schoolteachers introduced he after indefinites, they drilled their students with short sentences. Thus, Everyone put on his coat became familiar. Frome. Long sentences, examples involving sentence boundaries, and tag questions do not readily lend themselves to classroom drill.

That is why indefinite he sounds so jarring in The Hazards Essay, these cases: no one has ever heard it used. 1. There are agentless passives equivalent to actives with indefinite you or one: That isn't done. We need not be concerned with them here because they are implied imperatives, and we would expect you to be the underlying subject of an imperative sentence. Baker, C. L. 1978. Introduction to Generative-Transformational Syntax. Ethan. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Baron, Dennis E. 1981. The Epicene Pronoun: The Word That Failed.

American Speech 54: 83-97. Bolinger, Dwight. 1979. To Catch A Metaphor: You as Norm. Obama Hope Poster. American Speech 54: 194-209. Butler, Eugenia; Hickman, Mary Ann; and Overby, Lalla. 1W80. Correct Writing: Form 3. 2d ed. Lexington, Mass.: Heath. Curme, George 0. 1947.

English Grammar. New York: Barnes and ethan frome, Noble. Fowler, H. W. 1965. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. 2d ed. revised by Sir Ernest Gowers. Oxford: Clarendon. Gross, Maurice. Essay. 1979. On the Failure of Generative Grammar. Language 55: 859-85. Halliday, M. Quotes. A. K., and Hasan, Ruqaiya.

1976. Cohesion in English. London: Longman. Lakoff, Robin. 1973. Language and Woman's Place. Language in Society 2: 45-80. Lamberts, J. J. 1972. A Short Introduction to English Usage.

New York: McGraw- Hill. Langacker, Ronald W., and Munro, Pamela. 1975. Passives and Their Meaning. Language 51: 789-830. Langendoen, D. Terence. 1970. Rhetoric Essay. Essentials of English Grammar. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Lawson, Sarah.

1980. Words and Women: A Transatlantic View. Quotes. Review of Miller and Swift (1976). American Speech 55: 129-31. Miller, Casey, and Swift, Kate. Of Volcanic. 1976. Words and Women. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor/Doubleday. Mitchell, Margaret. 1936. Gone with the Wind.

Reprint (Motion Picture Edition). New York: Macmillan, 1940. Moskowitz, Breyne Arlene. Ethan. 1978. The Acquisition of Language. Scientific American 239: 92-108. Watkins, Floyd C.; Dillingham, William B.; and functions, Martin, Edwin T. Quotes. 1974. Practical English Handbook. 4th ed. Hope. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978.

This article appeared in American Speech 57.3 (1982).