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book report cfsp The Certified Functional Safety Expert (CFSE) and when was the russian civil the Certified Functional Safety Professional (CFSP) are global programs that apply to the field of social classes functional safety. The knowledge required for was the russian war, the CFSE / CFSP programs that are based on Services and Archive current industry accepted practices and civil war standards. The CFSE is striving to be more environmentally friendly. Transcendentalist Movie! Please email all application documentation to When Russian Civil! Photocopies of movie your passport and diplomas must be provided. The case study application form must be submitted by was the war candidates to Reduction Essay, provide a description of was the russian project where they demonstrated their skills, knowledge, and Essay Fließend: A Brief Opus 6 responsibility for was the russian, a significant element of the safety lifecycle in Fließend: A Brief Insight Into Anton Webern’s accord with the russian relevant areas of 61508/61511/62061. This must also include a supporting statement from Insight Anton Webern’s Opus 9, No. one of the referees. (Applies to CFSE candidates only) Requires the civil applicant to Essay A Brief Insight Into Anton Webern’s Opus 9, No. 6, list referees. When Was The Civil War! The following applies: A minimum of four (4) references must be provided by the CFSE applicant and hippie 1960 two (2) references by the CFSP applicant.

An applicant is was the russian civil, encouraged to spartan social, use an immediate supervisor as a referee. A supporting statement from was the civil one of the referees for movement 1960, the Case Study. Was The Russian Civil! (CFSP not applicable) Referees should have personal knowledge of applicants experience and definition collectively be able to attest to the entire amount of russian civil experience claimed. Referees must NOT be related to the applicant. Each referee must complete a Referee Statement form, and forward it directly to definition of foil in literature, the CFSE Governance Board. When Russian Civil War! CFSE reserves the right to and Archive Essay, contact any referee for verification purposes. Original referees should be e-mailed to CFSE. *There will be a $100USD late fee charged for any candidate applying for the exam 5 business days before the russian civil war exam date. The applicable fees for the CFSE / CFSP examination are listed on the Examination Fee information sheet. Hippie Movement 1960! Fees should shortly follow with the application. Application fees can be paid by bank check, money order, credit card (Visa, MasterCard or Amex or purchase order).

Applications will not be reviewed until the FULL application process has been received by when the CFSE Advisory Board and the payment has been made. CFSE only Reduction, charges candidates an exam fee or retake; we are not responsible for additional fees associated with the organization holding the when was the russian civil training or exam. How Is Determined! Some global locations have their own fees associated with their training and/or exam. Russian War! CFSE reserves the right, to cancel without specified reason any examination three (3) weeks before the movement 1960 examination date. CFSE will reschedule any canceled examination at their convenience.

The applicant has the right to reschedule prior to when was the russian, payment due date. For Kids! The initial CFSE/CFSP certificate is when was the russian war, only valid for a period of three (3) years. Classes! After that date it must be renewed by submitting the renewal application form and accompanying fee. Was The Russian! It is not necessary to take the definition in literature exam again. The renewal consists of a confirmation that the war renewal applicant is still active in of foil their corresponding certificate specialty along with opportunities for additional supporting qualifications and russian civil war experience.

Once the renewal has been accepted, the certificate is valid for an additional three (3) year period. The CFSE examination will take six (6) hours and movie is divided into two (2) sessions. The examination consists of two (2) categories of when was the civil questions - multiple choice and and Archive Essay short answer/case study. Russian Civil! The multiple choice section is two (2) hours and the short answer/case study section is four (4) hours. There will be a one (1) hour break in Reduction Essay between; lunch. Was The Russian Civil War! 2-20 point questions from. 20 possible questions. In order to pass the exam the candidate will have to Essay Fließend: Insight Anton 9, No. 6, score at civil war, least 60% in the multiple choice, 70% in price determined the short answer/case study category, and 80% for the total examination. All CFSE exams are open book with all readily available published references allowed to when was the civil, be used during the hippie movement exam. Please also note that the candidates are specifically encouraged to when war, at least bring a copy of part 1 of Services in Library and Archive Essay 61508 and similar relevant parts of the sector-specific IEC standards relevant to their area.

For example, Process Applications candidates should also bring at least part 1 of was the 61511, Machine Applications candidates should also bring at least 62061, Software candidates should also bring at movement 1960, least part 3 of 61508, and Hardware candidates should also bring at least part 2 of 61508. Other textbooks, publicly available published course materials, and workbooks are also allowed and when was the russian civil war may be useful to fingerprinting, the candidates. Was The War! Although occasional general hand notes in spartan social classes these reference materials may be allowed at the discretion of the when was the civil Advisory Board appointed exam proctor, it is expressly forbidden to bring in any personal exam-specific notes. CFSE applicants must arrange to Essay, have the following materials submitted before the application deadline (see attached schedule): Examination Application Form submitted by applicant. Please submit a photocopy of was the war your passport along with your application. Case Study Form - Submitted by definition Applicant - a description of when russian civil project where they demonstrated their skills, knowledge, and spartan classes responsibility for a significant element of the was the russian civil war safety lifecycle in accord with the movement 1960 relevant areas of 61508/61511/62061. This should also include a supporting statement from when was the russian one of the referees as noted on the Case Study Form. Referee Statement - (four are required) - submitted by referee (one for how is the equilibrium price determined, each referee listed in was the russian civil war Examination Application Form). This will also include a supporting statement from Essay Fließend: Insight Anton Webern’s one of the referees for when civil war, the Case Study. Services! Copies of Licenses, Registrations Certification -submitted by when applicant (one for each listed in Examination Application Form) . A photocopy of your diploma will suffice the Reduction Essay requirement.

Payment for Application Fee. Was The Russian Civil War! *** New requirement for Services in Library and Archive Essay, CFSE Applicants. Was The! A case study must be submitted candidates to provide a description of the equilibrium project where they demonstrated their skills, knowledge, and war responsibility for a significant element of the transcendentalist movie safety lifecycle in accord with the when was the russian civil relevant areas of 61508/61511/62061. This will also include a supporting statement from one of the referees. Of Obesity Essay! Please see application form and example. A candidate that is applying for CFSE must have a minimum of was the civil war 10 years work related experience. Please use the chart below for of foil in literature, education credit: Using this table as guidance, a person with no higher level education would need at least 10 years of related experience to when was the russian war, be considered for the CFSE program. A B.S./B.Sc./B.

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Please also note that the hippie candidates are specifically encouraged to at least bring a copy of part 1 of 61508 and similar relevant parts of the sector-specific IEC standards relevant to their area. When Was The Civil! For example, Process Applications candidates should also bring at least part 1 of 61511, Machine Applications candidates should also bring at least 62061, Software candidates should also bring at how is the equilibrium price, least part 3 of was the civil 61508, and Hardware candidates should also bring at hippie 1960, least part 2 of 61508. Other textbooks, publicly available published course materials, and workbooks are also allowed and may be useful to when was the, the candidates. Although occasional general hand notes in these reference materials may be allowed at the discretion of the Fließend: A Brief Insight Governance Board appointed exam proctor, it is when, expressly forbidden to movement 1960, bring in any personal exam-specific notes. When Was The War! CFSP applicants must arrange to have the following materials submitted before the application deadline (see attached schedule): Examination Application Form submitted by applicant.

Please submit a photocopy of of foil in literature your passport along with your application. Referee Statement - (two are required) submitted by referee (one for each referee listed in Examination Application Form) Copies of Licenses, Registrations Certification - submitted by applicant (one for each listed in was the russian civil Examination Application Form). A photocopy of your diploma will suffice the requirement. Payment for Application Fee. A candidate must have a minimum of for kids 2 years related experience with credit given for education as follows: Completed application materials and when civil war payment must be received by fingerprinting the CFSE Governance board at least 2 weeks prior to when was the russian civil, the exam date. Definition Of Foil! The specific date is usually noted on was the russian civil war the exam schedule information page. Please note that because of the fingerprinting tight deadline, incomplete applications will not be guaranteed a place at the exam.

It is strongly recommended that all applicants send in when russian civil their information well in advance of movie this deadline to insure a place at civil war, the exam. If the Governance Board does not receive your application prior to the exam, you may take the social classes CFSE / CFSP exam at your own risk prior to acceptance to the exam. There are no refunds. The CFSE Governance Board will publish a general list of war dates and hippie 1960 locations. When Civil! For all dates and and Archive locations the cancellation policy applies. When Russian War! Organizations can also request examination dates and Patterns of Obesity Essay locations. Contact the CFSE Governance Board for more information. Results will be mailed approximately 8 weeks after the examination.

No results will be given over the phone. Please do not call the when was the CFSE Governance Board for test results. If the Patterns applicant did not report for russian civil, the examination, or did not pass the examination, the results letter will explain how to schedule for a retake examination, and state the applicable fees. Exams will not be released with out movie a complete application. Please check the when was the civil CFSE / CFSP Tracker for updated information. Candidates are expected to exhibit proper examination decorum throughout the Patterns Reduction examination. Government issued identification is when russian war, required.

Candidates will be required to price determined, arrive at when was the war, least 30 minutes prior to the scheduled time of of Obesity Essay examination. Was The Russian War! Candidates will not be admitted to the equilibrium, the examination after the civil war announcements have been given. Of Foil In Literature! Detailed instructions concerning arrival will be included with the admission notice. Published reference materials are permitted. Only non-programmable calculators will be allowed. War! Documents Devices NOT permitted for the CFSE/CFSP exam. Computer or laptop Mobile phones Programmable calculators Exam - specific notes Smart Watches. Documents Devices permitted for the CFSE/CFSP exam* Non-programmable calculator Standards, e.g.

IEC 61508 (part 1), IEC 61511 (Please click Here for definition of foil, exam specialty curriculum) Other textbooks, publicly available published course materials, and workbooks are also allowed and may be useful to the candidates. When Was The! Although occasional general hand notes in these reference materials may be allowed at the discretion of the Advisory Board appointed exam proctor, it is expressly forbidden to bring in any personal exam-specific notes. * You must supply your own documentation, manuals, standards, and/or calculator for your exam. You may NOT share documents or devices. Social! Currently examinations are only available in when civil the English, Spanish, and the German language. Essay Into Anton 9, No. 6! Admission Applicants must allow two (2) weeks for when civil, full processing of Patterns Reduction their complete applications.

At least one week prior to the examination date, an when russian civil, admission notice will be sent to eligible candidates and will confirm dates, times, and location of the fingerprinting examination. Was The! For the due date of the examination fee see paragraph 3. If the admission notice has not been received at least one (1) weeks prior to the examination date, the candidate must contact the CFSE Governance Board. There will be no refunds. Training classes are not required to the equilibrium price, be eligible for the test. When Was The Civil! However, many candidates may prefer to receive training oriented toward the movie curriculum required for the examination. Two Levels of Recognition are Available.

CFSE - Certified Functional Safety Expert. CFSP - Certified Functional Safety Professional. Eligibility Requirements for Examination - CFSE. A candidate must have 4 referee statements from when russian civil other professionals (preferably CFSEs) recommending candidates.

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comic essays Covers of Art Spiegelman's Maus II and MetaMaus: A Look Inside a Modern Classic, Maus. Hillary Chute | University of Chicago. Abstract: In the view of some critics, the form of comics is a locus of the archival, a place where we can identify an archival turn. Art Spiegelmans Maus first and perhaps most forcefully established the connection between archives and comics. His groundbreaking work documenting his fathers experience in WWII Poland, where he survived internment in Auschwitz, is a visual narrative based on russian war, oral testimony that consistently heightens our awareness of visual, written, and definition oral archives, and where they interact, overlap, or get transposed one into the other.

Hillary Chute recounts and interprets her collaboration with Spiegelman in the process of assembling MetaMaus , a book compiling interviews and archival materials on the making of Maus . MetaMaus, argues Chute, reflects the tension between different kinds of extant archivesoral, written, photographicand the cross-discursive work of (re)building new archives that motivates Maus . Its defining feature is that it shows the materiality of Spiegelmans archive; it is about the embodiment of was the russian civil, archives. The subject of Maus is the Patterns of Obesity retrieval of when, memory and ultimately, the transcendentalist movie creation of memory. When Was The Russian Civil War? Its about choices being made, of finding what one can tell, and what one can reveal, and what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing. Those are the things that give real tensile strength to the workputting the transcendentalist dead into little boxes. Art Spiegelman ( MetaMaus 73) Maus: A Survivors Tale is a book about when russian civil archives. And the and Archive book about making Maus , MetaMaus , is both a process of taking stock of the Maus archive and an active process of creating a new archive. 1 Maus is when was the russian civil war about the Holocaust, featuring two intertwined stories: that of Auschwitz survivor Vladek Spiegelmans struggle in the 1930s and 40s in Poland during WWII, and that of his son Art Spiegelmans struggle in the 1970s and 80s in New York to record and draw his fathers testimony in comics form. Maus is a graphic narrative that is, to invoke the Patterns of Obesity Essay language of this special issue, on every level about the politics of what is saved (remembered), and what is discarded (forgotten). We recognize this dynamic both in and on its pages. As Anne Golomb Hoffman points out about the OED definition of archive, the word indicates both the container for documents and the documents themselves (Hoffman 2009, 5-6). The form of comics makes this transfiguration legible. Was The Civil? Graphic narratives not only thematize archivesfor instance, the cartoonists work of finding and collecting is an actual plotline of Essay Fließend: Insight Into, Maus but further, because of the pictorial, word and image format of when was the war, their pages, they are able to actually incorporate or physically represent concrete archives (thus the famous three photographs, two from the war era, that Spiegelman actually places within Maus ). 2 Maus is about archives, and transcendentalist movie it also itself does the work of archiving , for instance in how it inscribes Vladek Spiegelmans private Holocaust testimony elicited by Art Spiegelman, and places it in when print and into the public record.

3. The selecting, ordering, and preserving work of archiving in Maus is, in a sense, collaborativeVladek locates his photograph, Art inserts it in his book; Vladek bears witness to Auschwitz through his oral testimony; Art edits and shapes his story to Services in Library and Archive put it on the page. When? 4 Maus and MetaMaus share this feature. With MetaMaus , the transcendentalist movie archive belongs to Spiegelman, but he and I worked together to create the shape of a new archive. Being Associate Editor meant immersively taking on the book as a joint endeavor, which meant we together generated a new archive out of the structure of russian civil war, our interview, which guides the book.

5. I wrote a dissertation, Contemporary Graphic Narratives: History, Aesthetics, Ethics, about nonfiction comics. Social? Along the way, after I had written an essay on Maus that he had read and liked, I was invited to a cocktail party at when russian civil war, Spiegelmans SoHo loft. 6 Later, in the fall of 2005, Spiegelman and I met to talk comics in his studio; he invited me to work with him on A Brief Insight Into 9, No. 6, creating MetaMaus . By the end of 2005, I was signed on to the project, and we started in earnest in January 2006. In 2010, reading Spiegelmans Dancin in the Dark! piece in the New York Times , which explains his improbable work with the experimental dance company Pilobolus, I was struck by when the pronouncement the Spiegelman character makes in the strip: I dont collaborate. He and I had been collaborating at that point for Essay Into Anton Webern’s over four years.

What enabled us to collaborate was that we approached the work rooted in seemingly different discoursesI as a student and then professor of English, and he as a cartoonist and historian of the formbut we shared a deep formal interest in comics. When Was The Civil War? And we were agreeably open to disagreeing with each other; this created an intellectual generosity that became part of our intersubjective ethic. In the spartan classes view of when was the civil, some critics, the movie form of was the russian civil war, comics is a locus of the archival, a place where we can identify an archival turn. Focusing on the cartoonists Kim Deitch and Ben Katchor, for Patterns of Obesity Reduction instance, Jared Gardner identifies the the archival turn in russian the contemporary graphic narrative (Gardner 2006, 788). 7 Scholarship on Alison Bechdels memoir Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic has also spawned attention to comics and archives, as in Ann Cvetkovichs Drawing the Archive in Alison Bechdels Fun Home ; Valerie Rohys In the in Library and Archive Queer Archive: Fun Home ; and my own book chapter Animating an Archive: Repetition and was the russian war Regeneration in Alison Bechdels Fun Home . There is something to Gardners suggestion that there is an intrinsic connection between the comics form and [an] engagement with archival research (Gardner 804). I argue this is because of comicss profound engagement with the representation of (historical) time and space, and the complex display that the comics page enables. (One of movement, Rohys claims posits comics frames as vitrines that focus our attention on the subject, and object, of research [Gardner 804].) We may recognize what I term an was the russian archival drive in the work of movie, Bechdeland Katchor, Deitch, Ivan Brunetti, Dan Clowes, Seth, Posy Simmonds, Chris Ware and many othersmanifested and made legible through the when was the civil war form of comics ( Graphic Women 188). However, Spiegelmans Maus , which began in 1980 as a chapter-by-chapter serial in RAW magazine (after a three-page stand-alone prototype of the same name appeared in an underground comic in 1972), first and perhaps most forcefully established the connection between archives and comics. Even the visual metaphor that shapes the book, in which humans appear as various species of animals, namely Jews as mice, Poles as pigs, and Essay Nazis as cats, is motivated by a rich archive of Nazi propaganda. The epigraph to each of the two Maus book volumes is a different WWII-era Nazi quotation that underscores this. One of the central dramas of Maus is the cartoonists desire to search down any archival material relating to his parents lives before his own unlikely birthboth of his parents survived Auschwitz, and when their first son, Richieu, died in the war at age six.

Thus the social classes issue of what was savedwhat could be savedby survivors from the war is paramount, as is the civil war question of what happens in post-war life to what gets saved. Transcendentalist Movie? In the russian civil war case of the Spiegelman family, the issue of saving, or not saving, is heightened: Vladek Spiegelman destroyed his wife Anja Spiegelmans notebooks after her suicide in Services in Library Essay 1968. (In maddening contradistinction to this act of obliteration, he stubbornly saves any manner of small and worthless items like matches, and wire found on the street.) The notebooks, which contained Anjas account of when war, her experience in the war, and which she had described to her son since his childhood, are burned by the time he comes searching for them as a young man. Of Foil In Literature? Vladek reveals only over time that he destroyed Anjas notebooks, during a period when he was so depressed I didnt know if Im coming or going ( Complete Maus 161). The very last word in Maus I: My Father Bleeds History is murderer: Art Spiegelman accuses his father of murdering his already-dead mother by incinerating her narrative, her archive. 8.

The absence of archives, the presence of archives: the when civil disappearance and appearance of social classes, any kind of evidence, record, trace of his parents pre-war and wartime lives constitutes a major narrative thread of Maus , as we also see, for example, in an episode toward the end of the book featuring a momentous box of was the war, photographs unearthed by definition Vladekof Anjas family, primarily. In this key scene, Vladek sits lonely among a cascade of drawn photographs, and his single body stretches across comics frames to stand in for absent generations of Spiegelman bodies. 9. What kinds of archives remain from which parents? How can the son identify and weigh the traces that remain to stitch together the fullest understanding possible from the collection of voices and documents and photographs to when was the war which he has access? Maus makes explicit that the archive is a process , not a storehouse of evidence. This process, in fact, is exactly what the book is about. In the shadow of his mothers painful wordlessness , her ghostly burnt words, but also her withheld wordsshe didnt leave a note when she chose to end her life Maus is Services in Library and Archive about Spiegelmans fathers archive, and testimony, and Spiegelmans own creation of an archive. We can note Maus s investment in when russian war the archive as process rather than as repository of definition, evidence in the episode in which Art, through a conversation with his father, becomes aware of the existence of a photograph of Vladek, after he was liberated, posing in a clean concentration camp uniform for a souvenir photo to send to his wife. This photograph is the only one of Vladek in Maus . Tilted out of the civil war rows of drawn boxes, the defining feature of its presence is the spartan social ambiguity and awkwardness it inspires; the questions it sets in motion.

What Spiegelman preserves in publishing this 1945 photograph within the space of his comics page is attention to the process behind the creation of both paternal and filial archives. The idea of selectionwhat is re-archived, what is when russian civil discarded?is also part of the language of the comics page itself, and so Maus is about archives on at least two levels. 10 First, there is the question of what is actually transmissible from one generation to the next. Of Foil? Second, there is the when russian civil war question of what Spiegelman chooses to incorporate or re-represent in his comics narrative about his fathers Holocaust experience. Patterns Reduction? Comics makes the process of selecting, ordering, and when russian civil war preserving intelligible in a way few forms can: its very narrative syntax is an spartan social interplay of presence and absence, in which moments of time are selected and boxed (separated conventionally by bands of white space called the gutter). The actual juxtaposition of frames on when was the civil war, the page calls overt attention to the basic grammar of comics as selectionto the rhythm of the displayed and hippie movement the evacuated, and how they constitute each other. While all media select and frame, comics make this process material on the pagenot as merely evocative, but rather as literal. Russian War? The fact that Maus , a book about family archives, is in the idiom of comics further calls our attention to the construction of its own counter-archive. The subject of Maus is the definition of foil retrieval of memory and ultimately, the creation of memory, Spiegelman avers. Its about a cartoonist trying to envision what his father went through. Was The? Its about choices being made, of finding what one can tell, and what one can reveal, and what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing ( MetaMaus 73, italics mine). One of the key features of movement 1960, Maus is its focus on russian, making its own making legible.

While it has become commonplace today to transcendentalist movie praise a works self-reflexivity, that feature is not necessarily a value in and of itself. However, this aspect of the bookwhich is located in how, specifically, it builds itself as a word-and-image archiveallows Maus to function narratively and ethically as a text of witness and testimony. And if Maus is russian civil war already very meta in Essay Fließend: A Brief Insight 9, No. 6 its rebuilding (you rebuild me all this from your questions, Vladek says ruefully to his cartoonist son), how might a book called MetaMaus function in relation to the archive? 11. Starting the project first meant deciding its basic shape.

Spiegelman knew that MetaMaus would draw on archives relating to his parentsofficial records and documentation, family photographs (which are used very sparingly, even teasingly, in Maus ). Civil? He also knew that the book would draw on archives relating to his workthe cartoonists comics archive, including drafts, studies, outtakes, notes. Definition Of Foil? (In 1994 the was the russian civil Voyager Company issued a then state-of-the-art CD-ROM, called The Complete Maus , that made use of in Library and Archive Essay, photographs and notes and sketches, as well as audio recording, to when was the russian war good effect; an updated version of this CD was from the hippie movement beginning slated to be a bonus feature of MetaMaus , included with the purchase, but would function separatelyour focus was on creating a stand-alone book with its own complete integrity.) At our first meetings, we brainstormed about the when was the possible structure of MetaMaus , and our desire to shape and hippie movement 1960 select the was the russian war material while yet maintaining the non-linear temporality of Maus , its weaving and 1960 layering of the past and when was the civil present, its often deliberately circuitous and recursive movement. Eventually, by talking through Maus in a semi-formal way (I taped some of in literature, our early conversations, even those that were only ever for the two of when was the civil war, us), we hit on transcendentalist movie, an interview structure to anchor the book. War? Art would never know my questions in advance; our conversations were always spontaneous, never rehearsed. We were able to converse with each other for hours at a time (a regular meeting time was three or four hours), and through simply sitting and talking we came to the tropes that Art most often deals with in his own public talking about Maus Why comics? Why mice? Why the Holocaust? With this tripartite structure in place as a skeleton shape, we formalized our conversations as interviews. Although we never spoke about this explicitly, at some point it dawned on Essay A Brief Insight Into Anton, me, years into the project, that our interview structure mirrored Art and Vladeks. For over a solid year I simply looked at and identified and when was the sat with the actual, physical stuff of Maus . Transcendentalist Movie? Art gave me full accessmy own set of keysto his studio.

Whenever he wasnt there, I was free to come in to investigate and pore over and re-organize. Was The? This often meant stretches of time on the weekends. (When I couldnt poke around his main cartooning studio, I would spend time in the RAW publishing office a few blocks away, run by Art and A Brief Insight Opus 9, No. his wife Francoise Mouly, which was a similar packed space and housed an ancillary but relevant archive relating to their avant-garde comics magazine.) Nothing in Arts studio was off limits to me; I was encouraged to look at anything and everything in that space. Aside from the black archival binders that contained the original drawings and studies for Maus organized by chaptereach final drawn page lay in an archival sheet protectors, along with its attendant drafts and sketchesand a bottom shelf full of Maus -era notebooks from the 1970s to 1990s, what the Maus archive was and could be was yet to be determined, and I located, sifted, aggregated, and re-assembled. My work in the studio in when was the civil war the first two years was two-fold: first, it was navigating the packed space of the studio to find the dispersed chunks and bits and pieces of the Maus archive, which lurked on Essay Insight 9, No. 6, shelves and in drawers, and sometimes in civil very inconspicuous places. Essay A Brief Insight Anton Opus 9, No. 6? One treasure trove I located was an old, unmarked, inauspicious-looking Garbage Pail Kids folder full of Maus notes and reflections on yellowing index cards; another was an aging manila envelope marked, simply, Maus Grains, which contained grains of ideasstimulating and motivating like quotes attributed to Ronald Reagan (we shouldnt talk about the Holocaust) on 30-year old napkins. 12 I needed to simply locate where the was the russian civil war pockets of in literature, relevant paper archives might lie, and sort through them.

Since I was so familiar with the story and details of when civil war, Maus , it felt like a backwards board game or detective quest, to find the shards of reference that accumulated into the whole final product (and sometimes ambiguously didnt). I remember one summer evening sprawling on Patterns Essay, the floor and finding, under a pile of dusty manila file folders and was the civil war binders, the photograph of Arts dead brother Richieu that opens Maus II and which Vladek and Anja Spiegelman always kept with them. It felt shocking to have the surprise of social, seeing this photograph de-contextualized from the narrative I knew so well, and, for was the all its importance in the book, grouped with the un-important on the shelf. Lifting it out of the pilethe object that stood in for a lost childwas breathtaking. 13 (The same night, in the same dusty pile, I found Vladeks immigration records, and transcendentalist unanswered solicitations requesting donations in when was the russian order to publically commemorate Anja in of foil Jewish services.) Art and I anointed a new space, which we called the MetaMaus shelf, where we gathered significant items together. Physically aggregating artifacts and documentsre-centralizing what had been dispersed after the 13 years of making Maus was an intellectual and when russian war manual task of Services and Archive Essay, (re)archiving. There was also, broadly speaking, the question of was the civil, selection. After all, one of the most striking things Art has said to me was an aside on social, the telephone in the fall of 2010, when we were discussing the full components of MetaMaus , and was the war were debating whether or not to have a timeline of his life and career (I typically lobbied for these more academic features, including the bibliography).

Explaining his trepidation, Art observed, My chronology would start with: When was Kristallnacht? The imbrication of the past and movement 1960 present is the central suggestion of Maus, as a complete narrative and on when war, each individual page; as Marianne Hirsch recently described one of its pages, Its a series of temporalities that wont stand still. 14. Arts comment about the definition incontrovertible imprint and when was the russian shaping of history on the existence and consciousness of his person, the deep mingling of the personal and the historical, is in line with Maus , but to hear him say it out loud so directly about himself felt like a fresh reminder. Maus is meticulously architected but is about unruly temporalities. Transcendentalist Movie? How were we going to when was the russian civil consider issues like timelines in a book reflecting the swirling temporalities of Maus ? Art and Vladek had struggled over the issue of timelines in hippie Maus II . Creating an archival book about a book about russian civil archives produced these mirrored moments; Art now got to be the person resisting the timeline and claiming unruly temporalities (in Maus II he presses forward and Vladek snaps, In Auschwitz we didnt wear watches) ( Complete Maus , 228). The question of the working scope of our collection of material, then, was always present, even when not explicitly connected to the imprint of the war. Many early notebooks, such as in the 1960s, from years before the 1972 Maus was formed, contain apposite information about comics and creativity, about filial dynamics with Vladek and Anja, about the connection of culture and style. Deciding what the constellation of paper archives for Maus was (retrospectively) and MetaMaus would be (prospectively) was a constant issue in assembling what I think of as the research orbit of our archive. Was a Fathers Day card and a Mothers Day card Art drew for his parents as a kid relevant? To me, it was, and was entered into the register of items that we considered for the MetaMaus archive. What is indisputably the core of the Maus archive, though, is the original pages, and the notebooks. (The form of the notebook , given Anja Spiegelmans immolated notebook, the loss of Essay Insight Webern’s Opus, which constitutes a major thread in the book and also propels the reconstituting project of Maus itself, took on a special weight to me.) The tightly organized black binders of drawn original pages and when page-connected sketches had already been cataloged and scanned by assistants and transcendentalist interns by when was the the time I arrived in the studio. A complete digital archive exists of every page of Maus , and its various iterations. (File names look like this: MausI.I.p22a.jpg; MausI.I.p22b.jpg, and so onsome pages run through the whole alphabet and then the Services Essay twenty-seventh file is marked by a za, and so forth back into was the civil war the alphabet.)

I didnt look at the digital files, though, until after I had taken every page and its versions and transcendentalist sketches out russian civil, of the binders and sheet protector and studied them closely. This took me about a year. Hippie Movement 1960? I didnt want to was the russian war experience the Patterns Essay pages and panels on when, the computer; I wanted to classes take stock of the materiality of the russian civil war artifact, to touch and lift the paper and to scrutinize the gummed labels and correction fluid and the physical texture, the bumpiness, of the line. The range of papers I attended to by studying the movie actual drawings was striking; there were sketches on when was the civil war, pink While You Were Out correspondence sheets, on movie, receipts, on typing paper, on tracing paper, on graph paper, on civil war, lined paper. One got a sense of the urgency through the pattern of paper; the inspired drawing that happens on whatever surface is most proximate. I was also able to juxtapose spatially in front of me Arts color sketches, assembling a sequence for of foil his meticulous process of sketching in successively darker colors (starting in yellow, say, and ending in purple) to discern visual volume and weight in when was the russian a panel, even though the final line in Maus is always in black. It is only through approaching the actual objects that a sense of the transcendentalist profundity of the layered labor of comics came throughthe obsessional sketching, correcting, layering, crossing-out, and rebuilding. Much in the way that comics forces a kind of physical intimacy, as Michael Silverblatt has pointed out, I needed to interact with the archive haptically as though I were assembling it to be comics: spreading it out in when russian civil front of spartan social classes, me, creating sequences with the sketches, holding a drawing up to when war squint at the spaces, placing studies next to a finished page to discern the definition narrative movement from draft to final product. (Art initially saved all of his sketches because he thought he would include one with each book when he self-published Maus with RAW.) Maus is a double-voiced text that presents a view of testimony specifically and when was the civil of narrative generally as a polyvalent weave, where testimony and memory are collaborative procedures generated by both speaker and listener. The dialogic form of comics is constituted by the active tension between word and imagewhich makes it a hospitable form for narration that turns on the tension of competing voices (in the in Library and Archive case of Maus , Vladeks and Arts).

Even further, what Maus so brilliantly stages, as I have argued, is that the comics medium is not only dialogic able to was the russian be both a biography and an autobiography in one layered workbut also what we might think of as cross-discursive. 15 We see an example of this when Spiegelman draws against his fathers verbal narration in an episode in which the Services two of them discuss the existence of orchestras at Auschwitz. Verbally, although the Art character notes, Its very well-documented, Spiegelman lets Vladek have the final word (No, I remember only marchingnot any orchestras. How could it be there an orchestra?)but he draws a barely visible orchestra, largely covered up by marching prisoners, in his comics frame ( Complete Maus 214). Maus often works with the friction of verbal and visual discourse; the cartoonist has both at his disposal, and so he can preserve his fathers language while drawing against it. Maus is about the tension between the when was the russian civil visual, the Essay Anton Opus written, and russian war the oral in its representation of trauma, and in how it expresses the memory of the eyewitness and the secondary witness. There had not been a visual, narrative text of the Holocaust published widely before Maus what I think of spartan social, as a visual materialization , for instance, of Auschwitz: something that is not a still photograph that captures a single moment, or a moving series of war, film frames that whisks a viewer along, but is rather a visual materialization that is a sequence that creates a world that can be studied and engaged at ones own pace. 16 Discussing the question of representation and verisimilitude, Spiegelman chafes at filmmakers quests to re-build the camps, as opposed to Maus s approach to representing the camps by creating it as a mental zone ( MetaMaus 166). Creating the camps as a mental zone ; this is one of the chief abilities of Maus as a narrative that uses the abstractions of drawing.

Spiegelman, I learned while interviewing him, had first encountered the Holocaust visually. Spiegelman grew up with parents, both Polish survivors of Auschwitz, who, in keeping with what was for some a tacit mandate of post-war American Jewish immigrant culture, didnt address with him in any explicit way what their experiences in Poland had been. As a child, he knew there was something called the war, but his encounters with its traces were a series of jarringly disconnected moments, mostly verbal, like in the emblematic episode from his memoir Portrait of the Artist as a Young %@*! when in movie a car ride back from a party his parents speak about a former sonderkommando present at the event for whom its rumors he put his father and when civil his sons to the ovens, so nobody sits with him, and then suggest to their son, Take a nap again, Cookie! ( MetaMaus 15). However, although his oblique knowledge that his parents had been through something terrible was mostly verbaland aural generally, as he describes hearing them scream in their sleepduring the widely televised Adolf Eichmann trial in 1961, when he was 13, Spiegelman went searching through his parents private bookshelf, and had his Susan Sontag moment of encountering images of atrocity for the first time. That the experience of recognition was visual isnt particularly unusual: stories of peoples first viewing of Nazi atrocity photos circulate widely.

17 The most significant object that Spiegelman found, however, wasnt primarily photographic. His first real encounter with what to him was the war was visualand drawn . In the process of assembling MetaMaus I learned how formative drawn visual archives are in Spiegelmans intellectual and artistic imaginary. 18 It comes out in our interview that Spiegelman discovered, on his mothers bookshelf, mostly Polish and Yiddish small-press pamphlets published right after the war, some of them picturing everyday life in the camps. For Spiegelman, these were so outside of definition of foil in literature, mass-cultural production, they had a kind of when russian civil war, fanzine-like magic to me and really struck me hard. I couldnt understand those words in in Library and Archive Essay those pamphlets but pored over the two that had pictures.

Anything at all with cartoon-like drawings had an when was the russian immense pull on me, especially those from transcendentalist movie before my own childhood ( MetaMaus 49). The archive I discovered researching MetaMaus opens up traditions of when civil, visual witness related to WWII that helped to inspire and innovate, even indirectly, the comics cultures and scenes that sprouted in the late 1960s and early 70s. A plausible arc for the comics field might actually begin with Paladij Osynkas 1946 Auschwitz (owned by Anja Spiegelman), move on to Spiegelmans 1972 Maus, and continue on definition in literature, to Maus and the legions of work it has inspired. Most of what happened was not photographed, Spiegelman reminds readers about Auschwitz in MetaMaus (50). Taking this seriously, can we posit the urgency to testify to civil war life and death in WWII as the genesis of what we now recognize as contemporary comics? Something introduced, say, in the generational transmission of the pamphlets and sparked by the taboo-shattering (itself Vietnam war-induced) ethic of the underground comics? Although Spiegelman couldnt read the text because he didnt know the languages, the images and the amateur graphic design, and humble printingconstituted his first understanding of Patterns Reduction Essay, life during the war; his parents circumstance. When Was The War? His first full experience of recognition with the Holocaust was visual and and Archive drawn hand-made images of witness. Some of these, as he points out, were what we would think of as quite cartoonyone was a booklet, basically, of gag cartoons by a Ukrainian inmate about Auschwitz, with jokes like Ha ha! You didnt get any soup! (49).

19 One pamphlet that had small, poorly printed watercolor drawings of Ravensbruck struck Spiegelman deeply. Was The War? ( MetaMaus features several images from two of these pamphlets, Ravensbruck and spartan social classes Auschwitz , both from 1946, and which both happen to be in Ukrainian, and the accompanying DVD has the entire contents of several of the pamphlets under the heading Anjas Bookshelf.) 20 Spiegelmans experience with these unpretentious, cartoon-like drawings of what he calls the oxymoron of life in a death camp was formative for when russian civil war Maus , which first appeared in similarly designed and printed serial booklets in the 1980s. That his experience was visual and necessarily not verbal at the level of Essay Fließend: Anton Webern’s, comprehension also allowed him to encounter the discourse of the visual in a heightened way, even as it shared space on the page with captions. Spiegelman says, about survivor drawings and surviving art from the war: Those drawings were a return to drawing not for its possibilities of imposing the self , of when was the, finding a new role for art and drawing after the camera, but rather a return to Essay Fließend: Anton Opus 6 the earlier function that drawing served before the was the russian civil war cameraa kind of commemorating, witnessing, and recording of informationwhat Goya referred to when he says, This I saw. (italics mine) He continues, The artists are giving urgent information in Patterns Essay the pictures, information that could be transmitted no other way (49-50). Indeed, Goyas use of handmade images as a form of reporting has been important to contemporary cartoonists as a model of visual witnessing. Nonfiction comics emerged forcefully in the postwar period, and when was the russian civil the genre of nonfiction comics developed in hippie movement its contemporary specificity, I argue, out of WWII, where we can locate powerful aesthetic and political antecedents in the realm of civil war, urgent handmade works of visual witness. Spiegelmans Maus archivewhich is now part of the public MetaMaus archivemakes this legible. I am fascinated by social how, broadly speaking, the discourse of the visualand the notion of was the russian civil war, visual archives emerges out of a tension with other media discourses.

This is something we see in the formative post-war pamphlets, which combine word and image, highlighting, for Spiegelman, the status of the image, since the words were not fully accessible to him. We also see this throughout Maus , a visual narrative based on oral testimony that consistently heightens our awareness of visual, written, and oral archives, and where they interact, overlap, or get transposed one into transcendentalist movie the other. As a newly constituted (shadow) collection of sources and archives, MetaMaus preserves, and draws attention to, the tension between the when was the civil oral, written, and hippie 1960 visualand within the realm of the visual, the difference between the drawn and the photographicthat characterizes Maus . It preserves the interstices that Maus sets in motion, even as it operates in the realm of the explanatory. Used by when was the civil war Permission of the Wylie Agency LLC. The visual surface of MetaMaus reflects the hippie tension between different kinds of extant archivesoral, written, photographicand the cross-discursive work of (re)building new archives (all in the realm of the when was the russian civil war ideographic , of the printed page) that motivates Maus . MetaMaus s defining feature is that it shows the materiality of Spiegelmans archive; it is about the Essay Fließend: A Brief Insight Into Opus 6 embodiment of archivesarchives as bodies, bodies as archives. The archived body is key in MetaMaus . In the image of the 1979 lithograph Mom and russian civil war Me in the Park, 1951 (Maus Revenge), the very first and one of only very few full-page images in movement the 300-page book, the revenge seems to be the mere existence of the sons postwar body next to was the his mothers that is Essay Fließend: A Brief Insight Into Opus being presentedarchivedby the illustration (41). 21 As Spiegelman says in our interview, Taking on my parents Holocaust story was a way of getting to the primal moment of my birth, because there was no way they were supposed to when was the war be alive and coupling after WWII.

It is a specific journey that has nothing to movie do with history and everything to civil war do with history: one or both of these people is supposed to definition be dead, which means Im not supposed to be here ( MetaMaus, 199). When Was The Civil War? This archiving of bodies that happens through their visual materialization on the page and then public dissemination takes on extra resonance given the Nazis famous recordkeeping, archiving and marking, of those they arrested and eliminated. 22. A small but significant detail that indicates MetaMaus s investment in staging the materiality of archivesor what I think of as the embodiment of transcendentalist, archivesis evident without even turning a page. The fairly spare back cover is black: it features two full-color images, along with bold text in russian civil war white, grey, and red. The top image, flush right, an Patterns of Obesity Reduction illustration from the early 90s, depicts Spiegelman as a mouse from Maus reading Maus in a library alongside a realistically-rendered mouse reading George Herrimans comic strip Krazy Kat , which stars Ignatz Mouse. The text that begins directly below the war image in fact overlays it; the and Archive Essay bold red vertical bar of the sans serif uppercase letter I (In the pages of MetaMaus ) covers the a that begins Spiegelmans lowercase, bottom left corner signature. Russian War? The I, glossy, stands out against the matte finish of the hardback cover. A smaller image, a study for the back cover of Maus II , hovers in the bottom left of the social back cover, leaning outwards at a slight angle. The original barcode, which is continuous in the image with Vladeks striped camp uniform, here touches MetaMaus s barcode, making all three contiguous.

The most striking visual detail, however, is that this back cover study from Maus II appearing on the back cover of MetaMaus is when was the russian civil visually affixed : two small, glossy, transparent pieces of tapenot flat-edged, but textured, as if torn from Patterns of Obesity Reduction Essay a rollpaste up the image on either side. When Russian Civil? (The I now becomes legible, perhaps, as red tape, holding up the previous image; a letter becomes a visual design element, a kind of picture writing that constitutes the stuff of comics.) The back cover, then, points to the image as object : not only transparent representation what it presents, depictsbut a medium-specific artifact with a material weight and logic that is handled, moved, touched, placed. This approach, highlighting the artifact as an object in space, is in keeping with both my research in movement the Maus archive, in which I studied the physical paper object over available bitmaps or pixmapsand with comics as a practice in general, which is when was the russian civil a way, as Spiegelman puts it, of turning narrative into Fließend: Anton Opus 9, No. 6 geography ( MetaMaus , 185). MetaMaus showcases the materiality of its archive throughout. A draft of a tier of when russian, panels, in which Vladek confronts Art about hippie finding an early autobiographical comic strip, Prisoner on the Hell Planet, sits at the top of a MetaMaus page, anchored by black electrical tape on either side (many of Spiegelmans drafts and sketches were taped into notebooks or folded in to other studies and notes) (35); full draft pages show excision marks and yellowing from glue stains, as in the page about was the civil war a ghetto cake baked with detergent (74); some of these draft pages, whose coloration and textures display their layers of composition, are shown full-size to highlight their physical features, as in the final art for definition in literature the significant Time Flies page, which makes us take stock of the material weight of the words placed into the hanging balloons (163). A reproduction of a lithograph introducing the Why Mice? chapter has an evident blind stamp in the corner (110); a page of a notebook containing a sketch for russian civil one of the very earliest iterations of Maus is of foil in literature a scan not just of the panels but of the entire piece of paper, a crinkled, yellowed sheet with three holes, one ripped, on its left-hand side (121). When Was The War? A handwritten pencil note of Patterns Essay, my own, dating a research image as April 6, 1940, remains in its top-right corner (even I was surprised it wasnt Photoshopped out) (137).

USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. The image that is the exemplar of Spiegelmans focus on the materiality of the was the apparatus of the Essay comics pagean image I fell in love with in was the russian civil 2006, as soon as I saw it in a 1979 notebookcomes to transcendentalist movie readers under the rubric of Maus studies in style, as Spiegelmans caption puts it (141). Mickey Mouse, making a quizzical expression, faces outward, looking at the viewer. The pen drawing appears on white lined paper; every other horizontal bar created by two lines is when civil war blank. At first glance, it looks as though the mouse is divided up, like he got erased or sliced, and Spiegelman is drawing his disconnected body parts as an exercise in style. But if one takes the visual logic of the papers format into hippie considerationtaking the drawn image on as inextricably located in and not just on the material space of the pagewe see that the when was the war mouse is behind the bars of the actual page and interacting with it . His little hands reach out, holding onto the blue line top edge of a bar he stands behind. Spiegelman puns on the materiality of the page, calling our attention to its determining properties. The character is behind bars of Patterns Reduction, paper, and he reaches out of these bars; hes two-dimensional and, it suggests, three-dimensional at once, existing both inside and outside of the frame we put him in. This image asks us to take stock of the materiality of its composition, just as the weightier Time Flies drafts doversions of the famous final page, which Spiegelman has called his avant-garde Times Flies pages because they show the represented object; in this case, fliesboth inside and outside of the material frames of the page (see pages 160-161).

The books interest in when russian showcasing archives as full artifacts in space, revealing their three-dimensionality, is movie particularly evident with photographs. Not all photographs in MetaMaus are treated this way. When War? In some cases, they provide a visual referent for an illustration, as in the small photographic image presented overleaf from the full-page Mom and Me in the Park, 1951 (Maus Revenge), which functions, in spite of the Essay Into Anton Webern’s pressure Spiegelman places on this notion, as a kind of objective correlative for the lithograph (220). Was The? (The book has 66 stand-alone photographs, some public, such as a famous clandestine photo smuggled out from Auschwitz, or a U.S. military aerial shot of Auschwitz, but most private family photos, in addition to a collage page of maternal Zylberberg family photos [19 in all], and a collage page of social, paternal Spiegelman family photos [14 in all].) 23. USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. However, the photographs that do highlight their own materiality are striking, as in the photograph of Vladek Spiegelman, one of only civil war three photographs to appear in Maus , on the pages of MetaMaus . Transcendentalist? The question of how the three photos in when Maus re-appear in MetaMaus exemplifies the books creation of its new archive. In an unnamed but dedicated eight-page section on photography in the chapter Why Comics?, in which all three Maus photographs reappear, we see the breathtaking souvenir photo of Vladekonly the photograph is Insight Opus different. When Was The Russian? Maus embeds a clean copy of the definition of foil in literature 1945 photograph on page 294, breaking out of the frame, revealing black space behind it.

In MetaMaus , we see a draft sketch for the same tier of panels, but this time with the original battered, creased photograph of Vladek tilting out of the frame. The caption underscores this attention to the actual material object: The original copy of Vladeks photo (220). The photo here highlights its own romantic, and filial, generational, transatlantic transmission : it looks like a photograph from 1945 that was carried with an was the itinerant person and mailed from Germany to a wife in Poland and brought to Sweden and the U.S. and passed along to a son decades later might lookit looks used, worn, traveled, gripped by many hands (the creases generate from the middle sides of the photograph, as if bent by actual touching). Further, the last conventionally narrative page of the book, before the Chronology and Index, ends with a photograph of Anja Spiegelmanand gives us, literally, a three-dimensional presentation: it shows us the front of the transcendentalist photograph, and then the back, delivering the when was the civil complete object to readers. Spiegelmans caption, unusually, appears at the top, so that the pages ensuing narrative is given over to the logic of the of foil in literature full artifact, and the book ends with Vladek Spiegelmans handwriting in pen on the pictures back: Last cruise together with my beloved wife March, 1968. Was The? Died May 21 st 1968. (There is no page number for this page; just Vladeks conclusive period.) If, as discussed previously, MetaMaus also showcases and enacts Maus s cross-discursive battles between Art and Services Essay Vladek, it nevertheless gives Vladek the last word on was the russian war, an incontrovertible fact. The photograph appears not only as a powerful image, but as a powerful archival object with emotional and actual weight (the front image of the picture, angled right, even creates a small soft shadow on the handwritten back inscription). Along with the amplification of embodiment and materiality of the archive seen in in Library Maus, MetaMaus s visual surface is also characterized by was the civil the cross-discursive dynamics Maus enacts. Although Art and I did not deliberately plan this aspect of the bookas we did not consciously plan the unrehearsed but recorded interlocutionary structure of movie, MetaMaus as a mirroring of Maus MetaMaus presents a tension on the page between the prose interview and the graphics. 24 The pages of MetaMaus reflect, then, the tension between word and image that motivates the internal movement of all comics, and that our collaborative connection could be said to reflect. Was The? In some sense, our work was about establishing the book, too, not only as containing comics within it, but further and more importantly establishing itself as more comics-like than it might have otherwise been.

The seemingly endless process of sifting and condensing and distilling and locating our words in meaningful relation to highly curated images in space was, in essence, the practice of 1960, comics. And MetaMaus also enacts all of the interruptions, interstices, ambivalence, counterpoints, and (de-regulated) rhythms between word and image and presence and russian civil absence that the best comics do. As a graduate student at the University of movement, Chicago pointed out to me, for instance, on the first narrative page of the bookthe opening of our interviewit looks, visually, like our interview is being pushed down by the two-page comic strip Mein Kampf, an earlier (1995) and much briefer meditation on memory, archives, and Maus (12-13). 25 Although the Hillary font, as we called it, a grey-green bold sans serif, opens the first chapter with a question in enormous letters on the title page, when one turns the page, one does not first encounter the continuation of the interview implied by the question, but rather, immediately, the comic strip, which spans over four-fifths of each of the opening pages. From the very outset, the book establishes a tension between its prose and its graphics that is itself characteristic of comics. The images can be interruptive or force the eye out of was the russian civil war, continuous reading.

Sometimes the interview jumps across pages, which are built on a vertical two column grid, and when one turns the page, one is met immediately with an transcendentalist image opening the subsequent column, over which ones eye must skip in order to continue the was the interview, or on which one will pause before re-orienting with the interview. 26 There is hippie 1960 no right way to absorb the pages; no correct order, as in comics, between words and when images. Double-spread pages, as in our discussion of creative block in the chapter Why Mice?, sometimes create an diagonal quadrant effect, in which a page with the basic vertical sequence text-image is followed overleaf by a page with the basic vertical sequence image-text, demonstrating that there is not only one acceptable way to take in the combination of visual and verbal elements ( MetaMaus 146-147). 27 I often felt that I had to optically climb over the visual/archival elements to keep the thread of the text going (incidentally, in the previously unpublished comic strip that accompanies the discussion of creative block, Spiegelman draws an definition of foil in literature interviewer climbing over elements of the pastbodiesin order to ask him questions about Maus ). MetaMaus values the interruptions of the visual archive, setting down and placing pressure on certain rhythms established between the when war visual archival elements and words on the page. The ethic of interruptiveness the Essay Into Opus 6 pages set in motion is civil war writ large in instances where the conversation is temporarily broken off by entire separate sequences, such as the appearance of the 1960 Family Tree section, which arrives not as an appendix, but rather in the middle of one of Spiegelmans responses; it bisects page 223 vertically and continues for seven pages, after which we are returned to Arts analysis of a specific page of Maus . The breaks are thematic, but theyre not clean. On one hand, this rhythm is about a dynamic in which we have a conversation about artifacts, and russian war then let the social artifacts speak for themselves, as in the Family Tree sections aggregation of family photographs. The non-linearity of MetaMaus , its edges and interruptions, reveals the book as testimonynot only a book about testimony (Spiegelmans fathers), but rather distinctthe testimony, not testament, of a son, artist, and secondary witness, solicited through conversation. MetaMaus balances the weight of its archive with the when was the russian visual emptiness of space. It shows the counterpoint of presence (the materiality of paper, ink, photographs) and and Archive absencethe unfilled speech balloons that suggest, at least graphically, the when absences that remain despite all the work of rebuilding. The appearance of Services in Library Essay, empty balloonssomething we dont get much of in when russian civil Maus , despite Spiegelmans nod to Becketts statement on silencein MetaMaus makes legible and material the question: How do you fill in the gaps? 28 (In their graphic evocation of the empty boxes of the post-war Spiegelman family tree, the empty balloons suggest the presence behind the absence.) They are not about emphasizing the fact of the unrepresentable or untellablein a recent public event, Spiegelman quipped that unlike when he started Maus , today the unspeakable gets spoken within 10 minutesbut rather about the effort made to communicate.

29 In my examination of movement 1960, Spiegelmans drafts and studies, I was always surprised at how resonant the visual of the empty balloon felt, especially in when was the russian dialogues, with physical gestures and the indication of articulation in place and the words themselves evaporated: it looked like the representation of people trying to talk to each other, and it suggested, in a way, at least graphically, that the site of interlocution was enough, no matter what the precise shapes of sound were. The last page of our interview features one drawing, and one photograph. In the drawing, a color panel study from Maus with blues and of foil reds, the text box is empty, and the speech balloon is empty (234). Russian War? Vladek and Anja, reunited, embrace tightly (the words we are missing in both dialogue and narration are Vladeks; his voice will later connect to and fill this blank space, when his handwritten inscription on the back of Patterns Essay, a photograph of Anja ends the book.) This panel sits in the center of the page; our interview flows around it, and ends right before a photograph of Vladek and when was the russian Anjas cemetery tombstonethe Spiegelman tombstone drawn in Maus that concludes that book. Our last page enacts a reversal. Transcendentalist Movie? While the final page of Maus (its enough stories for now, Vladek says) offers an ink headstone, under which Spiegelmans signature sits, as if buried (or engendering his parents story backwards), MetaMaus s conclusion to talking offers a photographic headstone, above which sits Spiegelmans typographic signature, in a way retracting the primacy of self that Maus s last marks could be seen to indicate. When War? Maus s signature reads, by hand, art spiegelman 1978-1991, the span of time he worked on Maus ; MetaMaus s reads Art Spiegelman, with Hillary Chute, NYC, 2006-2010, the span of time during which we put together MetaMaus . USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. On one level, in Services in Library and Archive its archival display mode, the page seems to cede to the indexicality of the when was the civil war photograph, which is unattributedno caption or date fixes this object, so it has a certain timeless resonance.

Yet on another level, we have Spiegelmans post-plot ending, a black page overleaf with three small color panel studies, also with blank white text boxes, that float, unanchored, at the bottom of the Essay page. They show a man, walking alone under a moon, train tracks ahead of him (the images depict Vladek, finally, heading home to Poland from Germany). We end, on one hand, with the graphic emptiness of words, but also the fullness of when russian civil war, richly colored visual images. Fließend: A Brief Insight Into Webern’s Opus 6? And while both pages offer unfilled spaces of the verbal within their panels, our last interview page offers a rich flow of prose, itself counterbalanced with the when was the war strictly visual post-plot ending with no words. Presenting its historical and newly constituted archives, MetaMaus enacts the Services in Library and Archive Essay frisson between words and when was the war images throughout. The boxes of comics are archival boxes boxes of space to put things in, to frame things with, to enclose and preserve with (even if the elements inside will not stay still, spilling out into movie the gutter, or literally breaking the frame). The impulses shaping comics most basic grammar express an archival drive, or suggest what we might think of when was the russian war, as comics archival unconscious. 30 In a 1977 meditation on comics, Spiegelman points out that comics framesalso called panels, or boxesare like windows of a building (Introduction np).

They may be this, but they are also containers , literal boxes that are the spartan social building blocks of a psychic and material edifice, offering the look and view implied by windows, but also the power to when civil war hold, include, delimit. The work that comics enacts is architectonic , as Spiegelman has often pointed out. Maus , he says, for instance, could not be accomplished without the architectonic rigor of Essay Fließend: A Brief Insight Webern’s 9, No. 6, cartoonist Winsor McCay; his own attempts to when was the russian define comics as a medium are to get at what the architectonics of comics might be. 31 The OED defines architectonic as of 1960, or pertaining to architecture, suited or serviceable for the construction of buildings; of or pertaining to construction. Two further definitions there pertain: one, noted to be used by Aristotle, is having the function of russian, superintendence and control, i.e. having the relation that an architect bears to the artificers employed on the building; directive; controlling. The next is, simply, pertaining to the systematization of knowledge. All of these apply to comics, which is a system of knowledge, in addition to a form of expression, that has everything to do with being an artificer in the Greek sense and one who controls the Essay Fließend: A Brief Insight Into 9, No. 6 shape of time, space, and material on when was the war, the page. Movie? 32 The architectonics of comics is the process of archiving. It makes a location for ordering information to express history and russian civil memory. 33.

Spiegelman later likened comics boxes to packed suitcases, and he has figured comics boxes as boxes of memory smashing up against each other. 34 He has also likened comics panels, the forms most essential grammar, to coffins. He told me, to cite again an Essay Fließend: A Brief Insight Into Webern’s Opus 9, No. earlier quotation, that Maus is about choices being made, of finding what one can tell, and what one can reveal, and what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing. Those are the was the civil things that give real tensile strength to definition of foil in literature the workputting the dead into little boxes ( MetaMaus , 73). The language of putting the dead into little boxes is especially resonant given that Maus literally buries Vladek Spiegelman, ending the book with his headstone. To archive something can mean to materialize something in was the civil war order to place and bury it, as when I asked Spiegelman about a notebook entry, on what seemed to me the key issue of movie, his identification with Vladek, and when was the russian his responseprinted in MetaMaus , was, Well, tell me more.

You know, I put in a notebook so Id never have to think about it again (32). 35 Then someone comes along and digs it up, as I did, and as Art did when he searched down information in his fathers archives for in Library and Archive Essay Maus (only there, his father had burned Anjas notebooks, incinerating as opposed to burying to ensure finality). But comics procedure of archiving doesnt have to be only entombing (and the civil dead dont stay dead). Services In Library And Archive? Comics inscribes its information in boxes on the page in order to preserve and commemorate, but also to disseminate, to when civil circulate, to produce an interaction. Hillary Chute is the author of Graphic Women: Life Narrative and Essay Fließend: Insight Anton Webern’s 6 Contemporary Comics (Columbia 2010) and Associate Editor of Art Spiegelmans MetaMaus (Pantheon 2011). She is working on russian civil war, a book titled Disaster is My Muse: Visual Witnessing, Comics, and Documentary Form . Chute is the Neubauer Family Assistant Professor in English at the University of Chicago and will be a Visiting Scholar at Services in Library Essay, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for 2012-2013. 2 For more on Maus and photography, see Hirsch, Family Frames , and Liss, Trespassing Through Shadows . 3 Vladek Spiegelman, posthumously, became a historical public figure. For a time, although not currently, there was a discrete Wikipedia entry for when was the russian civil Vladek; Stanley Crouch named him in his pantheon of heroes, and Lauren Rednisss recent book Radioactive features an entry on Vladek in a section on Patterns Reduction, famous Polish citizens. 4 See Iadonisi for a take on the collaborative narrative fabric of was the, Maus . 5 The main body of the hippie 1960 book is an interview I conducted with Spiegelman for a period of two-plus years, which we had transcribed along the russian way and which I then edited from hundreds upon hundreds of pages down to spartan classes workable drafts that we condensed into the roughly 234 pages that appear in the printed book. 6 See Chute 2005. Indy magazine is no longer operative.

7 It seems there might be an archival turn everywhere. In a highly specific way, however, it is clear to me that my field of study, contemporary nonfiction comics, is was the russian civil deeply steeped in the desires and problems that the work of archiving asks us to consider. 8 Spiegelman accuses both parents of of foil in literature, being a murderer in russian civil war Maus . Movement? In the comic strip Prisoner on the Hell Planet, a work from 1972 that is embedded within the book, Spiegelman ends the strip with the Art character addressing his mother right after her suicide: You murdered me, mommy, and you left me here to take the when was the civil rap! 9 Hoffman points out how the body has been seen as an archive in at least two senses: as a storehouse for data and as itself a source of Patterns Reduction, information (6). 10 The notion of selection also has parallels, although inverselyselection for preservation versus selection for destructionto the selektions that were such a defining feature of the Nazi program of elimination and such a large part of Vladeks testimony in Maus . 11 Complete Maus, 258. 12 See Marks, Maus and Bitburg. 13 One striking and moving photograph included within MetaMaus is of Anja and when was the russian civil Vladek in 1946, posing with this framed photograph of Richieu, as though the entire family of three is having their picture taken.

Anjas elbowshe looks distracted and sad, while Vladek holds her and Patterns looks adoringly at hertouches the frame, as if establishing a bodily connection ( MetaMaus 236). 14 Second Thoughts on the Memory Industry, NYU/ New York Institute of the Humanities symposium. May 7, 2011. 15 See Chute, The Shadow of a Past Time. 16 One other loosely sequential form visually representing Auschwitz could possibly be the space of the museum. See Landsberg. 17 See Hirsch 2004 for an analysis of visual encounters of recognition. 18 See Drawing the Holocaust in The New York Review of Books online for an excerpt of my interview with Spiegelman that deals specifically with survivor (and non-survivor) art. 19 Another striking example of cartoon drawing of the camps is the 1942 booklet Mickey in Gurs, by prisoner Horst Rosenthal (he died the same year in Auschwitz). See MetaMaus 138. 20 Ravensbruck , Ukrainian, artist unknown, 1946.

Auschwitz: Album of A Political Prisoner , Ukrainian, by Paladij Osynka, 1946. Spiegelman very specifically classifies these pamphlets as part of his mothers domain in presenting them on was the russian war, the DVD as Anjas Bookshelf. Anja Spiegelman was formative for his artistry in many ways, including in her role as the owner and saver of the small-press pamphlets she transported from of foil in literature Europe, and in her role drawing collaboratively with her young son through the civil Scribble game (see Portrait ). Vladeks second wife (and Maus character) Mala Spiegelman translated several of the pamphlets that appeared in spartan classes Polish for Spiegelman during his research for Maus . 21 There are only fifteen instances, including double-page spreads, like one of rejection letters, in which an image occupies an entire page of MetaMaus . This lithograph is based on a photograph of Anja and Art Spiegelman in Stockholm that appears in MetaMaus on the facing page, at about two inches high (40). The lithograph shares the composition of the when russian civil photograph, except for a cat hanging (lynched?) from a tree branch behind Anja and Art. The lithograph image does not seem to imply the spartan classes adult mother in the foreground has directly physically murdered the Nazi cat; rather, the mere existence of was the war, her three-year-old son holding her hand in a snowsuit is tantamount to murderingenacting revenge onthe cat standing in for Nazism. 22 For a recent essay on the nature of archives and Nazi official and private recordkeeping, see Farmer; for a take on the effect of Nazi documentation as seen in Berlins new Topography of Terror Center, see Malamud. 23 By stand-alone I mean not embedded in another previously circulating work, as in the two photographs that are part of the reprinted story Mein Kampf that opens an early section of the book.

The first four photographs to appear in the book are these of Art (1956) and his son Dash (1995), on page 13, and Anjas Polish passport (1946) and Vladeks U.S. naturalization application (1951), on page 16, followed by the first non-circulating, non-previously contextualized photograph, Anja and and Archive Vladek kissing at Arts bar mitzvah (1961), on page 21. 24 Art and I sometimes disagreed on the weight that should be given to the different elements; I was much more comfortable with swaths of russian, text whereas Art pushed me to see the and Archive importance of war, visual anchors. This dynamic was instructive in that its tensions are actually parallel to the basic word and image tensions of the form of comics. 25 Thank you to Carmen Merport for definition of foil in literature her insights about this tension. Although sometimes the graphics crush down the war prose on the page, sometimes the images seem to surge up from the bottom of the page, what I think of as a crushing upwards . This is evident in a sequence in in Library and Archive which Spiegelman and I discuss Nazi propagandaa rich archive, for sure, that has a forceful visual presence in the bookand a poster for an anti-Semitic film featuring the leering face of was the russian civil, a swarthy, pointy-eared, kippa-wearing Jew seems to push up on Services, a tiny top-edge illustration by russian civil Spiegelman of cockroach Gregor Samsa, squeezing out Services and Archive Essay, prose and allowing for only a few lines of type in between iterations of dehumanization (114). 26 Page 22, in which a draft from Maus opens the was the war page in the top left while a sentence jumps from page 21 to 22 below it, is one example among many. 27 Another example, involving family photographs, is 32-33. 28 The Spiegelman character says to his therapist Paul Pavel: Like Samuel Beckett once said, Every word is like an unnecessary stain on silence and nothingness ( Complete Maus 205). 29 Spiegelman expands on this in conversation with me in a YouTube clip posted by the 92nd St. Y (October 6, 2011). 30 In Archival Bodies, Hoffman suggests of the notion of an archival unconscious : the archival unconscious is not so much a place, or a preexisting set of meanings, but rather the function of an interactive process, in which something comes into being (27).

The interactive process here would be constituted in the relation between the psychic life of Essay, imagined and remembered histories and the process of visualizing, or materializing them. 31 Silverblatt 33; MetaMaus 166. 32 Bechdels Fun Home explicitly takes on the language of the Greek artificer and suggests the was the russian cartoonist as artificer. 33 See Chute, In the A Brief Insight Anton Opus 6 Shadow of a Past Time (also included on the MetaMaus DVD) for one view of was the russian, Maus and its ordering of information. 34 See 2008s Portrait of the Artist as a Young and MetaMaus 38 for comics panels and suitcases, and Portrait as an example of panels as boxes of memory. This notion first found expression in Spiegelmans experimental piece Some Boxes for the Salvation Army (1976). 35 This exchange reminds me of definition in literature, Vladeks comment to Art: All such things from the war, I tried to put out from my mind once for all until you rebuild me all this from russian civil your questions ( Complete Maus 258). Bechdel, Alison.

2006. Transcendentalist Movie? Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Chute, Hillary. 2005. Literal Forms: Narrative Structures in Maus , Indy Magazine (March). Online. -------. 2006. The Shadow of a Past Time: History and Graphic Representation in.

Maus . Twentieth-Century Literature 52.2 (Summer): 199-230. Cvetkovich, Ann. 2008. Drawing the when war Archive in Alison Bechdels Fun Home . WSQ: Womens Studies Quarterly 36: 1 2 (Spring/Summer 2008): 111-128. Farmer, Sarah. 2010. Going Visual: Holocaust Representation and Essay Historical Method, American History Review (February): 115-122. Gardner, Jared. 2006. Archives, Collectors, and the New Media Work of was the russian war, Comics. Mfs: Modern Fiction Studies . Special issue on of foil, Graphic Narrative, ed.

Hillary Chute and Marianne DeKoven. 52.4 (Winter): 787-806. Print. Hirsch, Marianne. 2004. Collateral Damage. Editors Column. Was The Russian Civil? PMLA 119.5 (Oct.): 1209-15. --------. 1997. Family Frames: Photography, Narrative, and Postmemory . Cambridge: Harvard UP. Hoffman, Anne Golomb. 2009. Archival Bodies. American Imago 66.1 (Spring): 5-40.

Iadonisi, Rick. Patterns Reduction? 1994. Bleeding History and Owning His [Fathers] Story: Maus and Collaborative Autobiography. CEA Critic 57.1 (Fall): 41-56. Was The Russian War? Print. Landsberg, Alison. 1997. America, the Holocaust, and the Mass Culture of Memory. New German Critique (Spring/Summer): 63-86. Liss, Andrea. 1998. Trespassing Through Shadows: Memory, Photography, and the Holocaust . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Malamud, Randy. 2011. Meticulously Evil: Nazi Efficiencies Documented in in literature Topography of Terror. Chronicle of was the russian civil, Higher Education , April 22, Vol. 57, Issue 33. Accessed March 14, 2012. Marks, Clifford J. 2002. Maus and Bitburg. The Midwest Quarterly : 298-313.

Redniss, Lauren. Spartan? 2010. Radioactive: Marie and when was the civil war Pierre Curie: A Story of Patterns, Love and Fallout . New York: HarperCollins. Rohy, Valerie. 2010. In The Queer Archive: Fun Home . GLQ 16.3: 341-361. Silverblatt, Michael. 1995. The Cultural Relief of Art Spiegelman. Tampa Review 5: 31-36.

Spiegelman, Art. 2011. Was The Russian Civil? The Complete Maus (anniversary edition). In Library? New York: Pantheon. ------. 1994. The Complete Maus . CD-ROM. When Civil War? New York: Voyager Company. ------. 1998. From Maus to Now to Maus to Now . Palermo: La Centrale dellArte.

------. Services In Library And Archive Essay? 1977. Introduction. Breakdowns . New York: Belier Press. ------. 2011. The Complete Maus : Maus I: My Father Bleeds History, Maus II: And Here My Troubles Began . New York: Pantheon. ------.

2011. MetaMaus. Assoc. Ed. Hillary Chute. New York: Pantheon. ------. 2008. Portrait of the Artist as a Young %@*! . In Breakdowns (reissue). New York: Pantheon. ------.

1976. Some Boxes For the Salvation Army. Arcade #5. Russian? San Francisco: Print Mint. Spiegelman, Art, and Hillary Chute. Fließend: A Brief? 2011. Drawing the Holocaust. NYRblog: New York Review of Books online. October 21. Accessed January 4, 2012.

Spiegelman, Art, and when Hillary Chute at the 92nd St. Y. October 6, 2011. YouTube. Images are from MetaMaus by Art Spiegelman. 2011 by Art Spiegelman, used by permission of movie, Pantheon Books, a division of Random House, Inc., and The Wylie Agency LLC. Marianne Hirsch and Diana Taylor. Volume 9 | Issues 1 and 2 | Summer 2012. Olga Rodriguez Ulloa.

Marianne Hirsch and Leo Spitzer. Andy Bichlbaum and Marcial Godoy-Anativia. Mary Marshall Clark. A SENSORIAL ARCHIVE OF THE COLOMBIAN CONFLICT. Jimena Lara Estrada. Jennifer Flores Sternad. Milagros de la Torre. Tamara Lea Spira. Vivian Martinez Tabares. Aravind Enrique Adyanthaya.


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