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Bronfenbrenner#8217;s Ecological Systems Theory on prophase microscope Child Development Essay Sample. Bismarck Healthcare! Urie Bronfenbrenner, an American psychologist, developed the Ecological Systems Theory in order to microscope further discuss and explain child development. Define Style In Literature! Bronfenbrenner#8217;s theory explains that there are certain cultural and social factors within a child#8217;s immediate environment that influences the child#8217;s development and experience. Within the immediate environment of the prophase under, child, there are many levels, or systems, that can affect and Secretase Disease Essay, influence child development. There are five systems that Bronfenbrenner indicates in his theory on child development. The first system in the Ecological Theory is microscope, microsystem, which is the child#8217;s closest layer.
The microsystem is the immediate environment in which the child lives in. Any immediate interaction with the child is define, part of the under, microsystem, such as at bismarck model school, day care and with family and prophase under, peers. Such relationship can certainly influence a child#8217;s development psychologically, biologically, or etc. As a child develops, the bismarck healthcare, child is prophase under, very susceptible to Young his or her immediate surroundings and interaction within the microsystem. Prophase Under Microscope! The ways in which a child is m &, treated within the microsystem and also the ways in prophase microscope which the child reacts are also important factors in the microsystem. Doctrine Essay! The second system is the mesosystem, which is microscope, a system that is comprised by the linkages between the microsystems. Secretase Disease Essay! Such an example includes the prophase under, possible connection between a child#8217;s immediate surroundings of Novel school and home.
More specifically, the prophase, connection with a child#8217;s school and home is a parent teacher meeting or conference, in which the child is The Role Secretase Disease Essay, involved in. The third system of prophase microscope Bronfenbrenner#8217;s theory on Essay on Uniting Business child development is the exosystem, which includes other places or people that indirectly influences a child#8217;s development. Prophase Under! One of the most common examples of an exoskeleton is the workplace of the child#8217;s parents. Although the child will most likely not interact within the parent#8217;s workplace, there are many factors that can affect child development. A bad day at work, such as being fired, can negatively affect the The Origin, parent#8217;s attitude towards the child. With the prophase microscope, stress of paying bills and being in on Uniting Business debt, the prophase, parents will most likely take out Huck a Racist example their stress or anger towards their child, which will negatively influence development. Similarly, a parent who receives a raise at prophase under microscope work will most likely treat the of the Doctrine Essay, child much better, such as buying their child toys and such. This will positively influence child development although the child is not directly interacting with the microscope, exosystem, or the The Role of Gamma Secretase Essay, parent#8217;s workplace. The next system in Bronfenbrenner#8217;s Ecological Theory is the macrosystem, which includes the large cultural context of people or things that are entirely remote to prophase microscope a child#8217;s immediate environment. Define In Literature! Yet, there is still a great influence on the child#8217;s development.
Such examples like the economy, wars, and laws can remotely influence child development either positively or negatively. The last system is the chronosystem, which involves biological change within child, or external changes in under the child#8217;s environment. Examples include internal changes such as puberty or external changes such as the of the Essay, divorce of a child#8217;s parents. Under Microscope! All of these five systems can negatively or positively influencing a child#8217;s development, either directly or indirectly. In Alzheimer's Disease Essay! #2 There are four basic issues in development. One issue discusses whether the course of development is under, continuous or discontinuous. Of Gamma In Alzheimer's! This means whether development occurs as a gradual and smooth process, or if it occurs in microscope a series of developmental steps.
The second issue argues if any one course of development can characterize all children. Another issue discusses the healthcare, nature vs. nurture controversy and which plays a more significant role in prophase under development. Style! I think that the Ecological Approach would fall into the nature vs. nurture issue. The Ecological Approach discusses microsystems, mesosytems, and prophase under microscope, so on. The Role Of Gamma In Alzheimer's Essay! These systems examine how children are influenced and prophase, develop within their immediate environment. The Ecological Approach discusses how immediate environmental factors play a role in m & s current account how a child is influenced by those factors, thus leading to development. Also, the microscope, chronosystem of the Ecological Theory talks about biological change, which is falls into the nurture argument of the nature vs. M & Account! nurture issue. Prophase! The Ecological Approach would not fall into the discontinuous or continuous issue because the healthcare model, Ecological Approach does not talk emphasize whether or not the systems lead to microscope gradual or sudden development. Instead, the Ecological Approach discusses the Sexualizng Young Girls Age Essay, different types of prophase microscope systems within a child, which can be affected by the child#8217;s environmental and biological factors.
Berk, Laura. (2005). Infants, Children, and Adolescents. ( SMC Custom Edition). The Origin Of The Doctrine! Boston, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon. Is this the perfect essay for prophase under microscope, you? Save time and Young Girls Young, order Bronfenbrenner#8217;s Ecological Systems Theory on Child Development. essay editing for only $13.9 per under, page. In Literature! Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Bronfenbrenner#8217;s Ecological Systems Theory on Child Development. One final developmental theory needs to prophase under be addressed, even though it#8217;s not a stage theory. In Literature! Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005) developed the ecological systems theory to explain how everything in a child#8230; The Ecological Model. Prophase! A individuals development is The Origin of the Doctrine, greatly influenced by under their micro-system, which is any and everyone that the And It, individuals come into contact with on a daily basis.
If a child has a#8230; Show How Cultural Factors Can Influence Child Development. Human development research indicates that relatively stable, predictable sequences of growth and change occur in prophase children during the first nine years of Huck Finn Novel life (Katz 1995). Predictable changes occur in all#8230; What is the social ecological model? How can this perspective be used in practice to deepen understanding of the lives of children, young people and families in poverty and promote wellbeing? In social care services, models#8230; Piagets theory of Cognitive development on prophase microscope education. The influence on education of The Pool Piagets theory of cognitive development has been enormous Piaget showed through his studies of under microscope cognitive development in children that it is Essay Business And It, a relatively orderly process#8230; Child and prophase microscope, young person development.
Unit aim This unit aims to develop knowledge and Essay And It, understanding of child and prophase under microscope, young person development and model, the factors, including transitions, which may affect development. Prophase Under Microscope! 3 Understand the potential effects#8230;
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oman essay The Bogus Bones Caper. [This article is being mirrored from http://home.tiac.net/ This is the home page for Piltdown man, a paleontological man who never was. In April of 1996 there was an extended discussion in the talk.origins news group about the Piltdown man hoax. During the under, discussion I checked the web and discovered that Piltdown man did not have a home page. Of Gamma Secretase Disease. I resolved to eliminate this deficiency in the scholarly resources of the world wide web; here, for your delectation, is Piltdown man's home page. Corrections and suggestions for improvement are welcome. This page has been laid out so that it can be read sequentially or so that you can skip around in it using links. It is broken up into sections and subsections.
Each section is headed by a list of links to the other sections. Each subsection has links back to the list of sub sections. There are brief biographies and a bibliography with internal links to them through out the text. Under. This page is a self contained, text only, document. However there are links to supporting documents and pictures. I am far from being the best qualified person to put together a substantive page on The Role of Gamma Secretase Essay, Piltdown man -- they are many others who have a better knowledge of the subject and who command more scholarly resources.
However people have been very kind, indeed enthusiastic, in helping to under microscope, fill in the gaps. Even though I am the original author of the page and its editor-in-chief this page is, in of Gamma Disease a real sense, a collaborative effort. Special thanks are due to Robert Parson (rparson@spot.Colorado.EDU) and Jim Foley (Jim.Foley@symbios.com) who have made many invaluable suggestions and corrections. I also wish to thank Wesley Elsberry (email@example.com) who found Betrayers of the Truth , David Bagnall (firstname.lastname@example.org) who pointed out the Matthews articles in the New Scientist , and Robert B. Prophase Under. Anderson (andersons@InfoHouse.com) who has written articles on the hoax. Special thanks are also due to Tom Turrittin (email@example.com) who has created a comprehensive bibliography of references since 1953 to Piltdown man. Healthcare. He has made it available as a pair of web pages and has graciously agreed to let me maintain a mirrored copy at under microscope this site. Style In Literature. The web sites has links both to the mirrored copy and to the original copy. Finally, I wish to thank Gerrell Drawhorn (firstname.lastname@example.org) who has provided a copy of his 1994 paper for inclusion at this site. Piltdown man is one of the most famous frauds in the history of science.
In 1912 Charles Dawson discovered the first of two skulls found in the Piltdown quarry in Sussex, England, skulls of an apparently primitive hominid, an ancestor of man. Prophase. Piltdown man, or Eoanthropus dawsoni to use his scientific name, was a sensation. He was the expected missing link a mixture of human and ape with the The Role of Gamma in Alzheimer's Essay, noble brow of Homo sapiens and a primitive jaw. Best of all, he was British! As the years went by and new finds of ancient hominids were made, Piltdown man became an anomaly that didn't fit in, a creature without a place in the human family tree. Finally, in 1953, the prophase under, truth came out. Piltdown man was a hoax, the most ancient of people who never were.
This is Essay The Pool his story. My principal source for the original version of this page is Ronald Millar's The Piltdown Men . This book is an prophase microscope account of the Finn Novel example, entire Piltdown affair from beginning to under, end, including not merely the circumstances but the general background of the paleontology and evolutionary theory with respect to human ancestry during the of the Essay, period 1850-1950. A number of important books have also been written on the hoax, e.g. works by Spencer, Weiner, Blinderman, and Walsh, and have been valuable resources. In following the history of the hoax it is useful to have a time line showing the principal events. Under Microscope. The time line runs as follows:
1856 -- Neanderthal man discovered. 1856 -- Dryopithecus discovered. 1859 -- Origin of Essay, Species published. 1863 -- Moulin Quignon forgeries exposed. 1869 -- Cro Magnon man discovered.
1871 -- The Descent of Man published. 1890 -- Java Man discovered. 1898 -- Galley hill man discovered [modern, misinterpreted] 1903 -- First molar of Peking man found. 1907 -- Heidelberg man discovered. 1908 -- Dawson (1908-1911) discovers first Piltdown fragments. 1909 -- Dawson and Teilhard de Chardin meet. 1912 -- February: Dawson contacts Woodward about first skull fragments. 1912 -- June: Dawson, Woodward, and prophase under microscope, Teilhard form digging team.
1912 -- June: Team finds elephant molar, skull fragment. 1912 -- June: Right parietal skull bones and Finn is NOT Novel example, the jaw bone discovered. 1912 -- Summer: Barlow, Pycraft, G.E. Smith, and prophase under, Lankester join team. 1912 -- November: News breaks in the popular press. 1912 -- December: Official presentation of Piltdown man. 1913 -- August: the canine tooth is found by Teilhard. 1914 -- Tool made from fossil elephant thigh bone found. 1914 -- Talgai (Australia) man found, considered confirming of Piltdown. 1915 -- Piltdown II found by Dawson (according to Essay Party, Woodward)
1916 -- Dawson dies. 1917 -- Woodward announces discovery of Piltdown II. 1921 -- Osborn and Gregory converted by Piltdown II. 1921 -- Rhodesian man discovered. 1923 -- Teilhard arrives in microscope China. 1924 -- Dart makes first Australopithecus discovery. 1925 -- Edmonds reports Piltdown geology error. Report ignored.
1929 -- First skull of Peking man found. 1934 -- Ramapithecus discovered. 1935 -- Many (38 individuals) Peking man fossils have been found. 1935 -- Swanscombe man [genuine] discovered. 1937 -- Marston attacks Piltdown age estimate, cites Edmonds. 1941 -- Peking man fossils lost in military action. 1943 -- Fluorine content test is first proposed. 1948 -- Woodward publishes The Earliest Englishman. 1949 -- Fluorine content test establishes Piltdown man as relatively recent. 1951 -- Edmonds report no geological source for s current account Piltdown animal fossils. 1953 -- Weiner, Le Gros Clark, and Oakley expose the hoax.
In 1856 the first Neanderthal fossil discovery was made and the hunt was on to find fossil remains of human ancestors. In the next half century finds were made in continental Europe and in Asia but not in microscope Britain. Of The Essay. Finally, in 1912, the sun rose on British paleontology -- fossil remains of an ancient pleistocene hominid were found in microscope the Piltdown quarries in Sussex. In the period 1912 to 1915 the Piltdown quarries yielded two skulls, a canine tooth, and a mandible of Eoanthropus , a tool carved from an elephant tusk, and fossil teeth from a number of pleistocene animals. There is a certain vagueness about some of the critical events. The Origin Of The Essay. Dawson contacted Woodward about the first two skull fragments which were supposedly found by workman some years prior.
Exactly when is unknown. Similarly, the discovery of under microscope, Piltdown II is Essay about shrouded in mystery. Supposedly Dawson and an anonymous friend make the discovery 1915; however the friend and the location of the prophase, find are unknown. The reaction to the finds was mixed. Healthcare. On the whole the British paleontologists were enthusiastic; the French and American paleontologists tended to be skeptical, some objected quite vociferously. The objectors held that the jawbone and the skull were obviously from two different animals and that their discovery together was simply an accident of placement.
In the period 1912-1917 there was a great deal of skepticism. The report in 1917 of the discovery of Piltdown II converted many of the skeptics; one accident of placement was plausible -- two were not. It should be remembered that, at the time of Piltdown finds, there were very few early hominid fossils; Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens were clearly fairly late. It was expected that there was a missing link between ape and man. It was an open question as to what that missing link would look like. Piltdown man had the under, expected mix of features, which lent it plausibility as a human precursor. This plausibility did not hold up. During the next two decades there were a number of finds of ancient hominids and near hominids, e.g.
Dart's discovery of Australopithecus , the Peking man discoveries, and other Homo erectus and australopithecine finds. Piltdown man did not fit in with the new discoveries. None the less, Sir Arthur Keith (a major defender of m & account, Piltdown man) wrote in 1931: It is therefore possible that Piltdown man does represent the early pleistocene ancestor of the prophase under, modern type of man, He may well be the ancestor we have been in search of during all these past years. I am therefore inclined to make the Piltdown type spring from the main ancestral stem of The Role Secretase in Alzheimer's Essay, modern humanity.
In the period 1930-1950 Piltdown man was increasingly marginalized and by 1950 was, by and large, simply ignored. It was carried in the books as a fossil hominid. From time to time it was puzzled over prophase under microscope and then dismissed again. The American Museum of Natural History quietly classified it as a mixture of ape and man fossils. Over the years it had become an anomaly; some prominent authors did not even bother to list it. In Bones of Contention Roger Lewin quotes Sherwood Washburn as saying. I remember writing a paper on s current, human evolution in 1944, and I simply left Piltdown out. You could make sense of microscope, human evolution if you didn't try to put Piltdown into it. Finally, in 1953, the roof fell in. Huck Finn Essay. Piltdown man was not an prophase microscope ancestor; it was not a case of erroneous interpretation; it was a case of outright deliberate fraud.
From the chronology and the later reconstruction of events it is fairly clear that there never were any significant fossils at the Piltdown quarry. It was salted from time to time with fossils to be found. Once the bismarck healthcare, hoax was exposed, Sir Kenneth Oakley went on microscope, to apply more advanced tests to find where the The Origin, bones had come from and how old they were. His main findings were: Piltdown I skull: Medieval, human,
Piltdown II skull: Same source as Piltdown I skull. Piltdown I jawbone: Orangutan jaw, 500 years old, probably from Sarawak. Elephant molar: Genuine fossil, probably from Tunisia. Hippopotamus tooth: Genuine fossil, probably from Malta or Sicily. Canine tooth: Pleistocene chimpanzee fossil. Originally it had been believed that one skull had been used; later, more precise dating established in 1989 that two different skulls had been used, one for under microscope each of the two skull finds. The skulls were unusually thick; a condition that is quite rare in the general population but is common among the Ona indian tribe in Patagonia. Bismarck Model. The jawbone was not definitely established as being that of an orangutan until 1982.
Drawhorn's paper summarizes all that is under microscope currently known about the account, provenance of the bones that were used. Not only were the bones gathered from a variety of sources, they were given a thorough going treatment to make them appear to under, be genuinely ancient. A solution containing iron was used to Essay, stain the bones; fossil bones deposited in gravel pick up iron and manganese. Prophase Under. [It is unclear whether the solution also contained manganese: Millar mentions that manganese was present; Hall, who did the tests for manganese, says that it was not.] Before staining the bones (except for the jawbone) were treated with Chromic acid to convert the model, bone apatite (mineral component) to gypsum to facilitate the prophase under, intake of the iron and manganese (?) solution used to stain the bones. The Role In Alzheimer's Essay. The skull may have also been boiled in an iron sulphate solution. Microscope. The canine tooth was painted after staining, probably with Van Dyke brown. The jaw bone molars were filed to fit. The connection where the jawbone would meet the rest of the skull was carefully broken so that there would be no evidence of lack of fit. The canine tooth was filed to The Role in Alzheimer's Disease, show wear (and was patched with chewing gum). It was filled with sand as it might have been if it had been in the Ouse river bed.
With few exceptions nobody suggested that the finds were a hoax until the microscope, very end. The beginning of the end came when a new dating technique, the fluorine absorption test, became available. The Piltdown fossils were dated with this test in 1949; the tests established that the Essay about The Pool Party, fossils were relatively modern. Prophase Under Microscope. Even so, they were still accepted as genuine. For example, in Nature, 1950, p 165, New Evidence on the Antiquity of style in literature, Piltdown Man Oakley wrote: The results of the fluorine test have considerably increased the probability that the [Piltdown] mandible and cranium represent the microscope, same creature.
The relatively late date indicated by the summary of Finn Novel example, evidence suggests moreover that Piltdown man, far from being an early primitive type, may have been a late specialized hominid which evolved in comparative isolation. In this case the peculiarities of the prophase under, mandible and the excessive thickness of the cranium might well be interpreted as secondary or gerontic developments. In 1925 Edmonds had pointed out that Dawson was in error in his geological dating of the Piltdown gravels: they were younger than Dawson had assumed. In 1951 he published an article pointing out that there was no plausible source for the Piltdown animal fossils. Millar (p203) writes:
The older group of Piltdown animals, he said, were alleged to have been washed from about a Pliocene land deposit in prophase under microscope the Weald. Edmonds thought there must be some misunderstanding. There was no Pliocene land deposit in the entire Weald which could have produced them. the only local Pliocene beds were marine in style origin and lay above the five-hundred foot contour line. In July 1953 an microscope international congress of s current, paleontologists, under the auspices of the Wenner-Gren Foundation, was held in London. The world's fossil men were put up, admired and set down again. But, according to Dr. J.S. Weiner, Piltdown man got barely a mention. He did not fit in.
He was a piece of the jig-saw puzzle; the right colour but the wrong shape. It was at prophase microscope the congress that the The Role Secretase in Alzheimer's, possibility of fraud dawned on Weiner. Once the possibility had raised it was easy to establish that the under, finds were a fraud. Millar writes: The original Piltdown teeth were produced and of the, examined by prophase microscope the three scientists. The evidence of fake could seen immediately. The first and second molars were worn to the same degree; the inner margins of the lower teeth were more worn than the outer -- the 'wear' was the The Role Secretase Disease Essay, wrong way round; the edges of the teeth were sharp and unbevelled; the exposed areas of dentine were free of shallow cavities and prophase, flush with the surrounding enamel; the biting surface of the two molars did not form a uniform surface, the planes were out of Doctrine Essay, alignment. Prophase Under. That the teeth might have been misplaced after the death of Piltdown man was considered but an X-ray showed the style in literature, lower contact surfaces of the roots were correctly positioned. This X-ray also revealed that contrary to the 1916 radiograph the roots were unnaturally similar in prophase microscope length and disposition. The molar surface were examined under a microscope. They were scarred by criss-cross scratches suggesting the use of an abrasive. 'The evidences of artificial abrasion immediately sprang to the eye' wrote Le Gros Clark. 'Indeed so obvious did they [the scratches] seem it may well be asked -- how was it that they had escaped notice before?' He answered his question with a beautiful simplicity. 'They had never been looked for. nobody previously had examined the Piltdown jaw with the idea of The Origin, a possible forgery in mind, a deliberate fabrication.'
Why then was the fraud so successful? Briefly, (a) the team finding the specimans (Dawson, Woodward, Teilhard) had excellent credentials, (b) incompetence on the part of the prophase under microscope, British Paleontological community, (c) the Doctrine Essay, relatively primitive analytical tools available circa 1920, (d) skill of the forgery, (e) it matched what was expected from theory, and (f) as Millar remarks, the hoax led a charmed life. As a matter of practice, a fraud or hoax is much more likely to succeed if it appears to prophase microscope, be validated by an authority. In general, one does not expect a professional in a field to concoct a hoax. Secretase In Alzheimer's Disease Essay. Experience teaches that this expectation is prophase under microscope not always met. Although the team had excellent credentials none was truly competent in dealing with hominid fossils; their expertise lay elsewhere. The British museum people, Woodward and Pycraft, made numerous errors of reconstruction and interpretation. The only expert in the expanded team, Grafton Eliot Smith, was strangely silent about some of the errors.
It is hard for us today to fully grasp how primitive the analytical tools available to the paleontologists of that time were. Chemical tests and dating techniques taken for granted today were not available. Account. The analysis of the details of tooth wear was less worked out. The simple knowledge of geology was much less detailed. Prophase Under Microscope. The importance of careful establishment of the provenance of fossils was not appreciated. In short, the paleontologists of define style, 1915 were an easier lot to fool. At the time there were virtually no hominid fossils finds except for some of the microscope, early Neanderthal finds.
The reconstruction of human evolution was very much an define style open question. The Piltdown specimens fit one of the leading speculations. The forger knew what anatomical and paleontological tests the specimens would be given. As Hammond points out, a key reason why the hoax succeeded was because it fit in very well with the theories of the time. Boule had recently (erroneously) discredited Neanderthal man as being close to the main hominid line (1908-1912). Elliot Smith felt that the large brain case would have developed first. Sollas did not, but did strongly support mosaic evolution, i.e., features appearing in patches rather in under a smooth transition. It was his opinion that human dentition developed before the human jaw. Woodward and others believed that eoliths (supposed very early stone tools) indicated the presence of an early, intelligent hominid in Essay about England.
Piltdown man, with his large braincase, his simian jaw, and his near human dentition fit the theoretical picture. The hoax had a charmed life. Features that might have exposed the prophase under, hoax didn't get caught because of small errors in procedure. For example, the hoax would have been exposed immediately had a test of the m & account, jaw for organic matter been made. Tests were made on the cranial fragments, but these were sufficiently well mineralized to pass. The X-rays taken were of poor quality, even for the time. The dentist Lyne pointed out the incongruity between the heavy wear on the canine and its large pulp cavity, a sign of youth.
This was interpreted as secondary dentine formation, an explanation that worked because of the poor quality of the X-rays. The erroneous wear pattern on the molars, which was obvious when Weiner looked at under microscope the casts, was never noticed. Nor were they carefully examined under a microscope -- the abrasion marks would have been seen. Who did it? Who perpetrated the hoax? When the hoax was exposed nobody knew who the perpetrator was. No one confessed to the deed.
For forty odd years people have speculated about the identity of the culprit; over time an impressive list of suspects has accumulated. The case against each suspect has been circumstantial, a constellation of suspicious behaviour, of possible motives, and of opportunity. Doctrine. In this section we present summaries of the arguments against the principal candidates. A comprehensive listing of the accusations, when they were made, who made them, and prophase under, who the accused were can be found in Tom Turrittin's Piltdown man overview; it includes details not given here including the particulars of 30 separate books or papers making accusations. When the hoax was first exposed Dawson, Teilhard, and Woodward were the obvious suspects; they had made the major finds. Bismarck. In 1953 Weiner fingered Dawson as the culprit. Stephen Jay Gould argued that Teilhard and Dawson were the culprits. Woodward generally escaped suspicion; however Drawhorn made a strong case against him in 1994. Prophase. Grafton Elliot Smith and Sir Arthur Keith were prominent scientists that played key roles in the discovery. Millar argued that Smith was the culprit; Spencer argued that it was a conspiracy between Dawson and Keith. M & S Current. Other candidates that have been mentioned over the years include Arthur Conan Doyle, the geologist W. J. Sollas, and the paleontologist Martin Hinton.
This is by no means the end of the list; other people accused include Hargreaves, Abbot, Barlow, and Butterfield. This fraud is quite unique. Most scientific frauds and microscope, hoaxes fall into a few categories. There are student japes, students conconcting evidence to The Origin Essay, fit a superior's theories. There are confirming evidence frauds, in which a researcher fabricates findings that they believe should be true. There are outright frauds for money, fossils that are fabricated for microscope gullible collectors. There are rare cases of s current account, fabrication for reputation, done in the knowledge that the results will not be checked. And, upon under occasion, there are frauds concocted simply as an expression of a perverse sense of humor. The Piltdown hoax does not seem to fit any of define style, these categories well. This was not an ordinary hoax; it was a systematic campaign over the years to establish the existence of Piltdown man. The early skull fragments were created in advance and salted with the foreknowledge that more extensive finds would be planted later.
The hoaxer had to have good reason to prophase microscope, believe that the salted fossils would be found. One of the critical factors in any theory is to Huck Finn a Racist Essay example, account for the fact that the perpetrator had to be confident that the salted fossils would be found. That suggests that either Dawson, Teilhard, or Woodward was involved since they alone made the initial finds. At first sight it would seem that Dawson must have been guilty since he made the initial find of the first two skull fragments. However he didn't! They were made by anonymous workmen.
The find could have been arranged for a handful of coins. As Vere pointed out, the labourer Hargreaves, employed to do most of the digging, was also present at prophase the site. Another critical factor to be accounted for is access to the specimens that were used in define style the hoax. Likewise the under, question of skill and knowledge required for the hoax must be taken into account. Below are summaries of the cases to be made against Secretase the various possible perpetrators. At the moment this section is very much under construction! Lewis Abbot, owner of a Hastings jewelry shop, friend of Dawson, and widely respected for his knowledge of the geology of southern England. Prophase Under Microscope. He was considered as a possibility by Weiner. Blinderman make a major accusation against Abbot, based on an assessment of personality, requisite knowledge, and of Gamma in Alzheimer's, probable access to the needed bones. The case, however, lacked any definite substance.
Abbot has also been mentioned as a possible co-conspirator in a number of accusations. Barlow was accused of being a co-conspirator with Dawson by Caroline Grigson, the curator of the Ontodontological Museum. The accusation has not been taken seriously. Butterfield, the prophase microscope, curator at the Hastings museum, was accused by The Role Secretase Disease Essay van Esbroeck of prophase under microscope, being the forger with Hargreaves planting the Huck is NOT Novel example, forged fossils. The proposed motive is prophase revenge over Dawson's appropriation of some dinosaur fossils. Finn A Racist Novel Example. There is no substantive evidence for this charge. Dawson is the obvious suspect.
He made the initial find of the two skull fragments and the Piltdown II find. In both of these critical discoveries there is no confirmation by another party. He was the prophase under, one who made the Piltdown quarry a special object of search. Indeed he is style in literature such an prophase obvious suspect (Weiner seems to have taken it for granted that Dawson was the forger) that the The Role of Gamma Secretase Disease Essay, question is -- why consider any one besides Dawson? Millar (p 226-7) argues against Dawson as the culprit as follows:
One of my main objections to prophase, the assumption that Dawson is Huck Finn is NOT Novel inevitably the under microscope, culprit is that as the discoverer he was wide open to suspicion. He is too obvious a culprit. Define. If the microscope, bogus fossil excaped detection by his friends at The Origin Doctrine the museum he surely could not have expected that it would withstand scientific enquiry forever. I find it impossible to believe that Dawson would pit his meagre knowledge of anatomy (if it is accepted that he had any at all) against that of prophase under microscope, any skilled human anatomist. The threat of exposure would be perpetual. As it was Piltdown man had a charmed life.
Because of the poor quality of the original X-ray photographs the bogus jaw remained undetected at the outset. Le Gros Clark has emphasized that the forger's crude workmanship on the teeth was there for all to see if only someone had looked for Doctrine it. Millar's argument sounds plausible but it doesn't stand up well. Dawson was a man of many interests, both antiquarian and under microscope, paleontological, and had numerous knowledgeable friends and acquaintances. The requisite knowledge could readily have been acquired. Define Style In Literature. The argument that he wouldn't have dared is prophase under microscope suspect; there is considerable evidence that Dawson had been involved in a number of forgeries and The Origin Doctrine Essay, plagarisms; some of which only came to light after Millar wrote. Walsh discusses a number of incidents: The Beauport Statuette The Blackmore flint weapon The Bexhill boat The Uckfield horseshoe The Hastings clockface The Dene Holes plagarism The Iron Industry in Old Sussex plagarism The Old Sussex Glass plagarism The Hastings Castle plagarism The Pevensey Brick. A critical point, which Walsh emphasizes, was the discovery of the prophase microscope, jawbone by Dawson.
Most of the about, other bones were found in spill, dug up gravel which was searched later after having been dug up. The jawbone, however, was found in situ by Dawson. He struck a blow into the hardpacked gravel and the jawbone popped out (this was reported by Woodward). It would have been very difficult to prophase microscope, bury the jawbone in the hardpacked gravel convincingly; however no one except Dawson actually observed the bismarck, purported undisturbed location of the jawbone before it was found. In retrospect it is hard to see how Dawson could not have been involved.
Walsh argues strongly that Dawson and microscope, Dawson alone was the Essay about Party, culprit, that he had both the necessary knowledge and the requisite character, and that his participation was physically necessary. Prophase Under. Indeed, one might ask why someone proposing to The Pool Party, undertake such a fraud would risk having a co-conspirator. However it happens often enough that people of similar inclinations recognize each other. Were Dawson and Keith conspirators? The following is an excerpt taken from a summary published by Robert Parson in the talk.origins newsgroup. In the late 1970's, Ian Langham, an microscope Australian historian of science, began a comprehensive reevaluation of the events surrounding the forgery.
Langham was initially attracted to Ronald Millar's hypothesis that the forger was Grafton Elliot Smith; however he later dropped this hypothesis and settled instead upon Sir Arthur Keith. Langham died suddenly in 1984, before revealing his conclusions, and Frank Spencer, of the Department of Anthropology at Queens College of the s current account, City University of New York, was appointed to complete Langham's research. Spencer published his and Langham's conclusions in Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery . The centerpiece of the Langham-Spencer argument is an prophase anonymous article that appeared in the British Medical Journal on 21 December 1912, three days after the formal announcement of the discovery of model, Piltdown Man at prophase under microscope a Geological Society meeting. This article appears superficially to be a mere summary of the meeting, but in fact it contains information (relating to the exact location of the site and to the history of the define style, discovery) that at that time was known only by the people actually involved in the digging. Arthur Smith Woodward found this puzzling and wondered who the author had been and how he had learned about these details, but never found out. 70 years later Ian Langham discovered that the author was Arthur Keith. Moreover, Keith's diary showed that he had written the article three days before the under microscope, meeting actually took place. Keith was not a part of Woodward's inner circle at this time, and Essay about The Pool, he had not been consulted by Woodward on the discovery; indeed, he had only been allowed to view the specimens two weeks before the official announcement, even though the existence of the prophase microscope, find (though not the details) had been an healthcare model open secret for many weeks beforehand.
This discovery (and similar, more ambiguous documents) suggested to Langham a connection between Dawson and Keith. Keith claimed to have met Dawson for the first time in January 1913, but Langham found evidence that they had met at least three times during 1911-1912. He also noticed that Keith had destroyed all of his correspondence with Dawson. Langham proposed that Dawson began to prepare the hoax sometime between 1905 and 1910. In mid-1911 Keith was brought into it, and during the period 1911-12 Keith prepared the various specimens, Dawson planted them, and Dawson's team subsequently dug them up. The case against Keith is microscope discussed in detail by Walsh. According to of the, his analysis the circumstantial evidence all has a natural and innocent explanation. Was Arthur Conan Doyle the perpetrator?
The argument for Doyle was made in an article in Science in 1983 by the anthropologist John Winslow. Prophase Under Microscope. The Spring 1996 issue of Essay about The Pool Party, Pacific Discovery has an under excellent article by Robert Anderson on the Doyle theory. Doyle was a neighbour of Dawson, was an amateur bone hunter, and s current account, participated briefly in the digs. Microscope. The principal arguments for Doyle as the culprit are circumstantial and Huck is NOT a Racist Novel example, literary; it has been argued that The Lost World describes the execution of the hoax in veiled terms. Anderson argues that the exact location of the planted fossils is spelled out in prophase under The Lost World as a puzzle. Define Style In Literature. The essential weakness of the case against Doyle is that it would not have been possible for him to have planted the bones with any expectation that they would have been found. Walsh analyzes the case against under microscope Doyle in Essay The Pool detail and finds it wanting. The principal proponent of the Doyle theory,Richard Milner who is under a historian of science from the American Museum of Natural History, still holds Doyle was responsible. In a debate staged by model the Linnaean Society in March 1997 as part of National Science Week he argued the case for prophase under microscope Arthur Conan Doyle and against the case for Hinton.
Sir Arthur was a zealous spiritualist, embittered by healthcare the exposure and prosecution of Henry Slade, one of under, his favourite psychics. It is suggested that Doyle sought to discredit the scientific establishment by faking evidence of something they wanted to believe in thereby showing scientists knew less than they thought they did. Hargreaves, the laborer who did most of the m & account, digging at the Piltdown site, was accused by Vere. There is no direct evidence against him. However, unlike many others, he had real opportunity to plant the fossils. If Dawson and Woodward were not involved he almost must have been involved. Was Martin Hinton the perpetrator? The May 23, 1996 edition of Nature presents the new case and a smoking gun (?) against Martin A. C. Hinton, a curator of zoology at the museum at the time of the fraud. Prophase Under Microscope. There are two finds of bones stained and carved in the manner of the Piltdown fossils, a canvas travelling trunk marked with Hinton's initials and glass tubes from The Role Secretase in Alzheimer's Hinton's estate (Hinton died in 1961) which contained human teeth stained in various ways. The trunk was found in the mid-1970s, when contractors were clearing loft space in the British Museum. The trunk contained hundreds of vials of rodent dissections (Hinton was a rodent specialist) and a collection of carved and stained pieces of fossil hippopotamus and elephant teeth, as well as assorted bones, that looked as if they belonged in the Piltdown collection.
The Nature article claimed that the prophase under microscope, teeth from the the estate, the contents of the trunk, and the Piltdown remains were stained with the same chemical recipe, a mixture of Secretase in Alzheimer's Essay, iron, managanese and chromium. The recipe appears to have been invented by Hinton and prophase under microscope, is based on a knowledge of post-depositional processes affecting fossils in gravel. Hinton had published a paper in 1899 showing that fossils in river gravels would be impregnated with oxides of iron and manganese, staining them a characteristic chocolate- brown colour. The motive may have revenge in a quarrel about money or it may simply have been that Woodward was irritatingly stuffy. The Role Of Gamma Secretase Disease. Hinton was fond of and was famed for his elaborate practical jokes. Hinton was a member of a circle of Sussex-based geologist colleagues and was an expert on the Weald geology. In 1954, shortly after the exposure Hinton wrote a revealing letter to Gavin de Beer director of the British Museum (Natural History):
The temptation to invent such a 'discovery' of an ape-like man associated with late Pliocene Mammals in under microscope a Wealden gravel might well have proved irresistable to some unbalanced member of old Ben Harrison's circe at Ightham. He and his friends (of whom I was one) were always talking of the define style in literature, possibility of finding a late Pliocene deposit in the weald. Andrew Currant, a researcher at the museum and Brian Gardiner, professor of palaeontology at King's College, London, made the prophase under microscope, investigations into the Hinton evidence. Gardiner presented the case against Disease Essay Hinton in his presidential address to the Linnean Society in London on May 24, 1996. The case against Hinton is prophase not what it seems. The motive suggested by Gardiner (a quarrel about money) does not work because of timing; the incident in question happened in 1911; the first finds were in 1908. More importantly the chemical analyses do not match. The Hinton samples include Manganese; the Piltdown specimens do not.
The Hinton samples do not contain gypsum (produced from the organic material); the Piltdown specimens do. [Drawhorn, correspondence]. Walsh notes that there were legitimate reasons for Hinton to Essay about Party, have this material, including doing tests for Oakley. In any event it would have been physically impossible for Hinton to have been the prophase under microscope, sole hoaxer because he did not have the requisite access to the site in Huck Essay example the 1912-1914 period. Although the prophase, physical evidence is The Role of Gamma in Alzheimer's Disease Essay ambiguous, Hinton's name pops up under a variety of odd circumstances and it seems likely that he knew more that he should have, either by prophase microscope virtue of being a co-conspirator or by virtue of special knowledge not publicly admitted. In 1981 L. Harrison Matthews wrote a series of articles in the New Scientist on the Piltdown hoax. In these article he suggested that Hinton believed the finds to be a hoax and that Hinton and Teilhard manufactured and planted ridiculous forgeries to expose the hoax. In particular the Elephant bone tool was a crude cricket bat, appropriate for the earliest Englishman. This theory was repeated in define style in literature 1982 in Betrayers of the Truth by Broad and Wade, and in 1996 in The Common but Less Frequent Loon and Other Essays by prophase under microscope Keith S. The Role Secretase In Alzheimer's. Thomson. L. Harrison Matthews described informal dinner conversations in under the period 1945-51 during which Hinton implied that Piltdown was not a subject to be taken seriously from which Matthews surmised that Hinton knew more about the hoax and the museum's part in Huck Finn a Racist Essay it than he ever admitted.
Other evidence referred to by Matthews included Hinton's correspondence after the hoax was exposed and subsequent conversations in which Hinton obliquely included himself in a small list of suspects. Matthews was sufficiently confident about Hinton's involvement that he was the first to suggest the oft-repeated claim that the prophase under microscope, first finds were due to Dawson and is NOT Novel Essay, that in prophase microscope response, Hinton manufactured and planted ridiculous forgeries to expose the hoax. This is a relatively honorable role for Hinton in comparison with sole hoaxer. Secretase Disease Essay. It is clear that Matthews respected Hinton, with whom he shared many wide-ranging and interesting conversations during Hinton's retirement. It is likely that Matthews was unable to conceive of his friend being the initiator and microscope, solely responsible for the fraud. Was Grafton Elliot Smith the perpetrator? Millar argues that Smith was the culprit.
Smith was an bismarck model expert anatomist, and prophase microscope, a paleontologist with ready access to a wide variety of fossils. He was suspiciously quiet when Woodward messed up the The Origin Doctrine Essay, construction of the prophase microscope, Piltdown I skull. He failed to style in literature, recognize that the under, cranial bones of Piltdown II belonged to Piltdown I whereas Hrdlicka recognized that the The Role, Piltdown II molar came from Piltdown I after a brief examination. Millar notes: I have examined all of Smith's writings on the subject with care and in not one instance does he fail to state carefully that his findings were based on the examination of a plaster cast of the skull. It is quite unlikely that Smith had not examined the actual skull fragments. Microscope. Smith was in Nubia during most of the discoveries; however he came to England at convenient points.
Smith had the right kind of personality. When Millar discussed the possibility of style in literature, Smith with Oakley, Oakley was not surprised. There is, however, no direct evidence against Smith. Prophase Under. As with other outsider theories it was physically impossible for bismarck healthcare Smith to have been the sole hoaxer. W. Prophase Microscope. J. Sollas was a Professor of Geology at Oxford and a bitter enemy of Woodward. He was accused in 1978 by his successor in Huck Novel Essay the Oxford chair, J. A. Douglas, in a posthumously released tape recording. The essential difficulty with this theory is to explain how Sollas (or another outsider) could have salted the Piltdown site and be sure the fake fossils would be found. One also wonders why, if Sollas were the perpetrator, he did not expose the hoax and thereby damaging Woodward's reputation. This could have been done behind the scenes easily enough by asking the under microscope, right questions. Was Teilhard de Chardin the perpetrator?
In an essay reprinted in The Panda's Thumb , Stephen Jay Gould argues the Huck Finn is NOT a Racist Novel Essay example, case for a conspiracy by under microscope Teilhard de Chardin and Dawson. The case is circumstantial. The suggested motive is a student jape (Teilhard was quite young at The Pool the time.) It was supposed that Teilhard did not have the prophase microscope, opportunity; however Gould shows that this was not necessarily so. Much of Gould's case rests on ambiguous wording in Teilhard's correspondence. Bismarck Healthcare Model. Certainly Teilhard is a plausible candidate for the mysterious friend who helped discover Piltdown II. Gould argues that they had intended to under microscope, blow the gaffe shortly after the initial finds but that they were prevented from doing so by WW I. By 1918 things had gotten out of hand to the point where the hoax could no longer be owned up to. I do not think that Gould's assessment of motive stands up well.
It is plausible that Teilhard might have concocted a hoax; that is common for frisky students. However this fraud was planned and prepared years in advance and m &, was executed over an extended period of time; the under microscope, nature of the execution of the fraud goes well beyond the student jape. The case against Teilhard is considered in detail by Walsh. He argues fairly convincingly that many of the circumstances stressed by Gould have natural and plausible explanations. Teilhard was also accused of being involved by L. Harrison Matthews who claimed that Teilhard planted the fossil canine tooth in collaboration with Martin A.C. Hinton, with Teilhard subsequently discovering the The Origin, tooth. Prophase Under Microscope. The evidence for this collaboration is that Hinton told his friend Richard Savage that Hinton and Teilhard had visited the about The Pool, site together early in 1913.
Matthews commented that Teilhard never mentioned this visit, and subsequent developments have damaged Hinton's credibility regarding these clues. Woodward seems to prophase, have escaped serious consideration, primarily because he was very much a straight arrow. However there is The Role of Gamma Secretase Disease a strong case to be made against Woodward as a co-conspirator with Dawson. The provenance of under, many of bones used in the construction of the Piltdown specimens has been established; some were not at all readily available. Woodward, and apparently only Woodward, had professional access to all of them. The main focus of Drawhorn's paper is a consideration of this question of the origin of the specimens and who could have provided them. Woodward had strong motives. He benefitted directly as co-discoverer of Novel example, a monumental find.
During the period in question he was engaged in an ardent campaign for the position of under microscope, Director of the BMNH, a campaign in which his tactics were distinctly not straight-arrowish. A Racist. The finds directly confirmed the orthogenetic theories that he was advocating. Woodward's participation would explain many of the seemingly fortunate circumstances that allowed the prophase under, hoax to survive. For example, the Secretase in Alzheimer's Disease, hoax would have failed immediately if the jawbone had been tested for organic material; it never was. Dawson, as a single hoaxer, could have arranged that only skull fragments be tested initially. However it was Woodward who kept Keith from prophase under testing the Piltdown specimens even though he had used Keith's services before and after. It was Woodward who carefully restricted access to the specimens.
At no time did Woodward give the m &, specimens the under, careful physical examination that would have exposed the hoax. The vagueness about the location of the second find is m & s current peculiar. At one point he designated the site as being at a particular farm on the Netherfield side of the prophase, Ouse; later he forgot this and designated it as being on the Sheffield Park side, location unknown. The Role In Alzheimer's Essay. Millar remarked on the charmed life of the hoax. Perhaps the charmed life was stage managed.
It has been argued that Woodward's correspondence with Dawson establishes his innocence. This is not so. If Woodward were a conspirator their correspondence would have been artifacts, part of the under microscope, hoax. It should be remembered that copies of Museum correspondence were kept as part of the The Role of Gamma Secretase in Alzheimer's Disease Essay, official record. For many years afterward Woodward returned to the Piltdown site for further digs; nothing was found. This may be the best argument for his innocence. Although a strong case against prophase under microscope Woodward can be made it is not definite. It is impossible to prove that Dawson did not have access to all of the specimens used to construct the The Pool, hoax. Woodward's errors could have been unfortunate incompetence. Piltdown man has been the focus of many myths and misconceptions, many of prophase, which are assiduously repeated by The Origin of the creationists for whom Piltdown man is a popular club with which to assail evolution. They include:
It's all the British Museum's fault. Gould and others have criticized the microscope, British Museum for keeping the fossils under wraps. suggesting that the of the Doctrine, hoax might have been exposed much earlier. It is prophase under microscope true that access to The Origin of the, the fossils were restricted. This is normal practice for rare and valuable fossils. However it is doubtful that this security protected the hoax. The fossils were available for prophase under microscope examination.
The tests that exposed the hoax could have been performed at any time. Healthcare Model. The single most important thing that protected the prophase, hoax from exposure was that nobody thought of the possibility. However in reading the history of the find it is clear that the leading paleontologists had access to the Piltdown man specimans. Essay About The Pool Party. For example, Hrdlicka examined them; his rejection of the mandible and cranium being from the same animal was based on direct examination. Following the revelation of the fraud Martin Hinton, Deputy Keeper in prophase under the Dept. of Zoology at the British Museum. wrote to the Times : Had the investigators been permitted to handle the actual specimens, I think the spurious nature of the jaw would have been detected long ago. Wilfred Le Gros Clark, a member of the team that exposed the forger, wrote to Hinton reminding him that Woodward had in fact allowed other specialists to examine the originals. The Origin Doctrine Essay. The charge seems to have stuck, however. (Frank Spencer, The Piltdown Forgery , p. Under Microscope. 149). It does seem to be the case that access to the fossils was quite restricted in later years. In his autobiographical book By the Evidence Leakey said when he saw Piltdown in style 1933: I was not allowed to handle the originals in any way, but merely to look at them and satisfy myself that the casts were really good replicas. Then, abruptly, the originals were removed and locked up again, and I was left for the rest of the morning with only the casts to study.
Back to myths and misconceptions. The hoax was swallowed uncritically. This is a half truth; almost no one publicly raised the possibility of a deliberate hoax. There were rumors circulating, however. William Gregory, a paleontologist at the American Museum of Natural History wrote in Natural History in May of under, 1914: It has been suspected by some that geologically [the bones] are not that old at all; that they may even represent a deliberate hoax, a negro or Australian skull and a broken ape jaw, artificially fossilized and planted in the grave bed, to fool scientists. He went on, however, to vigorously deny the charge, concluding. None of the Essay, experts who have scrutinized the prophase microscope, specimens and the gravel pit and its surroundings has doubted the genuineness of the discovery.
In general, however, the finds were accepted as being genuine fossils but were not accepted uncritically as being from an ancient human ancestor. M & S Current. There was an early and recurring doubt that the jaw and the skull were from two different animals, that the jaw was from an prophase under microscope archaic chimpanzee and that the skull was from a relatively modern human being. Notable critics include Dr. S Current. David Waterston of King's College, the under microscope, French paleontologists Marcellin Boule and Ernest Robert Lenoir, Gerrit Miller, curator of mammals at the Smithsonian, and Professor Ales Hrdlicka. Initially there were many more critics, e.g. Osborn. However the finding of the second skull converted many of the critics.
Finding a jaw from one animal near the about The Pool, skull of prophase, another might be an accident of juxtaposition -- two such finds is a Racist Novel quite unlikely to be an accident. Some critics, e.g. Lenoir and Hrdlicka remained unconvinced none-the-less. The following quote comes from a The Evolution of Man, a 1927 book by Grafton Elliot Smith: Yet it [the skullcap] was found in association with the fragment of a jaw presenting so close a resemblance to the type hitherto known only in under Apes that for more than twelve years many competent biologists have been claiming it to be the remains of a Chimpanzee. Franz Weidenreich in 1946, in his book Apes, Giants, and Men (Note that Weidenreich was an extremely respected scientist, having done most of the work on the Peking Man skulls): In this connection, another fact should be considered.
We know of a lower jaw from the define style in literature, Lower Pleistocene of southern England which is anatomically, without any doubt, the under microscope, jaw of an anthropoid. The trouble is that this jaw, although generally acknowledged as a simian jaw, has been attributed to man because it was found mixed with fragments of an undoubtedly human brain case. I am referring to the famous Piltdown finds and to Eoanthropus, as the reconstructed human type has been called by define style the English authors. Therefore, both skeletal elements cannot belong to the same skull. It should also be mentioned that in microscope 1950 Ashley Montagu and in Alzheimer's, Alvan T. Marston mounted major attacks on the interpretation of the Piltdown fossils as being from a single animal. 500 doctoral dissertations were written on Piltdown man. This claim appears in creationist sources. Gary Parker's pamphlet Origin of Mankind, Impact series #101, Creation-Life Publishers (1981) makes the claim without qualification or source. Prophase. Lubenow's Bones of Contention (1992) remarks that it is said that there were 500 doctoral dissertations but does not give a source.
This claim is clearly in error. When one considers the small number of PhD's in paleontology being granted currently and the even smaller number 80 years ago and the diversity of topics chosen for Essay PhD theses a figure of half a dozen seems generous; in all probability there were none whatsoever. Under Microscope. John Rice Cole notes that in the 20s there were about 2 dissertations per year in physical anthropology in the entire US on m &, ANY topic. Robert Parson made a systematic search of the bibliographies of The Piltdown Forgery by microscope Weiner, The Piltdown Inquest by Blinderman, Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery and style in literature, The Piltdown Papers by Spencer, The Antiquity of Man (1925) and under, New Discoveries Relating to m & account, the Antiquity of prophase under microscope, Man (1931) by Sir Arthur Keith. Spencer and Keith's works have extensive references and bibliographies of the primary research literature. There are no references to any doctoral dissertations. Likewise Millar's bibliography contains no references to any doctoral dissertation.
It is m & s current not clear whether this claim is prophase a simple fabrication or whether it is an erroneous transcription from another source. In the introduction to The Piltdown Men (1972), Millar says it is estimated that some five hundred essays were written about [Piltdown man]. Account. This estimate is credible, the 1920 edition of H.G. Wells' The Outline of History remarks more than a hundred books, pamphlets, and papers have been written [about Piltdown Man]. Prophase Under Microscope. W. A. Quenstedt listed over 300 references in 1936 in Hominidae fossiles.
Fossilium Catalogus I: Animalia, 74 : 191-197. Millar gives no source, evidently not considering the matter to be important enough to Huck is NOT Novel, document. However it probably was the editorial in the 10 July 1954 issue of Nature (vol. 274, # 4419, pp. 61-62) which describes a meeting of the Geological Society (30 June 1954) devoted to the exposure of the hoax. Under Microscope. The editorial (unsigned) says: It is m & s current agreed that the skull fragments are human and not of great antiquity; that the jawbone is ape; that they have no important evolutionary significance. Under. More than five hundred articles and memoirs are said to have been written about Piltdown man.
His rise and fall are a salutary example of human motives, mischief and mistake. By coincidence, Spencer's The Piltdown Papers (1990) contains 500 letters, i.e. M & S Current. 500 items of correspondence between Piltdown principals. Prophase Under Microscope. However this cannot be the source of the number 500 since The Piltdown Papers appeared well after Parker's pamphlet and Millar's book. The most plausible explanation for bismarck model this myth is that Millar and Parker both used the same source, the Nature editorial, and that Parker assumed that papers and memoirs were dissertations. Prophase Microscope. In turn Lubenow's source was probably the Parker pamphlet. The truth, however, is unknown. This is a good example of Science correcting itself. It has been argued that this is a good example of science correcting its errors.
This argument is a bit roseate. As the Daily Sketch wrote: Anthropologists refer to the hoax as 'another instance of desire for fame leading a scholar into dishonesty' and boast that the unmasking of the bismarck healthcare model, deception is under microscope 'a tribute to the persistence and skill of modern research'. Persistence and skill indeed! When they have taken over forty years to discover the difference between an ancient fossil and a modern chimpanzee! A chimpanzee could have done it quicker. Far from being a triumph of Huck is NOT a Racist Novel Essay example, Science the hoax points to common and dangerous faults.
The hoax succeeded in large part because of the slipshod nature of the testing applied to prophase under microscope, it; careful examination using the methods available at the time would have immediately revealed the hoax. This failure to s current, adquately examine the fossils went unmarked and prophase under microscope, unnoticed at the time - in large part because the hoax admirably satisfied the theoretical expectations of the time. The hoax illuminates two pitfalls to be wary of in the scientific process. The first is the danger of inadequately examining and challenging results that confirm the currently accepted scientific interpretation. The second is that a result, once established, tends to be uncritically accepted and m & account, relied upon without further reconsideration.
Robert Parson pointed out in a talk.origins posting that the Piltdown hoax was a scientific disaster of the first magnitude. He said: Piltdown confirmed hypotheses about our early ancestors that were in fact wrong - specifically, that the brain case developed before the jaw. The early Australopithecine fossils found by Dart in South Africa in the 1920's failed to receive the attention due to them for this reason. The entire reconstruction of the history of the evolution of humanity was thrown off track until the 1930's. Prominent anthropologists, such as Arthur Smith Woodward, Arthur Keith, and Grafton Elliot Smith, wasted years of their lives exploring the prophase, properties of what turned out to be a fake. M & Account. The lingering suspicion that one of them might have been involved in the forgery will cloud their reputations forever. More than five hundred articles and memoirs were written about the Piltdown finds before the hoax was exposed; these were all wasted effort. Likewise articles in encyclopedias and prophase microscope, sections in text books and popular books of s current account, science were simply wrong. It should be recognized that an immense amount of derivative work is based upon a relatively small amount of original finds. For many years the Piltdown finds were a significant percentage of the fossils which were used to reconstruct human ancestry.
It is a black mark on science that it took 40 years to expose a hoax that bore directly on human ancestry. Creationists have not been slow in pointing to prophase under microscope, the hoax, the erroneous reconstructions based on the hoax, and the long time it took to expose the m & s current account, hoax. Lewis Abbot was a jeweler in Hastings. He knew Dawson since 1900 through the Hastings museum. He was an microscope authority on define style, Wealdan flora and fauna and its ancient gravels and, more generally, the prophase under, geology of southern England. Weiner described him as fiery, bombastic, inspiring and weird. Frank O. Barlow was a staff member of the British Museum of Natural History. He prepared plaster casts of the Piltdown skull. William Butterfield was the curator at the Hastings museum. Ordinarily of calm and placid temperament, he quarreled with Dawson over s current Dawson's appropriation of some dinosaur fossils for the British Museum.
Raymond Dart held the chair of Anatomy in the University of Witwatersrand in prophase under South Africa. He discovered Australopithecus (Taung baby) and was the principal early exponent of an African origin for Essay The Pool Party humanity. Charles Dawson was an amateur archaeologist, geologist, antiquarian, and was a collector of fossils for the British museum. He was the original person to seriously search for fossils in the Piltdown quarry. In 1912 he and Woodward discovered the the first Piltdown skull. In 1915 he discovered the second skull. He died in 1916 shortly after the finds. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a neighbor of prophase under, Dawson's and had an interest in paleontology.
At one point he participated in the Piltdown digs. He was the victim of the fairies in the garden hoax. Doyle wrote The Lost World and a number of popular mysteries. F. H. Edmonds was a British geologist in the Geological Survey. Essay The Pool. His papers in 1925 and 1951 cast doubt respectively on the assigned age of Piltdown man and on there being a plausible source for Piltdown animal fossils.
Stephen Jay Gould is a paleontologist at Harvard University. Gould and Niles Eldredge introduced the punctuated equilibrium theory. Prophase Under. Gould is the author of a number of popular collections of essays. Of Gamma Secretase In Alzheimer's. He has suggested that Teilhard de Chardin was the author of the hoax. Venus Hargreaves was the prophase, workman who assisted Dawson, Woodward, and The Role, Teilhard deChardin in the Piltdown digs. Martin A. C. Prophase Microscope. Hinton was a member of the m & s current, Sussex circle of paleontologists before the hoax and a curator of zoology at the British Museum at prophase under the time of the fraud. He was an expert on the effect of deposition of fossils in gravel. Hinton was noted for his practical jokes. Sir Arthur Keith was an anatomist and paleontologist, keeper of the Hunterian collection of the Royal College of Surgeons, and president of the Anthropological Institute. L Harrison Matthews was an eminent English biologist who wrote an influential series of articles in New Scientist in 1981 in which it was postulated that Dawson planted the original finds and Hinton, with the aid of Teilhard, planted the later objects. Matthews was a friend of Hinton.
Grafton Elliot Smith was a fellow of the Royal Society and in 1909 became the holder of the chair of anatomy at define in literature the University of Manchester. Smith had made a special study of fossil men. He was one of the select crew that participated in the Piltdown dig. W. J. Sollas was a Professor of Geology at Oxford. Prophase Under. He was acerbic, ecentric, and a bitter enemy of bismarck, Woodward and of Keith. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin was a friend of Dawson, a Jesuit, a paleontologist, and a theologian. He participated in the discovery of prophase under microscope, Peking man and Piltdown man. In Alzheimer's Essay. He is prophase microscope popular for his theological theories which are considered heretical by the Catholic church. J. S. Weiner was an The Role of Gamma Secretase Essay eminent paleontologist.
In 1953 he realized that Piltdown man might have been a hoax. J.S. Weiner, Sir Kenneth Oakley and prophase, Sir Wilfrid Le Gros Clark jointly exposed the hoax. Sir Arthur Smith Woodward was the keeper of the British Museums's Natural History Department and was a friend of Dawson. His specialty was paleoichthyology.
His subordinate, W.P. Pycraft, who was in charge of the anthropology section which dealt with fossil humanity, was an ornithologist. Neither was knowledgable about human anatomy, a fact which facilitated the hoax. This section lists major sources. Tom Turrittin's bibliography page is a comprehensive post 1953 bibliography of Piltdown man material. The Piltdown Inquest , C. Blinderman, Prometheus 1986. Betrayers of the Truth , Broad and Wade, Simon and Essay, Schuster, ISBN 0-671-44769-6, 1982, focuses on scientfic frauds and other hanky panky, including a section on prophase microscope, Piltdown man.
The Panda's Thumb , Stephen Jay Gould, W.W.Norton and Essay, Company, New York, contains the essay Piltdown Revisited which gives Gould's views on prophase, the hoax. A Framework of Plausibility for an Anthropological Forgery: The Piltdown Case , Michael Hammond, Anthropology, Vol 3, No. 12, May-December, 1979. The Antiquity of Essay about, Man , Sir Arthur Keith,2nd edition, 2 vols., Williams and Northgate, London 1925. Volume 2 devotes about 250 pages to Piltdown man, with many references to primary research literature.
New Discoveries Relating to the Antiquity of Man , Sir Arthur Keith, Williams and Northgate, London 1931. Prophase. Page 466 contains the cited material. Bones of contention: a creationist assessment of The Role Disease, human fossils , M.L. Lubenow, Grand Rapids, MI, Baker Books, 1992. (the best creationist book on human fossils) Piltdown Man-The Missing Links , L. Harrison Matthews, a series of articles in New Scientist from 30 April 1981 through 2 July 1981. The Piltdown Men , Ronald Millar, St. Martin's Press, New York, Library of Congress No. 72-94380, 1972, 237 pages + 2 appendices + an extensive bibliography. Piltdown: a scientific forgery , Frank Spencer, Oxford University Press, London 1990, ISBN 0198585225, xxvi, 272 p. : ill., ports. Prophase Under. ; 25 cm. The Piltdown Papers , Frank Spencer, Oxford University Press, London 1990, ISBN 0198585233, xii, 282 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
The second book is a collection of archival materials that Spencer investigated in his research. His book is based in part on research of Ian Langham; Langham died in define 1984 and Spencer was asked to finish the investigation. Unravelling Piltdown , John Evangelist Walsh, Random House, New York 1996, ISBN 0-679-44444-0, 219p, 38p of notes, selected bibliography, index. The Piltdown Forgery , J. S. Weiner, Oxford University Press, London, 1980, is a republication of the 1955 edition. The Earliest Englishman , A. S. Woodward, Watts and Co. Under. London, 1948, is Piltdown man's last hurrah in s current respectability. Piltdown man appears in a number of web pages, mostly as an arguing point in microscope pages expounding creationism and in account pages refuting creationist claims. Piltdown man apparently also the name of a rock group. Related web pages include: As part of a thesis project Tom Turrittin created a comprehensive bibliography of references to under, the Piltdown man hoax since its exposure in 1953. He has made this material available on Secretase in Alzheimer's Disease, the web in the form of two pages.
One page contains the full bibliography; the other contains an prophase under overview, including material on whodunit theories which is more thorough than the coverage here. The page links are the mirrored copy of the overview, the mirrored copy of the bibliography, the original copy of the overview, and the original copy of the bibliography. These pages were last revised January 27, 1998. The Talk.Origins Archive is a general resource for issues relating to evolution and creationism. Doctrine. Jim Foley's fossil hominids page is an excellent overview of what is microscope known about fossil hominids. The Origin Of The Doctrine Essay. There is a page on Piltdown man. The Origins of Mankind Web Links page is a resource page for human evolution. Bonnie Sklar's anthropology pages includes a page on prophase under, Piltdown man; it's focus is on the anthropological issues. The Piltdown man page appears in The Skeptic's Dictionary, a collection of essays about popular pseudoscience topics. It relies heavily on Gould. The Piltdown Forgery contains a book review of Essay, J.S.
Weiner's book on the hoax. Donald Simanek has a copy of the May 1996 Nature article about Gardiner and Currant's case against microscope Hinton. Walsh's Unraveling Piltdown is reviewed by John Schmidt for the Wichita Eagle. It is also reviewed by Orson Scott Card. The Museum of Unnatural Mystery has a Piltdown page briefly covering the major players. Essay. It has a photo of Hinton and Dawson. Dialogos has a page on Teilhard de Chardin which discusses the Piltdown case. The fall 1996 page of McGraw Hill's on-line magazine, Physical Anthropology Update, has an update on Gardiner's accusation of Hinton. Andrew Hudson, a resident of Sussex has a page of links to Piltdown man pages. He commends the wines of the Barkham Manor Vineyard which occupies the site of the discovery.
The Barkham Manor Vineyard maintains the prophase under microscope, historic marker; their page has a small map of the area. The Reader's Corner site has an extensive page on is NOT a Racist example, the Doyle theory entitled The Softer Side of Murder, The Strange Case of Piltdown Man which is well worth reading. There is also a short summary of the case against Hinton.
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Need help researching? Here are some links to good sources for accurate science and prophase technology information, and ideas for your essay: CNN Latest Tech News: Updated regularly. Popular Science: Links to current articles about science innovations. Discover Magazine: Features articles on science and about Party technology. How does having a special needs child affect a family? What is the cause of depression and why is under microscope, it rising in the United States?
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Then you will need to decide the point of view, tone, and style of bismarck healthcare model writing you will use. Sound confusing? Don't worry. Just answer the following questions to get ready to under, write. You can open up a word processing program, copy these questions, and then answer them, or do it the old-fashioned way with paper and pen. Secretase Essay? Topic idea: ______________________________________________. Prophase Under Microscope? (Write yours out.) What kind of expository essay is this? (How to?
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Essay on Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. In this essay we will discuss about Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. Under? After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Microeconomics 2. Scope of Microeconomics 3. Limitations of Microeconomics 4. Importance of Microeconomics 5. Problems of Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics 6. Meaning of Macroeconomics 7. Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics 8. Limitations of Macroeconomics. Essay on the Meaning of Microeconomics Essay on the Scope of Microeconomics Essay on the Limitations of Microeconomics Essay on the Importance of Microeconomics Essay on the Problems of Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics Essay on the Meaning of Macroeconomics Essay on the Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics Essay on the Limitations of Macroeconomics. Essay # 1. Meaning of Microeconomics: Microeconomics is the bismarck model study of the economic actions of individuals and small groups of individuals. This includes “the study of particular firms, particular households, individual prices, wages, income, individual industries, and particular commodities.” It concerns itself with the analysis of price determination and the allocation of resources to specific uses. Under? The determination of equilibrium output of the firm or industry, the wage of a particular type of labour, the price of a particular commodity like rice, tea, or car are some of the fields of microeconomic theory. “Microeconomics deals with the division of total output among industries, products and firms and bismarck model the allocations of resources among competing groups.
It considers problems of income distribution. Its interest is in relative prices of particular goods and services.” Microeconomics is, in fact, a microscopic study of the economy, according to Maurice Dobb. Prophase Under Microscope? It is like looking at the economy through a microscope to find out the working of markets for individual commodities and the behaviour of individual consumers and producers. In other words, in microeconomics we study the interrelationships of individual households and individual firms, and individual firms and individual industries to each other. Finn A Racist Novel Example? In this sense, microeconomics involves the study of aggregates.
“Price and value theory, the theory of the household, the firm and prophase microscope the industry, most production and welfare theory are of the of Gamma Secretase Disease Essay microeconomic variety,” Thus, microeconomics studies: (i) How resources are allocated to the production of particular goods and services, (ii) How the goods and prophase under services are distributed among the people, and. (iii) How efficiently they are distributed. While studying the conditions in is NOT Novel which the price of a particular good is determined, microeconomics assumes the total quantity of resources as given and seeks to explain their allocation to the production of that commodity. The allocation of resources to a particular good depends upon the prices of other goods and the prices of prophase under microscope, factors producing them. It is, therefore, the relative prices of goods and services that determine the allocation of resources. In other words, other things being equal, it is the allocation of resources that determines what to produce, how to produce, and how much to produce. This decision, in turn, depends upon the relative prices of Party, goods and services. Thus, microeconomics is the study of price theory: how the price of a particular commodity like rice, tea, milk, fans, scooters, etc. is determined; how the wages of a particular type of under, labour, interest on a particular type of capital asset, rent on a particular land and profits of a particular entrepreneur are determined; and how efficiently the various resources are allocated to individual consumers and producers. We briefly study these problems below. In microeconomics the analysis of price determination and allocation of resources is studied in three different stages: (i) The equilibrium of individual consumers and producers, (ii) The equilibrium of a single market, and.
(iii) The simultaneous equilibrium of all markets. Individual consumers and Doctrine Essay producers are unable to influence the prophase prices of goods they buy and sell. A consumer is faced with given prices and he buys that much of the commodity which maximises his utility. For an individual producer, input and output prices are given and he produces that much of the product which maximises his profits. In the market, the price and quantity bought and sold are determined by the actions of Secretase, buyers and sellers. The aggregate demand and supply curves are derived from individual demand and supply curves. The equality of prophase under microscope, aggregate demand and supply curves determines the price and the quantity bought and sold in the market.
It applies both to product and factor markets. By relaxing some of the assumptions of the perfectly competitive market, this analysis is extended to monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic, competition markets. Finally, in microeconomics, the interrelations between the different markets are taken so as to determine all prices simultaneously. Though, it is generally said that microeconomics is related to partial equilibrium analysis which is the bismarck model study of the prophase equilibrium position of an individual, a firm, an industry or group of industries, yet it is The Role Secretase Disease also a study of their interrelationships and interdependences within the economy which falls under the general equilibrium analysis. First, there is the consumers market in prophase microscope which the quantity of each commodity demanded depends not only on its own price but also on the price of every other commodity available in the market.
In this market, consumers meet producers to buy commodities which the former demand and The Role of Gamma Secretase the latter sell. The demand of consumers for the various commodities depends upon their prices and the prices of the services which they offer. In other words, a consumer earns by selling the productive services he owns and creates demands for commodities. The price at which a commodity sells depends upon its costs of production. The costs of production, in turn, depend on the quantities of the various productive services employed and the prices paid for prophase under them.
Thus the supply of commodities in the market depends on the costs of the firms, and the prices and quantities of the various productive services used by style in literature, them. Secondly, there is the producers market or factor market. In this market, the demand for productive services (factors of production) comes from the producers, and supply from the consumers. The quantity of a service (factor) used in producing a commodity depends on the relationship between the prices of that service and other services, and on the prices of commodities. Here producers meet labourers, capitalists, landlords and other resource-owners. In this market, money incomes are earned by resource-owners who own and sell their resources, the majority of whom are consumers. Thus microeconomics is a study of interacting units of prophase microscope, consumers, producers, and resource-owners. In this system, all prices are relative to one another.
A change in any one price establishes a ripple which touches both product and factor markets. The interrelation between product and factor markets through prices is shown in Figure 1. In this system, consumers and firms are linked through the product market where goods and services are bought and sold. They are also linked through the factor market where the factors of production are bought and sold. In the bismarck healthcare model inner circle that consumers who are resource-owners sell productive resources in the factor market which are used by firms. The firms, in turn, produce goods and microscope services which they sell in the product market to consumers.
The outer circle of the figure shows that the consumers incur expenditure in buying goods and services from the product market. The money so received by firms becomes their revenue or income which they spend in buying the services of consumers as suppliers’ productive resources in Secretase the factor market which, in turn, goes to prophase microscope, consumers as their incomes. S Current Account? Thus microeconomics is the prophase study of the interdependence of commodity prices, factor prices, their demands and supplies and costs, in relation to individual consumers, firms and industries. Besides, microeconomics studies how efficiently the various resources are allocated to Finn is NOT a Racist Novel Essay, individual consumers and producers within the economy. Efficiency in the allocation of resources is related to the study of welfare economics. It involves the study of efficiency in consumption, efficiency in production and overall efficiency. Consumption and production efficiencies relate to prophase, individual welfare and overall efficiency to social welfare. An individual consumer’s welfare or efficiency is maximised when, with any reallocation of resources, he is made better off without making any other person worse off. An individual producer achieves efficiency in production when, with any re-allocation of resources in the production of m &, a commodity, he is able to increase its output without reducing the under microscope output of some other commodity. Overall efficiency, also known as social welfare or Pareto optimality, relates to bismarck healthcare model, the overall improvement in the economic efficiency of the society whereby social welfare increases when with re-allocation of resources, society as a whole is made better off without making any individual worse off.
Any re-allocation of resources at this optimum level of efficiency will lead not only to prophase microscope, overall economic inefficiency but also to define, individual consumers’ and producers’ inefficiencies. Thus microeconomics studies welfare theory in its individual and aggregate aspects. We may conclude that microeconomics consists of the study of price theory, the theory of the individual household, the firm and industry, production theory and welfare theory. Essay # 3. Prophase Microscope? Limitations of Microeconomics : Despite its uses, microeconomic analysis is not free from certain limitations. (1) It is based on the unrealistic assumption of full employment in the economy. “To assume full employment”, according to Keynes, “is to define style in literature, assume our difficulties away.” Full employment is not the rule but an exception in the real world. Prophase Microscope? Thus microeconomics is an unrealistic method of economic analysis. (2) Microeconomics is style in literature based on the assumption of laissez-faire. But the policy of laissez-faire is no longer practiced. It ended with the Great Depression of the 1930s. This makes the study unrealistic. (3) Microeconomics is concerned with the study of parts and neglects the whole.
As pointed out by Boulding: “Description of a large and microscope complex universe of facts like the economic system is impossible in terms of individual items.” Thus the study of microeconomics presents an imprecise picture of the economy. (4) Further, microeconomics is not only inadequate but also misleading in analysing several economic problems. It is not essential that principles which are true in the case of a particular household, firm or industry may also be correctly applicable to the economy as a whole. To quote Boulding again: “The character and behaviour of aggregates cannot be…obtained simply by generalizing from character and behaviour of the individual components.” Essay # 4. Importance of Microeconomics: Microeconomics is an important method of economic analysis which Keynes regarded as “a necessary part of one’s apparatus of s current, thought.” It has both theoretical and practical importance. 1. To Understand the Working of the Economy: Microeconomics is of utmost importance in understanding the working of a free enterprise economy.
In such economy there is no agency to plan and coordinate the under working of the economic system. Bismarck? Such decisions as how to prophase under, produce, what to Huck example, produce, and for prophase under whom to produce, how to distribute and what to consume are taken by producers and consumers without any extraneous force. It follows that the planning authority in a centrally planned economy cannot ensure an Essay about The Pool, efficient working of the economy in the absence of a free enterprise economy. Under Microscope? As pointed out by Learner, “Microeconomics teaches us that completely “direct” running of the healthcare economy is impossible—that a modern economy is prophase so complex that no central planning body can obtain all the information and give out all the directives necessary for its efficient operation.” 2. To Provide Tools for Economic Policies: Microeconomics provides the analytical tools for evaluating the economic policies of the is NOT a Racist state. Under Microscope? Price or market mechanism is the tool which helps us in this respect. In a mixed economy, the state runs certain public utilities like the postal services, railways, water, electricity etc.
In such cases the governments—centre, state or local—fix prices on no-profit no-loss basis. These prices, in healthcare model turn, influence the prices of other goods and services. There are also public enterprises which are run on price-profit policy. The prices of the articles manufactured by them affect the price of various goods and services in the private sector of the economy. Some of the public enterprises compete with private enterprises so their price policies are based on market mechanism. They cannot charge prices higher than under the private sector. Microeconomics helps the state in formulating correct price policies and in evaluating them in proper perspective. 3. Helpful in the Efficient Employment of Resources: Microeconomics deals with the economizing of scarce resources with efficiency. The principal problem faced by under microscope, modern governments is the allocation of resources among competing ends. In this sense, microeconomics is used by the government in the efficient employment of resources and achieving growth with stability.
Microeconomics helps the business executive in the attainment of maximum productivity with existing resources. It is with its help that he is able to know the consumer demand and The Role Secretase in Alzheimer's Disease calculate the costs of his product. 5. Helpful in Understanding the Problems of Taxation: Microeconomics also helps in under microscope understanding some of the problems of s current, taxation. It is used to explain the welfare implications of a tax. A tax leads to the reallocation of resources from their optimal level. Prophase Under? Microeconomics helps in explaining as to The Origin of the, whether an income tax leads to a diminution of social welfare or an excise duty or sales tax.
It is the imposition of an excise duty or sales tax that leads to the diminution of social welfare rather than an income tax. Microeconomic analysis so studies the distribution of incidence of prophase microscope, a commodity tax (excise duty or sales tax) between sellers and consumers. In the field of international trade, it is used to explain the gains from international trade, balance of payments disequilibrium and about The Pool the determination of the foreign exchange rate It is the relative elasticity’s of demand for each other’s products that determine the gains from international trade. The disequilibrium in the balance of payments is the inequality between the demand and supply of foreign currency. The rate of exchange of a currency in a free market is determined by the demand for and supply of foreign exchange. 7. To Examine the Conditions of Economic Welfare: Microeconomics can be used to examine the conditions of economic welfare. “That is, to examine the subjective satisfaction that individuals derive from consuming goods and services and from enjoying leisure. It involves the study of welfare economics which is one of defining an ideal economy.” As already studied above, welfare economics is related to maximisation of social welfare. This is possible only under perfect competition. But under monopoly, oligopoly, or monopolistic competition there is always misallocation of resources and the output obtained is always less than the optimum.
Thus there is considerable wastage of resources. Microeconomics helps m suggesting ways and means of eliminating wastages in order to bring maximum social welfare. As aptly pointed out by Lerner: Microeconomic theory spells out the conditions of efficiency (i.e., for the elimination of all kinds of inefficiency) and suggests how they might be achieved. These conditions (called ‘Pareto-optimal’ conditions) can be of the greatest help in raising the standard of living of the population. “Microeconomic theory can be used as the under microscope basis for prediction. This does not mean that it will enable us to predict the future. Rather, it will enable the possessor to make condition^ predictions. These conditions have the following form – if something occurs, then a certain set of The Origin of the Doctrine, results will follow We should be able to study government policies affecting prices of prophase under, commodities and wages, for example and see how these policies affect the allocation of resources.
Microeconomic theory will enable us to Essay, make conditional predictions here”. Microeconomics constructs and uses simple methods for the understanding of the actual economic phenomena. “The theoretical approach to microeconomics utilizes abstract models in an attempt to see how prices are established and how resources are allocated to various uses. The use of theory should enable the possessor to determine which of many facts are particularly relevant to the problem being studied.” Lerner explains this point more clearly when he says: “Microeconomic theory facilitates the understanding of what would be a hopelessly complicated confusion of billions of facts by constructing simplified models of behaviour which are sufficiently similar to the actual phenomena to be of help in understanding them. These models at the same time enable the economists to explain the under degree to which the actual phenomena depart from certain ideal constructions that would most completely achieve individual and social objectives. They, thus, help not only to describe the actual economic situation but to suggest policies that would most successfully and of the Doctrine Essay most efficiently bring about desired results and to predict the outcomes of such policies and other events.” Thus it is an under microscope, elegant method of problem solving, according to Ackley. Essay # 5. Problems of Interrelation and define style Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics:
This rough division between micro- and macroeconomics is not rigid, for the parts affect the whole and the whole affects the parts: Dependence of Microeconomic Theory on Macroeconomics: Take for instance when aggregate demand rises during a period of prosperity, the demand for individual products also rises. If this increase in demand is due to a reduction in the rate of interest, the demand for different types of under microscope, capital goods will go up. This will lead to an increase in the demand for the particular type of labour needed for Essay about The Pool the capital goods industry. If the supply of such labour is less elastic, its wage rate will rise. Prophase Under? The rise in Essay about Party wage rate is made possible by increase in profits as a consequence of increased demand for capital goods.
Thus, a macroeconomic change brings about changes in the values of microeconomic variables—in the demand for particular goods, in the wage rates of particular industries, in the profits of particular firms and industries, and in prophase under the employment position of different groups of workers. Similarly, the overall size of income, output, employment, costs, etc., in the economy affects the composition of individual incomes, outputs, employment and costs of individual firms and industries. To take another instance, when total output falls in a period of depression, the output of capital goods falls more than that of consumer goods. Profits, wages and employment decline more rapidly in capital goods industries than in the consumer goods industries. Dependence of s current account, Macroeconomics on Microeconomic Theory: On the other hand, macroeconomic theory is also dependent on microeconomic analysis. The total is made up of the parts. National income is the sum of the incomes of prophase microscope, individuals, households, firms and industries. Total saving, total investment and total consumption are the result of the saving, investment and consumption decisions of individual industries, firms, households and persons.
The general price level is the average of all prices of individual goods and services. Similarly, the total output of the economy is the sum of the output of all the individual producing units. Thus, “the aggregates and averages that are studied in macroeconomics are nothing but aggregates and averages of the individual quantities which are studied in microeconomics”. Let us take a few concrete examples of this macro dependence on microeconomics. If the economy concentrates all its resources in producing only agricultural commodities, the total output of the economy will decline because the other sectors of the economy will be neglected. The total level of output, income and employment in the economy also depends upon income distribution. If there is unequal distribution of income so that income is concentrated in the hands of a few rich, it will tend to reduce the demand for consumer goods. Profits, investment and output will decline, unemployment will spread and ultimately the economy will be faced with depression. Thus, both macro and micro approaches to economic problems are interrelated and interdependent. Non-interdependent between the Two:
But despite these interrelations, there are many macroeconomic problems which are not applicable to individuals and many individual problems are not applicable to the economy as a whole. For example, there can be and usually is in literature a divergence between an individual’s income and his expenditure, but for the economy as a whole total income and total expenditure are always equal. An individual can invest without having saved, or save without investing, but for under microscope the economy saving and investment must be identical. When there is full employment in the economy, a firm can increase its output by attracting resources from the Essay Party other firms in the industry, but the industry as a whole cannot augment its resources. In the case of prophase under, one country, exports may exceed imports, or imports may exceed exports, but for the world as a whole, total exports and imports must balance. Integration of the The Role Two Approaches: In reality, a hard and fast line cannot be drawn between micro- and macroeconomic analyses.
A general theory of the economy should cover both. It should explain prices, outputs, incomes, the behaviour of individuals, of individual firms and industries, and the aggregates of the individual variables. “Actually the line between macroeconomics and microeconomics cannot be precisely drawn. A truly “general” theory of the economy would clearly embrace both: it would explain individual behaviour, individual outputs, incomes and prices, and the sums or averages of the prophase under individual results would constitute the aggregates with which macroeconomics is concerned. Such a general theory exists, but its very generality leaves it with little substantive content. Bismarck? Rather to reach meaningful results we find that we must approach macroeconomic problems with microeconomic tools, and microeconomic problems with macroeconomic tools.” Thus the need is for a proper integration of the prophase two approaches.
Prof. Define? Ackley suggests that microeconomic theory should provide the building blocks for prophase under our aggregate theories. Bismarck Healthcare Model? But macroeconomics may also contribute to microeconomic understanding. If we discover, for prophase under microscope example, empirically stable macroeconomic generalisations which appear inconsistent with microeconomic theories, or which relate to aspects of Secretase, behaviour which microeconomics has neglected, macroeconomics may permit us to improve our understanding of individual behaviour. But in order to proceed in either direction we need to be aware of some rather technical problems of aggregation which point out that “progress in macroeconomics depends on further progress in the microeconomic theory of prices and distribution of income.” Essay # 6. Meaning of Macroeconomics: Macroeconomics is the study of aggregates or averages covering the prophase under microscope entire economy, such as total employment, unemployment, national income, national output, total investment, total consumption, total savings, aggregate supply, aggregate demand, and general price level, wage level, interest rates and bismarck model cost structure. In other words, it is prophase microscope aggregative economics which examines the interrelations among the various aggregates, their determination and causes of fluctuations in them. Thus in the words of Ackley: “Macroeconomics deals with economic affairs ‘in the large’, it concerns the overall dimensions of economic life.
It looks at the total size and shape of the m & account functioning of the ‘elephant’ of economic experience, rather than working of articulation or dimensions of the individual parts. It studies the under character of the forest, independently of the trees which compose it.” Macroeconomics is also known as the theory of income and employment, or, simply income analysis. Essay The Pool Party? It is concerned with the under problems of unemployment, economic fluctuations, inflation, deflation, instability, stagnation, international trade and bismarck healthcare model economic growth. It is the study of the causes of unemployment, and the various determinants of employment. In the field of business cycles, it concerns itself with the prophase under effect of investment on total output, total income, and aggregate employment. In the monetary sphere, it studies the effect of the total quantity of money on the general price level. In international trade, the problems of balance of payments and foreign aid fall within the purview of macro-economic analysis.
Above all, macroeconomic theory discusses the m & account problems of determination of the total income of a country and under causes of its fluctuations. Finally, it studies the factors that retard growth and those which bring the economy on the path of economic development. Essay # 7. Model? Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics: As a method of economic analysis macroeconomics is of much theoretical and practical importance. 1. Prophase Microscope? To Understand the Working of the Economy: The study of macroeconomic variables is indispensable for understanding the working of the economy. Our main economic problems are related to the behaviour of total income, output, employment and the general price level in of the Essay the economy. These variables are statistically measurable, thereby facilitating the possibilities of analysing the under microscope effects on the functioning of the economy.
As Tinbergen observes, macroeconomic concepts help in Finn is NOT a Racist Essay example “making the elimination process understandable and transparent”. For instance, one may not agree on under microscope, the best method of measuring different prices, but the general price level is helpful in define style in literature understanding the nature of the economy. Macroeconomics is extremely useful from the point of view of economic policy. Modern governments, especially of the underdeveloped economies, are confronted with innumerable national problems. They are the problems of overpopulation, inflation, balance of payments, general underproduction, etc.
The main responsibility of these governments rests in under the regulation and control of overpopulation, general prices, general volume of Secretase in Alzheimer's, trade, general outputs, etc. Tinbergen says: “Working with macroeconomic concepts is a bare necessity in order to contribute to under microscope, the solutions of the great problems of Secretase in Alzheimer's Disease Essay, our times.” No government can solve these problems in terms of individual behaviour. Let us analyse the use of macroeconomic study in the solution of certain complex economic problems. (a) In General Unemployment: The Keynesian theory of employment is an exercise in macroeconomics. The general level of prophase, employment in an economy depends upon Huck is NOT Essay example effective demand which, in turn, depends on aggregate demand and aggregate supply functions. Unemployment is thus caused by deficiency of effective demand. In order to eliminate it, effective demand should be raised by increasing total investment, total output, total income and total consumption.
Thus, macroeconomics has special significance in studying the under causes, effects and remedies of general unemployment. The study of macroeconomics is very important for evaluating the overall performance of the economy in terms of in literature, national income. With the advent of the Great Depression of the 1930s, it became necessary to analyse the causes of general overproduction and microscope general unemployment. This led to the construction of the data on national income. National income data help in forecasting the level of economic activity and to understand the distribution of Disease, income among different groups of people in the economy. The economics of growth is also a study in macroeconomics. It is on prophase, the basis of macroeconomics that the resources and capabilities of an economy are evaluated. Plans for the overall increase in national income, output and employment are framed and implemented so as to define in literature, raise the level of economic development of the economy as a whole.
It is in terms of macroeconomics that monetary problems can be analysed and understood properly. Frequent changes in prophase under the value of money—inflation or deflation—affect the economy adversely. They can be counteracted by adopting monetary, fiscal and direct control measures for the economy. (e) In Business Cycles: Further, macroeconomics as an approach to economic problems started after the m & Great Depression.
Thus its importance lies in analysing the under microscope causes of m & account, economic fluctuations and in providing remedies. 3. For Understanding the Behaviour of Individual Units: Last but not the least, for understanding the behaviour of individual units the study of macroeconomics is imperative. Prophase? Demand for style in literature individual products depends upon aggregate demand in the economy. Unless the microscope causes of deficiency in Secretase in Alzheimer's Essay aggregate demand are analysed, it is not possible to understand fully the reason for a fall in the demand of individual products.
The reasons for prophase under increase in about costs of a particular firm or industry cannot be analysed without knowing the average cost conditions of the whole economy. Thus, the study of individual units is not possible without macroeconomics. We may conclude that macroeconomics enriches our knowledge of the functioning of an economy by studying the behaviour of national income, output, investment, saving and consumption. Prophase Microscope? It throws much light on solving the problems of unemployment, inflation, economic instability and economic growth. Define Style In Literature? Further, it is more than a scientific method of analysis; it is also a body of empirical economic knowledge, as pointed out by Ackley. Essay # 8. Prophase Microscope? Limitations of Macroeconomics: There are, however, certain limitations of macroeconomic analysis.
Mostly, these stem from attempts to yield macroeconomic generalisations from individual experiences. In macroeconomic analysis the “fallacy of composition” is involved, i.e., aggregate economic behaviour is the sum total of individual activities. But what is true of m & s current, individuals is not necessarily true of the economy as a whole. For instance, savings are a private virtue but a public vice. If total savings in under the economy increase, they may initiate a depression unless they are invested. Again, if an individual depositor withdraws his money from the bank there is no danger; but if all depositors do this simultaneously, there will be a run on the banks and the banking system will be adversely affected.
2. To Regard Aggregates as Homogeneous: The main defect in Doctrine macro analysis is that it regards the aggregates as homogeneous without caring about their internal composition and structure. Under? The average wage in a country is the sum total of wages in all occupations, i.e., wages of clerks, typists, teachers, nurses, etc. But the volume of The Role of Gamma in Alzheimer's Disease, aggregate employment depends on the relative structure of wages rather than on the average wage. If, for instance, wages of nurses’ increase but of typists fall, the under microscope average may remain unchanged.
But if the employment of nurses falls a little and of typists raises much, aggregate employment would increase. 3. Aggregate Variables may not be Important Necessarily: The aggregate variables which form the economic system may not be of much significance. For instance, the national income of The Role of Gamma Secretase in Alzheimer's Essay, a country is the total of all individual incomes. A rise in national income does not mean that individual incomes have risen. The increase in national income might be the result of the increase in under the incomes of a few rich people in the country.
Thus a rise in national income of this type has little significance from the point of view of the community. Boulding calls these three difficulties as “macroeconomic paradoxes” which are true when applied to a single individual but which are untrue when applied to the economic system as a whole. 4. Indiscriminate Use of Macroeconomics Misleading: An indiscriminate and uncritical use of macroeconomics in analysing the problems of the real world can often be misleading. For instance, if the policy measures needed to m & s current, achieve and maintain full employment in the economy are applied to structural unemployment in individual firms and industries, they become irrelevant. Prophase Under? Similarly, measures aimed at controlling general prices cannot be applied with much advantage for controlling prices of s current account, individual products. 5. Under Microscope? Statistical and Conceptual Difficulties:
The measurement of macroeconomic concepts involves a number of statistical and conceptual difficulties. These problems relate to the aggregation of The Role Secretase Disease Essay, microeconomic variables. If individual units are almost similar, aggregation does not present much difficulty. But if microeconomic variables relate to similar individual units, their aggregation into under one macroeconomic variable may be wrong and dangerous. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics.
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Strategic Planning: A Roadmap to Success. Strategic Planning is among the most widely used and perhaps among the most abused management terminology in modern day business. If one were to ask the CEO of any large organization why Strategic Planning is needed, the responses would be varied: Resources are finite and we need to have clear line-of-sight towards how and why we allocate our resources and to what end… We need a structured process for highlighting opportunities / risks in order to sustain and accelerate the growth momentum.. We need to have a defined game-plan for taking on prophase, the competition… And the list would go on. The question that one needs to ask is “What exactly is meant by strategic”?
There are hundreds of books written on this subject and its use in business is nothing new, therefore Strategic Planning should be relatively simple, right? Surprising though it may sound, it’s hardly that simple and this article attempts to showcase, from a practitioner’s perspective, some of the pitfalls and misconceptions that abound in the strategic planning process. Note that this article is model designed to touch upon the process that is used for strategic planning in a corporate setting about which little has been written, rather than the tools that are needed to craft a strategy about prophase, which sufficient literature already exists. Let’s look at an example. What is common in the following statements? Our strategy is to be a low cost organization We are pursuing a global strategy Our strategy is to provide unparalleled customer service Our strategy is to be a “first-mover” Our strategy is to grow by making selective acquisitions.
The only thing common in the above is that none of Secretase, them is prophase under a “strategy”! (Source– Academy of Management Executives 2001 Vol. 15) Now let’s take a step back and figure out why none of the above is a strategy. Strategy is all about making a series of unique decisions to get to a particular goal from a starting point. Note the emphasis on the words “series”, “unique decisions”, “particular”. Now take another look at Huck Finn is NOT a Racist example, the above statements?
Are they really decisions, or are they merely an articulation of statement of intent that’s important for under their respective organizations? Which organization doesn’t want to lower its costs? Who doesn’t want to offer great customer service? Wouldn’t your competitors in the same industry say similar things about their intent? The point that is being made here is that while the Essay above may be very critical for an organization, they are not “strategic”. These are things that would need to be done regardless of your strategy. The key is that no decision is needed here. That the above elements are necessary for any organization is a foregone conclusion. The framework shown below is a good starting point. Note that all the questions pertain to “decisions”.
These decisions would be unique to a particular organization, would be unique to achieve a particular goal at a particular point in time and these decisions are taken in a series. The key question that practitioners often face is what is the process that is prophase under used to answer the above questions? While traditional academic learning provides aspiring strategists with the tools to analyze industries, often there isn’t enough literature around the “process” that is used for Secretase in Alzheimer's Essay strategy creation. Under Microscope? The following framework is The Origin of the Doctrine one such attempt to throw some light on the process that can be followed by practicing strategic planners in order to craft the strategies of their respective organizations. The Strategic Planning Process – A Framework.
Boundary Conditions and Specification of decision criteria. This is the first stage in the planning process. Prophase Under Microscope? It is the The Origin Essay job of the Office of Strategy Management to get clarity on the boundary conditions / scope and on the decision criteria upfront, before the commencement of the prophase under microscope planning cycle. Finn Is NOT Essay? Often the CEO / Promoters have certain preferences about the prophase markets / business that they wish to be in or not be in. About? They might also have limitations on the resources available and the time horizon for the strategic plan. It is important to know the scope upfront. Also, it’s important to get buy-in on what would be the criteria that would be used by the management team to choose from various strategic options that the team will subsequently develop.
Having a general criteria covering pretty much everything doesn’t help. Maximizing market share and profitability in a manner that increases shareholder value while minimizing cost, basically means that the decision maker doesn’t know what he wants and is hedging his bets. The more specific the criteria, the easier it will be to choose from under microscope, multiple options. Having loosely defined criteria results in Huck Novel, an inability to choose and sign off on a particular strategic direction. Also, it becomes important not to have too many criteria or else the practicising manager faces the under microscope possibility of having multiple strategic options, many of which may meet some decision criteria, thereby making decision making difficult if not impossible. This area is taught well at academic institutions and Party, there are abundant tools available for analyzing industries. Porters 5 forces, SWOT, PESTLE, SCP, Scenario Planning etc., are some of the tools that a practicing strategist must be familiar with.
Appropriate use of these tools would reveal opportunities and highlight areas of under microscope, weakness in your organization. Rather than dwell upon the relevant merits and demerits of these tools, it’s important to about Party, determine how to take this learning to the next level and get organization-wide buy-in. This analysis assumes that the organization does not implement any major course correction over the planning horizon and carries on business-as-usual. The organization continues to develop operational effectiveness and tactical initiatives to achieve higher profitability, lower cost structure, and microscope, increased market share. Of Gamma Essay? The purpose of doing this exercise is to create a baseline that sheds light on where the organization might be in a few years time, had it been business-as-usual. The intent behind the Strategic Planning exercise is that the organization should at the very least bebetter than the baseline. Strategic Options Generation. This step involves formulation of under microscope, widely different but equally viable strategic options that might be available to the firm in question, and is often the most complicated of all the steps. It requires the participation of the Executive Committee/Senior Leadership Team and is often very time consuming. The typical pitfall in this part of the process is that options are often not even brought to Huck is NOT a Racist example, the table because somebody believes they won’t work, or won’t be financially viable.
The skill of the practicing strategist lies in getting the leadership team to articulate the logic behind a particular strategic option rather than moving directly into an evaluation stage. In other words, the leadership team should be able to articulate in one or two pages what is the under microscope strategic theme/intent, where in the value chain do you propose to play, what choice of products/services should be sold at what prices, through which channels, and in which geographies in Party, order to maximize value for the organization. It is important to get the logic, in English, right. The Math can follow in subsequent steps. Combining the microscope two often leads to premature assessment and circular reasoning without any closure. The quality of the industry analysis done, gaps highlighted, relative positioning in Essay, the industry versus competition and consumers, as well as understanding of revenue drivers and prophase microscope, key success factors, all play a critical role in framing different strategic options. Options Assessment and Finn a Racist Novel, Evaluation. This step is under often executed in conjunction with the project team one level below the The Origin Senior Leadership Team. Significant financial analysis is involved at this stage and all modern tools of prophase under, sensitivity analysis and scenario planning are used. Of Gamma Essay? This step is often fairly intense as it calls for decision making under uncertainty. The practicing strategist is expected to spend some time with the project team differentiating among various assumptions, decisions, scenarios etc.
It is surprising how many use these terminologies interchangeably. For instance, price is a decision. It’s a matter of choice. However, the subsequent volume that one could achieve in prophase microscope, the future as a result of the price, among other things, is an uncertainty hence assumptions around it would need to be made. Similarly, which piece of the style value chain to play in is a decision. However, market share achieved subsequently, capital expenditure incurred, etc., is an uncertainty. Under Microscope? Here again, the quality of the industry analysis helps in Finn Novel Essay example, questioning the logic of both decisions and assumptions. Scenario planning, as a tool, helps immensely in this part of the process.
Note that sensitivity analysis and scenario planning are sometimes used interchangeably, but they are different tools that are to be used for different objectives. Sensitivity analysis can be used to determine the impact on the bottom-line, for example if the cost of prophase microscope, a critical raw material changes by +/- 10%. Scenario planning is relevant when you need to create a totally different view of the healthcare model world based on legislation, policy framework, technology, etc. For instance, a changing tax regime for microscope tobacco from specific taxation (fixed tax based on length of cigarette) to ad-valorem taxation (tax based on price) would call for a scenario planning type of exercise whereas the of Gamma Essay change in under microscope, volume in response to a change in price would call for a sensitivity analysis. Similarly, the market growth of renewable energy in response to style in literature, a change in subsidies/feed-in-tariffs, change in microscope, technology, etc. would call for a scenario planning type of exercise, whereas the m & s current market growth in under microscope, a particular market on account of different adoption rates would call for a sensitivity analysis. Articulation of Strategic Roadmap. Once the strategic options have been assessed, the strategic plan is put up for approval to the decision makers. Some of the The Role of Gamma Secretase in Alzheimer's Essay key issues that the strategic plan must address are: What is under microscope our portfolio game-plan over a Racist Novel Essay the planning period? Businesses and roles of prophase microscope, businesses Goals Roadmap for achieving the goals Risks / Returns (financial and non-financial) Investments What options did we have while choosing a particular game-plan and why did we prefer one over the other?
What are the key assumptions on which the game-plan is based? What are the exit clauses? It may involve a couple of in Alzheimer's, rounds of iteration before it is finalized. Here it is important to note that the strategic plan is a roadmap for prophase where the organization aspires to be in of the Doctrine, a couple of years and under microscope, what it would look like when compared against the pre-decided decision criteria. A common mistake made is that people start looking at a Strategic Plan as a “to-do” list with loads of activities and timelines and individual names who are responsible for various activities. We are not there yet.
First you need to have an Huck Essay example agreed upon plan. Deconstructing the plan into specific activities, timelines, responsibilities etc is part of deployment of strategy. Now that you have a strategy document which has been agreed to by the leadership team, what are you supposed to do? What is the line manager supposed to do? How does his job dovetail into the larger strategic plan of the organization? What does it mean for the salesman on microscope, the ground?
There are several tools that can be used to about Party, deploy strategy and one such tool which is fairly effective is the “Balanced Scorecard”. This enables line-of-sight between the overall corporate objective and the key result areas of the foot soldiers, as can be seen from the chart below. (for more details refer to Kaplan Norton) It is the prophase under microscope role of the practicing strategist to deconstruct the strategic plan into its various elements and ensure that they are put into of Gamma Disease Essay timelines with clear responsibilities that dovetail into the Performance Management System within the prophase under organization. Strategic Planning versus Budgeting. Many times Strategic Planning is confused with short term budgeting or Annual Business Planning. There is a world of difference between the two and both have different uses. The following table highlights some of the salient features and differences between the two.
Many times people ask whether Strategic Planning as a discipline is The Role Secretase Disease still relevant today, given that business conditions change so rapidly. The advent of technology, globalization, hyper competition, increasing legislation, and under, shortening of style, product life cycles are all making the business environment increasingly complex and shortening the planning horizon. However the need for planning still exists, all the more so today. The nature of the planning exercise needs to under microscope, be adapted to reflect the nuances of the industry in question and economic conditions prevailing at that point in time. The fundamental principles of planning such as direction setting remain the same, only the application needs to be modified. After all, at the end of the day, it’s better to Huck Essay example, be approximately right than to be precisely wrong!